Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 6

Applied Surface Science 292 (2014) 620–625

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Applied Surface Science


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apsusc

Influences of Al particles on the microstructure and property of


electrodeposited Ni–Al composite coatings
Fei Cai, Chuanhai Jiang ∗
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240, PR China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Ni–Al composite coatings with different contents of Al microparticles were prepared from a con-
Received 10 October 2013 ventional Watt bath. The influences of Al particle loadings in the bath on the surface morphology,
Received in revised form 5 December 2013 composition, texture, grain size, microstrain, residual stress and anti-corrosion of the Ni–Al compos-
Accepted 5 December 2013
ite coating were investigated. The friction coefficients of the coatings at 200 ◦ C were also evaluated by
Available online 12 December 2013
a pin-on-disctribometer. The results showed that the surface morphology of the coatings changed from
pyramid + colonied structure to colonied structure with increasing Al particle loadings. The (2 0 0) pre-
Keywords:
ferred orientation for pure Ni coating evolved to random orientation with increasing Al particle loadings.
Ni–Al coating
Electrodeposition
The grain size obtained the minimum value of 72.28 nm at Al particle loading of 100 g/L and the micros-
Texture train of the coating increased with increasing the Al particle loadings. The incorporation of Al particles
Residual stress decreased the residual stress of the electro-deposited coating and all the coatings deposited at different
Al particle loadings possessed low residual stress. As the Al particle loading increased, the anti-corrosion
of the Ni–Al coatings increased owing to the combined effect of increasing Al content in the coatings and
the texture evolution from (2 0 0) plane to (1 1 1) plane. The wear result suggested that the increasing Al
particle content did not improve the wear performance of the Ni–Al composite coatings.
© 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction can form easily on the active Al particles and make the particles
neutral. These neutral particles could act as “physical barriers” in
Recently metal matrix composites (MMCs) have attracted corrosive environment similar to TiO2 [3], SiC [13] and Cr parti-
much attention for their promising combination of high hard- cles [19]. It seemed that corrosion resistance of the coating could
ness, anti-wear, anti-corrosion, anti-oxidation properties [1–4]. be improved by incorporating higher content of particles into the
The electrodeposition is one of the most economic and convenient coatings. Liu and Chen [18] prepared Ni–Al composite coating with
technologies to prepare the MMCs. The co-deposited composite high volume fraction of Al particles up to 35 vol% by SCD method,
coatings are comprised of the metal matrix and second phase parti- and the process of co-deposition could be explained very well
cles. The matrixes include Ni [4], Cu [5], Cr [6], Ni–Co [7], Ni–Mo [8] by the Guglielmi model. Cui et al. [22] deposited Ni/Cu–Al com-
and Ni–W [9]. The second particles incorporated in the composite posite coatings with volume fraction of Al particles up to 29 vol%
coatings include Y2 O3 [4], La2 O3 [10], CeO2 [11], Al2 O3 [12], TiO2 and the Al particles distributed uniformly in the coatings. The Al
[3], SiC [13], ZrO2 [14], WC [15], Si3 N4 [16], AlN [17], Al [18], Cr [19] particles size also had an effect on the microstructure of the co-
and Ti [20]. deposited Ni–Al coating [23]. At a given Al particles content, the Al
Among the MMCs, Ni–Al composite coatings have been nanoparticles instead of the microscale counterparts significantly
extensively studied because of their excellent resistances to increased the particle number per unit volume in the composite
corrosion, high-temperature oxidation [21,24–29]. Ghanbari and coating, decreased the Ni grain size and promoted the formation of
Mahboubi [21] deposited Ni–Al composite coatings by sedi- a fine equiaxed grain structure. Ni–Al or Ni–Al-based coatings also
ment co-deposition (SCD) method and found that the corrosion exhibited higher oxidation resistance at high temperature. It was
resistances of the composite coatings were improved compared found that excellent cyclic-oxidation resistance at 850 ◦ C could be
with the pure Ni coating. This was because that the aluminum oxide obtained for the coatings even with low Al content and a thin and
close-packed oxide film formed on the coating surfaces [24]. The
addition of a reactive element or its oxide could improve the oxi-
∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 021 34203096. dation resistance of Ni–Al coatings. Zhou et al. [25] found that Ni–Al
E-mail address: chuanhaijiang1963@163.com (C. Jiang). composite coatings with a CeO2 addition scaled slower than its

