Deconstructable timber-concrete composite beams with panelised slabs:
Finite element analysis

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Deconstructable timber-concrete composite beams with panelised slabs:
Finite element analysis

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/conbuildmat

Finite element analysis

Nima Khorsandnia a, Hamid Valipour b,⇑, Mark Bradford b

a

BG&E Pty Limited, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia

b

Centre for Infrastructure Engineering and Safety (CIES), School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia

h i g h l i g h t s

Finite element models for deconstructable TCC beams are developed and validated.

Influence of panelised slabs on the behaviour of TCC beams is investigated.

Behaviour of deconstructable TCC beam under service and ultimate state is evaluated.

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: This paper deals with the development of efficient and accurate numerical models for the analysis of

Received 28 April 2017 deconstructable timber-concrete composite (TCC) beams with panelised reinforced concrete (RC) slabs.

Received in revised form 6 December 2017 Three different methods, viz. analytical, 1D frame finite element (FE) and 2D continuum-based FE models,

Accepted 25 December 2017

are proposed and validated against experimentally measured data from 4-point bending tests conducted

Available online 4 January 2018

on TCC beams with precast panels. It is shown that the analytical model is the most efficient, whereas the

2D continuum-based model is the most accurate among the three different methods considered. In addi-

Keywords:

tion, a parametric study is carried out using 2D FE models to assess various aspects of the TCC system and

Continuum-based model

Deconstructable

to evaluate the influence of precast panelised RC slabs on the structural response of TCC beams. Lastly,

Finite element the challenges of the practical FE modelling of deconstructable TCC beams are briefly discussed and

Timber-concrete composite accordingly, some guidance on the FE analysis of TCC beams with panelised RC slabs is provided.

Ó 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

direction, its low fire rating and the low intrinsic damping of tim-

Apart from being aesthetically pleasing, sustainable and envi- ber associated with respect to vibration are the main design chal-

ronmentally friendly, timber as a natural material can be easily lenges facing timber structures that have hindered its widespread

handled, reused and recycled. During its growth, it also seques- use in large-scale construction and in mid- to high-rise buildings.

trates atmospheric CO2. In addition, timber has a very low density The use of timber in conjunction with other construction materials

to strength ratio, embodied energy and thermal conductivity. such as steel and concrete to produce timber-steel or timber-

These features make timber (particularly innovative engineered concrete composite (TCC) structural systems can address the

wood products) an excellent candidate material for replacing steel design challenges for timber structures adequately and extend

and concrete in building structures. Accordingly, the last two dec- the use of timber in large structures.

ades have witnessed a significant growth in the use of structural Over the last three decades, several studies have been con-

timber and the number of mid-rise timber buildings has increased ducted to investigate the short- and long-term behaviour of TCC

steadily in recent years. Although timber has a good strength-to- beams and connections under service and ultimate loading condi-

density ratio in the parallel to the grain direction, the very low tions [1–8]. In most conventional TCC floors, the composite action

between the timber beam and concrete slab is provided by shear

⇑ Corresponding author at: School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW

connectors (e.g. nails, screws or notches) permanently embedded

Sydney, Kensington, NSW 2052, Australia. in the cast in-situ concrete slabs. However, the need for propping

E-mail address: H.Valipour@unsw.edu.au (H. Valipour). and formwork for the wet concrete to be cast on top of the timber

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.12.169

0950-0618/Ó 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

N. Khorsandnia et al. / Construction and Building Materials 163 (2018) 798–811 799

beams can dramatically reduce the speed of construction in con- 2. Shear-slip models of connections

ventional ‘‘wet” TCC systems [9,10]. Furthermore, the permanent

connections between the timber beams and concrete slabs can The accuracy of non-linear 1D and 2D FE models of composite

hamper future repair and/or upgrade of the structure and recycling members depends largely on the accuracy of the load-slip model

and/or reusing of the structural components. To increase the speed adopted for the composite joints. The load-slip results of identical

of construction and to address some of the disadvantages of con- push-out TCC joints exhibit some variability. Accordingly, in the

ventional TCC systems, much attention has focused in the last dec- first step a non-linear regression was carried out to minimise the

ade on the development of prefabricated TCC systems, in which the error associated with variability of experimental load-slip curves.

concrete slab can be cast and cured beforehand and then con- A 7-parameter representation was considered and fitted to the

nected later to the timber beams by adhesives, mechanical connec- experimental load-slip results of types A to F (see Fig. 1a and

tors or a combination of both; either on- or off-site. Recent studies Table 1) deconstructable TCC joints [23] in the form

have investigated different aspects of prefabricated TCC systems,

ðK 0 K u Þ s ðK u þ K s Þ s

including the development of TCC connections and beams using P¼n h in1 on1 þ n h in2 on1 K s s;

different engineered wood products [11–13], the short- and long- 1 þ ðK 0 K u Þ Ps0

1

1 þ ðK u þ K s Þ P1 P

s 2

prefabricated TCC systems for multi-storey buildings [17], the

where the input parameters are the serviceability (K0), ultimate (Ku)

use of prefabricated TCC members for refurbishment and strength-

and softening (Ks) stiffnesses, the initial (P0) and subsidiary (P1)

ening [18] and bridge decks [19]. However, only a few studies have

loading capacities and two parameters (n1 and n2) that control the

focused on the numerical modelling and finite element (FE) analy-

curvature of the function (Fig. 1b). Details of the deconstructable

sis of TCC beams with precast RC slab panels [14,19].

