Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 125

ŚAVSM AN RAMANSM

A S ,  T

Alexis Sanderson

, J

RAMANSM

. e householder ideology

Locus classicus for the ritualistic interpretation of the meaning of the cor- pus of the brahmanical scriptures Ślokavārttika of Kumārila, esp. Samba- ndhāk sepaparihāra .

(Proto-

audhāyana)

T. N. M , Non-Renunciation: emes and Interpretations of Hindu Culture. elhi OUP, .

. e renunciationist ideology. Locus classicus for the contrary, gnostic view is

as interpreted by Śa nkara in his Brahmasūtrabhā sya. is

,

,

(a)

.

(b) Gautamadharmasūtra . and Baudhāyanadharmasūtra

(c)

Brahmasūtra

˙

.

series of aphorisms propounds the view as the doctrine of ādarāya na (

,

.

) and as opposed to that of Jaimini (set out in

).

. e middle ground.

(a) Manusm rti .

.

āśramād āśrama m gatvā hutahomo jitendriya h|

bhik sābalipariśrānta h pravrajan pretya vardhate ||

r . nāni . trī ny apāk rtya mano mok se niveśayet |

anapāk rtya mok m tu sevamāno vrajaty adha h ||

adhītya vidhivad vedān putrā mś cotpādya dharmata h|

i s tvā . ca śaktito yajñair mano mok se niveśayet ||

anadhītya . dvijo vedān anutpādya tathā sutān |

ani tvā caiva yajñaiś ca mok sam icchan vrajaty adha h ||

.

.

.

sa

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

s

.

.

.

f he renounces after proceeding from discipline to discipline, having performed his sacrifices, having mastered his senses, and weary of giving alms and food-offerings [to the deities], he will prosper after his death. e

(b)

(c)

(d)

should not apply his mind to liberation if he has not yet paid off the three debts. f he cultivates liberation without having done so he will descend. e should apply his mind to liberation when he has studied the Vedas in the ordained fashion, when he has produced sons in accordance with his religious obligation, and when he has offered sacrifices to the extent of his ability. f a twice-born man seeks liberation before he has studied the Vedas, fathered sons, and offered the sacrifices [thus paying the three debts], he will descend

See Patrick O , e Āśrama System: e History and Hermeneutics of a Religious Institution. New York and Oxford OUP, for the devel- opment from the harmasūtras to the harmaśāstras of this theoretical- cum-institutional construct according to which the ideal brahmin should pass successively through the disciplines of the celibate student, married householder, hermit, and renouncer

ree doctrines of the āśramā h ( ) progressive accumulation (samuccaya-

pak h), ( ) optionality (vikalpapak h), and ( ) refusal of the states of the

.

sa

.

sa

.

hermit and renouncer (bādhapak h)

Vijñāneśvara, Mitāk sarā (

.

.

.

sa

.

.

) on Yājñavalkyasm rti . e m ca

.

.

.

samuccayavikalpabādhapak nā m sarve m śrutimūlatvād icchayā *vikalpa-

(conj.  vikalpā h d.).

One is free to choose any one of these views, that of accumulation, that of optionality, or that of refusal, since each has the support of Śruti texts.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. Gautamadharmasūtra . vedo dharmamūla m tadvidā m ca sm rtiśīle ‘e source

of [our knowledge of ] beneficial religious activity is the Veda and the tradition

and conduct of those who know it’ Manusm rti . ab vedo ’khilo dharma-

mūla m sm rtiśīle ca tadvidām.

.

.

.

.

. .

. e criterion of the validity of Sm rti. Medhātithi’s Sm rtiviveka, cited in his

Manubhā sya on . (vol. , p. , ll. )

.

.

pratyak saśrutinirdi ta .

.

s

.

m ye ’nuti thanti . kecana |

s

.

.

ta eva yadi kurvanti tathā syād vedamūlatā||

prāmā nyakārana m mukhya m vedavidbhi h parigraha h|

.

.

.

.

.

.

f the self same persons that put into practice what has been ordained by the independently valid testimony of Śruti also put into practice [what is ordained

by a Sm rti text], then [the latter may be inferred] to have the Veda as its source.

e primary criterion of the validity [of a secondary text] is that its ordinances

are adopted by those who know the Vedas [and put them into practice].

.

. Śa nkha-and-Likhita cited in K rtyakalpataru, Pt. , p. sm rtir dharmaśāstrā ni.

˙

.

.

.

. Manu’s pre-eminence. Kumārila, Tantravārttika on Mīmā msāsūtra

purā na m

mānavo dharma h sā ngo vedaś cikitsitam ‘[Valid are] the Purā nas, the harma[śāstra]

of Manu, the Veda with its ancillaries.

.

.

.

.

˙

.

. Purā nas.

.

(a)

Yājñavalkyasm rti .

.

purā nanyāyamīmā msādharmaśāstrā ngamiśritā h|

˙

.

vedā h sthānāni vidyānā m dharmasya ca caturdaśa ||

.

.

.

.

ere are fourteen sources of knowledge and religious duty the [four] Vedas together with the Purā nas, Nyāya, Mīmā msā, the harmaśāstras,

and the [six] ancillaries’.

. .

(b)

Jayanta, Nyāyamañjarī-Āgamaprāmā nya, p. , ll. vedamūlatvāt sm r-

.

tīnā m sm rtivat purā nānām api bhavatu prāmā nyam. sarvathā tāvad vedāś

.

catvāra h purā na m sm rtir iti sa d imāni vidyāsthānāni sāk sāt puru sārthasā-

.

dhanopadeśīni.

Since the Sm rtis [that is to say, the harmaśāstras] are Veda-derived, let

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

the Purā nas be authoritative for the same reason. n all, then, there are six

sources of knowledge that teach directly the means of accomplishing the

[religious] purpose of man. ese are the four Vedas, the Purā nas and the

Sm rtis.

.

.

.

. pic (itihāsa h).

.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Viśvarūpa, Bālakrī dā on Yājñavalkyasm rti . purā nam iti cetihāsapurā-

.

nayor graha nam ‘And the term Purā na [in this list] covers the Mahābhārata

.

.

and the Purā nas’.

.

.

.

.

Jayanta, Nyāyamañjarī-Āgamaprāmā nya, p. , l. itihāsapurā nābhyā m

veda m samupab mhayet ‘One may supplement the Veda with the pic and

r

.

.

.

.

the Purā nas’.

.

.

.

Sumantusm rti cited in K rtyakalpataru Pt. , p. ) vedavedā ngetihāsapurā-

˙

natarkamīmā msādharmaśāstrā ni ‘e Vedas, the [six] ancillaries of the

.

.

Vedas, . the pic, the Purā nas, Nyāya, Mīmā msā, and the harmaśāstras’.

.

.

.

.

. e Rāmāya na, the Vi nudharma, the Śivadharma, and the Sauradharma by

s

extension of the scope of the term Purā na in the canonical list of the fourteen

.

.

.