0169-4332/$ – see front matter © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2013.12.021
F. Cai, C. Jiang / Applied Surface Science 292 (2014) 620–625 621

counterpart Ni–Al composite coatings without CeO2 addition. This checked with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX)
was ascribed to that the CeO2 profoundly prevented intergranular method.
cracking. The phase characterization was performed on Rigaku Ultima
Most recently, many researches have reported that the NiAl and IV X-ray diffractometer (XRD, Cu K␣ radiation,  = 1.54056 Å). The
Ni3 Al intermetallic alloys, which are attractive applications in the voltage and current were 40 kV and 30 mA, respectively. The grain
aerospace and power industries as a high-temperature structural size and micro-strain of the coatings were obtained by using Voigt
material, could be obtained from Ni–Al coatings by using annealing method according to the integral breadth of (2 0 0) peak. The
treatment and these intermetallic alloys exhibit superior oxidation relationship of integral breadth could be shown in the following
resistance [26–29]. Yang et al. [26] found that after annealing treat- formula [30]:
ment in vacuum at 600 ◦ C for 4 h, the Ni–Al coating transformed into
f g 2 f2 g2
a   / composite. The annealed Ni–Al coating exhibited higher oxi- ˇCh = ˇC + ˇC ; ˇG
h
= ˇG + ˇG
dation resistance than the as-deposited Ni–Al coating, which was
due to that the annealed Ni–Al coating promoted the development where subscript C and G denote the Cauchy and Gaussian compo-
of a continuous, uniform alumina layer in a short, initial and tran- nents, and superscripts h, f, g denote the measured line profile, the
sient oxidation stage. Zhang et al. [27] fabricated ␤-NiAl coating structural broadened profile and the instrumental profile, respec-
on ␥-TiAl alloy and found the formed alumina scale became adher- tively. Then, the domain size (D) and micro-strain (ε) can be
ent when the ␤-NiAl phase was dispersed with a small amount calculated by formula [30]:
of Y2 O3 nanoparticles, the adherent alumina scale could inhibit f
 ˇG
the further oxidation of the coating. The addition of reactive ele- D= ; ε=
ments (REs) such as CeO2 and Y2 O3 and the Al particles size also
f
ˇC cos  4 tan 
had an effect on the conversion of the Ni–Al coating, thus changed
the oxidation process of the coating [28,29]. Although consider- where , ˇ,  represent the wavelength of Cu-K␣ , integral breadth
able researches focused on the preparation, corrosion resistance and Bragg angle, respectively.
and oxidation resistance of the Ni–Al composite, the deposition The residual stress of the as-deposited Ni–Al composite coatings
process, texture, residual stresses and corrosion resistance of the was determined by the sin2 method [31] using X-ray diffrac-
Ni–Al composite coatings needed further research. In present work, tion technique with a Proto LXRD Residual Stress Analyser.
Ni–Al composite coatings with higher Al content were prepared and The voltage and current were 30 kV and 25 mA, respectively.
the effects of Al particle contents on the surface morphology, tex- The peaks of (4 2 0)␣ of Ni were used to calculate the residual
ture, microstrain, residual stress, corrosion resistance and the wear stress.
performance at 200 ◦ C were investigated. The relationship between Potentiodynamic polarization measurements were conducted
corrosion resistance and Al content in the coatings and texture were in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution at the ambient temperature using an
also discussed. electrochemical apparatus. A standard three electrode system was