TCC connections (thickness of LVL beams, type and size and connec-

In addition to prefabrication, attention has been drawn more

tors) and values of the seven input parameters and the coefficient of

recently to deconstructable structures and development of com-

determination (R2) for the calibrated models are given in Table 1.

posite structural systems (e.g. steel-concrete, steel-timber,

The maximum error of the calibrated models is 13% (R2 = 0.87)

timber-concrete etc.) which can be easily assembled and disman-

and the good correlation between the experimental data and the

tled at the end of a building’s service life. These deconstructable

analytical model is evident from the load-slip curves shown in

structural systems can significantly facilitate recycling and reuse,

Fig. 2 and the R2 values (see Table 1) which are ranging between

reducing the waste of construction materials, thereby enhancing

0.87 and 0.99. It is observable that the calibrated model can ade-

the sustainability of the building industry [20–24]. The feasibility

quately represent the pre- and post-peak behaviour of the timber-

of a deconstructable TCC system comprising of precast concrete

to-precast RC slab panel joints that were tested.

slabs connected to laminated veneer lumber (LVL) beams whose

composite efficiency and structural performance is comparable

to conventional TCC beams (with permanent connections 3. Bending responses of beams

between the concrete slab and timber beams) has been demon-

strated by Khorsandnia et al. [23]. Furthermore, promising results One of the main objectives of this paper is to develop theoretical

and favourable structural performance have been observed in models that can adequately capture the global and local responses

push-out and bending tests conducted on prefabricated TCC con- of the deconstructable TCC beams. The results of Khorsandnia et al.

nections and slabs by Crocetti et al. [25]. However, experimental experiments [23] on deconstructable TCC systems are used as

data needed to develop design provisions for prefabricated decon- benchmark data for evaluating the accuracy of the theoretical

structable TCC beams and floors is very limited, and there is a models. The TCC beams comprised of precast RC slab panels and

need for efficient yet sufficiently accurate numerical models to LVL beams connected by different mechanical connectors

further investigate particular aspects of deconstructable TCC sys- (Fig. 3a). Due to construction tolerances and RC slab panel

tems, including the effect of construction tolerances and pan- misalignments, small gaps between the slab panels were visible

elised RC slabs on the local and global behaviour of this novel and so a filler was used between the RC slab panels. Accordingly,

composite system. it was hypothesised that the segmentation of slabs including the

Recently, detailed FE modelling of conventional TCC beams number of RC slab panels, the size of the gaps and the stiffness

and deconstructable steel-concrete composite beams under ser- of the filler material can affect the response of a TCC member

vice and ultimate loading conditions has been carried out [26– and it should be considered in the FE analysis and parametric study

29]. In addition to deterministic FE analysis of TCC beams and of the TCC system with precast panelised slabs.

connections, nonlinear probabilistic FE analysis of TCC beams In this study, analytical, 1D frame FE and 2D continuum-based

has been carried out to demonstrate the variability of FE predic- FE models are employed and are validated against experimental

tions and local and global structural response with respect to results in the literature [23]. The most accurate model amongst

uncertainties in mechanical properties of timber, concrete and those proposed is selected for a parametric study to elucidate var-

timber-to-concrete connections [30]. However, no comprehensive ious aspects of the structural response of TCC beams with pan-

FE modelling of the prefabricated TCC beams has been reported in elised RC slabs and deconstructable connections.

the literature.

This paper therefore focuses on the development and appli- 3.1. Analytical model

cation of three methods, i.e. an analytical model, and 1D FE

and 2D FE models with different levels of efficiency and accu- An analytical representation can be used for predicting the

racy, for undertaking analyses of deconstructable TCC beams structural behaviour of mechanically jointed composite beams,

with precast panelised RC slabs. Following validation of the the details of which are provided in Annex B of BS EN1995-1

models against the experimental results reported by Khorsand- [31]. This model was developed based on the fulfilment of compat-

nia et al. [23], a parametric study is carried out and the effects ibility and equilibrium conditions for the composite sections, in

of RC slab segmentation and deconstructable timber-to-slab conjunction with a linear elastic assumption for all components.

connections on the structural behaviour of the TCC beams are In the analytical model, the effective flexural stiffness of the

investigated. composite section can be obtained from

800 N. Khorsandnia et al. / Construction and Building Materials 163 (2018) 798–811

Connection Connection

axis axis 2 Bolts 8.8

75 mm 2×60

l = 110 mm

Concrete Concrete Concrete

40

Concrete

25

Timber 1 Bolt 8.8 Timber

25 2 Bolts 8.8

Coach Screw for A4 only Coach Screw 2UA 75×50×5

Timber l = 200 mm l = 100 mm Timber l = 90 mm

l = 200 mm

Type: A joist Type: D joist

th. th.

2 Bolts 8.8 2 Bolts 8.8

2×60 2×45

l = 150 mm l = 110 mm

Concrete Concrete

Concrete Concrete

l = 180 mm Coach Screw 16 PL150×100×10 2 Coach Screw 10

Timber Timber l = 100 mm

Type: B joist l = 130 mm Type: E joist

th. th.

2 Bolts 8.8 200 Timber

2×60

l = 110 mm 110 40 block

Concrete Concrete

60°

60°

Concrete Concrete

2 Coach Screw 10 2SPAX Screw 10/

l = 180 mm Timber Timber

l = 100 mm 2 Coach Screw 12

Type: C joist Type: F l = 200 mm joist

th. th.

Elevation View Section View Elevation View Section View

(a)

P1

Ku

P0 1 Ks

n2 1

n1

K0

1

s

(b)

Fig. 1. Outline of (a) deconstructable timber-concrete composite (TCC) joints types A to F tested by Khorsandnia et al. [23] and (b) shear-slip curve with three asymptotes

adopted for TCC joints.

EIef ¼ Ec Ic þ c1 Ec Ac a21 þ Et It þ Et At a22 ; ð2Þ ing assuming that the connections are equally spaced along the TCC

member. The remainder of the input parameters have been defined

where in Khorsandnia et al. [32].