.

vidyāsthānāni see K rtyakalpataru, vol. , p. , citing a passage attributed to

the Bhavi syapurā na.

.

. deśācāra h and kulācāra h.

.

.

. .

. e validity of Purā na subject to the test of sadācāra h. or rejection of certain

.

.

Purā nas see, e.g., allālasena (ruled engal [au da] c. ), Dānasā-

.

.

gara, introductory verses .

. Ritual typology

(a)

(b)

(c)

Śrauta and Smārta rituals that are tied to specific schools of the Veda, differentiated according to the particular Veda, recension of that Veda, and a tradition of its implementation in accordance with a patrilineally inherited affiliation (sources Śrautasūtra and  rhyasūtra).

.

Rituals that are universal, in that they are considered valid for all, regard-

less of Veda lineage (source Purā nas) e.g. installation rituals (prati thā) . of

shrines, homes, reservoirs, wells, and the like, rituals performed to avert

ills of various kinds (śānti h), to solemnize the giving of gifts (dānam),

and to terminate periods of ascetic observance (vratodyāpanam) choice of deities functional rather than affective, multicentric rather than mono- centric.

evotional worship (pūjā) of the post-Vedic deities (Śiva, evī, Vi . nu) .

by the head of the family kuladevatā and i tadevatā. . Yājñavalkyasm rti

. cd

s

.

.

.

s

.

s

.

snātvā devān pit¯ . mś . caiva tarpayed arcayet tathā ||

r

After bathing he should pour libations from his hand to the gods and ancestors and also do an act of devotional worship.

One deity or several deities.

i. Vijñāneśvara, Mitāk sarā on Yājñavalkyasm rti . cd tato madhyā-

hne śāstroktena vidhinā nadyādi su snātvā devān svag rhyoktān pit¯ mś ca

r

.

.

cakārād sī

r

mś ca devāditīrthena tarpayet. tadanantara m gandhapu spā-

.

.

.

.

k satai h hariharahira nyagarbhaprabh rtīnām anyatama m yathāvāsanam

.

.

.

.

rgyaju hsāmamantrais tatprakāśakai h svanāmabhir vā caturthyantair

namaskārayuktair . ārādhayet.

.

.

.

.

.

.

After he has bathed following the procedure taught in the Śāstras

in a river or some other [permitted body of water] he should pour

libations of water to the gods prescribed in his  rhya[sūtra], his

ancestors, and—this is implied by the word ‘and’ itself—the sages,

from the parts of his hand sacred to these [three]. Next he should

propitiate one among such deities as Vi nu, Śiva, and rahmā, in

accordance with his personal inclination, . . with offerings of fragrant

powder, flowers, and unhusked rice grains, while reciting Mantras drawn from the Rgveda, Yajurveda, or Sāmaveda that evoke that

.

s

.

[deity], or with their own names in the dative case together with

[the formula of obeisance . ,

and so forth].

.

.

.

.

ii. Kūrmapurā na cited in Nīlaka tha . ha ta, Bhagavantabhāskara, Ācāra-

n

t

mayūkha, pp. ( th century) rahmā, Śiva, Vi . nu, . Sūrya or

any other deities of choice.

.

.

s

iii. Narasi mhapurā na ibid. Vi . nu . alone.

.

.

s

iv. Skandapurā na ibid. rahmā in the K rta age, Sūrya in the Tretā,

Vi

s

.

nu . in the vāpara and Śiva in the Kali, now current.

.

.

v. Kūrmapurā na ibid. highest Vaidika worship is that of Vi . nu . with

that of Maheśvara (Śiva) as an option.

.

s

vi. e section on this topic (the devapūjāprakara nam) in the Anūpavilāsa

of Ma nirāma īk sita (Ācāraratna, pp. ff.) composed in enares

. , begins with a citation from the Padmapurā na requiring

daily worship of rahmā, Vi nu, . Śiva, Sūrya, Agni, a neśa, urgā,

Sarasvatī, Lak smī, or aurī. e notes that some say that one does

in

.

.

s

.

.

.

one’s duty by worshipping any one of these, while others hold that

one is obliged to offer a daily pañcāyatanapūjā, i.e. worship of the five

gods Sūrya, a neśa, the oddess, Śiva, and Vi nu, followed by that

.

s

of the deity of one's lineage (Kuladevatā). is form, . . but without the

Kuladevatā, is still widely practised in the subcontinent.

. e great faultline in brahmanical metaphysical and soteriological thinking rit- ualism v. theism karma and od. e conservative reaction. Kumārila, Śloka- vārttika, Sa mbandhāk sepaparihāra, vv. c– b, esp. vv.

.

. .

stutivākyak rtaś cai sa janānā m mativibhrama h|

.

.

paurvāparyāparām ta

.

r s h śabdo ’nyā m kurute matim ||

.

.

upākhyānādirūpe na v rttir vedavad eva na h|

dharmādau bhāratādīnā m bhrāntis tebhyo ’py ato bhavet ||

.

.

.

.

.

.

ākhyānānupayogitvāt te su sarve su vidyate |

stutinindāśraya h kaścid vedas taccodito ’pi vā ||

.

.

.

is common misconception [that Prajāpati created the Vedas and the universe] has originated from passages whose real purpose is to advocate [certain actions

enjoined elsewhere in the text]. [Such passages of ] scripture give rise to error when they are not considered in their full context. We maintain that this is also to be understood in the case of the Mahābhārata[, the Sm rtis] and [the

.

Purā nas]. ese are just like the Veda proper in that they too undertake to teach

meritorious and [demeritorious] action through myths[, cosmogonies] and the

like (upākhyānādirūpe na). us it is that they too have been sources of [the

.

same] misunderstanding. ecause story-telling serves no purpose [in itself ] all

such [narrative] passages concern some [action enjoined or prohibited in the] Veda proper or in those [secondary texts] themselves, [some action] which they promote or condemn.

.

. e rejection of the brahmavāda h.

. eistic compromises the commentaries on the Brahmasūtra by the Vai nava

Rāmānuja and the Śaiva Śrīka . thald . offer devotional worship not to one deity, . . but to five.

. e cult of Śiva in the corpus of Purā nic literature.

.

s

n

.

(a)

(b)

(c)

ŚAVSM

e original Skandapurā na (prob. th or first half of th century), Li nga-

˙

.

purā na, the tenth-century south-ndian Sūtasa mhitā.

.

.

Texts such as the Vāyupurā na, Matsyapurā na, and Kūrmapurā na. ese

were not originally centred on Śiva, but they were subsequently trans-

formed by the addition of Śaiva materials.

Māhātmya texts.

.

.

.