used, with a Ag/AgCl electrode [+207 mV(SHE)] as the reference
electrode, a platinum sheet as the auxiliary electrode (AE) and
2. Experimental details the sample as the working electrode (WE). The scan rate was
1 mV/s. The polarization potentiodynamic curves were recorded
2.1. Electrodeposition of Ni–Al composite coatings after 30 min of immersion. The corrosion current density Icorr for the
particular specimens was determined by extrapolating the anode
Ni–Al composite coatings were prepared by electrodeposition and cathode Tafel curves.
from Watt baths. The Watt bath consisted of NiSO4 ·6H2 O (240 g/L), The wear tests at 200 ◦ C were performed on a pin-on-disk type
NiCl2 ·6H2 O (40 g/L), H3 BO3 (30 g/L) and C12 H25 NaSO4 (0.2 g/L). tribometer with a heater. The rotation speed was 60 rpm and the
Stainless steel plate with an area of 1 cm2 was used as the cathode load was 10 N. A cemented carbide ball was used as the counter
(stainless steel with an area of 2 cm × 3 cm was employed for wear body.
test), a pure nickel plate was used as the anode. All the coatings
were prepared with DC electrodeposition method with deposition
3. Results and discussions
time of 60 min. The solution temperature was maintained at 50 ◦ C
by an automatic controller. The current density was 40 mA/cm2 , the
3.1. Surface morphology and Al particle content analysis
pH was 4.2 and the stirring rate was 150 rpm. Different amounts of
aluminum particles (25, 50, 100, and 200 g/L) with a mean diameter
Fig. 1 shows the surface morphologies of Ni–Al composite
of 1 ␮m were added to the solution in order to form Ni–Al com-
coatings deposited at different particle loadings in the bath. As seen
posite coatings. The pure Ni coating (0 g/L) was also prepared for
in Fig. 1(a), the coating deposited at 25 g/L showed regular pyrami-
comparison. Before the electrodeposition, the stainless steel spec-
dal crystal structure typical for the pure Ni electrodeposited coating
imens were grounded by using grade 400, 600 and 1000 emery
and some colonized structure. With the increase of particle load-
paper, degreased in acid (10% HCl) and finally washed with distilled
ing, the pyramidal crystal structure disappeared and the colonized
water.
structure dominated. Al particles and the pores where Al particles
For all the electrodeposition experiments, the electrolyte was
were pulled out of the coating due to the slight bonding were also
magnetically stirred for 4 h to suspend the particles in the
observed.
electrolyte. After electrodeposition, all the coatings were ultrason-
The Al particle content in the deposits as a function of Al par-
ically cleaned with deionized water, and then dried for further
ticle loadings in bath is plotted in Fig. 2. The Al particle content
characterization.
showed a linear relationship with the increase of Al particle load-
ing in bath. Based on the results of EDX, the average Al content
2.2. Characterization of Ni–Al composite coatings of the Ni–Al coatings were 1.63, 5.09, 10.92 and 23.92 wt% for the
coatings deposited at Al particle loadings of 25 g/L, 50 g/L, 100 g/L
The surface morphologies of the coatings were exam- and 200 g/L, respectively.
ined by a field emission scanning electron microscope (FSEM, The electro-codeposition mechanism of the particles has been
JSM-7600F) and the chemical composition of coatings was studied in the past several decades and several models have
622 F. Cai, C. Jiang / Applied Surface Science 292 (2014) 620–625

Fig. 1. Surface morphology images of Ni–Al composite coatings deposited at (a) 25 g/L, (b) 50 g/L, (c) 100 g/L and (d) 200 g/L.

