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News analysis Health Business

Inside the 2017 private When preeclampsia Why price of Blockchain & cryptocurrency:
sector investment survey strikes in pregnancy rice is going up What you need to know

Issue No. 525 June 15 - 21, 2018 Ushs 5,000,Kshs 200, RwF 1,500, SDP 8

Abiriga killing hits

Museveni very hard
Why murder is seen as
intended to hit him and NRM

Independent Publications Limited, Plot 82/84, Kanjokya Street, P. O. Box 3304, Kampala, Uganda Tel: +256-312-637-391/ 2/ 3/ 4 Fax: +256-312-637-396
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Issue No. 524 June 15 - 21, 2018

News analysis Business Health Arts Motoring

Cover story
Abiriga killing hits Museveni very hard
Why murder is seen as intended to hit him and NRM

4 The Week
300 MUK students to defend
selves over malpractices Local solutions for global
problems: Local leaders
continue to inspire public
9 The Last Word confidence where national
governments are failing
Uganda’s crime outrage:
How to renew our nation’s security
architecture to cope with the new 33 Health
challenges of murder and kidnapping
When preeclampsia strikes
in pregnancy: Disease that’s
16 Analysis impossible to predict or
prevent is piling pressure
Trump and Kim summit: Each
on maternity wards
got a win but who got more?

35 Arts & Culture

23 Business Kasese’s best secret: World-
class art, sculpture, coffee at
Why price of rice is rising: Supply Rwenzori Founders
expected to increase starting next month

STRATEGY & EDITORIAL DIRECTOR: Andrew M. Mwenda WRITERS:Ronald Musoke, Flavia Nassaka, Ian Katusiime,
MANAGING EDITOR: Joseph Were Agnes Nantaba, Julius Businge.

PUBLISHER: Independent Publications Limited, Plot 82/84, Kanjokya Street, P. O. Box 3304, Kampala, Uganda
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2 June 15 - 21, 2018


President Museveni
shakes hands with
Peter West, (L)
the British High
Commissioner to
Uganda during a
meeting at Entebbe
State House on June
7. Peter assured the “If we are going to continue being killed
President that the UK
is willing to help in by idiots and cowards, then we are not
the development of serious people”Francis Mwijukye, Buhweju
the Industrial Park at County MP on President Museveni’s statement
Namanve. that Abiriga’s killers are idiots

Rotarian Xavia Sentamu

(L) the District governor
elect and past District
governor Rotarian
Nelson Kawalya(R)
installing Rotarian Hellen
Ssali (M) as the new “There are many of us in NRM when you
president of the Rotary do a small thing, you think you should be
club of Wandegeya treated a special person. There are many
Kampala at Kolping Hotel
June 6. Hellen Ssali is the
of us in NRM who have accumulated
first female president of unnecessary wealth because we think
the club.   INDEPENDENT/ we are entitled. Abiriga has done what
he has done but he remained humble....
We as NRM need to humble ourselves.”
Musa Ecweru, Minister of State for Disaster

delivering the
State of the
Nation Address
on June 6.

“I ask you, the citizens, to pray for

me because the job I am holding is
challenging. I need God’s guidance
to deliver justice, without fear or
favour.”Alfonse Owiny-Dollo, Deputy
Chief Justice

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June 15 - 21, 2018 3


Complications in ex-LRA boss Thomas Kwoyelo case ICC Judges visit

The High Court has asked Alaka and Evans Ochieng, facing to include the current Northern Uganda
former Lord’s Resistance Army after they skipped three ses- 67. Kwoyelo however had not Judges of the International
(LRA) rebel leader Thomas sions. The judge told the former seen a copy of the amended Criminal Court (ICC) hearing
Kwoyelo to establish whether rebel commander that it is in indictment and the judge made the trial of former rebel
his lawyers are still represent- his powers to summon his one final adjournment to enable commander of the Lord
ing him in a case where he is own lawyers because he chose him access it. Justice Okalany Resistance Army (LRA)
facing 67 charges including them to represent him. Okalany blamed this on Kwoyelo’s law- Dominic Ongwen have visited
murder, hostage taking, pillag- also said the lawyer provided yers. The court set July 23, 24 northern Uganda to familiarize
ing, robbery, rape and torture by the court, Charles Dalton and 25 as dates for hearing and themselves with crime scenes.
among others. During a hearing Opwonya is always present pronouncing itself on the case. From June 03 to 09, the three
of the case on June 11, High during the hearings. The Direc- After, the International Crimes judges – Bertram Schmitt, Peter
Court Judge Susan Okalany tor of Public prosecutions (DPP) Division will set a date for trial. Kovacs and Raul Pangalangam
asked Kwoyelo to confirm the made an amendment of the visited former Internally
status of his lawyers, Caleb original charges Kwoyelo was Displaced People’s camps of
Pajule, Odek, Lukodi and Abok
where people affected by the
two decade insurgency lived.
According to a press statement
by the ICC, the judges who
went together with legal
representatives of the victims
in the case met with several
community leaders to get their
side of the story so they could
gain an impression of these
locations since prosecution
has finished presenting its
Thomas Kwoyelo at court. witnesses.
116 witnesses have been
presented against Ongwen who
Controversy as Museveni appoints new anti-corruption team is charged with committing
President Yoweri Museveni mandated to fight the vice. the inspectorate is a poor war crimes and crimes against
has appointed a three-man For Nakaseke South leg- performer. “What happened humanity. He is expected
anti-corruption team attached islator Paul Lutamaguzi for to the IGG? Why don’t the vic- to start defending himself
to State House led by the for- instance, the president’s move tims of corruption report those in September when his case
mer Uganda National Teachers shows he doesn’t value institu- incidents to the office of the resumes.
Union (UNATU) General Sec- tions. He says since the Presi- IGG? That was the purpose of
retary, James Tweheyo, Captain dent appointed the Inspector that office; to protect the public
Martha Asiimwe, and Sister General of Government, he from corrupt officials; to protect
Akiror. This move has been should have reshuffled the the investors against corrupt
criticized by members of the team if he feels it’s not deliver- officials,” Museveni said, add-
opposition terming it as dupli- ing on its mandate instead of ing that ” The IGG should
cation of resources since the lamenting and appointing a reflect on this. Are her staff
Inspectorate of Government is parallel team. credible? Why does the public
already performing the same But, Museveni says he not trust that institution? We
task of curbing corruption. Oth- resolved to form a separate need answers”, he said while
ers said the parallel team would committee that will receive cor- delivering the state of the nation
frustrate the existing institutions ruption complaints because address on June 06. Dominic Ongwen

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4 June 15 - 21, 2018


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We are looking for someone creative and up to date
Ethiopian PM Abiy Ahmed being decorated by President Museveni.
with the latest trends in design tools.
Uganda honours Ethiopian Prime Send CV to:
Minister with highest medal E-mail:
The Prime Minister of Ethi- upon his assumption of office Tel: +256-312-637-391/ 2/ 3/ 4
opia paid Dr. Abiy Ahmed as Prime Minister following
Ali paid a two-day State his election by Parliament in
Visit to Uganda from June April 2018. The two leaders
8-9 and was honored with held talks at State House,
the Most Excellent Order of Entebbe and reviewed bilat-
the Pearl of Africa medal on eral, regional and interna-
Heroes Day. The medal is the tional issues of mutual inter-
highest accolade given to a est. The two also discussed
head of state in Uganda. The opportunities for trade and
only other African leader to investment and the need to
be conferred this honor is work on road transport link-
Equatorial Guinea president, ing North-eastern Uganda to
Teodoro Obiang Mbasogo. Southern Ethiopia, through
President Yoweri Museveni Northern Kenya.
congratulated Ahmed Ali

Uganda, Kenya in fishing row

UPDF soldiers detained three Kenyan Kenyan media reports indicated that the and detained in Uganda after claims of ille-
police officers over a fishing row on Lake officers were detained alongside Kenyan gal fishing. President Museveni deployed
Victoria on the islands of Mageta and Hama fishermen found catching fish in Ugandan the UPDF on Lake Victoria to reduce on
in Bugiri district. UPDF soldiers disarmed waters. In November last year, there were illegal fishing after the vice nearly depleted
the officers and detained them at Bugiri similar reports of seventeen fishermen who fish stocks on the largest lake in Africa.
Mainland Prison in Uganda on June 11. were arrested in Homa Bay western Kenya

June 15 - 21, 2018 5


MP Nambooze investigated over Abiriga assassination 300 MUK students to defend

selves over malpractices
A police statement from Nambooze’s case,
332 former students of Makerere Uni-
released on June 12 other four general
versity have been summoned to defend
shows that Mukono enquiry files have
themselves over allegations of altering their
Municipality legislator been opened at the
marks. According to a notice signed by
Betty Nambooze criminal investigations Venny Nakazibwe, the chairperson of the
Bakireke is being department of the central adhoc regularities and malpractices
investigated over two police. committee of the university, the affected
posts she made on social “when the bodies students where the majority are form the
media regarding the arrived in Arua on college of Business and Management Sci-
brutal assassination of Sunday, a section ences are expected to appear before the
fellow legislator Ibrahim of residents in Arua committee at senate building.
Abiriga. engaged in acts of The probe into the examination malprac-
Police Spokesperson violence and a lot tice was commissioned on November 13 in
Emilian Kayima said of property was 2014 after complaints from heads of depart-
Nambooze is one of the destroyed as a result” ments and college principals that names
many being investigated he said, “a number of of some students who didn’t meet the
for offensive case files have been minimum qualifications had found their
communication as per opened like malicious way on the 65th graduation list. Accord-
the Computer Misuse damage where a police ing to the report, students engaged in the
Act. In her condolence motorcycle was burnt to malpractice either with the help of their
message, Nambooze had ashes, a motor vehicle colleagues or in connivance with university
posted that Abiriga was belonging to NBS lost officials. Other colleges and schools affect-
a loud speaker of the invested all himself to it’s rear bumper and ed include the college of Engineering and
people who have chosen maintain the status quo the windscreen was Technology, School of Law and the college
to love power than the and that it’s within it smashed and a police of computing and information sciences.
future of Uganda saying that he had perished. ambulance”. The cases under review are dated
that the deceased had Kayima said apart between 1999 and 2012.

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6 June 15 - 21, 2018

Humour Did you know?
What the Mandela
Effect means

In 2013, the former president of

South Africa and anti-apartheid
revolutionary Nelson Mandela died at
age 95 of a respiratory infection. But
earlier, in 2010, paranormal writer and
Arua Municipality Member of Parliament Colonel Ibrahim Abiriga
was killed on June 8 in Kawanda, Wakiso. researcher Fiona Broome “recalled”
having memories of Mandela dying
during his imprisonment in the
1980s. When Broome discussed
this topic with a security manager,
she found that many other people
shared the same false memory, which
they named the Mandela Effect
and extended to other “alternate
memories,” as Broome calls them.
The Mandela Effect refers to when
a large number of people share a false
memory, originally attributed to the
existence of multiple universes.
The Mandela Effect is similar
to the psychological concept of
confabulation, involving various
forms of memory falsification.
However, believers in the Mandela
Effect, sometimes citing quantum
mechanics, think a shared false
The Inspector General of Government Irene Mulyagonja said the most corrupt government memory is evidence of parallel
officials are hiding behind the back of President Museveni to escape justice universes that have intersected or slid
into each other, such that those who
remember Mandela’s death in the
1980s are simply remembering events
that occurred on a timeline in another
Numerous other collective
confusions in popular culture are
referred to as examples of the
Mandela Effect.
While there are certainly true
believers in the phenomenon, uses
of the Mandela Effect are generally
humorous examples of popularly
misremembered brand names or
logos, and are not presented as
evidence for multiverses. As for why
many people remember something
that never happened, psychology has
many explanations for inaccurate
memories, including confirmation bias
The home of Uganda’s first Chief Minister Benedicto Kiwanuka was razed after and the influence of misinformation
his son reportedly failed to pay a loan for which he had mortgaged the house.

June 15 - 21, 2018 7

News analysis Health Business
Namugongo pilgrims New AIDs vaccine trials Isimba launch Bad news to
speak about Martyrs Day give hope to scientists for October the jobless

Issue No. 524 June 08 - 14, 2018

Ushs 5,000,Kshs 200, RwF 1,500, SDP 8

MTN under threat

11 million subscribers might
need new SIM card if it loses fight

Follow us on Twitter @ N is fa
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Follow us on Facebook @ Ezee Money us

Letters are What is Israel’s past and future?

welcome ! Refer to: “Jewish dreams
of Jerusalem as Israel’s
Iraq to Palastine? Then to
Egypt and then back to
And right now, is the Great
tribe of Israel going to stay
The Editor welcomes short and capital go back thousands Palastine? Were not any put alone in the big built
concise letters from our esteemed of years” (The Indepen- people in between those walls for another one mil-
readers on topical issues. Please dent May 18). Where then vast hinterlands all settled lion years as the Americans
send them to:
The Editor, The Independent did Abraham come from and accepting travelling also want to do?
Publications Ltd, to travel all the way from strangers for years on end? Kabayekka
P.O Box 3304,
Plot 82/84 Kanjokya St,
DP must die again to be reborn
Refer to: “Mao reveals in a different skin that suits absenteeism in matters of
Email: what is killing DP” (The the current political tide. national politics. (DP terina
Independent May 13). The DP must come to terms work!)
Democratic Party (DP) died that it has been in limbo Incidentally, Norbert
DFID clears the or became obsolete on the for the last 56 years. DP Mao highlighted DP’s short-
air on Arsenal FC very table that it was born.
DP was formed to fight
could pride itself as the
oldest political party but
comings at his first failure
of becoming its president
Protestantism that loomed that’s only “reliving” his- general- he referred to it as a
Refer to: “Inside the Rwanda-Arsenal over Uganda’s politics at tory. Reality demands, that “tribal clique.” Hajji Nasser
deal” (The Independent June 01). On June the time. DP’s interpreta- a political party should be Ssebagala had echoed simi-
12, the Sun newspaper of the UK reported tion of events in Uganda’s able to take and, or, retain lar views earlier when he
on the sponsorship of Arsenal FC by Visit political sphere was further political power. said DP was “centred” at
Rwanda. narrowed down to Bugan- The simple formulae Rubaga Cathedral which
The piece implied that aid money is being da region and this is where for work done is: Work = also houses the headquar-
used for the sponsorship deal. This is not cor- its “fixation” largely relied Force x Distance. DP could ters of the catholic faith.
rect. DFID does not give any money to Visit or so, continues to rely. have covered the distance
Rwanda or the Rwanda Development Board. If DP wants to survive, of 64miles since its incep- Rajab Kakyama
The piece also said “Rwanda relies on aid it must “die” the second tion (1954) but there is a
for nearly half of its budget”. This is incor- time and then “germinate” resounding silence about its
rect. Global financial aid is currently 16% of
Rwanda’s budget. It has been decreasing for
several years, as Rwanda moves to stand on
its own two feet.
Who’s behind senseless killings?
All UK aid to Rwanda is earmarked for
specific programmes only, such as education Condolences to the was on his heart. Today the everyone depends on him-
and agriculture, and is tracked for results family of the late Col. people of Uganda are ask- self or herself first. And we
to ensure our programmes are delivering Ibrahim Abiriga, MP for ing what is happening to have to open our eyes and
results. Arua Municipality who our country? Who is behind look around us more care-
The piece also says there is little evidence was heinously murdered all these senseless murders? fully all the time. Of course
of development results in Rwanda. Official on June 08 together with What can we do to save the police force is the peo-
statistics show that Rwanda has lifted almost his bodyguard in a vicious ourselves? Why Abiriga? ples only armed recourse.
two million people out of poverty since 2005 attack. Condolences to the All these questions seem If need be, the military
and the economy has grown at an average people of West Nile and to to have no answer. Every- can lend some officers but
of 8% per year since 2000. Rwanda has made the people of Uganda for one seems powerless. But maybe with a community-
more progress against the Human Develop- this shocking loss. Indeed, the country cannot aban- friendly stance. Security is
ment Index (an official indicator of life expec- regardless of political don its fate to the murder- their job. And the people of
tancy, education and income) than any other affiliation, Abiriga had tran- ers. Indeed one maybe has Uganda need security now.
country in the world. scended his constituency to pour ice-cold water on While necessary in monitor-
The money for this deal has come from and was a national political their head and wake-up ing certain areas, cameras
revenue that Rwanda has generated from figure in his own right. psychologically. Because cannot save anyone from
its existing tourism industry, which is a He is a person we have we need to start focusing on any bullet. But society
significant source of income for the country. known since the days real solutions rather than together can prevent and
Tourism is already Rwanda’s highest earner he was serving in the return to business as usual curb such callous attacks by
of foreign exchange, ahead of tea, coffee and Uganda army in the 1970s. after hearing some reassur- detecting these murderers
minerals combined. Whatever we think of him ing speeches that actually and their hide-outs. May
politically, everyone agrees bring no real change to the the late Honourable Abiriga
Hesron Abiriga was genuine to situation. rest in peace.
himself and spoke what In security matters, Hussein Lumumba Amin