. y ‘Śaivism’  mean the entirety of the religious practices and beliefs under- taken in the subcontinent and Southeast Asia by Śaivas, and by the term Śaiva  mean in the broadest sense anyone who venerated Śiva as the foremost of the gods, including therefore those who followed the forms of devotion to Śiva sanctioned within the brahmanical scriptural corpus by the uncontested Purā nas. ut in a narrower, more specialized sense  mean those whose re-

.

ligious practices and beliefs drew their authority from scriptures outside the

brahmanical corpus, scriptures that claim to have been revealed by the deity

Śiva as religious teachings above and beyond Śruti and Sm rti, teachings that

claim that they alone reveal the means of attaining definitive liberation from the beginningless but terminable cycle of births and deaths, denying that Śruti

and Sm rti can achieve this. or Śaiva in this narrower sense see Aparāditya,

.

.

Yājñavalkyasm rti tīkā, vol. , p. , ll. .

.

.

. xclusive devotion.

(a)

(b)

Sa mskāravidhi v.

.

snāna mk rtvā tato vipra h pit rdevān k samāpayet |

.

k samantu pit rdevās te gato ’ha m śara na m śive ||

.

en after bathing the brahmin should ask [his] ancestors and the gods for pardon, [saying] ‘‘May the ancestors and the gods forgive me. [or]  have now taken refuge in Śiva [alone]’’.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Pañcārtha .

tasmād ubhayathā ya tavya h. devavat pit rvac ca. ubhaye tu rudre devā h

s

.

.

pitaraś ca.

.

.

.

erefore he [alone] should be worshipped in both modes. Like the gods and like the ancestors. [or] on Rudra both the gods and the ancestors [depend].

(c)

hagavat Kau dinya, Pañcārthabhā sya on .

n

.

.

.

pūrvam asya brāhma nasya devayajane pit ryajane cādhikāro ’dhigata h. tas-

.

māt tebhyo devapit rbhyo bhaktivyāvartana mk rtvobhayathāpi maheśvare bhā-

.

.

vam avasthāpya yajana m kartavya m nānyasya. caśabda h prati sedhe. yat tat

.

.

.

.

pūrva m devapit su kārakatva m sa mbhāvita m tat te su na vidyate. atas te m

r

.

.

.

yajana m na kartavyam ity artha h.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

is brahmin’s qualification and obligation to make offerings to the gods

and his ancestors applied [only] before [his initiation].erefore he should [now] withdraw devotion from these gods and ancestors and in place of both fix his heart on Maheśvara and worship him and no other. e word ca here [in pit rvac ca] expresses prohibition. t implies that the [other]

gods and his ancestors lack the agency that he used to attribute to them

and that therefore he should no longer make offerings to them.

.

e Chronology of Early Śaivism

. No evidence of Śaivism in the Pali canon. See Richard  , How Bud- dhism Began: e Conditioned Genesis of the Early Teachings (Jordan Lectures in omparative Religion XV. London and Atlantic ighlands, N.J. Athlone, ), pp. , claiming such evidence, and the review of this book by MudagamuwaM and Alexander R , Indo-Iranian Jour- nal ( ), pp. , dismissing the claim.

. Mahāniddesa, Pt. , p.

santeke sama nabrāhma nā vatasuddhikā. te hatthivatikā vā honti assavatikā vā

honti govatikā vā honti kukkuravatikā vā honti kākavatikā vā honti vāsudeva-

vatikā vā honti baladevavatikā vā honti pu nabhaddavatikā . vā honti ma nibhadda-

.

.

n

.

vatikā vā honti aggivatikā vā honti nāgavatikā vā honti supa navatikā vā honti

yakkhavatikā vā honti asuravatikā vā honti gandhabbavatikā vā . . honti mahārāja- vatikā vā honti candavatikā vā honti sūriyavatikā vā honti indavatikā vā honti

brahmavatikā vā honti devavatikā vā honti disāvatikā vā honti. ime te sama na-

.

n

brāhma nā vatasuddhikā.

.

.

ere are some Śrama nas and rāhma nas who [seek to] purify themselves

through [imitiative] ascetic observances. ey adopt [imitative] observances [in which they assume the behaviour] of elephants, horses, cows, dogs, or crows, or

[venerate] Vāsudeva, aladeva, Pūr nabhadra, Ma nibhadra, Agni, the Nāgas, the

.

.

Supar nas, Yak sas, Asuras, andharvas, Mahārājas, the Moon, the Sun, ndra,

rahmā, the ods, or the irections. ese are the Śrama nas and rāhma nas

.

.

.

.

.

who seek to purify themselves through [imitative] observances.

.

. e Vinaya of the harmaguptakas, composed in andhāra, probably under the patronage of the ndo-Scythian dynasty around the beginning of the hris-

tian era, includes Maheśvara in a similar list of deities and supernaturals, those to whom people pray for such benefits as the birth of a son Pūr nabhadra,

.

Ma nibhadra, the Sun, the Moon, ndra, rahmā, P rthivī, Agni, Vāyu, Maheś-

vara, ārītī, and spirits of gardens, woods, jungles, cities, and market towns.

See Nobumi  , entry ‘aijizaiten’ in Hōbōgirin, , p. a , citing T. XX a and ibid . b .

. arliest certain evidence of the worship of Śiva of which  am aware is from the second century

.

.

(a) Patañjali, Mahābhā sya on

 images of Śiva

(b) On

.

 importunate religious mendicants called Śivabhāgavatas)

(c)

On

is is an archaic feature seen elsewhere

 the pairing of Śiva with the deity Vaiśrava na (śivavaiśrava nau).

.

.

i. e Jain canonical A ngavijjā, ch. (devatāvijayo nāma), p. ll.

˙

.

baladevavāsudevā sivavessama nā kha mdavisāhā aggimāruyā ya vi . neyā .

bhava mti.

.

.

n

.

One should recognize aladeva-and-Vāsudeva, Śiva-and-Vaiśrava na,

Skanda-and-Viśākha, and Agni-and-Vāyu.

.

ii. Kau talya, Arthaśāstra

, referring to this pair in a passage on the

.

deities that a king should establish in a fortified city

aparājitāpratihatajayantavaijayantako thān . śivavaiśrava nāśviśrīmadi-

rāg rhā ni ca puramadhye kārayet.

s

.

.

.

.

e should have made in the centre of the city niches for Aparājita, Apratihata, Jayanta, and Vaiyanta, and temples for Śiva-and-Vaiśra- va na, the [two] Aśvins, and Śrī-and-Madirā.

(d)

.

iii. Mahābhārata see

 evident though not fully explicit.

Prevalence of theophoric names in Śiva- in much of the subcontinent

among the many lay donors named in the uddhist and Jain inscription

found at such widely sep-

arated sites as īmarān in Afghanistan, Shahdaur in azara, Ahicchatra

and Mathurā in northern ndia, Ka nheri and Nāsik in Maharashtra, and

.

Nāgārjunako da, ha tiprolu, and Amarāvatī in Andhra. ere we find

occurrences, often several, of such names as Śiva, Śivaka, Śivagupta, Śiva-

gho sa, Śivadatta, Śivadāsa, Śivadeva, Śivadhara, Śivanandin, Śivanāgaśrī,

Śivapālita, Śivaputra, Śivabodhi, Śivabhūti, Śivamitra/ā, Śivayaśā (fem.),

Śivarak sita, Śivaśarman, Śivaśrī, Śivasena, and Śivaskandagupta.

from the second century

.

n .