been developed, such as the Guglielmi’s model [32], Celis’s model deposits increased and obtained the maximum value of 23.92 wt%
[33,34] and the trajectory model [35]. The codeposition behavior at 200 g/L.
was closely related with the surface characteristic of the co-
deposited particles. Previous researches [36,37] pointed out that 3.2. Coating microstructures and texture
a thin oxide layer was formed around the Al particles, which
changed the surface characteristic of the Al particles. The co- Fig. 3 shows the typical XRD patterns of the pure Ni coat-
deposition behavior of the Al particles was similar to the Al2 O3 ing and the Ni–Al composite coating deposited at different Al
particles, which could be explained by the Guglielmi’s model particle loadings. The pure Ni coating exhibited strong (2 0 0) pre-
containing successive adsorption steps [22]. In the first step, ferred orientation which was also observed in references [4,11]. As
the Al particles with adsorbed ions were physically and loosely the Al particle loading increased, the (2 0 0) preferred orientation
adsorbed on the cathode surface. In the second step, the metal was suppressed and random orientation occurred. With further
ions adsorbed on the Al particles were reduced, making the Al increase in the Al particle loading up to 200 g/L, the Ni–Al coat-
particles strongly absorb on the growing surface and to be embed- ing exhibited slight (1 1 1) preferred orientation. The results of
ded in the coating. In this study, with increase of the Al particle XRD showed that the preferred orientation of the coating could
loadings, the probability of the Al particles absorbing on the grow- be changed by the incorporation of Al particles. The Al peaks were
ing coating surface increased. Thus, the Al particle content in the also observed with increase of the Al particle loadings.
Al particle content in deposits, wt %

30

25

20

15

10

0
25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200
Al particle loading in bath, g/L

Fig. 2. Al particle content in the deposits as a function of Al particle loadings in the Fig. 3. XRD patterns of Ni–Al composite coatings deposited at various Al particle
bath. loadings.
F. Cai, C. Jiang / Applied Surface Science 292 (2014) 620–625 623

30
0.9 (111)

Texture Coefficient (TC)


0.8 (200)
25

Residual Stress, MPa


0.7
0.6 20
0.5
15
0.4
0.3 10
0.2
0.1 5

0.0
0 50 100 150 200 0
25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200
Al particle loading in bath, g/L
Al particle loading in bath, g/L
Fig. 4. Texture coefficients (TC) of the Ni–Al composite coatings deposited at various
Al particle loadings. Fig. 6. Residual stress of coating deposited at various Al particle loadings.

To quantify the relative crystallographic textures associated (1 1 1) and (2 2 0) planes, which led to random grains growth. The Al
with Ni–Al composite coatings, the texture coefficients (TC) for pre- particles in the bath could adsorb the Ni2+ and Ni[B(OH)4 ]+ cations,
dominant (h k l) peaks in XRD patterns were calculated according and the adsorbed cations carrying with Al particles were attracted
to the following formula [38], to the growth center, which might shield the growth center from