8 In addition, the ultimate loading capacity (Pu) and its corre-

>

> 1 Full composite response

< 1 sponding deflection (du) can be computed by the formulae pro-

c1 ¼ 2 Semi composite response ; ð3Þ

> 1þp Ec2Ac S vided in Khorsandnia et al. [32]. Using the Navier-Bernoulli

>

:

KL

0 Non composite response hypothesis in conjunction with Hooke’s law (i.e. linear elastic

material behaviour), the ultimate strain eu at the mid-span of a

TCC section can be obtained from

c1 Ec Ac ðhc þ ht Þ

a2 ¼ ; ð4Þ

2ðc1 Ec Ac þ Et At Þ ðl aÞ

eu ¼ b Pu ; ð6Þ

4EIef

hc þ ht

a1 ¼ a2 ; ð5Þ where l is the beam span, a is the distance between the applied

2

loads in a four-point bending test set up, and b is a coefficient

the right subscripts c and t denote concrete and timber respectively, related to the location of the fibre where eu is computed and b is

K is the slip modulus of the connection and S is the connection spac- obtained from the following equation:

N. Khorsandnia et al. / Construction and Building Materials 163 (2018) 798–811 801

Table 1

Details of the deconstructable TCC connections and values of input parameters for the shear-slip curves of the deconstructable connectors.

Type LVL th. (mm) Connector type & size P0 (kN) P1 (kN) K0 kN/mm Ku kN/mm Ks kN/mm n1 n2 R2

A1 45 1 Coach screw 12 mm 50.8 127.1 31.6 0.0 8.0 1.24 2.24 0.91

A2 63 1 Coach screw 12 mm 44.0 707.0 31.4 0.0 53.5 1.23 5.99 0.87

A3 63 1 Coach screw 16 mm 35.1 55.3 60.1 4.2 2.4 2.41 1.85 0.87

A4 63 1 Coach screw 16 mm 43.5 99.1 330.0 14.2 2.6 0.35 2.35 0.92

B1 63 2 Bolts 12 mm 92.4 147.4 30.1 0.0 2.4 2.41 1.87 0.91

B2 63 2 Bolts 12 mm 109.8 147.0 26.0 0.0 2.6 2.14 5.85 0.97

B3 63 2 Bolts 16 mm 102.9 111.0 4714 4685 1.4 4.97 0.82 0.97

B4 63 2 Bolts 16 mm 130.3 140.0 1414 1386 2.8 3.50 1.46 0.99

B5 45 2 Bolts 12 mm 122.9 154.3 75.5 0.0 0.9 0.83 0.76 0.97

C1 45 2 Bolts 12 mm 11.9 112.4 124.3 13.8 1.4 2.48 4.32 0.96

C2 63 2 Bolts 12 mm 3.3 130.8 254.0 16.7 1.5 19.93 4.95 0.96

D1 45 4 Bolts 12 mm 15.9 80.0 81.0 9.9 0.8 4.10 4.25 0.89

D2 63 4 Bolts 12 mm 21.2 104.6 2964 8.2 1.0 0.70 4.85 0.98

E1 45 2 Bolts 12 mm 17.6 47.6 942.5 7.3 0.6 0.76 6.54 0.89

F1 63 2 Coach screws 12 mm 24.1 280.0 20.1 1.4 6.0 3.60 6.11 0.93

F2 45 2 SPAX screws 10 mm 61.6 113.8 250.3 11.5 2.1 0.21 1.39 0.95

70

40 60

Load (kN), P/2

50

30

40

20 30

A1

20

10 A2 A3

10

A4

0 0

0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Slip (mm) Slip (mm)

120 120

100 100

Load (kN), P/2

80 80

60 60

B3

40 40

B1

20 B2 20 B4

0 0

0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

Slip (mm) Slip (mm)

120 100

100

80

Load (kN), P/2

80

60

60

40

40 C1 D1

20 C2 20 D2

0 0

0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

Slip (mm) Slip (mm)

100 50

80 40

Load (kN), P/2

60 B5 30

40 20

F1

20 10

E1 F2

0 0

0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

Slip (mm) Slip (mm)

Fig. 2. Fitted shear-slip curves for type A to F deconstructable connections tested by Khorsandnia et al. [23] (thin lines represent experimental results).

802 N. Khorsandnia et al. / Construction and Building Materials 163 (2018) 798–811

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 3. Outline of (a) deconstructable TCC beam set-up, (b) 1-D frame FE model (q and Q are generalised nodal displacements and forces) and (c) 2-D continuum-based model

developed in ABAQUS.

8

> c1 a1 hc =2 Concrete top fibre fibres and 17 composite Simpson’s integration points were used

>

>

< c1 a1 þ hc =2 Concrete bottom fibre over the timber beam and concrete slab cross sections, respec-

b¼ : ð7Þ tively. The adequacy of adopted element formulation, integration

>

> a2 ht =2 Timber top fibre

>

: scheme and number of integration points for capturing the global

a2 þ ht =2 Timber bottom fibre

and local response of the TCC beams has been demonstrated in

The ultimate end slip su at the supports can be calculated by inte- previous studies [6,33]. In the 1D frame FE models, the gap

grating the slip strain (i.e. the difference between the strain at the between the RC slab panels is not considered and a further com-

bottom fibre of the concrete and the top fibre of the timber beam) parative study using 2D FE models is carried out to highlight the

at the interface over the entire beam length as effect of the gap on the structural performance of the TCC systems.