.

t

to the third

.

or names in Śiva- among uddhist lay donors see the indices in Keishō

T , Indo-bukkyo-himei no Kenkyu [A Comprehensive Study of the

Indian Buddhist Inscriptions] (Kyoto eirakuji-Shoten, ), vol.  for the same among Jain lay donors see the editions of the Jain inscriptions of Mathurā published by eorg  in Epigraphia Indica and

Papers Edited by Klaus Janert). Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wis- senschaften in ¨ottingen, Philologisch-istorische Klasse, ritte olge, ¨ottingen Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, also the index of

( and ) and L , Mathurā Inscriptions (Unpublished

¨

¨

personal names given with L ’ list of nearly rāhmī inscrip-

with

the exception of those of Aśoka, published as an appendix to Epigraphia Indica ( ).

tions, mostly donative, from the earliest times to about

¨

(e) is is also the period during which the Li nga, Śiva’s phallic emblem

and principal substrate of worship, emerges in the archaeological record

and passes through the greater part of the changes of design that lead to its classical, less naturalistic form see ritli M ,

volution of the Li nga, in Discourses on Śiva. Proceedings of a Symposium

on the Nature of Religious Imagery edited by M. M (Philadelphia

University of Pennsylvania Press, ), pp. .

(f ) t is also the period during which the anthropomorphic iconography of Śiva begins to take shape see oris Meth S , Significance and

˙

˙

Scope of Pre-Ku na Śaivite conography, in M (ed.) , pp.

 and erd . K . , Die Śiva-Bildwerke der Mathurā-Kunst ein Bei- trag zur Frühhinduistischen Ikonographie (Monographien zur ndischen Archäologie, Kunst und Philologie ), Stuttgart ranz Steiner Verlag, .

Atimārga and Mantramārga

Nothing in this early textual and epigraphic evidence enables us to define the worshippers it indicates as belonging to or supporting one or other of the traditions known to us from Śaiva scriptural and commentatorial sources. e

in seven

copper-plate grants of Mahārāja hulu da of Valkhā, modern agh in the har

to , and in a

n

first evidence of that kind appears only in the fourth century

.

istrict of Madhya Pradesh, ranging in date from

stone pillar inscription at Mathurā issued in

.

/ .

. e agh inscriptions show the existence of adherents of the earliest of the attested forms of initiatory Śaivism, that known as Pāśupata. ey are part of a hoard of twenty-seven plates discovered at agh in and publishedin (K. V. R , and S. P. T , A Copper-plate Hoard of the Gupta Period from Bagh, Madhya Pradesh, New elhi AS). ey are dated in years to of an unstated era. f this era were the Kalacuri, the dates would cor-

respond to

that it is the upta, in which case the years covered by these grants are

. ey refer to unnamed Pāśupatas as being among those with rights

to . ut on palaeographic grounds it is more probable

to enjoy, cultivate, and inhabit the temple lands granted and one issued in

year (

) records a gift of land made by the Mahārāja to support

the worship of the Mothers in a temple of those deities that, we are told, had been established by a Pāśupata officiant or teacher (Pāśupatācārya) called haga-

vat Lokodadhi (No. , ll. bhagavallokodadhipāśupatācāryaprati thāpitaka- .

s

.

piñcchānakagrāmamāt rsthānadevakulasya).

.

. e inscription from Mathurā, since it includes information on the predecessors of the urus it commemorates, renders it not improbable that this lineage goes back to the second century t records that a certain Ārya Uditācārya,

disciple of hagavat Upamitavimala and grand-disciple (śi syaśi sya h) of hagavat

Kapilavimala, is fourth the line of descent from hagavat Parāśara and tenth in

.

.

.

that line from hagavat Kuśika. Epigraphia Indica , ll.

bhagavatkuśikād daśamena bhagavatparāśarāc caturthena bhagavatkapilavimala-

śi syaśi sye na bhagavadupamitavimalaśi sye na āryyoditācāryye na svapu nyāpyāyana-

nimitta m gurū nā m ca kīrtyartham upamiteśvarakapileśvarau gurvvāyatane guru

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

prati thāpitau. .

s

.

.

.

.

prati thāpitau . corr. d.  prati thāpito . p.

s

.

s

.

e Ārya Uditācārya, tenth from hagavat Kuśika, fourth from hagavat Parāśara, grand-disciple of hagavat Kapilavimala and disciple of hagavat Upamitavi-

mala has had an Upamiteśvara and a Kapileśvara

uru shrine in order to augment his own religious merit and for the fame of the urus [of this lineage.

uru

.installed in the

. Śivaśāsana Atimārga and Mantramārga (+ Kulamārga). Abhinavagupta, Tantrā- loka . b

etadviparyayād grāhyam avaśya m śivaśāsanam |

dvāv āptau tatra ca śrīmacchrīka . thalakuleśvarau . ||

dvipravāham ida m śāstra m samya nni hśreyasapradam ||

.

n

˙

.

. .

Niśvāsamukha . b

ś r nvantu saya h sarve pañcadhā yat prakīrtitam |

laukika m vaidika m caiva tathādhyātmikam eva ca ||

r

.

.

.

atimārga m ca mantrākhya m [ + + + + +]

.

.

. .

Kāmikāgama, Pūrvabhāga . c– b

laukika m vaidika m caiva tathādhyātmikam eva ca || atimārga m ca mantrākhya m

tantram etad anekadhā |

.

.

.

.

Niśvāsamukha f. v ( . )

atimārga m samākhyāta m dvi hprakāra m varānane|

.

.

pūrve naiva tu vaktre na sarahasya m prakīrtitam |

.

.

ata ūrdhvam mahādevi ki m vak sye parameśvari ||

devy uvāca ||

mantramārga m tvayā deva sūcita m na tu var nitam |

sa msārocchittikara na m tam ācak sva maheśvara ||

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Svacchanda . c– b and Jayadrathayāmala, Sa tka , f. r ( . )

.

.

laukika m vaidikādhyātmam atimārgam athā navam |

phalabhedavibhinna m ca śāstram eva m tu pañcadhā ||

.

.

.

.

atimārgam em.  itimārgam od.

. Atimārga ( ) Pāśupatas/Pāñcārthikas, ( ) Mahāpāśupatas, Mahāvratas, Lākulas or Kālamukhas and ( ) Kāpālikas, Mahāvratins, or Somasiddhāntins.

. Mantramārga ( ) Siddhānta, ( ) Vāma, ak na/ hairava etc.

. .  now adopt these terms Atimārga and Mantramārga to refer to the earlier and later forms of the religion in preference to such current expressions as Pāśupata Śaivism for the former and Tantric or Āgamic Śaivism for the latter.