8 June 15 - 21, 2018

The Last Word Opinion

Uganda’s crime outrage

By Andrew M. Mwenda
How to renew our nation’s security architecture to cope
with the new challenges of murder and kidnapping

he cold bloodied murder of Arua that town because the countryside was not his claims are often only a small part of the
Municipality Member of Parlia- safe. I also remember motor vehicles travel- truths.
ment, Ibrahim Abiriga, has reignited ling to Northern Uganda could only do it The recent spate of kidnappings and
the debate on security in Uganda. twice a week in a heavily defended convoy killings shows three major lapses of the
Throughout last year, it was alleged that – in both cases because the state had lost Museveni administration: one is the col-
the security situation in the country had control of territory. lapse of the Local Council (LC) system as
deteriorated because then Inspector General For many years, cattle wrestling by Kari- a civic institution for ensuring community
of Police, Kale Kayihura, had privileged mojong had destroyed normal life in Teso security; the other is the increasing erosion
clamping down on opposition activism over and parts of Lango. The Allied Democratic of the prestige and authority of the police
criminal policing. He was also accused of Forces would set bombs in restaurants (I see Ugandans beating police officers on
working with criminals. His removal, it was around Kampala killing tens of people. In duty – and recently the new IGP advised
argued and later celebrated, would end kid- Kabarole, Bundibugyo and Kasese districts, people to do more of this); the third is the
nappings and murders. ADF would raid villages and kill tens of erosion of the relationship between security
It is three months now since Kayihura left people. In 1998 it burned to death 80 stu- services and citizens in providing security.
office. However, the security situation is dents in their dormitories and abducted 100 Museveni has talked of the need to equip
getting worse. Some may say it is still too others at Kichwamba Technical College. police with technical capacity to monitor
early to judge. However, our politicians, Gone is this kind of highly organised and crime like putting cameras on streets;
elements in security (who were fighting large scale threat to national security that installing equipment on all cars to monitor
Kayihura), journalists, civil society activists, characterised Uganda from 1971 to 2005. their movements, improving the forensic
pundits and social media noisemakers have The recent insecurity consists of isolated capabilities of the police etc. These ideas
largely been mute. Of course most of these criminal gangs that are killing and kidnap- are good but expensive to implement and
people do not really care about security. For ping people on a very small scale. That maintain. Besides, the dust in Kampala will
many of them these security problems offer Ugandans are outraged at these develop- most likely block the cameras. The lack of
an opportunity to score political points and ments only shows how far the country has street lighting means the cameras will not
thereby win the affection of the hordes. come. Compared to the past, these are mere see the killers in the dark. Also, there is the
Uganda has a problem of crime in large pin pricks. likely risk that these cameras will be stolen
part because the country is undergoing Of course this is not to diminish the pain or vandalised as happens to streetlights.
rapid structural change. Our urban areas, of those who have lost loved ones. Rather Therefore, the president is suggesting an
especially Kampala, are growing rapidly. it is to emphasise the fact that the current investment that is likely to be both expen-
Many who were born in this city or have outcry is a sign that the state has achieved sive and ineffective.
migrated into it are doing well. But when effective monopoly on the exercise of vio- Sadly Museveni expressed reservations
they compare themselves with the affluent, lence. Ugandans have gotten used to a very about taking a tough stance on crime with
they feel left behind. This creates social frus- secure political order. So any disturbance of high handed crackdown on criminals. This
tration and they turn to crime to make quick their peace is intolerable. The recent outrage is being naïve. Combating crime requires
gains. Cities create anonymity, which facili- shows how far the goal posts of security a firm hand, one that is not constrained by
tates crime. However, urban poverty/crime have shifted. many checks and balances. Criminals need
is a sign’s of a city’s growth and vitality. However, the situation in Kampala and to get a sense of the evil that gets visited on
The recent outrage at murders and kid- the surrounding areas is not as bad as is those who threaten security. This demands
napping is, ironically, evidence that the presented by the high priests of our politics. an extremely harsh and even arbitrary
state in Uganda has greatly improved I walk alone at night around this city and response where – I must add – many inno-
citizen security. There was a time (1971- it is always busy with patrons drinking cent people will get hurt.
1986) when crime was orchestrated by state at their favourite clubs, people in Kikubo The first step is reestablishing security is
security agencies. They would kidnap and doing brisk business, streets filled with popular vigilance i.e. people taking care of
kill people in broad daylight. Between 1986 traffic. Criminals are only able to operate in security in their communities working in
and 2005, insecurity was orchestrated by dark and isolated neighborhoods. Yet our concert with police and other security agen-
non-state actors: myriads of our citizens elites want to pontificate as if these recent cies. For this to work we need to reinvigo-
were being routinely killed by rebels and crimes are a sign of the end of the world. rate the LC system by renewing its mandate
cattle wrestlers. Millions lived in internally The claim that the country’s security has and giving it a sense of purpose and agency.
displaced camps in Northern Uganda, espe- fallen apart, a claim that President Yoweri This will be critical in both stopping and/
cially Acholi region, and in Bundibugyo Museveni reinforces with his reckless or investigating murders and kidnappings
and Kaseese in Western Uganda. speeches, is actually a gross exaggeration of and deliver better results at low cost than
Joseph Kony’s Lord’s Resistance Army the problem. Museveni may have his own Museveni’s proposed cameras.
was abducting children daily. I remember reasons for undermining the credibility of
kids in Gulu would, every evening, walk his government with his reckless speeches
from their homes to sleep on the streets of that reinforce the opposition message. But

June 15 - 21, 2018 9

cover story

Abiriga killing hits

Museveni very hard
Why murder is seen as intended
to hit him and NRM
10 June 15 - 21, 2018
cover story

Abiriga's casket in parliament on June 10.   NET/PHOTO

By Haggai Matsiko deal with them and the sense of insecurity Policed by mismanaged and very poorly
they have created, and a day before Heroes paid security organisation,” Besigye
f all the murders of high profile Day—when Museveni’s government tweeted on June 11.
public figures had political remembers those who made sacrifices All this analysis pointing to political
motivations, none of them has during the 1981-86 war that brought him motivations is emerging only after Abiriga’s
been linked to politics as much as into power. murder, although the fallen legislator is not
the brutal murder of former Arua Apart from Museveni, Security Minister, the first high profile Ugandan to be gunned
Municipality legislator, Rtd. Col. Gen. Elly Tumwiine has described the down in this fashion.
Ibrahim Abiriga and his brother, Saidi murder as part of previous attempts Part of the reason is Abiriga’s highly
Kongo. intended to “disrupt government” and the visible support for the ruling party and the
At least, that appears to be a common whole country. timing of his murder.
thread emerging from analysis from Uganda People’s Defence Forces (UPDF) The legislator and his brother were
President Yoweri Museveni, security chiefs Chief of Defence Forces (CDF), Gen. David gunned down as they drove to the former’s
and even ordinary observers. Muhoozi has also said that in the murders, home on June 8 at about 6pm, near Energo
“It is possible that he was killed because we are reading a pattern of aiming “to fuel station in Kirinnyabigo, Kawanda, in
he was a strong NRM supporter,” President instill fear, cause anxiety in the public and Wakiso district. Eyewitnesses said gunmen
Museveni said while at the scene of the disaffection against government”. riding on motorcycles sprayed Abiriga’s
murder on June.9, “It is possible they A security expert, who works closely vehicle with bullets before vanishing.
thought by killing him, they would hurt with government has also told The Abiriga was wearing what had become
NRM. Investigations will proceed but there Independent on condition of anonymity his signature colour, yellow and driving a
is a likelihood it could have been about his because of the sensitivity of the matter that Volkswagen Beetle, also yellow in colour—
support for NRM.” what Uganda is facing today transcends the colour of the ruling party—National
President Museveni hates to show security. Resistance Movement (NRM).
emotion when confronted by a situation like “This is a political question, which can Both members of the opposition and
this because apparently he never wants to only be resolved politically,” the official ruling party agree that Abiriga was one of
come off as weak. But insiders say Abiriga’s told The Independent, “No amount of the biggest symbols of the ruling party—
murder appears to have hit him hard. “He security preparedness can prevent this. owing to his undying confessions of his
was enraged’, a source close to State House There is fatigue and despair and some of love for it, defence of party positions and
told The Independent, “The murder is being the disgruntled people do not see an end to dressing code, which was always yellow
seen as having been intended to hit him and Museveni. Some it appears are choosing to from the shoes, suits, and caps amongst
the party.” resort to these sorts of things.” others.
Observers say even the timing of his Opposition leader, Kizza Besigye has said “Everything on me has to at least have
murder was a political statement. He was that the escalating insecurity in Uganda yellow if it is not fully yellow,” Abiriga once
killed two days after President Museveni follows longstanding political, economic said, “The plate I use, the cups, my bed
made the State of the Nation address, in and social crises. is yellow, house and everything must be
which he commented about previous “Pent up anger and frustration, especially yellow.”
murders and laid out a plan on how to among young people is a time bomb.

June 15 - 21, 2018 11

cover story

President Museveni hands Abiriga a pair of sandals on the budget reading day in 2017.   NET/PHOTO

ADF a scapegoat? The ADF criminals in Congo will answer system without the LCI structure?”
In the absence of evidence Abiriga was for the killings of our people even when Another expert, a former intelligence
killed for his political views, however, this they are hiding in Congo. Their only safety operative in the Chieftaincy of Military
remains speculation especially because is for them to voluntarily surrender and Intelligence (CMI), who also spoke to The
previous murders of other high profile seek for amnesty. I salute our brothers, the Independent on condition of anonymity,
officials have been executed in similar Tanzanians, for arresting and handing over said that while President Museveni is
fashion pointing to a possibility, the to us Jamil Mukulu. He is now facing the keen to invest in street cameras, the most
assailants who executed them, also killed Courts of Law.” important aspect is the people.
Abiriga, observers say. A security expert, however, told The “These elements are easy to defeat as we
Two days before Abiriga was murdered, Independent on condition of anonymity demonstrated in the late 90’s,” the former
President Museveni while giving the State that this (Abiriga) murder and the ones CMI agent told The Independent, “the
of the Nation Address said that some of before it, defy the understanding of problem is that our security people are not
the terrorists of the Allied Defence Forces extremist groups. amongst the people. We need to go back to
(ADF) as well as other criminal elements, “Once extremist groups hit a target,” the the people, which is where we started and
seeing that they could not survive in the expert said, “they claim it because that is how we defeated these elements like ADF.”
rural areas, have infiltrated the towns what gives them satisfaction. But even if we Abiriga’s murder comes when concerns
where Museveni says his government had are to take the explanation of ADF, it would over a sense of rising insecurity has become
not fully focused in terms of developing be a reflection of total failure on the part a major part of public debate. A May 21
intelligence capacity. of security agencies. This is an enemy you police report, noted that there had been
“As a consequence,” he said, “we had have been fighting for over 20 years. Why over 80 cases of kidnap between March and
7 Sheiks assassinated as well as Major haven’t you defeated them?” May.
Kiggundu, Joan Kagezi, AIGP Kaweesi and The expert added: “The ADF explanation Although the report covered the whole
Susan Magara, of recent. These killings is a scapegoat intended to offer some sort country, most of the cases were in central
seem to have been linked with ADF.” of explanation that can play into the global Uganda and in or near the capital, Kampala.
Other killings, he added, like the women discourse on terrorism” Of the 80, at least 60 turned out to be false
killed in the Entebbe - Wakiso areas, as well He added that the current security crisis alarms and self-kidnaps. Of the 20 serious
as the killings in the Masaka area on New exposes the broken relationship between cases, eight resulted in death. That is about
Year’s Eve, were by local criminals using the state and citizens. three deaths every month. In comparison,
pangas. “People do not trust the state,” the expert over three years, from 2015 to 2018, police
“Urban terrorism and crime will be added, “To understand this, you need to had recorded 48 cases of kidnap.
defeated just as we defeated the rural ask yourself, how many people are willing But in January and February, Police
terrorists,” Museveni said, “On the to report cases where they do not have a recorded 28 kidnappings, compared with 24
kidnappers and killers of Susan Magara, direct benefit?” in the whole of 2017 and three in 2014.
2 were killed at Usaafi Mosque as they Yet, the official added, the biggest The spate of kidnaps appeared to get out
were trying to fight the Police and 8 were element that provides support for the of hand following the case of Suzan Magara,
arrested. Regarding the killings of Joan security system to work is the people. the 28-year old daughter of a prominent
Kagezi, Moslem Sheikhs, AIGP Kaweesi “How does the security system function businessman whose body was later found
and Major Kiggundu, 90 persons have been in situation where you do not have the at Kajjansi in Wakiso District after she had
arrested and are now facing trial and those trust of the people?” the security expert gone missing on Feb. 07. Her captors had
not yet arrested are still being hunted. wondered, “How do you run a security kept her family and security agencies in a

12 June 15 - 21, 2018

cover story
cat and mouse chase for a ransom, which In 1997, they raided Kiburara Seminary Kenneth Erau, driver Godfrey Mambewa,
was paid but didn’t save her. in Kasese and abducted 19 students; in 1998, who were all shot as they drove from his
Commentators point to deterioration in they raided Kichwamba Technical Institute home in Kulambiro, a Kampala suburb.
security, collusion between security officers and burnt alive 49 students and abducted 80 Kaweesi, 43, had risen up the police ranks
and criminals, and the inability by security others, amongst others. rapidly becoming one of the most visible
agencies to investigate murder cases as the An onslaught by the UPDF, saw many police figures.
abettors of crime and insecurity. rebels defect, die in battle and others Abiriga had also become the most visible
In 2017, for instance, self-confessed leader captured. ruling party member of parliament despite
of the Kifeesi gang, Paddy Sserunjogi aka As a result, the ADF leadership changed having joined the House only in 2016.
Ssobi, told journalists that while some of tack-- from guerrilla warfare to urban
them wanted to reform, police officers were terrorism. The ADF launched a wave of Who was Abiriga?
the ones giving them contracts to steal and grenade attacks in which over 40 home- Abiriga first joined the army in 1971
commit crime. His colleague openly said made bombs exploded in busy down-town under former President Idi Amin Dada,
that some of the jobs they were getting areas like the New Taxi Park, Makindye, and then deserted in 1975 before joining
involved killing people for as little as Shs10 Owino Market police post and Nateete. the Uganda National Rescue Front under
million. Over 80 people were killed and over 250 which he served as an intelligence officer
Police swung in action and arrested them injured. between 1980-1986. He would later join the
but they would shortly be released on bail. National Resistance Army (NRA) in 1986.
While appearing before parliament, then He was later appointed the Resident District
police chief, Gen. Kale Kayihura said police Commissioner (RDC) for Arua, a position
had handed over the Kifeesi gang members he held from 2007 to 2012. President
to ISO. Other critics point to the fact that Museveni then appointed him the Yumbe
some police officers have been arrested and District RDC in 2014 and he served until
are being investigated over some of these 2015.
murders. With the 2016 elections around the
Rather than work together, for most of corner, in 2015, Abiriga threw his hat
the part in these investigations police and in the race and trounced contenders to
ISO have been openly fighting each other. become the MP for Arua Municipality in
Following the murder of Kaweesi, for the 11th parliament, where in just a few
instance, police officers and ISO operatives years he had emerged the most visible
almost exchanged fire at the home of ruling party legislator owing to his dress
Christine Umuhoza Mbabazi, who was said code—always in ruling party colours—and
to be a former girlfriend of Kaweesi. his unquestioning loyalty and support to
Most of these fights happened under the party positions. While other ruling party
leadership of Kayihura, who had put police legislators appeared shy to embrace the
at the apex of the security system. question of lifting the age limit early last
Following his firing last year and President Museveni greets one of Abiriga's children year, Abiriga openly campaigned and
dismantling of his structures, the new defended the contentious Constitutional
leadership under Ochola has been In an intense campaign relying on Amendment Bill that proposed the removal
reorganising to get to the bottom of crime. painstaking intelligence and a new outfit of presidential age limits.
“There has been a spate of murders and in the Joint Anti-Terrorism Task Force, During the debate to pass the bill, Abiriga
kidnaps but we are in charge,” Ochola said hundreds of suspects involved in the bomb told parliament that the people of Arua
while appearing on NBS TV with other attacks in Kampala and other towns were had accepted “to touch it (constitution)…
security chiefs to talk about the security netted and imprisoned in Kigo and Luzira completely”.
situation on June.11, “If we were not in prisons. But the same unquestioning loyalty
charge, there would be lawlessness.” Other rebels surrendered under the towards the ruling party that made him
He said part of the problem has been Amnesty Act. As part of the amnesty a darling amongst his fellow ruling party
the fact that there are too many guns in arrangement, these rebels were to be legislators, also won him political foes
the wrong hands, which he promised to provided with means of livelihood. Insiders amongst those opposed to the ruling party
address with the on-going gun audit that say over the years, the monetary support maneuvers; especially the move to remove
he directed following his appointment early has not been coming, forcing many fighters the age limit.
this year. to go back to the bush and that some of At the height of the same debate,
His counterpart, CDF Gen. Muhoozi said those who have stayed eke a living as suspected arsonists attacked his home in
their presence on the same show exhibited contract killers. Some in security believe Arua, threw a small jerrycan full of petrol
a unity of purpose by the security agencies that it is these elements that are behind the onto the house but it did not catch fire.
to defeat the crime. Many will be waiting to murders as hired guns. It is against this background that officials
see whether this unity puts an end to wave Amidst all this, Abiriga becomes the first in the ruling party suspect Abiriga was
of crime. high profile public figure to be murdered killed because of his political views.
Meanwhile, many; especially in security this year but his murder brings to 13 the “The people who killed Hon. Idris
circles, blame ADF for the terror attacks. number of high profile public officials that Ibrahim Abiriga, your excellence these
ADF first launched serious attacks on have been murdered over the last three people begun threatening us. These people
Uganda in 1996 when its fighters almost years. are recorded on various radio stations,”
took over Kasese town and seized Kasese These murders have included; a host of said Usuk County legislator, Peter
airstrip but were repulsed by the UPDF. Muslim clerics, senior state prosecutor Joan Ogwang at the burial of Abiriga, “Even
The following year, they opened bases Kagezi, UPDF’s Muhammad Kiggundu in parliament we know colleagues who
in different parts of western Uganda where and his bodyguard Steven Mukasa and said we shall kill you, we shall kill your
they based to launch attacks on government former Assistant Inspector General of Police families, we shall kill your children and
installations, kill and abduct civilians. Andrew Felix Kaweesi, his bodyguard here they have started.”

June 15 - 21, 2018 13

news analysis

Abiriga's casket arriving at Old Kampala Mosque.