In the 1D frame FE model, Glos [34] and the CEB-FIP model code

2

ð1 c1 Þðhc þ ht 2a2 Þðl a2 Þ [35] are adopted for the timber and concrete respectively (see

su ¼ Pu : ð8Þ Fig. 4). Uniaxial compression tests were conducted on concrete

32EIef

cylinders [23] and the relationships

8

3.2. 1D frame FE model <f0 2ðe=ec0 Þðe=ec0 Þ 2

Pre peak response

c 1þðk2Þ ðe=ec0 Þ

r¼ ; ð9Þ

: f 0 eu e Post peak response

The 1D frame FE model developed by Khorsandnia et al. [33] is c eu ec0

employed for modelling the TCC beams (see Fig. 3b). Each element

(Fig. 4b) were adopted for the pre- and post-peak behaviour of the

in this comprises of two layers representing the timber beam and

compressive concrete in the RC slabs of the TCC beams.

concrete slab in a TCC system, which are connected by horizontal

The non-linear empirical shear-slip models obtained from Eq.

discrete end springs to capture the shear-slip interaction between

(1) and given in Fig. 2 for different types of deconstructable TCC

the layers, whilst the layers are constrained in the vertical direc-

connections are assigned to the end springs (Fig. 3b) representing

tion assuming that no separation occurs between them [33]. The

the shear connectors in the 1D frame FE model.

Navier-Bernoulli hypothesis in conjunction with force interpola-

tion (flexibility-based approach) is adopted in the formulation of

the 1D frame elements. One half of the TCC beam was modelled 3.3. 2D continuum-based model

by 18 elements (maximum element length was limited to 167

mm) with 17 composite Simpson’s integration points along each A versatile 2D (plane stress) FE model was also developed with

element. The section flexibility (stiffness) is calculated by a numer- the focus being the effect of the discontinuity and segmentation of

ical integration scheme rather than discretising the section to the RC slab panels on the structural behaviour and performance of

N. Khorsandnia et al. / Construction and Building Materials 163 (2018) 798–811 803

be taken as a = 0.

The effective stress r^ 31 ¼ ½ r

^ 11 r

^ 22 r

^ 12 T and Cauchy stress

r31 ¼ ½ r11 r22 r12 T vectors are related through diagonal dam-

age matrix x33 ¼ diag ½11xi ; i ¼ 1; 2; 3 as,

r^ ¼ x r: ð11Þ

Glos’s [34] model The adequacy of damage-plasticity model and Hashin’s damage

model for capturing the failure modes and the non-linear beha-

viour of concrete and timber under multiaxial stress states have

been already verified by Khorsandnia et al. [32].

In the 2D continuum-based FE models, only one half of each TCC

beam is modelled by 4-node CPS4R plane stress quadrilateral ele-

ments with reduced integration and hourglass control. The maxi-

(a) mum element size for both timber beam and concrete slab is 20

Batch 3 (test) Batch 4 (test)

mm. In the absence of a pressure-over closure (soft contact) law

Batch 3 (model) Batch 4 (model) to be used for modelling the gaps and due to numerical instability

45 of soft contact models, the contact between the RC slab panels and

40 f'c= 43.5 MPa the filler material is modelled using hard contact with friction in

35 εc0= 0.003

tangential direction. The stiffness of contact in the direction nor-

Stress (MPa)

30

Post-peak mal to the interface between timber and concrete and the interface

25

20

f' c= 39 MPa response between concrete and filler was taken knn = 1000 N/mm3 and 500–

εc 0= 0.0025 5000 N/mm3, respectively. Moreover, the coefficient of friction in

15

10 Pre-peak

the tangential direction was taken l = 0.2.

5 response For the sake of simplicity, the filler between the RC slab panels

0 is treated as a linear elastic material. The advantage of 2D

0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 continuum-based FE models over 1D frame models is their capabil-

Strain (mm/mm) ity to take the effect of the gaps and contacts between the concrete

(b) slab segments into account. In the 2D models, hard and frictionless

contacts are used in the normal and tangential directions respec-

Fig. 4. Stress-strain relationship of (a) timber in tension and compression and (b)

tively for connecting timber to concrete in vertical direction. In

concrete in compression adopted for 1D FE analysis.

the horizontal direction, non-linear springs at the interface of the

timber beam and concrete slab panels are utilised to model the

connectors and to capture the horizontal shear interaction and

TCC beams with panelised RC slabs. The 2D models are developed composite action between the timber beam and concrete slab.

in ABAQUS [36] environment (Fig. 3c) and Hashin’s damage criteria The force-displacement relationship for the horizontal springs is

and concrete isotropic damage plasticity models were employed defined with respect to the type of the shear connector and its cor-

for capturing the onset of failure in timber beam and concrete slab, responding empirical load-slip behaviour provided in Fig. 2. In 2D

respectively. Furthermore, the damage evolution laws for timber FE models, the RC slab panels are modelled with separate elements

are based on the energy dissipation during the damage process (see Fig. 3c) and the interface between two adjacent panels is trea-

and linear material softening. The concrete slab is modelled using ted either as an open gap or as a no gap zone filled with plaster or

concrete damage-plasticity constitutive law available in the ABA- filler material [23]. The contact between the RC slab panels and the

QUS library of materials and steel reinforcements are treated as filler material is modelled using hard contact with friction as

deformable elastic (Es = 200 GPa) bars embedded in the concrete described previously. The details of TCC beams and input parame-

slab. ters (including size of gaps) adopted in the 2D FE models are given

The 2D Hashin damage model comprises of four different dam- in Table 2. The size of gaps between prefabricated RC panels (see

age initiation criteria expressed in terms of effective stress compo- Table 2) was adopted in the FE models with respect to average

nents r ^ ij (i, j = 1, 2), gap size observed in each specimen during the laboratory experi-