. As for the dates of these later developments we have the crucial evidence of the Niśvāsamūla. or this, which in all probability is the earliest scriptural text of the Mantramārga, or at least the earliest to have reached us, and which is unlikely to have been composed later or earlier than c. , teaches a cosmic hierarchy that subsumes and extends upwards that which we know from the Niśvāsamukha and other sources to have been the signature of the

si

.

or the use of the term Atimārga to refer collectively to all its varieties in post-scriptural

literature and in late south-ndian scripture see rahmaśambhu, Naimittikakriyānusa mdhāna f. r

.

( . cd) nātimārgasthitai h kuryād bhojana m vasati m tathā ‘e may not eat or reside with those

.

who are in the Atimārga’ Vijayottara, p. śaivai h kvacid bhairavatāntrikai h | vāmasthai h *kulamār-

gasthair (corr.  kalamārgasthai h od.) *bhūtatantrārthavedibhi h (tantrārtha conj.  mantrārtha od.) |

gāru dair *atimārgajñai h (em.  itimārgajñai h od.) kvacid adhyātmavādibhi h | vaidikair laukikair

anyai h paralokātmavādibhi h. or the parallel use of the term Mantramārga see, e.g., Mohacūrottara

f. r vitathe mantri nā m sthāna< m> mantramārgopadeśinām ‘the area for [the accommodation of ]

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Mantra-masters who teach the Mantramārga is in [the segment of the royal palace dedicated to the

deity] Vitatha’ Jayadrathayāmala, Sa tka , f. r (Var nanāmapa tala, vv. c– b) mantramārge

.

.

.

.

mahālak smi sāram etad udāh rtam || asmin tantravare khyātam etat sāra m mayā tavaKubjikāmata, after

.

.

.

Da daka . , unit mantramārgānugair mantribhir.

n

.

.

.

.

.

Lākula Atimārga. e Lākula system, then, evolved at some time between that

of the Pāñcārthikas, which is likely to go back to the second century

the earliest Mantramārga, which is likely to have emerged in the fifth. As for the Kāpālikas,  know of no reference to them before that century. y the seventh century the Mantramārga was sufficiently well established to attract an attack on its ritualistic soteriology from the uddhist philosopher harmakīrti and for kings to have begun to seek initiation from its officiants and it is

., and

.

towards the end of this century or during the first half of the next that the first learned exegesis of Mantramārgic doctrine appears, in the works of Sadyojyotis and  rhaspati. y this time also find a division within the Mantramārga be-

tween a mainstream tradition that came to call itself the Siddhānta—it was this

that produced Sadyojyotis and  rhaspati and officiated over the initiations of

kings—and a range of non-Saiddhāntika traditions of a more Śākta orientation. While the former gradually distanced itself from what we shall see to be the counter-cultural character of the Atimārga, the latter largely maintained that character, preserving and elaborating its distinctive practices within the new ritual and doctrinal system.

.

.

ŚAIVISM AND BRAHMANISM

A S, H T 

Alexis Sanderson

H , F

A

. Atyāśramavrata and Lokātītavrata

(a) Niśvāsamukha, A f. v: atyāśramavrata m khyāta m lokātīta m ca me ś nu

‘I have taught the Atyāśrama observance. Learn from me the Lokātīta

lokātīta m samākhyāta m mahāpāśupata m vratam

atimārga m samākhyāta m dvi hprakāra m varānane ‘I have taught the Lo-

I have explained the Atimārga,

r

.

.

.

.

.

.

also’; and A f. v:

.

.

.

.

.

.

kātīta, the Mahāpāśupata

O fair-faced one, with its two modes’. e Svacchanda too describes

the Atimārga as lokātīta h, but it explains the term to mean ‘beyond

the bound’, taking loka- in the plural to mean people, that is to say,

those who are in and of the mundane world, and adds a further expla- nation to the same eect according to which the Atimārga is so called

because it reaches beyond the religious dispositions (buddhibhāvā h) that

motivate all lower religious paths: atīta m buddhibhāvānām atimārga m

prakīrtitam | lokātīta m tu taj jñānam atimārgam iti sm rtam || lokāś ca

paśava h proktā h s tisa mhāravartmani | te sām atītās te jñeyā ye ’timārge

vyavasthitā h || kapālavratino ye ca tathā pāśupatāś ca ye | s . tir na vidyate

te m īśvare ca dhruve sthitā h (Svacchanda .) ‘e Atimārga is

so called because it is beyond the [common] modes of religious orienta-

tion. at doctrine is also so called because it is beyond the lokā h (pl.),

namely ‘bound souls’[, those souls that are trapped] in the process of birth

and death. ose established in the Atimārga, [namely] the Pāśupatas and followers of the [Lākula] skull observance, are beyond them. [For] they are not reborn. [After their death] they reside in Īśvara[tattva], in the [world of the Rudra] Dhruva’. e point of the claim that the Atimārga is beyond the religious dispositions is that the text has come to the Atimārga after first describing the lower paths in terms of them. ey are merit (dharma h), gnosis (jñānam), aversion from the world (vairāgyam),

and sovereignty (aiśvaryam). e Laukika, the brahmanical religion of the ordinary householder, is tied, we learn, only to the accumulation

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

r s

.

.

.

r s

.

.

.

.

.

.

(b)

(c)

of merit, the Vaidika (the higher brahmanical religion) and the Vai . nava . Pañcarātra to both merit and liberating knowledge, the Buddhist and Jain to aversion from the world, the Ādhyātmika to liberating knowledge, and aversion from the world in the case of the Sā mkhya path, and to

liberating knowledge, aversion from the world, and sovereignty in the case

of the path of Pātañjala Yoga, the last no doubt in consideration of the attainment of supernatural powers promised in the Yogasūtra (Svacchanda .).

Kau . dinya, . Pañcārthabhā sya on .: atyāśramaprasiddha m lin˙gam āsthāya

pravacanam uktavān ‘[Maheśvara] taught the teaching after taking on

the external signs of religious aliation established as proper to the Atyāśrama’ and pūrvāśrama<yama>niyamaprati sedhārtham . atyāśramaya- maniyamaprasiddhyartha m ca ‘in order to overrule the major and minor

restrictions of the previous disciplines (pūrvāśrama-) and to promote

those of the Atyāśrama’; on .: lin˙gam *atyāśramaprativibhāgakara m

em. : ityāśrama Ed.) bhasmasnānānusnānanirmālyaikavāsādi-

ni spanna m svaśarīralīna m *pāśupata (em. : pāśupatam Ed.) iti laukikādi-

jñānajanakam e external sign of religious aliation that serve to dis-

tinguish the Atyāśrama, accomplished by such as the major and incidental ash baths, the wearing of the flowers oered in worship, and the wearing of a single garment, that give rise to the awareness in the mundane and

s

.

n

.

.

.

.

(atyāśrama

.

.

.

others that [this person] is a Pāśupata

’.