Abiriga murder
Why kill and chill assassins are political not security issue
By Joseph Were seen as a mark of what may be going wrong vanish. They never publicly claim responsi-

with Museveni’s politics. For now, however, bility or explain motive like forces seeking
ol. Ibrahim Abiriga, the MP whose it is proving to be a crucial juncture for political capital out of the deaths. Sowing
June 8 shooting has shaken the Museveni. terror and mayhem appears motive enough.
country, was 30 years old when Political assassinations are nothing new But Abiriga’s slaying is different and
President Yoweri Museveni came to under Museveni. But they have been unique likely to feel personal for Museveni. Abiriga
power in 1986. He had already served over in as much as the publicly known ones have had complained of being targeted before,
10 years in the armies of Idi Amin and the been assumed to be committed by non-state including an attempt to burn him inside
Uganda National Rescue Front (UNRF) and actors, including the alleged mother of all his house in his hometown of Arua. But the
survived. He was a hardened fighter with a perpetrators; the Allied Democratic Forces threat increased soon after he became the
jolly unpretentious veneer. (ADF) rebels who are Muslim aligned and point of focus when the ruling party moved
He was to live another 32 years with have been operating for decades from the to amend the constitution to remove the
Museveni as president. Over this period, lawless eastern DR Congo. age-limit so that Museveni could run again
he swung from being a commander of a They have also not been typical. Usually, for president. As threats against their lives
rebel army fighting Museveni in West Nile it is either assassins targeting the head of mounted from opponents of Museveni,
from the bushes of South Sudan and the DR state or the state targeting political oppo- Abiriga and several ruling MPs either got
Congo, to a close ally working with him. nents. In Uganda, the assassins have so far personal guns or got extra security details
In his last days, Abiriga who always targeted only minor technocrats and clerics, from the government. In Abiriga’s case, it all
stepped out in yellow outfits, drove a yel- business people, and mid-rung security proved futile.
low car, and lived in a yellow house, had types, and now MPs. Assassins, who eyewitnesses say were
become the symbol of devotion to the ruling Abiriga’s slaying comes after a long line four, hooded and riding two motorbikes,
party and self-proclaimed loyalty to Musev- of unresolved cases of assassinations of killed Abiriga as he returned home in
eni. His slaying is being seen as the assas- prominent people; including the Assistant Kawanda, a laid back leafy neighbourhood,
sination of an ordinary man and an unfortu- Inspector General of Police, Felix Kaweesi in just outside Kampala. The first volleys of
nate price to pay for one’s devotion. March 2017 and a top government prosecu- the hail of bullets punctured the tyres of
At another level, Abiriga’s public life mir- tor, Joan Kagezi in 2015, former rebel army his new model yellow VW Beetle, killed
rors the transitions in Museveni politics; commander Maj. Mohammad Kigundu in his brother cum bodyguard, and possi-
from the early years of inclusiveness and 2016 and a slew of Muslim clerics before bly injured Abiriga who was driving. He
compromise with foes military and politi- that, and recently kidnappings. In most of attempted to make a quick gateway but
cal, to the recent trend of exclusiveness and the killings, the assassins pounce, kill, and hit something as the tiny car veered off the
confrontation. His slaying might one day be

14 June 15 - 21, 2018

news analysis
road. Eyewitnesses say the kill- a security not a political issue. show that assassination never cies, we shall work on that,”
ers then closed in and shot him This is both good and bad. wins. Here, however, he points Museveni says.
dead at blank range before van- If Museveni had reacted at only political killings. When the security bosses
ishing into the night. politically, with orders to He said: “The assassina- from the Uganda police, the
further restrict political par- tions of Dr. Mondlane and army, prisons and intelligence
Good and bad in Museveni’s ticipation, research shows he Samora Machel did not save the appeared on national television
reaction could possibly have spurred Portuguese from total defeat. on June 11, three days After
Museveni has reacted an increase in the probability of The assassinations of Herbert Abirga’s killing, to explain and
uncharacteristically. Usually more political assassinations. Chitepo, Ruth First etc, never answer questions regarding
he is reflective and calculative. At one point when this was saved the criminals of White security, the emptiness of their
This time he has swung from discussed, it was suggested that South Africa and Rhodesia performance amplified the
one order to the next as ideas since Museveni is equating the from their eventual defeat. belief that this situation requires
pop into his head. current violence to urban ter- Amin, by killing Ben Kiwa- political rather than security
He again ordered cameras rorism, he might bring back the nuka, Bataringaya, Bananuka, solutions.
mounted along the streets and recently sacked former Minister Balufuywa, Major Katabarwa Former leader of the largest
highways, motor vehicles, and of Security, Lt. Gen. Henry etc could not save himself from opposition group, the Forum
business premises, and homes Tumukunde who, because he his eventual defeat.” But there for Democratic Change (FDC),
and pledged improvements in quashed the 1990s urban ter- is one difference; in all the cases retired Maj. Gen. Mugisha
the police’s forensic capacity. rorism of grenade attacks in he mentioned, it was those with Muntu commented on it.
Then he ordered new dress Kampala, can claim to be an power assassinating the weak, “I get a feeling that we’re
codes for boda boda riders expert. The current holder of the state killing its opponents. dealing with the political situa-
including marked helmets. the Counter-terrorism docket, In Abiriga’s case, it could be tion with knee-jack reactions,”
Then he banned hoods. Then Muntu said during the Morn-
he banned tinted windows for ing Breeze show on NBS TV,
cars. It’s a fumble and unclear “I’ve ever been a security chief
where the directives are head- during turbulent times and
ing or where they will end. we had political questions that
But among the dramatic deci- have never been resolved up to
sions Museveni is making, one now.”
that could have far reaching Muntu added: “I really
impacts, is the order to rewrite sympathise with the security
the budget, claw back of money chiefs because in as much as
allocated for priority areas they would want to act profes-
like defence, roads, electricity, sionally, the environment is not
schools, health and more, and conducive. The political heads
switch it to funding anti-crime shy away from the political
infrastructure. questions of the day.
Museveni’s emphasis on “Considering our history for
security is doubly baffling the past 56 years, we’ve not had
because he was the first person a credible hand over of power.
to pronounce that Abiriga’s Besides the general elections,
slaying is a political assassina- Onlookers at the scene of crime in Kawanda. the past three or four of them
tion. have been contested and noth-
“As the investigations are still ing has been done about it.”
going on, we cannot rule out Abbas Byakagaba, sprung into those without power, killing Muntu’s point is critical
personal motives for the mur- the limelight after the 2010 twin those with it. In these cases, because, although assassination
der,” Museveni said in a state- bombings in Kampala but has throughout history, assassina- is not a well-studied topic, a few
ment on June 09, “However, showed little success since then. tions have been impactful. scholars who have delved in
there is high probability that Many other observers are President Joseph Kabila it have concluded that periods
this killing was a political assas- also comparing Museveni’s took power in DR Congo like around elections or a general
sination because of his commit- reaction to that of President Alexander the Great, after a increase in domestic violence
ment to the NRM.” Milton Obote in 1969 after he bodyguard assassinated his are moments when a country
According to one study, was shot in the mouth at UPC father. Octavius Caesar became is more susceptible to political
assassinations of legislators like Conference at Lugogo. Obote a Roman emperor after Gaius assassinations as is happening
Abiriga are “almost always a dropped all pretense of ruling Julius Caesar was assassinated. in Uganda. It is worse if consen-
result of national-level conflicts democratically and became But even the assassination sual political values and prac-
rather than local ones”. They autocratic. He was toppled of Martin Luther King, John tice are lacking and some politi-
are more of acts of protest shortly after, in 1971. F. Kennedy, Benazir Bhutto in cal minorities feel oppressed.
against the existing political Apparently, the more author- Pakistan, and the Israeli Prime But the current situation
order than political actions that itarian a leader is or becomes, Minister Itzhak Rabin in 1995, where electoral competition is
are intended to promote spe- the more likely they will be have been crucial junctures in conducted in an atmosphere
cific political goals. assassinated. In contrast, assas- history. where crucial political griev-
It is, therefore, surprising sinations are rare in democratic At another point Museveni ances are never addressed is
that although he has reeled off systems, possibly because it is says the current spate of killings equally dangerous. Stable and
a long list of security changes, clear “that the elimination of is not a security issue but rather regulated succession mecha-
Museveni has not made a single the head of state will have only intelligence and media control nisms are important to avoid
political reaction. Museveni, it a limited, long-term impact on issues. “There has been some political assassination, accord-
appears, is keen to maintain the the socio-political order”. laxity in security forces like ing to one study. That is what
facade that Abiriga’s killing is Museveni is also keen to Police and other security agen- Museveni needs to work on.

June 15 - 21, 2018 15


MP Ibrahim Abiriga: NRM’s

yellow man no more
By Ian Katusiime 1973. After school, he worked as General

Manager of Pakuba Lodge in Murchison
brahim Abiriga gained prominence in Falls National Park.
2017 as the ruling party, NRM, moved When his hero was toppled in 1979,
to amend the constitution to remove the Abiriga fled to Sudan and collaborated
presidential age limit to allow President with other ex-soldiers of Amin plotting a
Yoweri Museveni to run again. In a colour- comeback. On returning from exile in 1980,
ful way, he became the face of the age limit he worked as an intelligence officer with the
movement campaigning for the amend- West Nile-based Uganda National Rescue
ment everywhere he went as he branded Front (UNRF) which was fighting the sec-
himself in yellow outfits, the NRM party ond government of Milton Obote.
colour, from head to toe. In 1985, Abiriga was part of the UNRF
Be it in parliament or at functions like the that was integrated in the Uganda National
State of the Nation Address which was his Liberation Army (UNLA) after the takeover
last public event or even visiting friends, of Gen. Tito Okello Lutwa. He stayed in
yellow was his signature colour; his suits, the integrated army when the National
caps, shoes, socks, and not forgetting his Resistance Army (NRA) under Museveni
famous Volkswagen Beetle. In a profile captured power in 1986, and served in dif-
done by The Independent last year, he said: ferent positions.
“Everything on me has to at least have Abiriga began his military career as a staff
yellow if it is not fully yellow. The plate I sergeant in Amin’s army and rose through
use, the cups, my bed is yellow, house and the ranks to become a Colonel.
everything must be yellow.”
To Abiriga, yellow was like a fetish, Entry into politics
he added, “I have just returned from DR In 2006, Abiriga contested for the parlia-
Congo where I landed on very good yellow Like his son, Abdullah was a staunch sup-
porter of Museveni. mentary seat of Madi-Okollo but lost. It is
undergarments, so I was forced to buy all from here that Museveni appointed him
the 20 left in the shop.” Abiriga was born at a time of severe
hunger when people survived on simsim RDC for Arua in 2007. As RDC, he was an
His self-proclaimed adoration for Musev- active political mobiliser for NRM and some
eni also made him stand out among NRM and groundnut paste mixed with water.
The name Abiriga, in fact, means hunger. of his actions against the opposition were
MPs. Museveni too seemed charmed by deemed unlawful.
Abiriga’s obsession with him. During the As a toddler, Abiriga was like no other and
this, it is believed, shaped his life in strange However, he also used his position to
budget reading last year, Museveni gifted boost the Arua community such as lobbying
Abiriga a pair of Ugandan-made sandals. ways. “I was told that I never suckled my
mother’s breast because I rejected it com- for donor-aided farming projects, acquiring
The sandals were not yellow and he vowed wheelchairs for the disabled, and sewing
to paint them in his beloved colour! pletely so it was just poured out,” he told
The Independent in August 2017. machines for women among others.
Known as the yellow man, Abiriga was In 2014, he was appointed RDC for
a jovial character who smiled and joked In the interview, Abiriga said he had 30
wives and sired as many children but they Yumbe but he worked there briefly and
with all regardless of political affiliation. In then joined parliament representing Arua
Kawanda where he lived while on duty, a all died. He was told by relatives and elders
that his failure to breastfeed as a baby could Municipality. Not long after joining parlia-
few kilometers outside Kampala, he was ment, he became recognisable not just for
a darling of the children in the neigbour- be the reason for the misfortune. He how-
ever remarried later and is survived by a his outfits but his proclaimed loyalty to
hood whom he often spoilt with sweets and Museveni and the NRM party. There was
money. wife and ten children.
speculation that he was set for a ministerial
Abiriga, the Arua Municipality MP, was
shot dead on the evening of June 8 with his
Joining the army appointment.
He attended Rhino Camp primary school Ruth Nankabirwa, Government Chief
brother, Buga Saidi Kongo also his body- Whip, says Abiriga was a committed cadre.
and sat for his PLE exams in 1967. He went
guard, as he drove home. He had served “Abiriga was a committed person who
to Kabalega SS in Masindi but while there,
two years in parliament but he had been in believed in whatever he did. He joined
his father persuaded him to follow in his
politics for a long time, after he became a parliament to sit there and do business. He
footsteps by joining the army. In 1971, he
soldier at the age of 15. He worked as Resi- was one of those who attended without me
joined the Uganda Army under then-presi-
dent District Commissioner (RDC) in Arua having to look for him. He did not need my
dent Idi Amin. Abiriga regarded the former
for 5 years and in Yumbe for 2 years. After phone call to remind him to attend parlia-
president as one of his life’s heroes.
7 years as RDC, he contested for the Arua ment.”
He underwent military training for nine
Municipality seat and won. Nankabirwa says Abiriga applied the
months and was deployed in the Secret
Ibrahim Abiriga was born on June 5, 1956 same discipline when attending the NRM
Service at Makindye Military Police in
in Anyafiyo, Arua. His father, Yusuf Abdul- caucus. “He would go by whatever decision
Kampala. He continued with his studies
lah, was a soldier under the King’s African the caucus has taken.”
and completed his O-level education at
Rifles (KAR) and fought in World War II.
Kampala Grammar Secondary School in

16 June 15 - 21, 2018


By Stephen Nuwagira

US$10bn for electricity

ember states of the
Economic Com-

generation in Africa
munity of Central
Africa States (EC-
CAS) have pledged to develop
big power plants and improve
infrastructure for cross-border
power supply and trade.
Already US$10 billion has
been pledged by partners in
Central African states moot plans
Europe for renewable energy
projects in Africa, according
for cross-border power pooling
to Ambassador Seyni Nafo, There are already joint
the interim director of Africa power projects being devel-
Renewable Energy Initiative oped across the region, includ-
independent delivery unit. ing the Rwanda-Burundi and
He said 50 priority renewable Tanzania plant in Rusumo,
energy projects to benefit have Angola-Chad, Equatorial
been identified and member Guinea-Cameroon and Central
states are working together to African Republic, and Rusizi
raise funding for these projects III by Rwanda-Burundi and
through green bonds or public- DR Congo that will serve the
private partnerships. three countries.
This was part of the discus- According to Jean Claude
sion at the recent Ordinary Ses- Ebwelle, from ENEO, the main
sion of the Council of Ministers power supplier in Cameroon,
for the Central African Power such projects are important to
Pool (PEAC) held in Kigali, increase access to affordable
Rwanda, between June 05 and power and support Africa’s
07. development and industrial-
The event was part of the ization.
annual meeting of statutory “We are trying to undertake
bodies of PEAC member states projects where we can share
and attracted heads of energy distribution networks and
bodies, experts and policy-mak- engage in cross-border power
ers from the 11 PEAC member trade. We are currently doing
countries. sayni nafo
studies with Equatorial Guinea
Member states of ECCAS and Central African Republic
competitive prices. home use; especially in rural
include Angola, Burundi, Cam- to see how we can implement
The region’s energy policy areas and for industry.
eroon, Central African Repub- cross-border power project,”
strategy indicates that they aim They are also working
lic, Republic of Congo, Gabon, Ebwelle said on the sidelines of
to strengthen generation infra- together, through PEAC to
Equatorial Guinea, DR Congo, the conference.
structure and facilitate cross- ensure that the energy will be
Rwanda, Sao Tomé, and Chad. Meanwhile, Seyni Nafo
border power trade through affordable when it is available.
Djono Ahaba Gotran, the stressed that PEAC states need
development of grid intercon-
president of the Council of to address the challenges the
Ministers, said ECCAS targets
nections. High potential sector faces and exploit the
“Collaboration between Central Africa’s hydro-
stepping up efforts to increase region’s various renewable
governments in the region to power potential is estimated
power generation to meet energy sources if they are to
develop the power sector gives at 150,000MW, equivalent to
growing demand. spur generation.
an opportunity to raise afford- 58% of the African continent’s
The host minister, Rwanda’s He said renewable energy
able resources, both financial potential, Gatete says. But the
Infrastructure Minister, Ambas- development is still being
and human resources, to devel- ratio between hydropower
sador Claver Gatete, told the held back by several factors;
op a vibrant energy sector,” generation and technically
gathering on June 07 that access including lack supportive
Gatete said. feasible hydropower potential
to power is a key catalyst for legal frameworks in member
The ECCAS region has some is still as low as 3% in Central
economic growth but govern- states, low capacity among
of the lowest levels of electrifi- Africa.
ments fail to provide electricity stakeholders such as regulators
cation in the world with access The region has huge reserves
for every home and industry and energy developers,
estimated by the International of renewable energy resources;
because of the high investment and poor infrastructure.
Renewable Energy Agency hydro, solar, wind energy,
required in generation, trans- “Renewable energy requires
(IRENA) to be only 25%. This geothermal, as well as non-
mission and distribution of good grids but there are non-
means most people in the renewables like thermal, peat
electricity. He said these push existent or poor in the region
region do not have access to and coal, which are technically
up tariffs. which leads to huge power
electricity. and financially viable.
Gatete said the PEAC, which losses,” he said, “Africa loses
To ensure greater access, The member states want
is the bloc’s specialised agency up to 20-30% of generated
ECCAS member states are to exploit all these sources of
for power pooling, member electricity due to poor and old
investing more in power gen- energy in partnership with the
states want to develop a reliable distribution lines.”
eration to improve access for private sector.
regional electricity supply, at

June 15 - 21, 2018 17


Rwanda’s proposed ban on

single use plastics praised
By Stephen Nuwagira include banning single use plastics, which states are in various stages of implementing

have readily available alternatives. the ban.
wanda’s proposed ban on single The targeted items include plastic straws,
use plastic materials was long over- cups, plates, and cutlery. Later, polyethyl- More needs to be done
due, according to several experts ene terephthalate (PET) bottles mostly used However, Gakwavu says more efforts
who have spoken to The Indepen- by beverages firms would be outlawed as are required to achieve these goals, calling
dent. alternatives come onto the market, the min- for strengthening of public awareness cam-
“Do we need straws to drink soda or milk ister said. paigns to educate Rwandans about the ben-
or other non-degradable plastics, especially Biruta, like Gakwavu, said attitudes need efits of safeguarding the environment and
when we lack the capacity to collect and to change on the use of plastics. proper waste disposal. He says there is still
recycle all of them? I don’t think so,” says “We need every Rwandan to play their rampant careless dumping of garbage.
John R. Gakwavu, executive secretary of part,” he said, “It’s about changing our “Though we have dustbins in Kigali with
the Rwanda Environmental Conservation habits and choosing sustainable alternatives parts clearly marked “recyclable” and “non-
Organisation (RECOR). that won’t cost the earth. Together, we can recyclable”, people don’t respect that which
In an interview with The Independent, he beat plastic pollution and protect our health is a big problem. And separating waste at
said spending hard currency on importa- and the health of generations to come.” source is essential in waste handling,” he
tion of plastic materials, including straws, Rwanda banned use of of plastic bags says. Many people still throw garbage care-
plates and cups, is double loss because these and specific types of packaging in 2008 lessly on the sidewalks, giving more work
products hurt the environment, the econo- as part of its vision of being a green and to city cleaners.
my and people’s health. climate resilient nation by 2050 as per the So the city authorities and government
“It is important, therefore, that citizens country’s Green Growth and Climate Resil- need to create more awareness if these facili-
reflect on this and change at the individual ience Strategy. ties are to be used effectively, Gakwavu
level to influence others to embrace alter- The country applies the principle of adds.
natives like paper drinking cups. Besides, “reduce, recycle, and reuse” through
Rwanda is a small country with limited recycling of plastic bags collected across Lessons from Sweden
land, and we must protect it jealously for the country, underlining its green growth He says Rwandans can take a lesson from
posterity,” he said. agenda. Sweden where alternative solutions like
He said enforcement of proper waste dis- Biruta said plastic waste was blocking paper cups and plates are used everywhere;
posal also needs strengthening and pointed country’s drains and waterways and pollut- and there is also citizen consciousness about
at how Ndumba landfill in Gasabo District ing farmland, rivers and lakes. proper waste disposal, according to type –
has tonnes and tonnes of waste because “the “This fact is what influenced efforts to go organic, paper, and other waste like metal
country still has very low capacity to recycle beyond plastic bags alone and end plastic or plastics.
garbage; especially plastics”. waste in all forms. As a nation, Rwanda is However, the environment ministry
He was commenting on the announce- uniquely placed to take our environmental acknowledges that some alternatives to
ment by government that it is working on protection efforts to the next level and end plastics are still expensive or not readily
regulation to ban single use plastics during the use of disposable single use plastics,” he available. They say the price will go
this year’s World Environment Day on June said, “Many nations and regions around the down as more investments come in and
5 in Kigali. The global the theme for the day world are already implementing restrictions demand grows.
was, “Beat Plastic Pollution”. on disposable plastics.” The ban on plastics has supported the
During the event, Minister of Environ- The East African Community Legislative tourism sector as people from around
ment Vincent Biruta revealed that the Assembly has passed a law prohibiting the the world come to learn from Rwanda’s
ministry was revising the law on plastics to use and sale of plastic bags and member green initiatives.