I(h k l)
 1  I(h k l) −1 the cations in the electrolyte and preclude further growth of grains.
TC (h k l) = The results above showed that incorporation of Al particles could
I0 (h k l) n I0 (h k l)
change the preferred orientations of the electrodeposited coating.
where I (h k l) is measured intensity of (h k l) reflection, I0 (h k l) is The addition of Al particles also had an effect on the grain size
powder diffraction intensity of nickel, and n is the number of reflec- and microstrain of the coatings. Fig. 5(a) and (b) demonstrates
tions used in the calculations. In this case, (1 1 1), (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) the grain size and microstrain of the Ni–Al composite coatings
peaks are used for texture coefficient calculation (n = 3), and the cal- deposited at different Al particle loadings and the results showed
culated results are presented in Fig. 4. As seen in Fig. 4, the (2 0 0) that the grain size decreased and the microstrain increased with
texture coefficients decreased and the (1 1 1) texture coefficients the increase of Al particle loadings. As seen in Fig. 5(a), the grain
increased with the increasing Al particle loadings. size of the coating decreased with increasing Al particle loadings
It seemed that addition of Al particles in nickel matrix inhibited and obtained the minimum value of 72.28 nm at 100 g/L beyond
the grain growth of primary grains usually oriented in (2 0 0) which the grain size increased again. During the electroplating
planes and provided nucleation sites for the growth of new random process, there was a competition between the nucleation and crys-
oriented grains. Qu et al. [11] pointed out that the electrocrystal- tal growth of the Ni crystals. The incorporated Al particles could
lization of Ni coating was a highly inhibited process and the [1 0 0] act as new nucleus and promote the grain nucleation rather than
texture mode was considered to be the result of a bath free from the grain growth. As the Al particle loadings increased, the grain
inhibiting chemical species. However, it is impossible for crystal size decreased. However, as the Al particle loading increased up to
growth to be completely free from inhibiting species, and some 200 g/L, the grain size increased due to the aggregation of the Al
chemical species such as hydrogen and nickel hydroxide existing particles which reduced the refinement effect of the Al particles. It
in a bath play a major role in the process of crystal growth. In could be also found in Fig. 5(b) that with increasing the Al particle
the electrodeposition process, both nickel hydroxide and hydro- loadings the microstrain of the coating increased and obtained the
gen were formed and partially adsorbed on the surface of cathode maximum value at 200 g/L.
or the growing coating leading to the formation of (2 2 0) preferred
orientation in nickel deposits. In addition, the ionization of boric 3.3. Residual stress analysis
acid was also observed according to the following reaction in the
co-electrodeposition of Ni–Al composite coating, Fig. 6 shows the residual stresses of Ni–Al coatings deposited
− + at different Al particle loadings and all the coatings had low resid-
B(OH)3 + H2 O ↔ [B(OH)4 ] + H
ual stresses. The residual stresses of 13.5, 26, 8 and 3 MPa were
In term of the Ni–Al coating, as the Al content increased to a crit- obtained for coatings deposited at Al particle loadings of 25, 50, 100
ical value 5.09 wt% in this instance, renucleation occurred on both and 200 g/L, respectively. In addition, the residual stress of 74 MPa

130

120
(a) 0.18 (b)
0.17
Grain Size, nm

110
Microstrain, %

0.16
100 0.15
90 0.14
80 0.13

70 0.12

60 0.11
0.10
50
0 50 100 150 200 0 50 100 150 200
Al particle loading in bath, g/L Al particle loading in bath, g/L

Fig. 5. (a) Grain size and (b) microstrain of the coating as a function of Al particle loadings.
624 F. Cai, C. Jiang / Applied Surface Science 292 (2014) 620–625

-3 Table 1

Log (current density) / (Acm )


Corrosion potential Ecorr and corrosion current Icorr of coating with various Al particle
2 -4 loadings.

25 g/L Al particle loadings in the bath (g/L) Ecorr (mV) Icorr (␮A/cm2 )
-5
25 138.9 0.596
-6 50 154.6 0.501
50 g/L 100 59.5 0.322
200 g/L
-7 200 153.4 0.207
100 g/L
-8