Mahābhārata, Śāntiparva, Appendix , No.  (Northern recension),

ll.  (pp. ): vedāt sa dan˙gād . uddh rtya sā mkhyayogāc ca

yuktita h | tapa h sutapta m vipula m duścara m devadānavai h || apūrva m

sarvatobhadra m viśvatomukham avyayam | *arthair daśārdhai h sa myu-

kta m gū dham aprājñaninditam | var nāśramak rtair dharmair viparīta m

kvacit samam | †gatāntair adhyavasitamatyāśramam ida m sm rtam | mayā

pāśupata m dak sa yogam utpādita m purā ‘In ancient times, O Dak sa, I

engaged fully in a vast course of asceticism that is dicult to practise

[even] for the gods and demons, and [thereby] created the Pāśupata Yoga, drawing on the Veda with its six ancillaries, Sā mkhyayoga, and reason.

It is unique, all-beneficent, all-embracing, eternal, equipped with [the

doctrine of] the five categories, esoteric, condemned by the foolish. In part contrary to the duties of the castes and social states, in part congruent

† (gatāntair adhyavasitam), this [observance] is known

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

[with them], as the Atyāśrama’.

* I have rejected the meaningless reading abdair daśāhasa myukta m adopted by the

editor D in favour of arthair daśārdhai h sa myukta m ‘equipped with [a doctrine

.

.

.

.

.

of] five categories’ because this yields a sense entirely appropriate to the Pāñcārthika Pāśupata context, and is no doubt the origin of the corruptions in the various witnesses. e reading arthai h is seen in some Kashmirian witnesses, in some witnesses of the

Devanāgarī composite version, in a quotation by Aparāditya in Yājñavalkyasm rti . tīkā .

.(p. ) and in the version of this passage found in the Vāyupurā na (..).

e reading daśārdhai h or daśārdha- is given by all but one of the Kashmirian ,

in the Devanāgarī versions of the commentators Arjunamiśra and Vidyāsāgara, and in several  of the Devanāgarī composite. It is also seen in the Aparāditya quotation

and the Vāyupurā na version. e Maithili  and some Bengali  show daśārha-,

which points to daśārdha- as its source, itself a grammatically unsatisfactory reading that

arose, I suggest, through a thoughtless assimilation of the first verse-quarter from the less common Vipulā form to the Pathyā.

.

.

.

.

. T    P (A I)

(a) Stage I (vyaktāvasthā): If accepted and initiated, the Pāñcārthika was to surrender all his possessions. He was then to begin the Pāśupata discipline, which would lead him to the goal of liberation in death if he could complete all four of its stages. In the first of these he was to live in the vicinity of a Śiva temple under the guidance of his preceptor, sleeping on ashes, bathing at dawn, midday, and sunset by rubbing himself with the same, and following this bath on each occasion by propitiating Śiva in his

temple with boisterous laughter (a tahāsa h), singing, dancing, making the

t

.

.

.

sound   / , and repeating the Mantras (the five Yajurvedic

‘Brahma[mantra]s’ or ‘Pavitras’) of this system. He should go about either completely naked or, if still tainted by mundane notions, wearing nothing but a strip of cloth to cover his private parts (kaupīnam) and flowers left by others on the image of Śiva after worship (nirmālyam). He was to sustain

himself and his discipline by begging from householders, not only for his food but also for his ash (since he was not permitted to kindle fire), with

no possessions other than the strip of cloth for modesty if he still required it, his alms bowl (bhaik sapātram), an ash container (bhasmādhāra h) made

from a gourd, leather or cloth, and fabric to use as a sieve (pavitram,

vivecanam) to ensure that his ash was free of insects that might otherwise

perish when he used it. His hair was to be worn in matted braids (ja h),

which would be cut oonly during his last rites.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

 . :— . e sound, which appears in our sources in both these forms, and as

 , is described by Kau dinya on Pañcārtha .as produced by contact of the

tip of the tongue with the soft palate and, puzzlingly, as resembling a sound made by

a bull: v sanādasad rśa h. However, K semarāja defines it on Svacchanda .c–b as

synonymous with mukhavādyam ‘mouth music’, and the latter term (/mukhavāditram)

.

n

.

.

r

.

.

.

is often seen in accounts of Pāśupata worship in the same context, that is to say, along

with singing, dancing, and boisterous laughter (a tahāsa h), or in descriptions of the

behaviour of Śiva or the Ga nas that it mimics; see, e.g., Śivadharma W f. r: snānakāle

trisandhya m ca ya h kuryād geyavādanam | n rtya m vā mukhavādya m vā tasya pu nyaphala m

ś r nu; Skandapurā na B .: ete cānye ca ga napā guhyā ye ca mahābalā h | tatrājagmur

mudā yuktā h sarve citrāstrayodhina h || gāyantaś ca dravantaś ca n rtyantaś ca mahābalā h|

mukhā dambaravādyāni vādayantas tathaiva ca; and Vāyupurā na ..c–b: namo

nartanaśīlāya mukhavāditrakāri ne | nā tyopahāralubdhāya gītavādyaratāya ca. Perhaps

this ‘mouth music’ was produced by drumming on the cheeks [with open mouth],

t

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

creating a sound which hu duk/hu dun˙ might well render. is hypothesis is encouraged

by two remarks in non-Śaiva sources. e first, in Hemacandra’s Svopajñav rtti on

his Yogaśāstra, describes Pāśupatas as ‘repeatedly making musical sounds with their mouths/faces ( on .: muhur vadananādenātodyanādavidhāyinām). e second is a stage-direction in the Mattavilāsaprahasana, which has the Kāpālika couple Satyasoma

and Devasomā drum on their cheeks (p. : ubhau kapolapa taha m kuruta h). However,

the hypothesis is undermined by the fact that in Niśvāsamukha f. v(.cd) the

making of the sound in question and mukhavādyam are distinguished: hu dukkārasya

n rtyasya mukhavādyā tahāsayo . h.

d

.

.

d

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

t

.

.

.

F:— e fact that followers of all forms of the Atimārga lack fire is attested by Jñānaśiva (Tamil, th-century, writing in Banaras) when he states in his Saiddhāntika Paddhati Jñānaratnāvalī that this lack disqualifies them from performing initiations

and image-installations: ādya m śaiva m samākhyāta m tata h pāśupata m tata h | t rtīya m

*kālarātra m (em. : . larātri m Cod.) ca kālavaktra m caturthakam || caturdhā darśana m

śambhos tadyuktāś ca tadātmakā h | pañcārthā h kālavaktrāś ca somasiddhāntavedina h ||

bhāvadravyāgnisa mnyāsād ete sa mnyāsino yata h | dīk sāsthāpanayos tasmād ete naivādhi-

kāri na . h . (p. ) ‘First the Śaiva, then the Pāśupata, the Kālarātra (=Somasiddhānta)

third, and fourth the Kālamukha. e doctrine of Śiva is [thus] fourfold, as are those who possess and devote themselves to it. [Of these] the Pāñcārthika [Pāśupatas], the Kālamukhas, and the Somasiddhāntins are renouncers, because they have renounced the dispositions, property, and fire. ey are therefore disqualified from ociating in an initiation or an installation’.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

H:— e Pañcārthabhā sya makes no mention of what the Pāñcārthika is to do with

his hair. But see Ante tividhi, v. : m rta m snāpyāmbhasā pūrva m lipta m gandhādibhir

yata h | kalu m cātra na kartavya m ja tāś cāpi nik rntayet || snāpayed bhasmanā paścāt

sthāpayec chayane puna h ‘He should bathe the corpse with water, because it will have

first been smeared with fragrant powders and the like—one must do nothing that might pollute it—and then cut oits matted braids of hair. en he should bathe it with ashes and lay it out on a bed’.