8 2 2 ments [23]. Except for specimens B-A5, no significant change in

>

> r^ 11

þ a r^ 12

: Tension=shear ll to grain

>

> T

SL the structural response of the TCC beams tested by Khorsandnia

>

>

X

>

> 2 et al. [23] at the ultimate limit state (ULS) loading condition was

>

> r^

< X22C : Compression ll to grain

observed after dismantling and reassembling the specimens. The

2 2 ;

>

> r^ 22 ^

þ rS12L

reduction in the structural performance of beam B-A5 was attribu-

>

> : Tension=shear L to grain

>

T

Y ted to looseness of the screw connectors following dismantling and

>

> 2 2

>

> 2

>

: r^ 22T þ Y T 1 r^ 22C þ r^ 12L : Compression=shear L to grain

C reassembling of the specimen. To take account of this reduction,

2S 2S Y S

the stiffness and the shear-slip behaviour of the connectors was

ð10Þ lowered by introducing a reduction factor (Table 2) under service

T T

limit state (SLS) and ULS loading conditions.

where X and Y denote the tensile strength of timber in parallel The material properties including mean (from three identical

and perpendicular to the grain direction, respectively; X C and Y C specimens) compressive strength f c ; tensile strength f t ; bending

denote the compressive strength of timber in parallel and perpen- strength f b and elastic modulus E of concrete and LVL timber (in

dicular to the grain direction, respectively; SL and ST are the shear parallel to grain direction) adopted in the 2-D FE models are given

strength in parallel and perpendicular to the grain direction, respec- in Table 3. For LVL modulus of rigidity G = 660 MPa, shear strength

tively; and a is a coefficient that takes account of the shear stress fs = 4.6 MPa and compressive strength in the perpendicular to grain

804 N. Khorsandnia et al. / Construction and Building Materials 163 (2018) 798–811

Table 2

Details of TCC beams tested and input parameters in 2-D FE model.

Beam Timber Concrete Connection Test Contact between Input Parameters in 2D FE Model

Section Section No Type Method Segments

Gap (mm) Contact Stiffness Connector

(N/mm) Reduction

Factor

SLS ULS

B-A1 300 63 600 75 14 A3 ULS Small Gap 0.1 750 – 1.0

B-A2 300 63 600 75 20 A3 ULS Visible Gap 1.7 1000 – 1.0

B-A3 300 63 600 75 20 A3 ULS No Gap + Filler 0.0 Infinity – 1.0

B-A4 400 600 75 30 A3 ULS Small Gap + Filler 0.1 6000 – 1.0

B-A5 300 63 600 75 30 A3 SLS & ULS Small Gap + Filler 0.1 2500 1.0 0.6

B-B1 300 45 600 75 16 B5 SLS & ULS Small Gap + Filler 0.1 Infinity 1.0 1.0

B-D1 300 45 600 75 16 D1 SLS & ULS Small Gap + Filler 0.1 Infinity 1.0 1.0

B-F1 300 63 600 75 16 F1 SLS & ULS Small Gap + Filler 0.1 Infinity 1.0 1.0

B-F2 300 45 600 75 16 F2 ULS Small Gap + Filler 0.1 400 – 1.0

Table 3

Mean material properties for concrete slabs and LVL timber beams (in parallel to grain direction) adopted in the FE models.

fc (MPa) ft (MPa) Ec (GPa) Bending Compression Tension

E (GPa) fb (MPa) fc (MPa) ft (MPa)

B-A1 41.6 3.9 32.3 15.3 [5%] 77.0 [13%] 58.4 [4%] 44.4 [2%]

B-A2 41.6 3.9 32.3 15.3 [5%] 77.0 [13%] 58.4 [4%] 44.4 [2%]

B-A3 41.6 3.9 32.3 13.3 [4%] 68.3 [5%] 52.4 [6%] 39.5 [8%]

B-A4 41.6 3.9 32.3 12.1 [1%] 56.5 [4%] 45.8 [4%] 32.0 [1%]

B-A5 41.6 3.9 32.3 13.3 [4%] 68.3 [5%] 52.4 [6%] 39.5 [8%]

B-B1 45.9 4.1 33.2 14.5 [6%] 72.1 [11%] 54.5 [4%] 40.2 [1%]

B-D1 45.9 4.1 33.2 14.5 [6%] 72.1 [11%] 54.5 [4%] 40.2 [1%]

B-F1 45.9 4.1 33.2 13.3 [4%] 68.3 [ 5%] 52.4 [6%] 39.5 [8%]

B-F2 45.9 4.1 33.2 13.6 [2%] 62.7 [ 9%] 51.9 [6%] 39.9 [1%]

direction fp = 12 MPa were adopted, respectively, according to the response is significantly influenced by the segmentation of the RC

manufacturer specifications. slabs (e.g. large gaps between the RC slab panels). It is also observ-

It is noteworthy that the elastic modulus of LVL timber obtained able that the 2D FE model can represent the global response

from bending tests (see Table 3) was used in the FE models to take (deflection and slip) as well as the local behaviour (timber and con-

account of the shear deformation effect in the 1D FE simulations. crete strains) of the TCC beams with an accuracy better than the

The CoV of compressive strength for different concrete batches var- simple analytical and 1D frame FE models; but the 2D FE models

ied between 4.6% and 6.3%. Furthermore, the CoV of timber are computationally more expensive than the other two models.