18 June 15 - 21, 2018


By Alex Awiti

Rwanda offers
ith an estimated median age of

hope on corruption
about 17 years, East Africa is
one of the youngest regions in
the world. By comparison, the
median is about 40 in Europe, 38 in North
America and 29 in Asia. According to recent
national census data for Kenya, Tanzania,
Rwanda and Uganda, about 80% of the
population is below 35 years.
Survey of young people in east Africa
The identities, norms, and values of this
majority generation provide important
shows their values mirror those of adults
clues for understanding the future; the
world’s collective moral and ethical char-
A study commissioned by the East
Africa Institute of the Aga Khan University,
between 2014 and 2015 interviewed 7,000
young people aged between 18 to 35-year-
old in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and Rwan-
da. The object was to understand how they
thought about themselves and what values
and attitudes they held.
About 40% of the respondents saw them-
selves first and foremost as young people
while 34% saw themselves first as citizens of
their countries. Only 11% identified them-
selves by their faith first and 6% identified
as members of their family first. Only 3.5%
reported their tribe or ethnicity as the first
dimension of their identity.
Identifying as young people is consistent
with policy and legal categorisations that
establish them as a socially distinct catego-
ry. This distinct identity enhances a sense
of esprit de corps and a sense of belonging.
This in turn confers a sense of social entitle-
ment as well as shared grievance. Young people are the mirror image of the adult world around them.   Shutterstock
The findings suggest that young people’s
identities, values, norms and attitudes are of ethnic identity. Tanzania’s ruling party How society affects attitudes
shaped by their families, their communities elite has consistently supported the ethos
and by wider society. Our findings are con- of Ujamaa - equitable economic production The view of young Rwandans is clearly
sistent with previous work by sociologists and distribution of public resources to drive affected by what they experience on a
and behavioural and moral economists. social cohesion and economic progress. day to day basis. For example, there were
Young people are the mirror image of the About 80% of the young people involved reports of policemen accused of corruption
adult world around them. This means that in the survey valued faith first. About half being fired in 2017 while reports of civil-
if any countries want to change the attitudes valued work and family first while 37% ians accused of bribing policemen being
and values of young people they need to valued wealth first and a quarter freedom arrested are not uncommon. In addition, the
start with the adults – from the family to first. Ombudsman regularly publishes the list of
community to the national level. But about 60% admired those who used individuals convicted of corruption related
get-rich-quick schemes. And more than offences.
Country differences half believed it did not matter how one It is possible, therefore, that young Rwan-
While the study revealed numerous par- makes money while 53% said they would dans engage in a cost benefit analysis. This
allels, there were also striking differences. do anything to get money. The survey could inform the ultimate decision about
In Kenya for example, the proportion of found 37% would take or give a bribe and taking or giving a bribe or a belief that there
young people who identified by ethnicity 35% believed there is nothing wrong with was something wrong with corruption.
was 4% between ages 18 and 20. But the corruption. Rwanda’s example offers hope. It
number nearly doubled to 7.8% between An outliner was Rwanda where most demonstrates the importance strong
the ages of 21 and 35. The converse was true said they would not take or give a bribe leadership and an unequivocal commit-
in Tanzania where ethnicity as a dimension and were unambiguous about the fact that ment to integrity and public account-
of identity had remained relatively stable corruption was wrong. ability in shaping the attitudes and
(2.3% and 2.9%) from between the ages of From the survey results it is clear that perceptions of youth.
21 and 35 years. corruption has been normalised in Kenya, Alex Awiti is the Director, East
This can be partly explained by the fact Tanzania and Uganda. Bribery is viewed African Institute, Ecosystems Ecologist
that since independence Tanzania, unlike simply as “eating” and is not seen as an and sustainable development, The Aga
Kenya, has focused on reducing the issue ethical aberration. Khan University.

June 15 - 21, 2018 19


Kazora (right) explaining the grain packaging process at EAX warehouse in Bugesera district.  By Stephen Nuwagira.

Grain dealers unite on quality

Move to curb 30% loss of agricultural
produce due to poor post-harvest handling
By Stephen Nuwagira quality control coordinator at the East certified warehouses across the country.

Africa Exchange (EAX); a Kigali-based Unfortunately, quality is not always a
rain dealers, big buyers, and other regional commodity exchange that deals in priority for farmers.
sector stakeholders are getting soya, maize, and beans using a NASDAQ- As a result, according to experts, about
together to work on right interven- powered platform. 30% of agricultural produce in Rwanda is
tions to improve quality through EAX taps international and institutional lost along the value chain due to poor post-
better post-harvest handling and storage. buyers and connects farmers to the East harvest handling methods.
Quality is the key in determining grain African Community (EAC) market of 168 Kazora said it is important for farmers to
prices, according to Herman Kazora, the million people and beyond. The firm has 11 understand the importance of proper post-

20 June 15 - 21, 2018

harvest handling and storage. Kazora said the firm has partnered with deposit produce at EAX warehouses and
“That’s why we have stepped up efforts the agriculture and local government minis- are issued receipts, which they use as collat-
to promote quality along the grain value tries, and the reserve forces to ensure qual- eral to secure loans from banks.
chain by sensitizing farmers on the benefits ity grain in Rwanda. A farmer can get a loan of up 75% of the
of embracing proper handling practices produce value, and the banks are paid by
and storage,” he said. Poor post-harvest Farmers advised EAX when the produce is sold.
handling and storage results into damage He urges farmers and middle men to “This promotes financial inclusion as
by insects like weevils or moulding which take post-harvest handling of grain as a banks serve customers they would have
causes fungi that produce aflatoxins that are priority and follow given guidelines in the otherwise not got because some farmers still
a health hazard and cause food poisoning. interest of improving quality. Dangerous use informal means to keep their money,”
EAX provides grain shellers and tarpau- practices to be avoided include shelling Kayitakire said.
lins to farmers and cooperatives as part of maize in dirty places and selling grains that EAX works with 20,940 farmers belong-
efforts to ensure proper grain handling and, are not yet dry. They want the government ing to 187 cooperatives and has partnered
therefore, grain quality maintenance. EAX to tighten enforcement mechanisms to get with banks like Urwego, KCB, Equity,
also sends experts to the field to tell farm- rid of unscrupulous dealers who do not put GTBank, Development Bank of Rwanda,
ers and cooperatives about the benefits of quality first. Kazora says some farmers will BPR and Ecobank to enable these farmers
ensuring produce quality. not readily embrace practices that promote get funding. “As a result, many farmers
The EAX also buys wet maize and dries quality if nothing is done. now don’t rush to sell their produce at give-
it using its hi-tech driers as part of efforts to He said some cooperatives hoard grains away prices during the harvesting season,”
maintain grain quality. in hope of getting better prices, which com- the EAX official said.
“It is such interventions and support promises quality since farmers’ cooperative The firm buys grains at a comparatively
from government that have helped to lack good storage facilities or skills. higher price than the general market price.
improve grain quality in the country,” The agriculture sector is also still seen by
Kazoora says. There is still need to step up Easing access to funding many financial institutions as risky since
efforts geared at addressing the challenges Meanwhile, $4.7 million (about Rwf4.1 most farmers are not insured and do not
affecting grain trade in the country. These billion) has been disbursed to farmers since carry out their projects on a large scale to
include poor quality of grain, lack of storage 2014 to date under EAX’s warehouse receipt attract investment and funding.
facilities, and poor post-harvest handling system, according to Clement Kayitakire, Only 10% of the total loans given out by
practices by farmers and dealers. the EAX trading manager. bank last year went to the sector.
Under the system, partnering farmers

Civil society welcomes new

Rwanda Court of Appeal
By John Mbaraga work which will lead to good justice deliv-

ivil Society Organisations in Rwan- According to the judicial spokesperson,
da have welcomed a move by the Harrison Mutabazi, the court will also help
government to set up a Court of to fast-truck cases hearing which usually
Appeal. were many in the Supreme Court. “The first
Rwanda Civil Society Platform president interest is to fast-truck hearing processes,”
Jean Léonard Sekanyange says setting up he said.
the court is a good move as it will give According to the new law, the cases tried
Rwandans seeking justice another opportu- by the Court of Appeal are not appealable.
nity to access it. The law says that the Supreme Court
“Possibly, at the first instance, you might will remain with jurisdiction to review a
not have enough evidence to support your judgement rendered at last instance and
case, but in the Appeal Court, you can have to review judgments whose legality of
it and get good justice,” he says. impaired by injustice.
Rwanda has moved to create the Court of Minister of Justice, Johnston Busingye The Court of Appeal will seat in the City
Appeal mainly to ease the number of cases The Supreme Court will now primarily of Kigali.
that end up in the Supreme Court. hear cases from the ombudsman office and At the same time, Rwanda has also
The new court will hear cases on appeal those requiring constitutional interpreta- reduced the number of primary courts from
by disputants from the High Court, the tion. Sekanyange said the newly established 60 to 41.
Commercial High Court, and Military High court is a welcome development that will The new appellant court also has jurisdic-
court. give people, who are not satisfied with tion to hear second level appeal cases tried
Until now, appeal cases from this court judgement of lower courts, an opportunity by the High Court, the Commercial High
have ended up in the Supreme Court and to seek redress. Court and Military High Court, if such
created an undesirable clogging of the court “It is a good move giving Rwandans cases have an impact on national security
process and delay in rendering justice. opportunity to access justice,” he said. among others.
According to available information, the Sekanyange says that the Supreme Court It was established under the Organic Law
Supreme Court has a backlog of about 1000 has had many responsibilities and the no. 002/2018.OL of 04/04/2018.
cases. Appeal Court will reduce the amount of

June 15 - 21, 2018 21


Different girls,
same goals
How Rwandan girls with
disabilities are fighting
sexism at school
Rwanda needs to push its pledge to remove all obstacles against women’s development.   Flickr/Adam Cohn

By Evariste Karangwa & Jeannette Bayisenge tactics. In doing so, they challenge domi- port us. That is why it is difficult for me…I

nation and stereotypes and affirm their can play by their rules until I am in charge
ince the 1994 genocide against Tutsi, capacity for leadership in a male-dominated and can change the rules…I am going to
Rwanda has made considerable setting. The girls use two distinct resistance be a scientist…When I am in power, boys
progress towards gender equality, strategies: assertive resistance and subver- will not be able to treat me or any other girl
now ranking fifth in the world on sive resistance. with disabilities in a bad way. I will use my
the Global Gender Gap Index. power…”
It pursued sociopolitical reforms that Assertive Resistance Peace’s short-term compliance – being
favour disadvantaged groups. For example, This includes challenging boys, pursuing polite, kind, calm and amenable – can be
constitutional reforms now mean women and holding prominent school leadership interpreted as a survival strategy in a male-
and people with disabilities are guaranteed roles and advocating for the recruitment of dominated society given that acting other-
membership in the national parliament. more female teachers and support staff. wise might be seen as subversive in a male-
Other initiatives include giving disadvan- For instance Ruth, a 20-year-old 11th dominated society such as Rwanda.
taged young people access to nine years free grader, asserts: “I know that boys and girls Jeanette, a 23 year-old grade 11 student,
education under and the “Nine Year-Basic with disabilities have to struggle in our justifies this restrained resistance on a dif-
Education” programme. society, but we are not in the same position ferent note. She says that: “one has to know
Despite these steps towards inclusion, in school…I’m not afraid to challenge boys what her goal is to win the battle…I want
girls with disabilities, who already grapple in class. I know I am as smart – and may be power for the future…when I can really get
with social structures that put them at a more. I want us to have a better life, a bet- boys to change their ways….”
disadvantage, continue to struggle against ter time in school…it’s hard enough being Unified policy approaches
male domination in schools. a girl in Rwanda, and even harder to be a
As described by Joy, a student at one poor girl with disabilities…” While the paper points to a significant
school: “Boys seem to openly dominate in Rene, an 18 year-old in grade 10, empha- disconnect between Rwanda’s international
all class discussions and responses… (It’s sises the importance of more equitable gen- reputation for gender equality and lived
common to see them) ridicule girls who der relations among people with disabilities. realities on the ground, the girls’ experi-
make simple mistakes…They use (sayings) She posits that: “Girls with disabilities can ences provide valuable insights into com-
such as “she is a girl after all” or, when she do even better and contribute even more pounded inequalities.
is assertive in her responses, “she is a man”. to our country if we are enabled to excel Their experiences call for a proactive
But the girls are fighting back. We dis- in school and not feel pitied or put down national strategy that involves multiple
covered this in research that we did that because we are girls with disabilities.” sectors, namely; education, labour and
involved 51 in-depth interviews with politics. The strategy must be specific to
disabled Rwandan pupils and community Subversive Resistance girls with disabilities in schools and ensure
stakeholders. Those who practice assertive resistance that they are properly represented in public
We investigated how disadvantaged girls openly criticise sexism in the school. Sub- and private sectors. This is key to making
with disabilities resist and challenge male versive resistance, on the other hand, is Rwanda’s pledge – to remove all obstacles
domination in Rwanda’s oldest and largest more subtle. In this strategy the girls allow against women’s development – a more
public school, Gatagara School. The school for periods of prejudice, with the view of substantive reality.
caters for students with disabilities. Initially eventually reversing it.
starting as a rehabilitation centre in 1962 For example 25 year-old Peace, who rec- Evariste Karangwa is the Dean, School of
and opening its doors to children with vari- ognises the influence of patriarchy in pre- Inclusive & Special Needs Education, University
ous disabilities in 1973. scribing “good girl” behaviour, argues that: of Rwanda, and Jeannette Bayisenge is a
Our research shows that girls resist male “There are more boys with disabilities here Lecturer, Center for Gender Studies and School
domination by either directly and assert- at Gatagara than girls with disabilities…we of Social, Political and Administrative Sciences,
ively confronting it, or by using more subtle don’t have many female teachers to sup- University of Rwanda

22 June 15 - 21, 2018

By Francis Byaruhanga

ccess to information
and public confidence
in the media has risen
in Rwanda, according
to the views of journalists and
government officials. The only
problem appears to be around
the inability of journalist to do
thorough investigative report-
It is a point the Minister of
Justice, Johnston Busingye,
noted when he addressed par-
ticipants in a training of media
practitioners on reporting about
judicial matters last week in
Busingye said journalists
need to act impose checks and
balances on any country’s gov-
ernance by “revealing the hid-
den facts”.
The media, he said, is
expected to keep powers that
be in check and advocating for
the voiceless given its watchdog
role. This responsibility can

Media access
only be accomplished with ease
access to information by the case five years ago.
media. “Access to information is
“A good journalist works in improving, but there are some

to information
the interests of the general pub- challenges when it comes
lic, not for anyone else. There- to investigative reporting.
fore, appropriate reporting is Therefore, media houses need
critical and a must. Though you to support report reporters in

are free to access any informa- this area because investigation
tion from government, that skills are vital if media is to play
does not give you the right to its watchdog role,” he said.
use it any way you want,” the Peacemaker
minister said. Mbungiramihigo, the Media
Chriophas Barore, the acting High Council executive
president of the Rwanda Media
Commission, said access to
But challenges persist secretary, said growth of
investigative journalism is
information has tremendously being hampered by lack of
increased with more journalists easily accessing information. attached to the information in funds in media houses; a
able to get information from “For instance, if a journalist is the pre-trial investigation of situation he said also affects
government agencies. having a problem reporting on court cases,” he said, “How- media performance. The official
Rwanda implemented the the land laws in Rwanda they ever when the case is in court, added that there were isolated
access to information legislation can just visit the ministry web- the information is open to the cases of mistreatment of
in 2013 and Barore attributed sites and access all legislation public.” reporters by sources.
the increase to sanctioning of pertaining to land,” he added. He faulted judicial sector According to Aissa Kizza, a
civil servants who deny media However, Jean Pierre reporters for making their own female journalist at Royal FM
information. Habarurema, the national judgments about cases. in Kigali, some sources do
The Rwandan constitution prosecutor at Rwanda National “There have been cases not respect female reporters,
provides for this right and even Prosecution Authority, advised where the right to be presumed adding that the perception of
goes ahead to state that free- the media practitioners that innocent has been violated by the Rwandans is still negative
dom of the press and expres- reporting on judicial matters journalists wrongly referring to as far as female journalists are
sion is guaranteed by the state, requires a different approach. a suspect in a case as a ‘convict’ concerned.  
Articles 65 and 66 of the media He said access to information before they are sentenced,” he “Some still want to sleep
law state that when a journal- on judicial matters is differ- said. with female journalists in
ist has a press card, he must be ent compared to other fields Gonzaga Muganwa, the exec- return for services they seek
facilitated to access Information. “because of its unique nature”. utive secretary Association of or information. This has
As part of the process, all “Investigation is entirely the Journalists in Rwanda, said kept away would be young
government institutions are secret and journalists are some- public confidence has risen, eas- reporters, creating a gender
obliged to have institutional times not given information ing access to vital information gap in the media industry,”
websites, where journalists can because of the ethical principles by reporters, which was not the she said.