.

s

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

sa

.

.

.

.

.

(b) Stage : avyaktāvasthā

avyaktalin˙gī vyaktācāro ’vamata h sarvabhūte su paribhūyamānaś caret. apa-

hatapāpmā pare m parivādāt. pāpa m ca tebhyo dadāti suk rta m ca te sām

ādatte. tasmāt pretavac caret krātheta vā spandeta vā ma . teta . vā ś rn˙gāreta

vā. api tat kuryād api tad bhā sed yena paribhava m gacchet.paribhūyamāno

hi vidvān k rtsnatapā bhavati.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

n

.

.

.

Pañcārtha .

His sectarian aliation concealed, [only] his behaviour visible, he should cultivate his practice while despised by all members of society, suering physical abuse. By being criticized by others he becomes free of his defects. Moroever, he passes his sins to them and receives their good deeds. For this reason he should go about [in public] like a demented destitute. He should feign sleep, or convulse, or limp, or make eyes at women. [In short] he should do or say whatever will attract physical abuse. Suering such abuse, the wise [ascetic] perfects his austerity.

Kau dinya, . quoting a Śrauta source in Pañcārthabhā sya on .: ye hi vai dīk sita m

yajamāna mp thato ’pavadanti te tasya pāpmānam abhivrajanti ‘People who speak

. ill of the sponsor of sacrifice while he is consecrated receive his sin’; Āpas-

tambaśrautasūtra ..: nāsya pāpa m kīrtayet ‘He should not mention any

.

sin of his’; Rudradatta thereon: nāsya santam asanta m vā do m . jalpet ‘He should

not refer to any defect of his, whether it exists or not’; Kā thakasa mhitā ..-

: tredhā vā etasya pāpmāna m vibhajante yo dīk sito yo ’nnam atti sa t rtīya m yo

nāślīla m

n

.

.

.

.

r s

.

sa

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

’ślīla m kīrtayati sa t rtīya m yo nāma g nāti sa t rtīyam tasmād dīk sitasya

.

.

.

rh

.

.

.

.

.

kīrtayet ey share the sins of this consecrated person in three ways. He who eats

his food, he who speaks ill of him, and he who uses his name’; Tā dyabrāhma na

..: yo vai dīk sitānā m pāpa m kīrtayati t rtīyam e m sa pāpmano harati ‘One

who mentions the sins of consecrated persons takes one third of their sins’.

n

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

and:

unmattadaridrapuru sasad rśāsnātamaladigdhān˙gena rū dhaśmaśrunakharo-

madhāri nā sarvasa mskāravarjitena bhavitavyam | ato var nāśramavyucchedo

vairāgyotsāhaś ca jāyate

.

.

.

.

.

.

Kau dinya, . Pañcārthabhā sya on Pañcārtha .: pretavac caret

unmattadaridrapuru sasad rśāsnāta conj. : unmattasad rśadaridrapuru sasnāta Ed.

n

.

.

.

.

.

.

He should be like a madman or pauper, unbathed, with his body smeared with filth, not cutting his beard, nails, and hair, and not attending to himself in any way. As a result of this he severs his links with the society of the castes and disciplines and intensifies his loathing of the world.

(c)

Stage (jaya h): Pañcārtha ., :

.

śūnyāgāraguhāvāsī devanityo jitendriya h|

kurvīta dhāra nām

.

.

o mkāram abhidhyāyīta | h rdi

.

.

Living in an abandoned house or a cave, he should constantly concentrate

on Śiva, with his senses

 . He should focus his awareness in his heart.

He should meditate on the syllable

(d)

.

Stage (cheda h [Stage : ni thā]):

.

s

śmaśānavāsī dharmātmā yathālabdhopajīvaka h|

labhate rudrasāyujya m sadā rudram anusmaret ||

chittvā do nā m hetujālasya mūla m

buddhyā sva m citta m sthāpayitvā ca rudre |

eka hk semī san vītaśoko ’pramādī

gacched du hkhānām antam īśaprasādāt ||

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Pañcārtha ., forming two verses, the first in the Anu tubh metre, the second in the Vaiśvadevī

b sva m citta m em. : sa mcitta m Ed.

s

.

.

.

.

Full of merit, [now] dwelling in a cremation ground and living on what- ever food he can find [ there ], he attains union with Rudra . [ To accomplish this] he should meditate on Rudra constantly.

Having cut the root of the manifold causes of the defects through [con- centrated] awareness and having [then] established in Rudra the con- sciousness [that is now released as] his own, he will through the favour of the Lord attain the end of [all] suerings, becoming solitary, secure, beyond grief, and unwavering in his concentration.

śuci h pretālaya m vrajet ||

.

.

 imā h kalā imā vidyā ete ca paśavo ’khilā h|

aya m ca parameśāno yo viśvas rg anādima h ||

 dīk sām ārabhya yo ’smābhi h samyag ārādhito hy ayam |

tasmād asmin svaka m citta m susthāpyātyantaniścalam ||

 ida m vapus tyajāmīti tasya buddhir bhavet sadā ||

tata h śive vidhāyaiva m pu nyātmā niścala m mana h ||

 śarīra m sa mtyajed yuktyā chedāvastho ’yam īrita h|

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Pampāmāhātmya, Uttarabhāga .d, b

a imā h kalā em. : imā phalā Ed. d vidhāyaiva m (em. : vidhāyaiva Ed.)

.

.

Pure, he should proceed to a cremation

all times ‘‘e Constituents [of the insentient] (kalā h) are these; these are

He should think at

.

modes of sentience (vidyā h) are these; these are all the [kinds of] bound

souls (paśava h); and this is the beginningless all-creating Supreme Lord,

whom I have properly propitiated since the moment of my initiation. erefore by fixing my mind with absolute firmness on him I shall abandon this body’’. en, full of merit, having fixed his mind on Śiva

in the manner stated [above], he should abandon his body through Yoga (yuktyā). He is then said to be in the stage of cutting o.

bahi rtya jagat sarva m vratastho gatasa mśaya h|

bahi rtaś ca lokena gatvāra nyam atandrita h ||

śmaśāna m vā jitaprā na h prā nān sa myamya sādhaka h|

tyajed deha m sukhenaiva virakto ’tīva du hsahāt ||

sa msārārāmagahanād anityāt sumahābhayāt |

.