mechanical properties are provided in Table 3 [23]. Since the simple analytical and 1D frame FE formulations can pro-

duce erroneous results for TCC beams with segmented slabs (par-

3.4. Verification of results ticularly when there are gaps between the slab panels), more

advanced models such as 2D continuum-based FE models are

All nine TCC beams in the experiments [23] are analysed, and required for non-linear analysis of the beams under SLS and ULS

the local and global responses captured by the simple analytical loading conditions. However, when the effect of segmentation is

model, 1D frame FE and 2D FE model are validated against these negligible (i.e. full contact or no gap between the slab panels),

results. The deflection, slip, concrete and timber strain results for the simple analytical and 1D frame FE techniques can adequately

the beams B-A1, B-A2, B-A3 and B-A5 are shown in Figs. 5–8. These capture the behaviour of TCC beams and employing sophisticated

four beams have similar composite cross section and connection 2D FE models only increases the cost of the computations.

type over the beam length, but the number of connections and type The ultimate loading capacity (Pu) and its corresponding mid

of contact between the juxtaposed RC slab panels (Table 2) are dif- span deflection (du), the serviceability stiffness (Ks) at 40% of the

ferent. In Figs. 5–8, the structural responses assuming full and no ultimate load, the ultimate end slip (su) and the strain at the top

composite action are also displayed to demonstrate the composite and bottom fibres of the mid-span cross-section for the slab and

efficiency of the TCC beams with precast panelised slabs at differ- timber beam obtained from the laboratory tests and predicted by

ent stages of loading. It is observable that the simple analytical different models are provided in Tables 4 and 5. The comparison

model can adequately predict structural response of the TCC beams between the experimentally measured and numerically predicted

within the service loading condition and/or when the TCC beams values of Pu, du, Ks, su and the values of the timber and concrete

have high levels of composite efficiency. However, at the ULS con- strain demonstrate the accuracy of the 1D and 2D FE models com-

dition the simple analytical method overestimates the stiffness and pared to the simple analytical technique for predicting the global

strength of the TCC beams, being attributed to the linear elastic and local responses of the deconstructable TCC beams, particularly

behaviour adopted for all the TCC components (i.e. timber, con- when the segmentation of RC slabs does not dominate the struc-

crete and shear connectors). The 1D FE models can predict the tural behaviour. To visualise and compare the accuracy and perfor-

non-linear behaviour of the TCC beams particularly near the col- mance of the strategies adopted, the evaluation of errors with

lapse loads, but the 1D FE models tend to overestimate the stiffness respect to experimental data at global (Pu, du, Ks and su) and local

and strength of the TCC beams (Fig. 5a and b) when the structural (ultimate strains at mid span) levels is carried out and the results

N. Khorsandnia et al. / Construction and Building Materials 163 (2018) 798–811 805

120 120

100 100

80 80

60 60

40 40

Test (ULS) Test (ULS)

Analytical Analytical

20 FE (1D) 20 FE (1D)

FE (2D) FE (2D)

0 0

0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100

Mid span deflection (mm) Mid span deflection (mm)

(a) (b)

120

120

100

100

Total Load (kN)

80

80

60

60

40 Test (SLS)

Test (ULS) 40 Test (ULS)

Analytical Analytical

20 FE (1D) 20 FE (1D)

FE (2D) FE (2D)

0 0

0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100

Mid span deflection (mm) Mid span deflection (mm)

(c) (d)

Fig. 5. Load-deflection experimental and theoretical results of TCC beams tested for (a) B-A1, (b) B-A2, (c) B-A3 and (d) B-A5.

120 120

Full composite

Full composite

100 100

Total Load (kN)

80 80

60 60

Analytical Analytical

20 FE (1D) 20 FE (1D)

FE (2D) FE (2D)

0 0

0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8

End slip (mm) End slip (mm)

(a) (b)

120

Full composite

Full composite

120

100

100

Total Load (kN)

Test (SLS)

80 Test (ULS)

80

Analytical

60 FE (1D)

60

FE (2D)

40 Test (ULS) 40

Analytical

20 FE (1D) 20

FE (2D)

0 0

0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6

End slip (mm) End slip (mm)

(c) (d)

Fig. 6. Load-slip experimental and theoretical results of TCC beams tested for (a) B-A1, (b) B-A2, (c) B-A3 and (d) B-A5.b) B-A2, (c) B-A3 and (d) B-A5.

806 N. Khorsandnia et al. / Construction and Building Materials 163 (2018) 798–811

120 120

Top fibre Bottom fibre Top fibre Bottom fibre

Full composite

Full composite

100 100

80 80

60 60

40 40

Test (ULS) Test (ULS)

Analytical Analytical

20 20

FE (1D) FE (1D)

FE (2D) FE (2D)

0 0

-1000 -500 0 500 1000 -1000 -500 0 500 1000

Strain (µε) Strain (µε)

(a) (b)

120

Top fibre Bottom fibre Top fibre Bottom fibre

120

100

100 Test (ULS)

Total Load (kN)

80 Analytical

80 FE (1D)

60 FE (2D)

60

40 40

Test (ULS)

Analytical

20 20

FE (1D)

FE (2D)

0 0

-1000 -500 0 500 1000 -1000 -500 0 500 1000

Strain (µε) Strain (µε)

(c) (d)

Fig. 7. Load-concrete strain experimental and theoretical results of TCC beams tested for beams (a) B-A1, (b) B-A2, (c) B-A3 and (d) B-A5.

120 120

Top fibre Bottom fibre Top fibre Bottom fibre

Full composite

Full composite

100 100

Total Load (kN)

80 80

60 60

40 40

Test (ULS) Test (ULS)

Analytical Analytical

20 20

FE (1D) FE (1D)

FE (2D) FE (2D)

0 0

-5000 -2500 0 2500 5000 -5000 -2500 0 2500 5000

Strain (µε) Strain (µε)

(a) (b)

120

Full composite

Full composite

120

100

100

Total Load (kN)

80

80

60

60

40 40

Test (ULS) Test (ULS)

Analytical Analytical

20 20

FE (1D) FE (1D)

FE (2D) FE (2D)

0 0

-5000 -2500 0 2500 5000 -5000 -2500 0 2500 5000

Strain (µε) Strain (µε)

(c) (d)

Fig. 8. Load-timber strain experimental and theoretical results of TCC beams tested for beams (a) B-A1, (b) B-A2, (c) B-A3 and (d) B-A5.