June 15 - 21, 2018 23


President Donald Trump and North Korea’s leader Kim Jong Un sign documents as U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and the North Korean leader’s
sister Kim Yo Jong look on at a signing ceremony at the Capella Hotel on Sentosa island in Singapore on June 12, 2018./   Saul Loeb—AFP/Getty Images

Trump and Kim summit

Each got a win but who got more?
By Brian Bennett two men to walk toward a room for a one- an agreement to stop joint military exercises

on-one meeting that lasted more than half with South Korea, which Trump called
hen Kim Jong Un walked out an hour. “provocative” and expensive “war games,”
to shake hands with President It was a historic meeting during which arguing it would save the U.S. a lot of
Donald Trump — the first time the two leaders did their best to set aside 60 money not to have to fly bombers to South
a North Korean leader has met years of dark history and distrust as well as Korea from Guam for the drills.
face to face with an American president — their own jabs at each other. The U.S. also spent taxpayer money craft-
he did not wear the ubiquitous red pin with But it is just that history of brinksman- ing what amounted to a propaganda movie
the portraits of his father and grandfather ship and betrayal that makes the next steps extolling North Korea’s possible future. In
seen on his chest in countless propaganda in negotiations so crucial and progress so a slick, highly produced film made by the
stills. improbable. Kim has long seen his nuclear White House to show movie-obsessed Kim
The small gesture spoke to a big opening, weapons program as a deterrent to the kind Jong Un during their meeting, a booming
a signal that Kim may be willing to break of military intervention that toppled Sad- voiceover says, “the past doesn’t have to be
with the bellicose records of his father and dam Hussein, while the Trump Administra- the future” as images of the lights turning
grandfather and the first several years of his tion, like its predecessors, has insisted that on in darkened North Korea and gleaming
own time in power. is the one thing that it would have to give skyscrapers in Pyongyang flip by.
For his part, Trump set aside his past up in order to join the world community as
taunts and insults and launched a pitch for a peer.
how prosperous North Korea could be if it On Tuesday morning, it was clear that Trump said he is “not concerned at all”
changes course, going as far as showing a the only progress toward denuclearization that Kim could use the film the White
U.S.-produced movie to Kim with a vision was rhetorical. The main achievement of the House made to show North Korea as an
of his country as a wealthy, developed state. summit was the summit itself — a propa- equal power to the U.S.
He also played the role of gracious host ganda win for Kim at home, and something “I’ll do whatever it takes to make the
— and perhaps older brother — holding that Trump would cast as a win for himself world a safer place,” he said in response to a
Kim’s handshake for 13 seconds, briefly as well. The biggest concession from the question from TIME.
touching Kim’s arm, then gesturing for the final agreement came on the American side: That the summit happened at all was a

24 June 15 - 21, 2018

rare breakthrough helped by
Trump’s willingness to ignore
the past and diplomatic conven- The full text of the
Trump-Kim agreement
tions and start fresh with one
of the U.S.’s longest and most
intractable adversaries.
“Rightly or wrongly, he’s
unburdened by recent history,”
said Michael Allen, who worked
in the President George W. Bush
national security council and
A photo of the document President
advised the Trump transition
team. “He’s not afraid to visit
Donald Trump signed revealed that the
the premise of an issue and ask,
‘Now, wait a second, let’s go leaders agreed on four primary points.
back. Why don’t you smart guys
tell me why we are still doing
this?’” By Everett Rosenfeld
So far both leaders are
getting what they want out of President Donald Trump
the exchange. Kim carefully and North Korean leader Kim
orchestrated the exchange to Jong Un signed an agreement
create the illusion that he’s an at the conclusion of the June
equal power to the leader of 12 historic summit. Here’s
the free world. Since he started what it says, according to
down this conciliatory path, he a photo of Trump’s signed
has had two visits to China and document:
met with South Korean leaders Joint Statement of President
and Russia’s foreign minister. Donald J. Trump of the
For his part, Trump gets to United States of America and
revel in a characteristically bold Chairman Kim Jong Un of the
moment on the international Democratic People’s Republic
stage that had eluded his of Korea at the Singapore
predecessors — never mind Summit
that they had intentionally President Donald J.
not granted North Korea an Trump of the United States building can promote the significance in overcoming
audience until it had shown of America and Chairman denuclearization of the Korean decades of tensions and
more progress in ending its Kim Jong Un of the State Peninsula, President Trump hostilities between the two
nuclear program. Affairs Commission of the and Chairman Kim Jong Un countries and for the opening
Trump has said he’d be open Democratic People’s Republic state the following: up of a new future, President
to giving Kim’s government of Korea (DPRK) held a first,  The United States and the Trump and Chairman Kim
security assurances in exchange historic summit in Singapore DPRK commit to establish Jong Un commit to implement
for giving up its nuclear on June 12, 2018. new U.S.-DPRK relations the stipulations in this
weapons and promoting President Trump and in accordance with the joint statement fully and
economic development to help Chairman Kim Jong Un desire of the peoples of the expeditiously. The United
its people. Even if little comes of conducted a comprehensive, two countries for peace States and the DPRK commit
their first meeting, Trump aides in-depth, and sincere and prosperity. to hold follow-on negotiations,
point to the fact that he has exchange of opinions on  The United States and led by the U.S. Secretary of
successfully convinced China to the issues related to the the DPRK will join their State, Mike Pompeo, and a
let international sanctions affect establishment of new U.S.- efforts to build a lasting relevant high-level DPRK
the country, prompted North DPRK relations and the and stable peace regime official, at the earliest possible
Korea to suspend ballistic building of a lasting and on the Korean Peninsula. date, to implement the
missile and nuclear tests robust peace regime on the  Reaffirming the April outcomes of the U.S.-DPRK
and released three American Korean Peninsula. President 27, 2018 Panmunjom summit.
detainees. Trump committed to provide Declaration, the DPRK President Donald J
Before the meeting, Trump security guarantees to the commits to work toward Trump of the United States
took to Twitter to rebut his DPRK, and Chairman Kim complete denuclearization of America and Chairman
critics in typically undiplomatic Jong Un reaffirmed his firm of the Korean Peninsula. Kim Jong Un of the State
and ungrammatical language, and unwavering commitment  The United States and Affairs Commission of the
calling them “haters & losers.” to complete denuclearization the DPRK commit to Democratic People’s Republic
“We have our hostages, of the Korean Peninsula. recovering POW/MIA of Korea have committed to
testing, research and all missile Convinced that the remains, including the cooperate for the development
launches have stoped, and establishment of new U.S.- immediate repatriation of of new U.S.-DPRK relations
these pundits, who have called DPRK relations will contribute those already identified. and for the promotion of
me wrong from the beginning, to the peace and prosperity Having acknowledged peace, prosperity, and security
have nothing else they can say!” of the Korean Peninsula and that the U.S.-DPRK summit of the Korean Peninsula and of
he wrote. “We will be fine!” of the world, and recognizing — the first in history — was the world.
that mutual confidence an epochal event of great Source: Internet

June 15 - 21, 2018 25

Bitcoins, cryptowallets,
How are they related and how are digital currencies
created, regulated, and used for ordinary transactions?
By Efpraxia D. Zamani However, as we argued in a recent study, based transactions. The production of

a significant adoption barrier to bitcoin is bitcoins is described as “mining”, but
hen the bitcoin was first the lack of usability. the only similarity between this and
introduced eight years Since the inception of cryptocurrency, mining for gold or valuable gems, is that
ago, it promised to change developers and researchers have been both processes are very, very difficult
payments. People would be using metaphors to explain bitcoin in to achieve. Finally, bitcoins are called
able to transact directly with each other, a clear effort to help people feel more “coins”, even though they are entirely
without needing to place their trust in comfortable with the technology. digital.
banks – but that promise still hasn’t A secure application for holding Using metaphors to refer to these
materialised and adoption of bitcoins is bitcoins is dubbed a “cryptowallet”, the technologies helps people feel more
low. trading platforms where people can buy familiar with the technology. But there is
We were first told in 2009 that many and sell bitcoins are called “exchanges”, also a downside: people expect that the
transactions would be verifiable and and in several locations around the technology can be used as regular money.
validated by the bitcoin protocol. world, ATMs have emerged for bitcoin- One could easily believe that, in fact,

26 June 15 - 21, 2018

such “coins” are stored in a “wallet”, are more likely to trust the technology if leveraging the power of advanced
which leads to further misinterpretations: they have a better understanding of how computers and graphic cards. In return
If these are coins, what do they look like? the bitcoin protocol works. This can be for their services (creating new bitcoins,
If it’s real money, how do I get refunds achieved without forcing everybody to authenticating transactions, maintaining
for paying for stuff? And do I get change become an expert in cryptography. the blockchain), they get rewarded with
if I don’t have the exact amount? But new bitcoins.
the coins don’t exist. They are merely Four essential facts about bitcoin Where are bitcoins stored? A
entries in a highly secure, very restricted What is bitcoin? It’s one of many cryptowallet – which is a software
database. cryptocurrencies – but the only one that application that stores private keys (code
There are no wallets, crypto or has grabbed the headlines. It is a type of that looks like a very long PIN) – is where
otherwise. These are either software digital currency, created and regulated all bitcoins are stored. These private
applications that may or may not connect by a network of thousands of computers keys are connected to public keys (code
to the internet, or hardware-based (known as peers) using encryption again, but the equivalent would be a bank
solutions (similar to USB sticks). ATMs techniques. Because of this, its production account). The best way to understand
can be used to buy and sell coins, but is independent from any authority, such how a cryptowallet works is to think of
teller machines do not hold “coins”. as banks and sovereign states – and it, in similar terms, as a secure connection
And, in the bitcoin world, there are many trust in the bitcoin is produced by the between a person’s PIN to their bank
transactions that can’t mimic how regular technology itself. How does this happen? account, which then allows them to check
money works. Meet the blockchain: Simply put, the balances and make payments.
If I pay for something with pound blockchain is a very restricted database,
notes and then regret my purchase, I can whose entries are the bitcoin transactions. Money makes the world go round
return the item to the shop and the shop The blockchain operates as a digital The bitcoin hasn’t become the
may or may not issue a refund. But the ledger of transactions. Just like regular alternative payment system for
bitcoin protocol doesn’t allow this. If a businesses that keep a record of money consumers that was promised eight
transfer of bitcoins has been broadcast to coming in and going out, users of the years ago. Widespread adoption of the
the network, by design, that transaction cryptocurrency need to record all bitcoin- cryptocurrency is hobbled by a number
is final. It means that, had I paid for that based transactions. The difference is that of factors: its reputation is associated far
item with bitcoins, the shop can’t issue the blockchain is a decentralised and too often with alleged bad boys, and talk
a refund but instead has to process a distributed, open-access ledger whose of a bubble that’s about to pop persists
new payment, or a charge back – which records are permanent and verifiable by even as bitcoin continues to surge. But,
incurs additional processing fees. This the network of peers. So everybody can above all else, few people can cut through
isn’t a refund – as some money would view past transactions, but nobody can the jargon to understand how it actually
be deducted from the full amount I alter them without having the consent works.
originally paid. of the majority. This means that the These perceptions can shift if bitcoin-
blockchain doesn’t exhibit weaknesses based transactions become easier to
X marks the spot associated with traditional ledgers. The comprehend in a way that will help
To support the adoption of bitcoin as blockchain technology is secure by design. people build trust in the technology.
an alternative payment, we need to have How are bitcoins produced? Through Instead of replicating old paradigms,
a system that is cheaper, better and more mining, which is undertaken by the bitcoin should be embraced as a fresh new
desirable compared with other forms of peers of the network. The miners are way to pay for stuff.
payments, such as debit cards. people and organisations that connect
The bitcoin is cheaper, because – their computers in the network to offer Efpraxia D. Zamani is a lecturer of
even when paying by debit or credit processing power, using special software information Systems, De Montfort University
cards – there is always a fee involved to solve very difficult algorithms, while
for processing such transactions. Some
merchants will pay the fee themselves, or
roll this cost over to the consumer, as an
extra charge for paying by card. Paying
Bitcoin loses $40 billion in the market value
in bitcoins has zero cost or very low
cost, subject to how much of a hurry the
Bitcoin on June 12 fell to a two-month low, sliding in three of the last four
sessions on nagging regulatory and security concerns after the weekend hacking
consumer is in.
of South Korean cryptocurrency exchange Coinrail.
Everyday transactions in bitcoins
are fairly straightforward and security
The original virtual currency neared its lowest level of the year of just under
is robust: if I need to pay somebody in $6,000 BTC=BTSP on the Bitstamp platform. It fell to a low of below $6,500 and
bitcoins, I can send the exact amount last traded down 4.7 percent at $6,551.48. So far in 2018, bitcoin is down nearly 53
to that other person’s bitcoin address percent, after soaring more than 1,300 percent last year.
(a randomly generated sequence of
characters, that changes every time there On June 10, Coinrail, a relatively small cryptocurrency exchange in South Korea,
is a transaction) by confirming it with my said its system was hit by “cyber intrusion,” causing a loss of about 30 percent
unique PIN-like number. The rest is done of the coins traded on the exchange. About 40 billion won ($37.28 million) worth
by the miners (more about which later) of virtual coins were stolen. That wiped out more than $40 billion in the market
who need to verify that the transaction is value of the cryptocurrency market on June 10. Bitcoin itself declined by nearly
unique and genuine. $1,000 with volumes below $5 billion per day, their lowest levels since November
Despite these clear advantages, bitcoin’s 2017. Other digital currencies also declined in sympathy with bitcoin. Ethereum,
desirability factor remains low. And there the second-largest by market value, was down 5 percent over 24 hours to June 13
is little we can do (at least for now) to to $496.07, while the third-largest, Ripple, lost 4.3 percent to $0.55, according to
increase its uptake. Notably, adoption is cryptocurrency price tracker
also affected by trust perceptions. People

June 15 - 21, 2018 27


Blockchain and
Why accountants of the future will need to speak the
digital currencies language if they want your money
By Anwar Halari The Australian Securities Exchange is decision making. Blockchain technology

also considering the use of blockchain tech- will also make it easier for accountants to
f you haven’t already heard of Bitcoin, nology to replace the current clearing and measure the accuracy of data. Meaning that
you either haven’t been paying atten- settlement system of share trading. And the technology should effectively cut down
tion or you’re a time traveller who just even the Bank of England is planning its on fraud and make accounting errors disap-
touched down in 2018. Because by now, own Bitcoin-style virtual currency. pear.
most of us will have heard of Bitcoin and Major governments around the world
some of us have even jumped on the band- have acknowledged and further legitimised The new accountants
wagon, investing in cryptocurrencies. the use of Bitcoins as payment vehicles. In A report by the World Economic Forum
But despite its popularity, many people fact, more and more major companies are suggests that 10% of global GDP will be
still don’t understand the technology that accepting Bitcoins – Microsoft, Virgin Galac- stored on blockchain-related technology by
underlines it: blockchain. In very simple tic and Subway to name a few. It seems 2025. This implies that the way transactions
terms, blockchain technology is an open certain then that blockchain technology has are recorded and communicated will com-
access shared ledger that keeps a record a wide appeal. And although it may be a pletely transform between now and then.
of all the transactions between parties and rocky road ahead, with countries such as It is easy to see then, why accountants of
allows all users to agree on its contents. India and China banning or restricting the the future will need to educate themselves
New information is added in blocks linked use of cryptocurrencies, crypto is here to about Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies if
to the previous blocks, resulting in a chain stay. they are to account for transactions denomi-
of blocks being built. nated in it. The profession will evolve and
This ledger is verified by “miners” to Wider implications adapt massively over the coming years.
make sure it’s true – and so creating an A recent report from the Institute of Char- And in fact, auditors have already started
audit trail. Past records can be viewed tered Accountants in England and Wales auditing transactions in the blockchain.
but not altered without the consent of the on blockchain, claims it is fundamentally Universities around the world have
majority. And it is this technology that is an accounting technology. In its simplest already begun offering blockchain-related
behind cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin – of definitions, accounting is a process of courses. Even the professional accountancy
the value of which rose almost 1400% in the keeping records, and this is precisely what bodies now feature blockchain technology
past year, but has at times, also fallen mas- blockchain offers in a more “modern” and in their qualification syllabus.
sively too. “foolproof” way. As once the records are But of course while all this might sound a
agreed upon and validated, the records bit futuristic to some readers, the evolution
Crypto is here to stay are bundled into blocks that are virtually of money is something that has been going
It can certainly be anticipated that this impossible to change, making the technolo- on for centuries. From a barter system to
evolutionary technology is set to spark a gy tamper-proof. Essentially, as the business gold bars, metal coins to paper money, to
huge revolution in the business world. It’s world adopts the use of accounting systems plastic cards. All we are looking at now, is
already being trialled at governmental level, that use blockchain technology, accountants simply the next cycle in evolution – from
from the Sweden Land Registry, to the Big will spend less time doing the mundane electronic money to cryptocurrencies.
Four accountancy firm such as E&Y – who tasks of bookkeeping and reconciliations,
accept Bitcoin as payment for its consul- and will instead focus their energy and time Anwar Halari is a lecturer in Accounting and
tancy services. on the interpretation of information and Finance, The Open University

28 June 15 - 21, 2018

Why price of rice is rising
Supply expected to increase starting next month
By Isaac Khisa Currently, importing a metric tonne of For instance, in a two-page appeal pub-

rice attracts US$345 or 75% of the value of lished in The Daily Monitor, the farmers said
he price of rice, which had dropped import whichever is higher as a tax irrespec- they are alarmed by the “ongoing dilution
by around 30% last year, has spiked tive of the type of rice-husked, milled, pro- of the East African Common External Tariff
again owing to low off-season pro- cessed or packed ready for distribution. policies and the shift towards increasing
duction and increased import costs, “Since the re-instatement of taxes… importation of rice”.
according to millers and traders. importing brown rice for processing locally The publication was in response to
In the past three months, the commod- has become uneconomical. We are now reports that Rice Millers Council Uganda
ity’s price has increased by more than 33% simply waiting for our rice in Northern had met President Yoweri Museveni asking
to Shs4, 500 per kilogram – meaning con- Uganda to mature and start milling again,” for a reduction in import duty on brown
sumers have to pay more. Adito said. rice from US$345 per tonne to around
This is the same price that the commodity FOL Group, with a capacity to process at US$150. 
traded at in April last year prior to govern- 300 tonnes of rice per day, acquired 14,000 The statement was signed by RAU
ment intervention. acres of land sometime back in Nwoya Chairman, John Daniel, the coordinator for
Phillip Idro, the managing director of district, with 1,000 acres already under rice Northern Chapter, Andrew Bongomin Okot
Upland Rice Millers Company Limited, cultivation. and the Chapter Coordinator for Eastern
who also doubles as the chairperson of Uganda, Ahmed Naleba.
Rice Millers Council of Uganda, told The Amidst all this, is data from the Agricul-
Independent in an interview that the surge ture Ministry that show rice production in
in the price of the household commodity the country standing at 237,000 metric tones
is attributed to low off-season production per year – which is lower than consumption
early in the year leading to rice scarcity. – at 444,468 metric tones. The supply deficit
“At the moment, it is off-season and there is filled up with imports mainly from Paki-
is no rice to mill,” he said. “We expect some stan and Tanzania. This means that Uganda
of the crop to start maturing next month alone faces a shortage of 207, 468 metric
and this could drive the price downwards.” tonnes of rice per annum.
Idro, who claims to have more than Surprisingly, for business reasons, some
30,000 rice out growers, however, said, the dealers re-export the commodity to the
current commodity price could have been neighboring markets especially South
even higher had it not been for the imports Sudan and the eastern Democratic Republic
from Tanzania that boosted supply. of Congo – which could partly be respon-
However, he could not state the amount sible for price hikes.
of rice imported into the country.
Geoffrey Adito, the director for technical Is the future bright?
services and development at FOL Group, Government officials are planning to
the company behind the production of On the other hand, sources at the SWT boost production in partnership with farm-
Kingdom Rice, said the current surge in Tanners, the company behind the Pakistan ers to at least 680,000metric tonnes of rice by
price is as a result of high cost of imports SWT Rice, said weakening of the shilling 2020 valued at US$376million.
and scarcity of locally produced rice to mill. against US dollar has also contributed to the Going forward, players are suggesting
“As I talk now, we have not been process- surge in rice prices countrywide. good ideas. Idro said there is need for the
ing rice in the last two months because of Data from Bank of Uganda shows the local farmers to increase output and thus,
scarcity,” he said. shilling has since December last year lost its minimize shortage by among other things
He said the company has also failed to value against the US dollar by approx.6.5% increasing the acreage on which rice would
import unprocessed rice, commonly known to Shs3, 820. grow.
as brown rice, into the country to mill as a This development comes amidst several The Rice Association confirmed that most
result of the government’s decision to re- demands that rice farmers have put before of the 670 small scale rice millers and a few
instate import taxes on the commodity. government. In the recent weeks, farmers medium and large scale millers in the coun-
The government had in April last year and dealers under their umbrella organisa- try remain idle during the off-season. But
waived taxes on import of brown rice to tion Rice Association of Uganda cried out the group thinks this scenario can be dealt
increase supply and make the commodity to government to rethink a policy that is with accordingly.
affordable to buy and consume. This was encouraging more imports of the commod- Part of the solutions farmers suggests
after the price per kilo had risen by 30% ity – which they say is pushing them out of include millers investing in storage facili-
starting January. business. ties to be able to operate during off-season
Last year, the surge in the price was period.
attributed to the prolonged drought that Need for import subsidy The other is offering attractive price so
led to food shortage in different parts of the Farmers and other dealers in this trade that farmers are motivated to grow and
country. appear to be pushing for different interests. supply more to millers.