-9 formed around the particles and made them neutral [44]. These
-0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
Potential / V neutral particles distributed uniformly in the coating and acted
as “physical barriers” in corrosive environments [3]. Furthermore,
Fig. 7. Potentiodynamic polarization curves for Ni–Al coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution. these neutral particles in the Ni matrix resulted in the formation of
many “corrosion micro-cells” in which the aluminum oxide acted
as cathode and nickel matrix acted as anode. Therefore, localized
corrosion was inhibited and homogeneous corrosion was domi-
for pure Ni coating was also obtained for comparison. The results
nated. The second factor was related with the texture evolution.
above showed that Al particles could reduce the residual stress of
When a metal is exposed to a corrosive environment, the corrosion
the Ni electro-deposited coatings. This was because that incorpo-
rate of each grain varies because of the difference in the binding
ration of Al particles decreased the grain size of the pure Ni coating
energy of atoms between the crystallographic planes [45]. The total
and the residual stress cannot accumulate as much as with larger
energy involved in the breaking of the bonds and the subsequent
grains [39]. Although the composite coatings showed the largest
dissolution of atoms is higher for the crystallographic planes with
value of residual stress at 50 g/L, it was clear that the coatings
a higher number of nearest neighbour atoms [46]. Therefore, the
showed a decreasing trend in residual stresses with increasing Al
close packed planes or the low index planes, are known to be more
particle loadings. Residual stress was an important issue in the
resistant to dissolution because of the higher binding energy of the
electrodeposited coatings and several mechanisms have been pro-
surface atoms. In this case, the (1 1 1) plane was the close packed
posed to explain the stress generation [41]. The residual stresses
plane and it possessed higher corrosion resistance than the (2 0 0)
depended on deposition parameters such as pH, current density
plane. As Al content increased, the crystallographic planes of the
and temperature, and the current density played an important role
Ni–Al composite coating evolved from (2 0 0) plane to (1 1 1) plane.
in the stress evolution of the coatings [40–42]. Hearne et al. [40]
Thus, the corrosion resistance of the Ni–Al coatings improved. From
pointed out that the residual stresses varied from −500 to +500 MPa
the above results, it could be concluded that the improvement
as the deposition rate increased from 14 A/s to 140 A/s which cor-
of corrosion resistance of Ni–Al coatings was the combined effect
responded to that the current density increased from 5 mA/cm2
of incorporation of Al particles and texture evolution from (2 0 0)
to 50 mA/cm2 . In this study, all the coatings were deposited at
plane to (1 1 1) plane.
40 mA/cm2 and showed lower residual stresses, which were con-
sistent with the results in Refs. [41,43]. Cui et al. [22] pointed out
that increasing Al particles loading in the bath resulted in a neg- 3.5. Wear test at 200 ◦ C
ative potential displacement and more hydrogen was generated
[12]. Subsequently, the desorption of H atoms resulted in tensile Fig. 8 shows the typical friction coefficient curve at 200 ◦ C of
residual stress and desorption of more H atoms led to the higher Ni–Al coating deposited at Al particle loading of 100 g/L. The aver-
tensile residual stress [43]. As the Al particles content increased, age friction coefficients of 0.58, 0.58, 0.57 and 0.63 were obtained
more H atoms adsorbed due to the increasing adsorption sites and from the coefficient curves for coating deposited at Al particle load-
the desorption process was suppressed. Thus, the residual stress ings of 25, 50, 100 and 200 g/L, respectively. The result showed that
decreased with increasing Al particles content. It could also explain the friction coefficients were near same as the Al particle increased
the increase of the microstrain shown in Fig. 5(b) with increasing from 25 g/L to 100 g/L. The friction coefficient for coating deposited
the Al content. With increasing Al particle loadings more H atoms at 200 g/L increased to 0.63, which might be due to the high vol-
were included into the coatings resulting in higher distortion, thus ume of pores. The result of wear test suggested that the increasing
the microstrain increased. Al particle content did not improve the wear performance of the
coatings at 200 ◦ C.
3.4. Potentiodynamic polarization

Potentiodynamic polarization curves of electrodeposited Ni–Al 1.2

composite coatings deposited at different Al particle loadings are 1.0


Friction coefficient

presented in Fig. 7. The corrosion potential Ecorr and corrosion


current Icorr obtained from the polarization curves are shown in 0.8
Table 1. With the increase of Al particle loadings, the corrosion 0.6
potential Ecorr were 138.9 mV, 154.6 mV, 59.5 mV and 153.4 mV,
respectively. The corrosion current decreased as the Al content 0.4
increased, indicating that the corrosion resistance of the Ni–Al
0.2
coatings increased with the increasing Al content and the coat-
ing deposited at 200 g/L showed the best corrosion resistance. 0.0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
The improvement of corrosion resistance of Ni–Al coating could
Wear time, s
be ascribed to the increasing Al content in the coating and the
texture evolution from (2 0 0) planes to (1 1 1) planes. The incorpo- Fig. 8. Typical friction coefficient curve at 200 ◦ C for Ni–Al composite coating
rated Al particles were so active that aluminum oxide were easily deposited at Al particle loading of 100 g/L.
F. Cai, C. Jiang / Applied Surface Science 292 (2014) 620–625 625