N. Khorsandnia et al. / Construction and Building Materials 163 (2018) 798–811 807

Table 4

Comparison of experimental and analytical results for global responses (Pu, du, Ks and su) of all TCC beams tested.

Test Anal FE (1-D) FE (2-D) Test Anal FE (1-D) FE (2-D) Test Anal FE (1-D) FE (2-D) Test Anal FE (1-D) FE (2-D)

B-A1 107 130 109 106 96 59 91 79 1.7 2.2 2.3 1.7 6.8 1.8 7.7 3.2

B-A2 94 132 120 104 65 55 85 70 1.4 2.4 2.5 1.4 1.6 1.4 6.4 1.3

B-A3 113 119 111 115 83 55 79 84 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.1 5.7 1.3 5.4 6.0

B-A4 211 187 204 214 56 39 51 57 4.6 4.8 5.1 4.5 1.8 1.0 2.8 2.6

B-A5 121 121 136 122 86 51 63 95 1.9 2.3 2.5 2.0 5.6 0.9 1.6 5.7

B-B1 95 90 108 94 61 54 63 57 1.9 1.7 1.9 1.7 2.4 1.6 1.7 1.3

B-D1 99 88 103 98 70 60 75 72 1.8 1.5 1.9 1.7 2.5 2.5 3.4 3.1

B-F1 93 109 105 104 86 78 98 94 1.6 1.4 1.7 1.6 6.5 4.4 7.7 7.0

B-F2 73 80 80 74 81 67 75 81 0.9 1.2 1.4 1.0 5.0 3.3 4.7 2.4

Table 5

Comparison of experimental and analytical results for local responses (ultimate strain values at mid span) of all TCC beams tested.

Beam Concrete top fibre Concrete bottom fibre Timber top fibre Timber bottom fibre

Test Anal FE (1-D) FE (2-D) Test Anal FE (1-D) FE (2-D) Test Anal FE (1-D) FE (2-D) Test Anal FE (1-D) FE (2-D)

B-A1 300 956 963 711 89 280 724 378 2857 995 2439 1698 4505 3948 4309 3650

B-A2 860 937 984 658 47 220 422 179 762 746 1541 968 3236 3882 4084 3214

B-A3 760 899 938 776 103 244 362 251 664 639 1144 1099 3099 3934 4057 4021

B-A4 968 813 947 827 345 1 11 59 536 745 1009 1023 3871 3583 4099 4145

B-A5 691 881 1034 853 184 196 168 427 1047 430 369 1783 4669 3878 4439 4570

B-B1 611 784 929 667 99 338 314 137 120 724 476 280 3998 3766 4495 3703

B-D1 643 832 955 738 175 432 467 291 22 1164 1076 907 4685 3891 4614 4176

B-F1 566 1021 994 796 151 615 913 604 1760 2195 2788 2470 3323 4350 4837 4393

B-F2 493 856 836 642 137 537 624 511 1655 1624 1636 1803 3810 3947 4202 3864

are illustrated in Fig. 9. It is observable that 2D FE model has the of this specimen and its experimental results were quite similar

lowest error (the most accurate) with minimum coefficient of vari- to a TCC beam with a single RC slab (i.e. no segmentation in the

ation for most cases considered, whereas the simple analytical and slab).

1D frame FE models have comparable accuracy for predicting the

behaviour of deconstructable TCC beams. 3.5. Gap between RC slab panels

The mean of difference between the experimental and numeri-

cally predicted peak load Pu is 8.5% and 2.8% for 1D and 2D FE mod- The effect of the gap size on the global response of the TCC

els, respectively. For the mid-span deflection du corresponding to beams was evaluated by assuming three different values (1, 2

ultimate load, the mean of difference between experimental and and 4 mm) for the gap between the RC slab panels. The load-

1D and 2D FE results are 15.0% and 9.5%, respectively and the mean deflection and load-slip response of specimen B-A3 with these

of difference between experimental and 1D and 2D FE results for adopted gap sizes are shown in Fig. 10a and b, respectively. In

service stiffness Ks is 14.0% and 4.8%, respectively. This is demon- these analyses, a hard contact between the RC slab panels (and fil-

strative of the better accuracy of 2D FE models compared to 1D ler) was considered. It is observable that the size of the gaps

FE models. Furthermore, it is observed that the variability in the between the panels has negligible influence on the ultimate load-

TCC beam peak load capacities predicted by 2D FE models is smal- ing capacity of the beams, but the load-deflection response and

ler than the variability observed in the bending strength fb of tim- stiffness of the beams under service loading conditions is reduced

ber (average CoVs = 8.5%). However, the variability in the significantly by increasing the gap size between slab panels. The

displacement du and stiffness Ks is significantly bigger than the hardening behaviour (i.e. increasing stiffness) at the initial stages

variability of LVL timber elastic modulus (average CoVs = 4.1%). of the load-deflection evolution (see Fig. 10a) can be attributed

The relatively large variability in the numerically predicted dis- to the closing gaps with the increasing curvature that brings the

placement du and stiffness Ks can be attributed to large variability furthest top fibre of the adjacent slabs into direct contact. As is evi-

(uncertainty) in the connectors’ behaviour (stiffness) as evident dent from Fig. 10b, the slip that occurs at end supports of the TCC

from R2 values provided in Table 1. These observations are consis- beams with large gaps between the RC slab panels is very small.

tent with the results of probabilistic FE analyses carried out by The non-linear analyses of the TCC beams show that the structural