.

.

sk

.

.

sk

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Matan˙gapārameśvara, Caryāpāda .b.

e Sādhaka, holding to his ascetic observance (vratastha h), having re-

jected the entire world and having been rejected by it, free of doubt and lassitude, should go into the wilderness or a cremation ground. [ere], if he has gained complete control over his vital energies and is completely detached from the insuerable, terrifying, ever-changing jungle that is transmigration, he will be able by restraining those energies to throw ohis body without diculty.

 virakto vā tyajed deha m tasyāpy e sa vidhi h sm rta h|

ki m tu h rdvivarāt sarvam āk syāstre na pa dita h ||

 chittvā chittvā śanai h sarva m kramād vai granthisa mcayam |

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

r

.

n

.

.

.

.

.

pradīptakira na m dhyāyed h rdi sūryasya ma dalam ||

.

.

.

n

.

.

 tanmadhye ma dala m cāru śaśān˙kasyāmitadyute h|

somama dalamadhyastha m dhyāyed vahnes tu ma dalam ||

 vahnima . dalamadhyasthā . śikhā sūryāyutaprabhā |

susūk smā padmasūtrābhā rjumārgānusāri nī ||

 dhyātavyā yogamārge ’smin yasyā m līnasya yogina h|

kramato nirviśan˙kasya bādho naivopajāyate ||

 tāludeśa m vibhidyāśu jihvāgra m parivartya ca |

n

.

.

.

.

.

.

n

.

.

.

n

.

.

n

.

.

.

.

.

paśya ms turyapadād ūrdhva m teja h paramadurjayam ||

.

.

.

 yāyāt turyapadadvāravilagnām argalā m śanai h|

astre nodghā tya visrabdho yat tat padam anāmayam ||

 avyāpāragu nopetam anaupamyam atīndriyam |

sarvajñam amala m śānta m śiva m yāty uttama m padam ||

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Matan˙gapārameśvara, Yogapāda . (Ed.); P from .d–; N f. vr

 susūk smā Ed. : susūk ma N  yāyāt turya P : yāyā turya N (wrongly reported

at

N

pāpāturya in Ed.) : yāvat turya Ed. dvāravilagnā m P : dvāram | vilagnām

.

.

.

: dvāri vilagnā m Ed.  amala m N Ed. : acala mP

.

.

.

Or when he is free of all attachment he may throw ohis body. is

same procedure is taught for him, except that the Sādhaka (pa dita h)

should draw everything in through the aperture of the heart, slowly cut through each of the nodes [of the vital energy] with the Weapon [Mantra] and then visualize in his heart an orb with brilliant rays. In its centre he should visualize the beautiful moon disc of infinite radiance, and in the centre of that a disc of fire. In its centre he should visualize on this path of Yoga a flame rising up in a straight line, fine as a lotus fibre, with the brightness of countless suns. If the fearless meditator gradually dissolves into that flame he will experience no pain. Quickly breaking through the region of the soft palate, having turned back the tip of his tongue, and seeing the great invincible radiance above the level of the Fourth he should gradually ascend (yāyāt) to the barrier that blocks access to that level. Breaking through it with the Weapon [Mantra] he then confidently proceeds to the highest level, free of all defects, inactive, incomparable, beyond the range of the faculties, omniscient, free of impurity, quiescent, and auspicious.

n

.

.

.

(e) Disposing of the body:

 jale vāgnau tathā bhūmyā m tridhā tyak syati sādhaka h|

.

.

.

jale prokta m mahānadyām alābhe tatra sarvathā ||

.

 hutāśe bahubhi h kā thair dagdhavya m nātra sa mśaya h

.

s

.

.

.

.

.

 bhūmyā mk rtvā śubhā m gartā m sādhakasya pramā nata h|

tadardha m vistara m prokta m

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

 garte pu spārcite ramye puna h prak sipya sādhakam |

.

.

.

pūra na m vāpi kartavya m lakulīśavaco yathā

.

.

.

Ante tividhi, . vv.˙ –b, abc, 

s

.

b tyak syati conj. : vak syati Cod. [A]

.

.

. T D   L   M, M,  K (A II)

(a)

atyāśramavrata m khyāta m lokātīta m ca me ś . nu . ||

 ālabdha h pañcabhir guhyair dīk sitaś caiva so bhramet |

r

.

.

.

.

.

kha tvān˙gī ca kapālī ca saja to mu da-m eva ||

 vālayajñopavītī ca śiromu daiś ca ma dita h|

kaupīnavāso bhasmān˙gī divyābhara nabhū sita h ||

 jagad rudramayam matvā rudrabhakto d dhavrata . h|

sarvādas sarvace taś ca rudradhyānaparāya na . h . ||

 rudra m muktvā na cānyo ’sti trātā me daivatam param |

viditvaikādaśādhvāna m nirviśan˙ka h samācaret ||

n

.

.

.

.

.

n

.

.

n

.

.

.

r

.

.

.

.

s

.

.

.

.

.

Niśvāsamukha AB f. v(.c–)

c khyāta m B : khyā + A d saja to conj. : saja tī Cod. d divyābhara nabhū sita h

rest. : divyābhara nabhū + + B : divyābhara na + + + A b daivatam em. : devatam

AB

I have taught you the Atyāśrama. Listen as I teach you the Lokātīta. When he has been initiated after being touched with the five Guhya[mantra]s he should become peripatetic, carrying a skull-topped staand a skull[- bowl], with his hair in matted braids or shaved bald, with a sacred thread made from [twisted strands of human] hair [taken from a corpse], adorned with [a chaplet of] human heads [carved from bone], wearing only a loin cloth, his body dusted with ash, and embellished with the wondrous adornments [of bone]. Devoted to Rudra, he should consider

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

I have not emended the reading mu . dameva . of AB to mu da . eva to bring the text into line with

. the learned register of Sanskrit, but have preferred to treat this as mu . da . eva with the -m added not as

a nominal ending but as a hiatus-bridger such as is commonly seen in Buddhist Sanskrit texts (BHSG

.). For so rather than sa in b cf. BHSG .. e five Guhyas are the five Brahmamantras taught in the Pañcārtha. For the use of the term in this

sense see, e.g., Niśvāsaguhya f. v(.); cf. Sarvajñānottara P, p.  (.): *ālabhya (corr. : ālabhya h

P) pañcabhir brahmai h.

For the requirement that the hair should be human and for the details of how it should be made see Jayadrathayāmala, Sa . tka , f. r(.b) cited in S a, p. , fn. . at the hair is to be taken from a corpse is in keeping with the character of the other accoutrements.

Explicit reference to this detail is rare but does occur; see, e.g., Svacchanda .c: jihmajenopavītena ‘with

a sacred thread from a jihma h (K semarāja thereon: jihma h śava h, tajjena tatkeśajena jihma h mean ‘a

corpse’; with one from that means with one [made] from the hair of that’); Jayadrathayāmala,