4. Conclusions [9] E.B. Lehman, P. Indyka, A. Bigos, M. Kot, L. Tarkowski, Surf. Coat. Technol. 211
(2012) 62.
[10] X. Peng, T. Li, W. Wu, W.P. Pan, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 298 (2001) 100.
Ni–Al composite coatings with different contents of Al particles [11] N.S. Qu, D. Zhu, K.C. Chan, Scr. Mater. 54 (2006) 1421.
were deposited by conventional direct current electrodeposition. [12] R.K. Saha, T.I. Khan, Surf. Coat. Technol. 205 (2010) 890.
The Al particle content in the as-deposited coating increased with [13] I. Garcia, A. Conde, G. Langelaan, J. Fransaer, J.P. Celis, Corros. Sci. 45 (2003)
1173.
increasing the Al particle loadings and obtained the maximum [14] R. Arghavanian, N. Parvini-Ahmadi, J. Solid State Electrochem. 15 (2011)
value of 23.92 wt% at 200 g/L. The increasing Al particles content 2199.
had an effect on the microstructures and properties of the coatings. [15] S. Harsha, D.K. Dwivedi, A. Agramal, Surf. Coat. Technol. 201 (2007) 5766.
[16] L. Shi, C.F. Sun, F. Zhou, W.M. Liu, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 397 (2005) 190.
As the Al particle content increased, the surface morphology of the
[17] F.F. Xia, H.B. Xu, C. Liu, J.W. Wang, J.J. Ding, C.H. Ma, Appl. Surf. Sci. 271 (2013)
Ni–Al composite coatings changed from pyramid + colonied struc- 7.
ture to colonied structure. The (2 0 0) preferred orientation for pure [18] H.F. Liu, W.X. Chen, Surf. Coat. Technol. 191 (2005) 341.
[19] X. Peng, Y. Zhang, J. Zhao, F. Wang, Electrochim. Acta 51 (2006) 4922.
Ni coating was suppressed with the addition of Al particles and
[20] I.N. Bilnik, A. Budniok, B. Losiewicz, L. Pajak, E. Lagiewka, Thin Solid Films 474
the coatings showed random or slight (1 1 1) orientations for Ni–Al (2005) 146.
coating deposited at 200 g/L. The addition of Al particles decreased [21] S. Ghanbari, F. Mahboubi, Mater. Des. 32 (2011) 1859.
the grain size of the coating and increased the microstrain of the [22] X.W. Cui, W.F. Wei, H.F. Liu, W.X. Chen, Electrochim. Acta 54 (2008) 415.
[23] Y.B. Zhou, B.Y. Qian, H.J. Zhang, Thin Solid Films 517 (2009) 3287.
coating. The grain size obtained the minimum value of 72.28 nm [24] H.F. Liu, W.X. Chen, Surf. Coat. Technol. 202 (2008) 4019.
at particle loading of 100 g/L. Compared with the pure Ni electro- [25] Y. Zhou, X. Peng, F. Wang, Scr. Mater. 55 (2006) 1039.
deposited coating, all the Ni–Al coatings with different Al particle [26] X. Yang, X. Peng, F. Wang, Corros. Sci. 50 (2008) 3227.
[27] H. Zhang, X. Peng, F. Wang, Surf. Coat. Technol. 206 (2012) 2454.
contents possessed lower residual stress and the coating deposited [28] X. Yang, X. Peng, F. Wang, Scr. Mater. 56 (2007) 509.