June 15 - 21, 2018 29


A section of the Roofings plant in Namanve, a Kampala suburb.   Independent/Jimmy Siya

Inside the 2017 private sector

investment survey and professional, scientific and technical
The survey indicates that distribution by
Real estate, transportation and storage, sector reflected a high number of enterprises
with Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and
agriculture record drop in revenue borrowing in manufacturing and service
Overall, the 746 enterprises had an
By Julius Businge a series of surveys carried outby the three estimated contribution to value added in

government agencies – Uganda Bureau current prices during the 2016 survey of
racking private sector performance of Statistics, Bank of Uganda (the fund- Shs7.1trillion, equivalent to about 8.9% of
requires that entities get organised ing agency of the survey) and the Uganda GDP.
through joining associations. This is Investment Authority– aimed at compiling In addition, the samples’ contribution
to enable themlobby for government Uganda’s balance of payments, interna- to fixed capital formation during 2016 was
support to improve on their performance. tional investment position and other related estimated at about Shs14.1trillion represent-
This was the key message from Gideon key macroeconomic factors to guide policy ing 68.4% of total fixed capital formation and
Badagawa, the Executive Director, Private moves. 80.4% of private fixed capital formation.
Sector Foundation Uganda (PSFU) during A total of 860 questionnaires were admin- On employment, the findings indicated
the release of the Private Sector Investment istered during the survey from which 746 that total employment by the enterprises
Survey 2017 on June 01, at Imperial Royale enterprises responded, representing a that responded grew by 3% from 100,127
Hotel in Kampala. response rate of 86.7%. The highest share employees during 2015 to 103,108 employees
“Let us know where you are and what of respondent enterprises (21%) were in during 2016.
you are doing,” Badagawa said. “Let’s be wholesale and retail activities, followed by There was also an increase in com-
organised and be able to be helped.” manufacturing (20.8%), finance and insur- pensation of employees of 14.7% from
The 2017 survey that captured data for ance (9.9%), construction (9.2%), informa- Shs3.1trillion in 2015 to Shs3.5trillion during
the previous year (2016) was the sixth in tion communication and technology (6.4%) 2016. Profitability of enterprises surveyed

30 June 15 - 21, 2018

tinued to provide the financial, human and and) paid out by enterprises that responded
technological resources required to comple- increased by 14.7% from Shs3.1 trillion dur-
ment domestic private investments, and to ing 2015 to Shs3,5trillion during 2016.
support growth and development on top Under this component, domestic employ-
of creating new jobs. Further, the activities ees received the highest share of total
of FDI boost demand and improve public employees’ compensation accounting for
revenue. an average of 93% of the total compensa-
In essence, FDI enterprises are associated tion during the two years. Compensation
with increased capital formation, export to non-residents increased by 509.6% to
growth and technological transfer within Shs2.3trillion in 2016 from Shs0.4 trillion in
the host economy. 2015.
In the area of transactions involving
other equity investment (equity investment Net profits and dividends
of less than 10% of total equity) during 2016 The findings from entities that responded
were estimated at US$ 16.5 million. indicate that net profits reported for 2016
Meanwhile, the largest inflows or dis- increased by 57.4% to Shs1.2trillion from
bursements of debt from foreign affiliates Shs800billion earned during 2015.
went to electricity and gas, ICT and agri- In addition, retained earnings increased
culture. to Shs622billion during 2016 from Shs-
The three sectors jointly accounted for 248billion in 2015.
86.2% of the total disbursements from for- In terms of profitability by sector, finance
eign affiliated entities received during 2016. and insurance had the largest share of total
In addition, the survey findings showed profits estimated at 60.9% of total profits for
that entities in the electricity and gas sec- all entities that responded.
tors had the largest exposure to foreign The total profits for this sectorincreased
debt from unrelated entities, accounting for to Shs767billion in 2016 from Shs560.7billion
73.4% of the outstanding stock of debt in registered in 2015. Enterprises in electricity
this category at the end of 2016. and gas and manufacturing sectors fol-
Entities in electricity and gas, agriculture lowed with profitability of Shs287.4billion
and ICT sectors received 86.2% of the total and Shs200billion, respectively during 2016.
disbursements and remitted 60.5% of the Meanwhile, some entities registered
repayments to non-affiliated entities during losses in 2016. Large losses amounting
2016. to Shs104.3billion were recorded in the
ICT sector followed by accommoda-
rose by 57.4% to Shs1.2trillion during 2016 Big sector revenues tion and food at Shs47.2billion, trans-
from Shs800billion recorded in 2015. According to the report, there was an port Shs33.9billion, and construction
increase in total turnover (sales revenue) Shs23.5billion, education Shs11.5billion and
Foreign Direct Investment of 37.1% to Shs44.5trillion in 2016 from mining and quarrying Shs1.8billion.
The survey indicated that the grossed-up Shs32.4trillion recorded in 2015.
findings on FDItransactions during 2016 The increase was largely on account of UBOS calls for cooperation
increased by US$87.2 million to US$625.7 growth in ICT, wholesale and retail, arts, Like Badagawa, the other leaders from
million from US$538.5 million in 2015. entertainment and recreation, health and collaborating agencies want the private sec-
This upward movement was largely social work activities, education, mining tor to cooperate in the process of conducting
attributed to higher inflows in the mining and quarrying and finance. these surveys.
and quarrying sector which is linked to However, the report notes that there was Ben Paul Mungyereza, the executive
the issuance of exploration and production a decline in sales revenue in real estate of director of Uganda Bureau of Statistics
licenses to the companies in the oil sector. 93.2% from Shs859billion in 2015 to Shs- (UBOS) urged companies that snub survey
Additionally, the inflows in 2016 were 58billion in 2016; transportation and storage questions to stop. He said UBOS remains
mainly on account of higher inflows activities of 29.2% from Shs835billion in committed to keeping detailed information
of equity capital which increased to 2015 to Shs591.9billion in 2016; agriculture, of individual companies to themselves so as
US$395.7million during 2016 compared to forestry and fishing of 15.9% from Shs not to compromise their business strategy
US$352.7million recorded in 2015. 1.1trillion in 2015 to Shs1trillion in 2016 and targets.
In terms of numbers, the major recipient and water supply and sewerage activities “For those who refuse to respond, it is
sectors of FDI during the year were mining of 13.6% from Shs34.7billion in 2015 to unfortunate,” Mungyereza said adding, “In
and quarrying including oil (33.4%), whole- Shs29.9billion in 2016. business today, information is important
sale and retail (30.6%), finance and insur- in helping players survive in a competitive
ance (23.9%) and manufacturing (11.1%). Jobs and compensation market.”
In terms of source of FDI, Netherlands, Officials said that the number of employ- Going forward, according to the report,
Kenya, UK, France, Switzerland, Australia, ees in the enterprises that responded the prospects for 2017 are higher FDI
South Africa, India, Bermuda and Sey- increased by 3% from 100,127 as at Decem- inflows supported by huge investments
chelles were the largest sources accounting ber 31,2015 to 103,108 employees as at projected for some of the major oil sector
for 85.5% of total FDI stocks received by December 31, 2016with the highest growth related projects such as the construction of
Uganda during 2016. among non-resident employees. oil roads, Kabaale Airport and the oil pipe-
The survey says that foreign private On compensation, the survey collected line.
capital, particularly in the form of FDI is an information on compensation of employees Meanwhile, at the same event, Mungyer-
important source of finance for most devel- during 2015 and 2016. Total compensation eza launched the questionnaire for conduct-
oping economies. of employees (namely; wages, salaries, con- ing the 2018 PSIS that will capture data for
In these economies, FDI entities have con- tribution to pension fund, fringe benefits the current year – 2017.

June 15 - 21, 2018 31

Executive Style

Opportunity Bank eyes

bigger market share
Could you briefly describe Tineyi The central bank is proac-
whoTineyi Mawocha is and tive. The new changes at
the management principles Mawocha management level, I believe,
is the Chief

he holds as CEO? are meant to improve the way
have 18 years of banking Executive it does the regulation. The
experience. I have previ- central bank should assist
ously worked in the hos- Officer of bankers by ensuring the regu-
pitality industry and fast Opportunity lations don’t bring in costs. For
food management. I believe instance, in the past which is
results are achieved by the
Bank Uganda changing now, it would want
right people who are led very Limited, a tier each bank to have its own
well and held accountable by II financial sophisticated data room which
measuring their performance was costly. Going forward,
and rewarding their success. institution. He the bank should allow mecha-
I also believe in punishing spoke to The nisms of platform sharing like
or trying to remedy non- Independent’s they have done with agency
performers. I also believe in banking.
leading from the front and Julius
management by both walking Businge What are the reasons behind
the business and by statistics. about their your expansion and rebrand-
ing drive in remote towns of
Generally speaking, what is operations Uganda?
your assessment of the bank- and sector We are growing and
ing sector at the moment? also building our capacity.
There are many players in
prospects. Rebranding is being done to
the market and each is trying increase customer confidence
to find its own niche, and that is relationship based on trust. financial players like SACCOs in our brand. Our profits almost
is fine.The cake is huge. There The community or groups that in Uganda? doubled in 2017 as compared
may be some consolidation we lend are self-regulating and We look at them as partners to 2016 performance because of
in the future but I am sure the thus help us in reducing indebt- and not competitors. They our good working relationship
customers are getting what edness. We are active when might encroach on our areas with our customers and ventur-
they want. It is good that the monitoring loans. somehow but I think telecoms ing in new areas of revenue.
central bank has allowed ban- are preparing many people
cassurance to rollout which we What is triggering your move who are financially excluded to What are the top four sectors
believe will benefit the custom- from Tier II to a tier Ifinancial join banking. We have to work that you consider profitable for
ers and the economy. The sector institution amidst reportsthat with them synergistically. investors to sink in their cash
has somewhat suffered because some banks are struggling to as we speak, and why?
of a slow growing economy. survive? You are recording good per- One cannot go wrong with
The agriculture sector which is This is customer driven. formance with small and me- agriculture especially when
one of our key sectors of lend- Our customers especially dium clients – who form your they use irrigation even at
ing has been struggling because SMEs keep asking for different largest customer base – yet small scale. Education is highly
of bad weather and changes in products like current accounts, they are feared for not living sought after and therefore a
prices. foreign currency and other longer…what magic is behind great area of investment fol-
trade finance services. As Tier your business strategy? lowed by services especially
Non-performing loans have II institution we are not able to Our largest customer base is hospitality and then retail trad-
been problematic in recent offer these directly; we have to group clients, which one may ing.
years for banks; how are you depend on another institution term as micro enterprises. The
managing them at Opportu- and that takes a lot of time. The same customers are growing Where do you envision your
nity Bank? good thing is we are operating rapidly and becoming SMEs. performance as a bank in the
NPLs have been growing at above the required capital and We advise them on how to coming few years?
industry level largely because are currently around Shs28bil- manage their finances to ensure We are on a major growth
of not monitoring the loans lion. they grow and don’t close shop. path to serve more customers
closely and also diversion of and mainstream them. We see
funds. At Opportunity Bank How is Opportunity Bank What would be your policy growth in youth and female
we do progress disbursement working towards beating com- recommendations for the cen- customer base and we believe
which help us in detecting petition coming from mobile tral bank to tackle current sec- this is highly sustainable.
misuse of funds. Our model telecom and other non-bank tor challenges?

32 June 15 - 21, 2018

csr Aviation

Coca-Cola’s plastic recycler thinking big KQ unveils three Non

supply chain director said their target is to Stop flights to Cape Town

collect 100% of the equivalent of the plastics
they put out through their business by 2030. enya’s na-
“We are committed to an initiative that tional car-
we call world without waste,” he said, on rier, Kenya
behalf of the managing director said. Airways,
Currently, the company does collect has unveiled three
about 34% of the plastics it puts out through non-stop flights to
their soda and water business. Cape Town South
Malac (2R) engaging Coca-Cola staff
Plastic Recycling Industries is collecting Africa.

about 10 tons of plastic daily, ridding the The new flights
xecutives at Coca-Cola Beverages Af- environment of close to 400 tons of plastic to the country’s for the growing
rica’s subsidiary – Plastic Recycling per month. second-most popu- number of our cus-
Industries – are thinking big in terms US Ambassador to Uganda, Deborah lous urban city, tomers who travel
of collecting plastic waste and put- Malac commended the company for clean- will depart Nairobi between Nairobi
ting it into other use. Joining the rest of the ing up the environment through the new every Wednesday, and Cape Town,”
world to mark the World Environment Day business model. Friday and Sunday said Vincent Coste
on June 05, Peter Obong, the company’s at 3:30pm. (Pictured), KQ’s
The airline said Chief Commercial
the new flights is in Officer.
Tanzanian billionaires buys stake in Equity Bank line with its strategy “In addition to
enhancing Africa

to assert its pres-
anzanian billionaires Aunali and The duo has invested more than ence and expand integration, this
Sajjad Rajabali have bought seven Kshs1.5 billion in NSE-listed firms over connectivity across new route will be
million shares of Equity Group the past two years, taking significant Africa and open up beneficial to the
worth Sh344 million, expanding stakes in companies such as Co-op Bank, opportunities for tourism industry
their investment in Nairobi Securities The Rajabalis are now ranked tourism, trade and as it establishes
Exchange-listed firms, Kenya’s Business seventh in Equity’s list of top individual investment. vital links with our
Daily reported. investors with a 0.19% stake. Equity “We are indeed global network.”
Their purchase of the bank’s stock is Group has operations in across the east very proud to Currently, the
disclosed in the lender’s May regulatory African region including the Democratic increase our fre- airline operates
filing of its ownership structure. Republic of Congo. quencies to South seven weekly flights
Africa to cater to Cape Town

banking csr

DFCU plans to Airtel rising stars initiative returns

lead in banking

FCU bank top executives are plan-
ning to make the lender one of the
most loved and best performing
financial institutions through in-
vestments in digital systems and working
towards transforming it to officer several
unique products to its customers, accord-
ing to Elly Karuhanga, the bank’s chairman
Board of Directors.
Speaking at the 53rd annual general meet-
ing at Sheraton Hotel in Kampala on June
07, Karuhanga said they plan to improve Airtel staff with rising star players

the internal banking platforms, offer agent
banking solutions, cut operational costs, irtel Uganda’s Rising Stars Initia- This year, V.G. Somasekhar, the compa-
strengthen retail banking solutions, improve tive – a tournament that gives ny’s managing director said in Kampala on
customer value proposition and offer finan- talented boys and girls under the June 7 that the matches will be played in the
cial services to the oil and gas sector in the age of 17 years an opportunity to eight FUFA regions with Fort Portal hosting
next three years. showcase their abilities in hope of securing a the finals on August 27.
“We want to become the market leader,” sports career, is back. The matches will be closely watched and
he said amidst cheers from shareholders. It is the 7th season of the tournament. The followed by FUFA selected scouts whose
In 2017, the bank increased its net profit by tournament that started in 2011 has identi- role will be to identify the next Ugandan
136% to Shs106bn prompting its manage- fied many celebrated stars such as Farouk superstars. The winning teams at national
ment to recommend Shs6.8 as dividend per Miya, Muhammed Shaban and many others finals will each bag Shs5million among
share. The bank has 67 branches and 100 who have gone on to play professional foot- other individual team accolades.
ATMs countrywide. ball for local and international football clubs.

June 15 - 21, 2018 33


Karuma civil works at 80%

completion- UEGCL Board
By Ian Katusiime seven-member board

inspected works in
ivil works on the the tunnels at Karuma
600MW Karuma Construction site including
Hydropower the surge chamber, an area
Dam are at 80% where pressure of water is
completion, according levelled during the process
to Proscovia Njuki, the of electricity generation.
Chairperson of the Board The board also toured
of Directors of Uganda the employers’ camp where
Electricity Generation construction is underway
Company Limited for offices, labs, residential
(UEGCL), which is houses, canteen, and a
responsible for overseeing services and facilities
works on the dam. centre.
Abrarah Babirye, (L) a spare parts dealer in Kibuye, receives a dummy air Njuki, who was speaking The government hopes
ticket from Total Uganda Lubricants & Specialties Manager, Hosea Nkojo to journalists during the to use the extra electricity
in the concluded Buy, Verify and Win lubricants campaign. board’s quarterly visits from Karuma and the
of inspection of works at 183MW Isimba on the
the dam on June 07, said downstream of River Nile
“UEGCL looks forward to drive the electricity
to the timely completion prices downwards to stir
of this project taking into growth of the industrial
account the elements of sector.
quality, cost and time. Currently, Uganda
In this regard, we are is ranked second in
in full preparation for terms of high electricity
the commencement prices across the East
of Operations and African Community
Maintenance of the plant. (EAC) countries, with
We are here as the board the exception of Burundi.
to assess progress on the Karuma Hydropower Dam
ground,” she added. is expected to be launched
During the tour, the in December.