at 200 g/L showed the minimum residual stress. As the Al parti- [29] H.F. Liu, W.X. Chen, Intermetallics 13 (2005) 805–817.
cles content increased, the anti-corrosion of the Ni–Al coatings [30] T.H.H. De Keijser, J.I. Langford, E.J. Mittemeijer, A.B.P. Vogels, J. Appl. Crystallogr.
15 (1982) 308.
increased and the highest corrosion resistance was obtained for [31] P.J. Withers, H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia, Mater. Sci. Technol. 17 (2001) 355.
coating deposited at 200 g/L. This was ascribed to the increasing Al [32] N. Guglielmi, J. Electrochem. Soc. 119 (8) (1972) 1009.
content in the coatings and the texture evolution from (2 0 0) planes [33] J.P. Celis, J.R. Roos, J. Electrochem. Soc. 124 (10) (1977) 1508.
[34] J.P. Celis, J.R. Roos, C. Buelens, J. Electrochem. Soc. 134 (6) (1987) 1402.
to (1 1 1) planes. The wear result at 200 ◦ C showed that the increas- [35] J. Fransaer, J.P. Celis, J.R. Roos, J. Electrochem. Soc. 139 (1992) 413.
ing Al particle content did not improve the wear performance of [36] Y. Champion, J. Bigo, Nanostruct. Mater. 10 (1998) 1097.
the Ni–Al composite coating. [37] X.Y. Phung, J. Groza, E.A. Stach, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 359 (2003) 261.
[38] S.P. Harimkar, N.B. Dahotre, J. Appl. Phys. 100 (2006) 024901.
[39] F. Erler, C. Jakob, H. Romanus, L. Spiess, B. Wielage, T. Lampke, S. Steinhauser,
References Electrochim. Acta 48 (2003) 3063.
[40] S.J. Hearne, J.A. Floro, J. Appl. Phys. 97 (2005) 014901.
[1] Y. Yang, Y.F. Cheng, Surf. Coat. Technol. 216 (2005) 282. [41] J.J. Kelly, S.H. Goods, A.A. Talin, J.T. Hachman, J. Electrochem. Soc. 153 (5) (2006)
[2] L. Chen, L.P. Wang, Z.X. Zeng, J.Y. Zhang, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 434 (2006) 319. 318.
[3] P. Baghery, M. Farzam, A.B. Mousavi, M. Hosseini, Surf. Coat. Technol. 204 (2010) [42] S. Pathak, M. Guinard, M.G.C. Vernooij, B. Cousin, Z. Wang, J. Michler, L. Philippe,
3804. Surf. Coat. Technol. 205 (2011) 3651.
[4] Y.B. Zhou, J.F. Sun, S.C. Wang, H.J. Zhang, Corros. Sci. 63 (2012) 351. [43] S. Armyanov, G. Sotirova-Chakarova, J. Electrochem. Soc. 139 (1992) 3454.
[5] V. Mangam, S. Bhattacharya, K. Das, S. Das, Surf. Coat. Technol. 205 (2010) [44] P. Bercot, E.P. Munoz, J. Pagetti, Surf. Coat. Technol. 157 (2002) 288.
801. [45] J.O.M. Bockris, S.U.M. Khan, Surface Electrochemistry – A Molecular Level
[6] Z.X. Zeng, Y. Zhou, B. Zhang, Y.L. Sun, J.Y. Zhang, Acta Mater. 57 (2009) 5342. Approach, Plenum Press, New York, 1993.
[7] J.V. Arenas, M. Pritzker, Electrochim. Acta 66 (2012) 139. [46] J.C. Scully, The Fundamentals of Corrosion, Pergamon Press, Shanghai, 200240,
[8] M. Donten, H. Cesiulis, Z. Stojek, Electrochim. Acta 50 (2005) 1405. China, 1990.