Ricvky Rapa Thomson, (R) co-founder Safe Boda and Eunice Among brief the
press during their launch of 50% less promo on June 1.   INDEPENDENT/JIMMY SIYA

Weekly share price movement (June 12)

Security June 12 May 29 Movement
BATU 30,000 30000 00
BOBU 160 160 00
CENT 1,435 1,422 0.9
DFCU 895 896 0.1
EABL 8,387 8,685 3.3
EBL 1,860 1,783 4.3
JHL 18,890 18,110 4.3
KA 362 365 0.8
KCB 1,851 1,727 7.2
NIC 18 19 5.2
NMG 3,778 3,843 1.6
NVL 450 450 00
SBU 31 31 00
Jean Phillipe Bittencourt, (M) Sheraton Kampala Hotel General UCHM 62 59 5.0
Manager serving ISftar Dinner to Muslim orphan children at the UCL 25 25 00
Hotel. Sheraton hosted the orphans as part of their corporate social
UMEME 300 350 14.2
responsibility.   INDEPENDENT/JIMMY SIYA
ALSI -- -- --

34 June 15 - 21, 2018

By Sébastien Turbot
Local solutions for global problems
Local leaders continue to inspire public confidence
where national governments are failing

n June 8, leaders from the irrespective of national agendas. Mayor Rahm Emanuel noted last
largest advanced economies Small and mid-sized cities are also month, this has been positive for many
gathered for the annual G7 raising their international profiles. By cities, allowing them to become testing
summit to discuss the most investing in “smart” and “resilient” grounds for the future of mobility,
pressing challenges the world faces. urban planning, governments from work, housing, energy, education, and
Most of the items on the agenda – Bordeaux in France to Curitiba health.
from climate change to inequality in Brazil are strengthening their “Twenty years from now,” Emanuel
– resonate particularly strongly brand identities and luring talent, told fellow mayors in New York City,
for people living in urban areas, investment, and businesses from we will see “an inflection point where
who comprise 54% of the world’s around the world. the nation-state is in decline, and the
population. And yet, municipal The American-Canadian author and city-state à la Singapore is driving the
governments were not be represented urban activist Jane Jacobs famously cultural and economic activity.”
in any official capacity during the observed that cities are the true Of course, not all cities have the
G7 meetings. This is a mistake; if the engines of national prosperity. Cities same resources, influence, or needs
world’s biggest problems are to be power growth through innovation, as Chicago or Singapore. But any
solved, cities must become part of the trade, and exchange. And city services city leader nowadays can appreciate
conversation. are often more visible to citizens than the importance of standing on
Historically, cities have played a federal aid; consider, for example, the frontlines of change. Inspired
marginal role in global debates. In who responds during a traffic accident by this solidarity, and connected
the United States, for example, early or a natural disaster. through international networks
cities were rife with corruption and To be sure, today’s cities face like Metropolis, C40 Cities, and 100
factionalism; local politics was messy many challenges. As urban areas Resilient Cities, municipal leaders
enough. But today’s urban centers are have grown, leaders have been everywhere are forging partnerships
economically stronger and politically forced to change how they plan. to create united urban agendas.
bolder. Twenty-first-century cities’ Amid tightening budgets, city At nearly every turn, on just
determination to act in their own governments are moving away from about every major issue, national
interests became clear in late 2017, overly bureaucratic systems toward governments are failing to deliver
when more than 50 US mayors those that encourage greater levels solutions, while city leaders continue
pledged to meet the commitments of of entrepreneurship. But, as Chicago to inspire public confidence.
the 2015 Paris climate agreement – According to a 2017 survey by the
directly challenging President Donald Centre for Political Research at
Trump’s withdrawal from the deal. Sciences Po, 64% of French adults
Last week, leaders from Montreal The American- believe their local mayor is working
and 10,000 other cities around the
world delivered a similar message to
Canadian harder than the executive branch to
solve everyday problems. No doubt
the G7. They presented a declaration author and many other urbanites feel the same
that included a diverse collection of
municipal views on the summit’s urban activist way.
This is an opportune time for city
key themes, and urged national Jane Jacobs leaders to become global players.
governments to collaborate more When gatherings like the G7 summit
closely with their local counterparts. famously are convened to discuss the world’s
These demands, and the manner in
which they are being made, was a first
observed that most difficult challenges, the people
closest to those challenges, who are
for a G7 meeting. The goal is to make cities are the likely to have the most valuable
this the norm.
Still, even without a seat at the
true engines insights concerning how to overcome
them, should be in the room.
table, many of the world’s megacities of national
– powered by strong human capital,
competitive markets, and widespread
prosperity Sébastien Turbot is Executive Director
of the NewCities Foundation.
appeal – are already working to build
a more progressive, inclusive, and Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2018.
sustainable future. From Buenos Aires
to Tokyo, city leaders are making
their concerns known globally – often

June 15 - 21, 2018 35

Prematures at an incubation center at the obstetrics and gynaecology department of Mulago hospital in Kawempe

When preeclampsia
Dr. Nakimuli, “We wanted to save the
mothers. They can only start improving
when we remove them.”
She says some of the mothers could not

strikes in pregnancy
keep the pregnancy to full term because of
preeclampsia, a poorly understood disorder
that affects pregnant women. Since more
and more mothers are getting the complica-
tion, pre-eclampsia cases have been allotted

Disease that’s impossible to predict or a nine bed ward at the facility. But because
of the numbers, some mothers are moni-
tored in the general ward and others in a
prevent is piling pressure on maternity wards non-functional operating theatre that has
now been turned in a ward.

Caught unaware

By Flavia Nassaka tubes running into their little noses. Every
two babies share an incubator and on the Many mothers hit by pre-eclampsia are
evel Four is the busiest floor at day of my visit, about 80 babies were being caught unaware and only wake up on a
the Gynecology and Obstetrics monitored. Up to 100 premature babies are hospital bed. Just like 20-year old Marion
facility at Kawempe Hospital sometimes monitored in this area, accord- Nakirijja.
which is a branch of Mulago ing to Dr. Annette Nakimuli who heads the When we met, she had been on admis-
National Referral Hospital, facility. sion for three days having been rushed
North West of Kampala city. The mothers – one after another – are to the hospital unconscious. Speaking
People dart up and down the stairs to allowed into the guarded room to check with frequent stammers, she says she was
and from the treatment area while more on their tiny babies. Some were delivered surprised to end up in hospital and uncon-
lounge in the waiting area whose only seat at as young as seven months into preg- scious because she had been for antenatal
is the terrazzo floor. nancy. The queue also has a few men – at her local facility in Komamboga along
The Centre of activity is the nursery of the three- among about twenty women. Some Gayaza Road that week. She says being a
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit; a secluded women are pallid, with swollen feet and second time mother, she never anticipated
room where premature babies are nursed. faces, and most have Lesu wrappers tied up any complications. But she started experi-
Visitors enter barefoot after washing hands their chests – the telltale signs of new sickly encing constant palpitations, nausea, and
with a liquid disinfectant. Almost every mothers. All wait anxiously for their turn to headaches before she collapsed.
baby has a pistol-like needle plastered on get in. The situation looks desperate. Experts say pre-eclampsia is strange and
their tiny wrist while a few others have “We had to remove those babies,” says can only be detected by diagnosing persis-

36 June 15 - 21, 2018

tent hypertension and presence of protein confirm for sure whether there’s a genetic says currently their biggest challenge is with
in one’s urine. Many victims will experience predisposition of African women to the con- doing confirmatory tests and making timely
severe headaches, nausea, sudden weight dition. The result was positive – she found decisions. “For some tests, we take them to
gain and swelling along with high blood that the genes that protect African women the main Mulago hospital to be analyzed.
pressure. against preeclampsia are different from On a minimum they will take 24 hours
If not properly diagnosed and managed, those that protect European women. meanwhile the disease is progressing,” she
preeclampsia can progress to eclampsia, says. For her what would be appropriate is
which involves getting seizures. She now wants to save them. using bed side tests that can produce results
“If we skate them in we should try instantly for quick decisions.
Leading killer as much as possible to save them,” But Bukenya says not many health work-
Pre-eclampsia remains one of the leading she says, “We have managed to ers know how to administer an intravenous
causes of maternal death as is thought to lower deaths from bleeding but we drug called magnesium sulphate which is
kill more than 75, 000 women each year in also know the condition contributes used in such cases. That is why they always
Africa. to bleeding. They bleed a lot after refer cases to Mulago Hospital.
At Kawempe, about five mothers report delivery.” The Ministry of Health policy recom-
on a daily basis with the condition. The She has no magic bullet to tackle mends use of Magnesium Sulphate for
hospital’s clinical head Dr. Evelyn Nabunya the condition yet but with constant women suffering from preeclampsia as one
says last year alone, the condition contribut- monitoring and mothers reporting for of the life- saving commodities. On paper
ed 23.7% of the maternal deaths registered. antenatal early, she says many can be the drug is said to be available in 70% of the
Without giving specific figures of the saved because there are those warning facilities across the country.
deaths she said this was an increase from signs that call for immediate action. But a joint research by an NGO – Coali-
the 20% registered in 2016. She added that
in 2017 alone, the hospital received 43,000
women for antenatal and conducted about
27,000 deliveries.
Nabunya who is a consultant gynecolo-
gist says it is preferable if the condition
shows up later in pregnancy because the
mother can either be induced or helped
to deliver through caesarian section. But
when it comes early, the outcome is usually
a baby affected by complications associated
with pre matures and a mother progressing
into eclampsia or developing severe compli-
cations that come with it like kidney failure,
stroke, and liver damage.
It is unclear what causes the disease.
What is currently understood is that the dis-
ease is caused by the placenta developing
abnormally. Studies have showed women
are more likely to develop preeclampsia
during a first pregnancy and that the more
time that elapses between pregnancies the
greater a woman’s risk of developing the
Also, scientists have found the disease to
Expectant mothers take blood pressure tests. High blood pressure in pregnancy could be a sign of pre-eclampsia
be affecting African women more than their
white counterparts. tion for Health Promotion and Social Devel-
Nakimuli says knowing this is not No drugs, no skills opment (HEPs) Uganda and others in 2017
enough as many of the studies that gave Dr. Micheal Bukenya, a gynecologist who found that these drugs are also inaccessible.
these insights were done in the west. For also heads the Parliamentary Health Com- The survey according to HEPs Executive
her, to understand the problem, they have mittee urges pregnant women to beware of Director Dennis Kibira sought to among
to study and re-study the most affected warning signs such as rapid weight gain, others establish accessibility of three vital
cohort until all their questions are answered. severe headaches that do not go away even drugs given to those who develop pre-
She and her team at Mulago have now with use of pain killers, dizziness, vision eclampsia.
embarked on understanding the disease changes, and reduced frequency in urina- Only 5% of public health facilities were
farther. tion. found with Methyldopa tablets, only 17%
“A study is ongoing. We are using genet- He says even women who report to the were found with Magnesium Sulphate, and
ics to understand which women are at risk facilities early are sometimes not helped none of the public health facilities had Cal-
of getting the disorder. We are also trying because many health workers lack train- cium Glocanate. Even in the private facilities
to understand whether there are genes that ing on how to deliver some preeclampsia only 10% of them had the drug.
can protect a woman from the disease,” treatments. A prominent case is that of Also, fear among health workers, of
she says. Later, they hope to find ways to Grace Kaudha Magumba, the woman MP having to deal with prematures, is a major
prevent it. for Iganga District who was hopped from problem as many work in facilities without
Nakimuli has done some studies already facility to facility until she succumbed upon necessary equipment.
that have given her clues. Initially, she reaching Kawempe in July 2017.
recruited 730 mothers from who she col- At the Kawempe facility, with 45 gyne-
lected umbilical cord samples and blood to cologists and about 200 midwives, Nabunya

June 15 - 21, 2018 37


Kasese’s best secret

World-class art, sculpture, coffee
at Rwenzori Founders

By Dominic Muwanguzi main attraction is of course, the world Commission in Kampala, BBC African
renowned Rwenzori Founders – famed for Footballer of the Year trophy and Fadaika
hen in Kasese, the offering residences to world-class sculptors Na BBC award presented annually to the
rustic little town of like Ann Christopher and Jon Buck; both best young African entrepreneur. Some of
past copper mining multi-award winners and Fellows of the their works are on permanent show and
glory that lies 375 Km Royal society of British Sculptors. Local many are for sale.
from Kampala city, in talent includes Isaac Okwir whose specialty Notably, there’s Christopher’s sculpture
western Uganda, make are local totem figures and Peter Oloya `The Shape of Time’ in the lineal format that
sure to visit Rwenzori Founders Art Centre. of the famed Crowned Crane that sits at is emblematic of her other artworks; Isaac
You won’t regret it. Located just eleven Buckingham Palace, England and its edition Okwir’s `Lango Mama’, in distinct style,
kilometres north of the town, the place’s that graces the entrance of the British High that connotes the cultural heritage of the

38 June 15 - 21, 2018

Langi- the calabash covering the head of were only a handful of birds here, but today For example, the craftsman makes a
the little child the woman is carrying on her the number has more than quadrupled model of the artwork from wax. Applying
back is a utilitarian object that is essential to because of the deliberate effort of replanting the traditional method of lost wax
the household and Jon Buck’s` Bird in the indigenous trees and stopping the use of technique, molten wax is poured into the
Bush’ that celebrates the return of birds to insecticide. mould composed of negative and positive
this venue. Such dedication, passion and foresight, layers, the wax is “chased” to clean up any
But the rustic beauty of the place is a big is the engine for the running of the flaws from the wax such as air bubbles,
bonus. facility. Even with the absence of bronze wax “rods” are then attached to the object
The Rwenzori Foundry is the only in the country, the foundry can still to allow metal to flow through and gas to
bronze sculpture foundry in Uganda. It sits produce bronze sculptures that dominate escape during the process of casting, then
on 110 acres of land and was established international art circles. the ceramic shell is transferred to the kiln
by a British national, Rungwe Kingdon, The forte of this foundry however lies made of ordinary brick and clay to be fired
who founded it as a cultural conservation in the sculpting of iconic totemic bronze at a certain temperature, followed by the
facility. Kingdon was adopted into the figurines that evoke unique species of pouring of molten bronze into the ceramic
Pangolin (Lugave) clan of the Baganda and animals such as African elephant, Buffalo, shell.
this inspired his gifting the facility to the Hippo, Lion, Colobus monkey and of Thereafter the piece is transferred to the
community. course the Pangolin. All these are cast in metalwork department where it is cleaned
A few metres from the studios, is the series, with superior craftsmanship of both and chased to look like the original artist’s
award winning eco- friendly art gallery local and international artists who have work. Finally the patination that gives it
and coffee bar that opens into the beautiful been trained by world –class craftsmen colour and safeguards the metal from the
gardens dotted with permanent sculptures from Britain. elements is applied.
of artists who have had residency here The technique of bronze casting is At the site, these procedures are
before. rigorous, intricate, and demanding. The conducted in open air structures to allow
The return of birds to this enclave is by artist must be innovative, talented, and unwanted gases to flow out to the lush
no coincidence. As Emmanuel Basaza, patient. The process in detail takes twelve vegetation that surrounds the facility and
director of Rwenzori Founders says, when delicate steps that are each intertwined to oxygen from the foliage to be consumed by
this facility opened ten years ago, there form a final masterpiece. the craftsmen and animals that inhabit the
As much as the process is
overwhelmingly demanding to the
craftsmen and artist, the benefit of such
procedure is more than real. Besides
the fact that the final product is a
masterpiece, casting in metal privileges
the artist to retain a copy- prototype- of
their artwork. This way, the artist is
able to sell his work in editions thereby
creating increased demand for the
artwork from the buyers.
“Editioning gives the artist an
opportunity to continue earning from
his artwork even after it is bought.
It also promotes the idea of building
one’s (artist) archive. If an artwork
is bought, the artist still retains an
original copy of it,” says Emmanuel
Basaza, director of Rwenzori Founders.
However, he is quick to point out the
difference between editioning and
The former requires making certain
improvements on the specific artwork,
while, the latter involves reproducing
the exact copy with no alternations
whatsoever. In this respect, the BBC
African footballer of the Year and
Fadaika Na BBC trophies all have
editions and the artist, Peter Oloya,
still earns from them yearly.
“We import the bronze we use, but
this is made easier because the foundry
is facilitated by Rwenzori Sculpture
Foundation, a charity based in the UK.
However, we hope to make the most of
Kilembe Copper mines once it reopens
and this is why we are here,” says
Basaza looking very optimistic on the
future of the Rwenzori Founders.

June 15 - 21, 2018 39

‘Sonic attacks’ hit U.S. diplomats in China
The U.S. has evacuated several incapacitate, or kill an opponent. physical symptoms or events, auditory
citizens from China after they showed The injuries of the brain are linked to or sensory phenomena, or other health
symptoms suggesting they had come ‘abnormal sounds’. On June 8, remain- concerns’. The issue of sonic attacks first
under ‘sonic attack’. Sonic and ultra- ing Americans in China were urged surfaced in Cuba when American and
sonic weapons (USW) are weapons of to seek medical help in the event they Canadian diplomats there reported suf-
various types that use sound to injure, suffered any ‘unusual, unexplained fering injuries last year.

Swedish brewery makes beer with recycled sewage water

In an attempt to raise Research Institute (IVL)
awareness about the ability and Carlsberg is supposed
to turn wastewater into safe to convince people that
drinking water, a brewery “second-hand water” can
in Stockholm, Sweden be as clean as normal tap
has launched a new beer water. IVL claims that the
brand made with recycled challenge to get people to
sewage water. Aptly called drink recycled water is not
PU:REST, the new beer a technological one, but a
Your `clean’ kitchen towel crafted by Stockholm’s psychological one, so what
could poison you Nya Carnegiebryggeriet
(New Carnegie Brewery)
better way to convince
consumers of the purity of
Your kitchen towel is a filthy rag covered in collaboration with the treated wastewater than
in bacteria, scientists have revealed. Towels Swedish Environmental using it to create a beer.
used for multiple purposes, such as hold-
ing hot items and wiping surfaces, were the
worst. And if it’s even a tiny bit damp, it’s
far, far worse. Half of kitchen towels anal-
Female news anchor calls City introduces special
ysed contained bacteria, with big families colleague ‘handsome’, walkway for smartphone-
and meat eaters facing increased danger. The
more children a family had, the more likely suspended using zombies
the sample was to contain bacteria – and Dr
Authorities in the Chinese city of Xi’an
Susheela Biranjia-Hurdoyal, of the Univer-
recently inaugurated a special sidewalk
sity of Mauritius, said: ‘Our study demon-
lane designed for “phubbers” – people who
strates the family composition and hygienic
walk while staring at their smartphones and
practices in the kitchen affected the microbial
ignore everything around them.
load of kitchen towels.
Chinese media reports that a large shop-
ping mall overlooking the smartphone-user
Man makes millions from lane had been asking authorities for it over
a month as a safety precaution for “phub-
selling fake dog balls bers”. Cars often come onto the pavement in
front of the mall, sometimes barely missing
Gregg Miller is living proof that a crazy
pedestrians who have their eyebvalls virtu-
idea can sometimes turn out to be pure
ally glued to their smartphones, so the lane
genius. He is the inventor of Neuticles;
is supposed to keep them out of harm’s way.
silicone implants for male dogs to replace
A Kuwaiti female news anchor was The short lane is painted red, green and blue
testicles after neutering so they do not lose
recently suspended by the Ministry of Infor- and features pictures of smartphones.
their manly look, and he is a millionaire.
mation for jokingly calling a male correspon-
Miller came up with the idea for a purely
dent ‘handsome’ during a live TV broadcast.
cosmetic replacement for animal testicles in
Basima al-Shammar, a news anchor for
the early 90s, when he neutered jis dog and
Kuwait TV, made the mistake of jokingly
wanted him to maintain his “God-given
complementing a male correspondent live
natural look”, so he asked the vet if some-
on air. In a video, she can be heard telling
one made testicle implants. The veterinar-
her male colleague, who didn’t know he was
ian told him that it was the dumbest thing
already on live TV and was still adjusting his
he had ever heard of. Believe it or not, that
traditional headgear, that he didn’t need to
same vet soon got in touch with him about
fix his looks because he was already hand-
it to tell him that he had changed his mind
some. Although elsewhere this would pass
and wanted to work with him on a proto-
as a simple compliment, in Kuwait, it was
type. And that’s how Neuticles, the now
perceived as unacceptable flirtation on the
world-famous fake dog balls came to be.
female anchor’s side.

40 June 15 - 21, 2018

Dos and don’ts at Rule Five: Get details of the other
parties and of witnesses
Exchange details with any other par-

an accident scene
ties involved, as well as witnesses (names,
addresses, contact numbers, vehicle regis-
tration numbers). If you’re too injured to do
so, you may ask a traffic or police officer to
do so on your behalf. It’s also a good idea
to take down the officer’s name, and record
By Motoring Guru Rule two: Stop and stay at the scene

the relevant accident report number.
ule One: Don’t admit liability Stop your vehicle and if possible, park
It says that on your insurance safely on the side. Use your hazard lights Rule six: Record details of the accident
or the reflective triangle. If not available
sticker: “Don’t admit liability”. So
use any possible means, including
straight away
be smart. Stay calm and say what As soon as possible, make notes of factors
is absolutely necessary only. A seemingly foliage or tree branches to warn other
like traffic flow and weather at the time of
innocent comment may be used against you motorists of the accident. Use common
the accident. Take photographs if you can.
if it gets recorded in police statement. sense. Ensure you are safe, especially
It can also help to sketch the scene, showing
Also don’t offer any payment that could at odd hour or in hostile environments.
the positions of all vehicles immediately
be construed as a bribe. Most insurers Remember, failure to stop at the scene of
after the accident in relation to a clear fixed
prohibit statements of admission, offer, an accident is criminal. Also, you want
point, such as a traffic light, pole or other
promise, payment or indemnity, accord- the police to get your side of the story
permanent fixture. Later, measurements can
ing to several experts. Don’t agree to settle when they arrive.
be taken in relation to the fixed point if it’s
anything unless you absolutely sure that the necessary to reconstruct the accident.
can resolved at that level. Rule Three: Help in medical
emergencies if you can. Rule Seven: Don’t take anything
Things to avoid saying include: This can be tricky because if you are
intoxicating “to calm down”
 I will pay for the damages. not knowledgeable, you might do more
 I’m sure my insurance will take care The police at the scene or station may
harm than good. So assess the injuries
of it. want you to undergo a medical examina-
suffered and only help if it safe for you
 I didn’t see you. tion, so unless a medical doctor has said you
and the victim. Give first aid if you can.
 I was on the phone must take some kind of narcotic or intoxi-
cant, don’t do so.
 I don’t need medical help. I’m fine Rule Four: Report the accident
All these could be used against you later, Legally, you’re required to call the
either in court or with the insurance firm police if anyone has been hurt or killed,
Rule Eight: Get a copy of the police
as admissions of fault. Remember personal if an offence has been committed or if a report
injury insurance claims arising from a car state vehicle or property has been dam- A police report is one of the most criti-
accident depends on the extent to which each aged. In these situations, you need to cal pieces of evidence for determining
driver is found to be at fault for causing the stay on site until a police officer has dis- liability in the event of a car accident.
accident. If you are found to have been exclu- missed you. Always ask the police for a full copy of
sively negligent, you may be held fully liable. the report that’s filed.

June 15 - 21, 2018 41

 (The Independent is republishing this interview first published on August 18- 24, 2017)

Col Abiriga Ibrahim;;

NRM’s yellow man
By  Agnes  E  Nantaba

ol  Ibrahim  Abiriga  is  the  MP  for  Arua  
Municipality  who  is  popularly  known  
diehard  supporter  of  President  Yoweri  
campaigning  to  lifting  of  the  constitutional  age  
!")H$H98F.'(H)$H!!$,H *(+#H)$H&*!.H
He  is  also  a  jovial  MP  who  can  meet  and  
mingle  with  anyone  regardless  of  style  and  
 H#H(%/!!.H'(#)H *(+#H.H
'$H(H$H%'$"##)!.H.!!$,H$*)/)(H'##H Masindi  
from  suits,  shirts,  shoes,  hat,  socks  and  recently   and  join  
*#''"#)(< the  military  
C+'.)#H$#H"H(H)$H)H!()H+H.!-­‐‑ despite  objection  
!$,HH)H(H#$)H*!!.H.!!$,<HH%!)H H*(=H)H from  his  uncle  and  pro-­‐‑
cups,  my  bed  is  yellow,  house  and  everything   )()(H'$"H"<
"*()HH.!!$,=DH'H(.(< C'H,(H#$H$2!H''*)"#)H
 “I  have  just  returned  from  DR  Congo  where   then  and  since  he  had  been  a  soldier,  he  
I  landed  on  very  good  yellow  undergarments   maintained  that  my  destination  was  also  in  
($H H,(H$'H)$H*.H!!H)H53H!)H#H)H )H'".=DH'H(.(<
($%=DHH(.(< #H4;94=H'H$#H)H'".H*)H
(H.!!$,H().!H)(H"H#$)<H*'#H)H applied  to  continue  with  school  under  the  
"%!H'#H department  of  education  at  Grammar  Sec-­‐‑
Hotel,  President  Museveni  gifted  him  with  a   ondary  School  where  he  reveals  to  have  
%'H$H##F"H(#!(H$'H#HCH $"%!)H'#'.H +!<H)'H##H
(%!#H!(!)$'D<HHH%'(#)HH'-­‐‑ months  of  training,  Abiriga  was  deployed  
ried  the  sandals,  together  with  shirts,  hats  and   in  the  Secret  Service  at  Makindye  Military  
shoes  that  are  made  in  Uganda  to  promote  the   $!H#H
*.H#H*!H#H?@H"%#<H #H5334=H'(#)H *(+#H%%$#)H
Unfortunately  the  sandals  are  not  yellow  and   'H(HH$'H'*<HH!H)H$H
'H(.(HH,!!H/-H))HGH.H%#)#H)"H $'H45H.'(H*#)!HH,(H)'#(''H)$H
.!!$,< *"H#H)H("H%$()$#H#H5347<HH,H
Abiriga  says  his  love  for  Museveni  is  a   months  into  the  position,  Abiriga  resigned  
response  to  a  calling  by  his  father  Yusuf  Abdal-­‐‑ )$H$#H!)+H%$!)(H#H$"H#H <
lah  (RIP),  a  former  soldier  under  the  King’s   HC)H)(H=H H#H)$H(($)H,)H
@H,$H$*)H#H$'!H'H younger  people  to  share  in  the  fresh  views  
<HH'H(.(=HC .H)'H,(HHH%'$%$-­‐‑ and  even  when  I  had  set  out  to  run  for  only  
nent  of  President  Museveni  and  he  urged  us   one  term,  I  have  reconsidered  a  second  one  
!,.(H)$H(*%%$')H"H#H)H  D< $"H5354=DHH(.(<H'H(H)H'H#H
He  says  he  also  adores  Museveni  because   (*'++#H!()H($#H$H(H)'H,$HH67H
$H)H'(#)B(H%*(H$'HH*#)H()H !H !'#<HH(.(HH,(H$'#H)HH)"H,#H
'$#H$'H!$(H)$H48H.'(H#$,<H#H"-­‐‑ *#'H,(H)H)(H()H#H(H#"<
'H57=H5335=H)H$+'#"#)H$H#H#H C'H"#(H*#'=DHH(.(=HC*'#H
Uganda  National  Rescue  Front  II  (UNRF  II)   that  time,  people  survived  on  sim-­‐‑sim  and  
signed  a  historical  peace  agreement  that  has   '$*##*)(H%()H"-H,)H,)'<D
remained  a  milestone  in  ensuring  the  security   Abiriga  says  he  had  over  30  wives  and  sired  
#H()!).H#H)H()H !H'$#<H over  30  children  in  his  early  years  but  they  all  
H.!!$,H!(!)$'H(H!($HH($!'<HHH <HH(.(H$#!.H$H #$,(H,.H).HH
/'()H('+H#H)H'".H$H)#F##H but,  he  adds,  the  elders  and  relatives  blamed  
'(#)H H"#HH)H)H'# H$H)1H the  deaths  on  Abiriga’s  failure  to  breastfeed  
Sergeant  until  he  was  promoted  to  the  rank   (HH.<HC H,(H)$!H))H H#+'H(* !H".H
$H $'H*#'H H#H/#!!.H$!$#!H#H mother’s  breast  because  I  rejected  it  completely  
#$,H<HH(H)'H%*(H"H)$H'$%H ($H)H,(H*()H%$*'H$*)=DHH(.(<H$.=H-­‐‑
out  of  school  in  senior  three  at  Kabalega  SS  in   'H(.(HH(H$#H,H#H43H!'#<
42 Aug
15-‐ -24
21,, 2017

Col Abiriga Ibrahim’s Liteside

Any  three  things  we  don’t   ove  whelmingly  in   All  those  who  cause   the  fact  that  many  children  

know  about  you? !155$ 5 5 division  among  the  people   can  access  education  in  
am  a  social  person   seconded  by  an  opposition   of  Uganda  such  as  Kizza   Uganda  under  the  NRM  
who  associates  with    15 Besigye  and  Amama   #!51
everybody  regardless   '15
5!5*!5 What  is  your  greatest   Where  would  you  most  
5155&5#55 extravagance? What  is  the  quality  you   like  to  live?
the  supreme  and  true  God,   Some  time  back,  people   most  like  in  a  man? I  want  to  live  here  in  
Allah  who  created  all  of   were  abusing  me  for  not   He  should  be  able  to   Uganda  being  the  pearl  of  
" 1555"!&55 owning  a  decent  house   unite  others  and  provide   35!5 5 5&55
to  one  wife  even  when   while  others  claimed  I   !5!5!5 155 #5&515
the  Quran  allows  me  to   "5&5)5!5 5 should  also  be  humble  and  
marry  up  to  four  because  I   in  a  toilet  so  I  decided   "15 What  is  your  most  
may  not  be  able  to  satisfy   !5 #5!1555 treasured  possession?
!5 %"&5" !55 constructing  a  bigger   What  is  the  quality  you   My  new  house  under  
!5 "5"( 5!155 house  and  when  it’s  ready,   most  like  in  a  woman?  !"!15
don’t  want  to  commit  a  sin   I  will  send  out  the  photos   Submissive  to  the  
$555#155 to  everyone  to  let  them   husband  just  as  the  Quran   What  do  you  regard  as  the  
know  that  it  was  just  a   !"! 15 lowest  depth  of  misery?
What  is  your  idea  of   +55!15 Being  a  refugee  without  
perfect  happiness? What  or  who  is  the   5"!&5!5515
Sparing  time  to   What  is  your  current  state   greatest  love  of  your  life?
communicate  to   of  mind? Even  my  children  and   What  is  your  favorite  
35!5! 55 I  am  stress  free  and  just   wife  come  after  President   occupation?
spend  praying   !535 &5$5 Museveni  who  has  united   At  the  moment,  its  being  
during  the  night   that  we  have  taken  a  break   55" 15 a  politician  but  at  one  
( 555 5!5!55!15 time,  it  was  serving  in  the  
and  beautiful   When  and  where  were   &15
&15 What  do  you  consider  the   you  happiest?
most  overrated  virtue? 5,0/,5$555 What  do  you  most  value  
What  is  your   Many  Ugandans  think   !5&35!5!5#5 in  your  friends?
greatest  fear? and  believe  that  President   on  my  own  and  managing     Its  character  that  bonds  
Only  God   Museveni  has  ruled  for   $5( 1555 " 5!!15
but  as  for   so  long  and  yet  he  is  a   to  pay  all  the  dowry  for  
things  like   #5 !5&515 5 my  wives  and  school  fees   

bullets  or   4!5)5!5" !5" 5 for  my  siblings  thereby   you  most  identify  with?
even  the  most   5"!15 relieving  the  burden  from   Former  Uganda  
scaring  animal   &5!15 president,  Field  Marshall  
like  the  lion,  I   What  does  being   Idi  Amin  Dada  was  a  
5 155 powerful  mean  to  you? Which  talent  would  you   straight  forward  person  
Power  comes  with  the   most  like  to  have? and  wasn’t  sacred  of  
What  is  the   ability  to  capture  power   As  a  professional   &!155"5
trait  you  most   from  outside  and  organise   soldier,  I  am  a  man  of   Mohammed  Abu  Minyar  
deplore  in   everything  and  everyone   many  talents  but  at  this   (5 5!55
yourself? to  make  them  serve  under   age,  I  just  want  to  practice   and  Bishop  Angelo  
I  am  a  social   &"1 ! 15 Tarantino  of  the  Comboni  
person  who  can   Missionaries  and  the  
freely  associate   On  what  occasion  do  you   What  do  you  consider   ( !5 55"5
with  anyone  but   lie? your  greatest    355"!5 !55
some  think  it’s  not   Only  that  which  is   achievement? !5  55  !5 5
1 $5&5!5 "35 5$5$5 5 and  is  remembered  for  
‘when  you  are  caught  in   from  Uganda  to  Sudan   introducing  education  in  
Which  living   the  middle  of  saving  a   and  Congo  under   !5155
person  do  you  most   415 President  Idi  Amin  
admire? 255#$5!5(!5 Who  are  your  heroes  in  
 !5 What  do  you  most  dislike   and  bring  back  my  people   real  life?
Museveni  is  Prime   about  your  appearance? 155$ 55-.55 Bishop  Angelo  Tarantino,  
Minister  Ruhakana   54!5)5!5 "!5 Commander  under   Idi  Amin  Dada  and  
""155 55!5 4 5!15 UNLF  and  seeing  that   "5(155
mingle  with  all  people  in   $5 " "&5 +5
Uganda  which  is  why  he   Which  living  person  do   back  home  is  a  great  
was  voted  and  approved   you  most  despise? #!155 5&5

June 1518 -‐ 242018
- 21, , 2017 4337
Global comment
By Roselyn Mugo
Africa’s future farmers
New report shows that mastering digital skills is
important if young people are to work on farms

frica is in the midst of a youth garden into a vertical farm to increase farm technologies should travel to the
employment crisis. By 2035, its output. Today, she runs her own places where young people gather, to
some 350 million new jobs will business designing, fabricating, provide hands-on, audience-specific
be needed, and agriculture, and installing similar structures training. If the newest farm gadgets
the continent’s biggest industry, could for a variety of customers. Another and tools are marketed only on social
provide the bulk of them. But at the interviewee created a mobile app to media, as is often the case, uptake in
moment, young Africans are shunning help farmers connect with local seed rural areas will remain weak.
life on the farm for work in the city. and fertiliser suppliers. Next, young people need access
If Africa’s employment gap is to be Unfortunately, these types of youth- to financial products and services
closed, agribusinesses must find ways driven innovations rarely receive to help them turn their ideas into
to recruit younger hands. the necessary political or financial marketable businesses. And, finally,
This challenge was the focus of backing to make them viable and countries must find ways to involve
my research as part of the Youth scalable. Despite having great ideas, their youth in early stages of the
Think Tank, a youth-led research most young agricultural innovators technology-development pipeline. As
initiative in partnership with Restless do not feel supported in their efforts. the experience of the Kenyan gardener
Development Uganda and the Young people can help solve Africa’s illustrates, young people are often the
Mastercard Foundation. In a recent unemployment challenges, but those best judges of what will deliver long-
report, we examined the experiences closest to the problem have yet to be term, practical results.
of young African agriculturalists made part of the solution. Last year, I had the privilege of
in seven countries. And what we Our research suggests several presenting these findings at the
discovered is that the best way to entice strategies to achieve this outcome. For Global Youth Economic Opportunities
young people back to the farm is by starters, young people need places to Summit in Washington, DC. I spoke
improving access to and engagement engage with like-minded innovators. about the role young people play in
with emerging technologies. Recognising this, policymakers and the Africa’s economy, and the importance
Many of the young people with private sector should work together of soliciting their views on the future
whom we spoke said that their biggest to create incubation centers and of African agriculture. It was an
obstacle to a career in farming is ideation hubs to help young people important first step in bringing young
learning the digital and technical build, discuss, and access farm-related peoples’ ideas to the table.
skills necessary to succeed in today’s technologies. But much work remains to be done.
agricultural market. With technologies Moreover, those who promote new According to the Food and Agriculture
like cloud computing, soil sensors, and Organisation of the United Nations,
weather drones changing how food is the average age of an African farmer
produced, packaged, and distributed, today is about 60, while 60% of the
digital literacy is as important as arable
land and high-quality seeds. It stands
According to population is under the age of 24. To
breathe new life into Africa’s farms, the
to reason, then, that if more young the Food and entire industry must innovate. And, as
people could master digital skills, more
would find work in the field.
Agriculture our research shows, the best way to do
that is by working much more closely
To understand how important Organisation of with those who have the most to gain
technology is to the young African
farmer, consider competition for land.
the United Nations, from progress.

Most farmland is acquired through the average age of

hereditary or communal distribution
systems, and when new plots are an African farmer Roselyn Mugo is a student of law at the
University of Nairobi and a member of the
allocated, they are typically smaller today is about 60, 2017-2018 Mastercard Foundation Youth
while 60% of the
than those provided to previous Think Tank.
generations. To remain profitable, Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2018.
younger growers must produce larger population is under
crops from smaller spaces, which
requires innovation. the age of 24
Our study found that in many cases,
the best solutions for young farmers
are already being designed by young
people. For example, in Kenya, one
vegetable grower turned her kitchen

44 June 15 - 21, 2018

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