Zona et al. [30]. response (load-deflection) of the TCC beams with precast panelised

Since the values of the input parameters with respect to the slabs tends to a lower bound as the size of gaps between the RC

segmentation of the slabs (i.e. number of slab panels and the gap slab panels increases (Fig. 10a). This lower bound (load-

between the panels) along the TCC beams have not been reported deflection) is representative of the response of a TCC beam with

in the experimental program and these input parameters cannot be no contact between the RC slab panels (Fig. 10a).

measured easily during a test, a parametric study is carried out to

understand how four different characteristics of the prefabricated 3.6. Modulus of elasticity (MOE) of filler

deconstructable TCC beams, the number of slab panels, the gap

between the panels and the stiffness of materials used for filling Due to significant effect of the gaps on the structural behaviour

the gaps in conjunction with stiffness of shear connectors, can of TCC beams under SLS loading conditions, Khorsandnia et al. [23]

affect the structural response of the TCC beams. All the analyses recommended filling of the gaps with plaster or a filler materials

in the parametric study are conducted on the B-A3 beam using with strength and elastic modulus comparable to or higher than

2D FE models, because there was no gap between the slab panels concrete. However, different fillers (e.g. grout, mortar or plaster)

808 N. Khorsandnia et al. / Construction and Building Materials 163 (2018) 798–811

Fig. 9. Error evaluation of different theoretical methods compared to experimental results for (a) global (Pu, du, Ks and su) and (b) local (ultimate strain values at mid-span)

characteristics.

120 120

100 100

Total Load (kN)

80 80

60 60

Test Test

40 40

Full contact

Full contact

Gap = 0.1 mm Gap = 0.1 mm

20 20 Gap = 1 mm

Gap = 1 mm

Gap = 2 mm Gap = 2 mm

0 0

0 20 40 60 80 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Mid span deflection (mm) End slip (mm)

(a) (b)

Fig. 10. Sensitivity of (a) load-deflection response and (b) load-slip response, with respect to different gaps between slab segments.

120 120

100 100

Total Load (kN)

80 80

60 60

Test Test

40 Full contact 40 Full contact

E = 20 GPa E = 20 GPa

E = 2 GPa E = 2 GPa

20 20

E = 0.2 GPa E = 0.2 GPa

Lower Bound Lower Bound

0 0

0 20 40 60 80 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Mid span deflection (mm) End slip (mm)

(a) (b)

Fig. 11. Sensitivity of (a) load-deflection response and (b) load-slip response, with respect to different elastic modulus of filler used between slab segments.

with different mechanical properties can have significantly differ- sidered and the filler material is modelled by a linear elastic consti-

ent influences on the SLS and ULS response of TCC beams with pan- tutive law. The load-deflection and load-slip response of the TCC

elised RC slabs. beams with MOEs of 0.2, 2.0 and 20 GPa are shown in

The effect of the filler’s elastic modulus on the overall structural Fig. 11a and b, respectively. Furthermore, the lower and upper

behaviour of the TCC beams is studied by assuming three different bounds of load-deflection and load-slip diagrams are provided in

values for its MOE, i.e. 0.2, 2.0 and 20 GPa. The upper bound of the Fig. 11a and b. These lower and/or upper bound responses repre-

MOE values (i.e. 20 GPa) for filler material was adopted with sent scenarios in which there is a gap without filler and/or no

respect to MOE of concrete (contacting surfaces) to represent a sce- gap with full contact between adjacent RC slab panels, respec-

nario in which the slab along the TCC beam is nearly continuous. tively. Regarding Fig. 11, it can be concluded that the ultimate

The lower bound of 0.2 GPa was used to represent a scenario in loading capacity of the TCC beams with prefabricated slab panels

which the gaps between precast slabs were filled by a very weak is not sensitive to stiffness of the filler material. However, the

filler compared to concrete. In the TCC beam adopted for this part load-deflection response as well as stiffness of TCC beams at SLS

of the parametric study, a 2 mm gap between the RC panels is con- conditions is significantly influenced by the MOE of the filler. For

N. Khorsandnia et al. / Construction and Building Materials 163 (2018) 798–811 809

example, reducing this from 20 GPa to 0.2 GPa leads to a 50% non-linear FE models for capturing the global and local response

reduction in the serviceability stiffness of the TCC beam considered of the TCC beams under SLS and ULS conditions.

(Fig. 11a). Accordingly, the use of stiffer materials for the filler is

recommended to enhance the structural performance (particularly

3.8. Number of segments

the stiffness under SLS conditions) of the TCC system with prefab-

ricated RC slab panels.

Another factor that may affect the structural response of TCC

beams with segmented slabs is the number of panels over the

3.7. Stiffness of shear connectors beam length. Assuming 2 mm gaps between the slab segments

and a MOE of 2 GPa for the filler material within the gaps, beam

Deconstructable TCC beams with precast panelised RC slabs can B-A3 with 4, 6 and 8 slab segments was analysed using the 2D

be easily dismantled and reassembled. However, disassembling FE formulation and the load-deflection and load-slip results are

and reassembling the TCC beams involves loosening, removing shown in Fig. 13. It is seen that the number of slab panels has neg-

and fastening the screw shear connectors, that can reduce the stiff- ligible influence on the peak load carrying capacity of the TCC

ness of the TCC connections as reported in Khorsandnia et al. [23]. beam, but the stiffness of the TCC beams at SLS conditions can be

The stiffness reduction (due to unscrewing and screwing the shear significantly influenced by the number of slab panels over the

connectors) largely depends on screw type and size, timber type beam length. In the B-A3 beam, increasing the number of segments

and installation method. Accordingly, TCC beam B-A3 is analysed from 4 to 8 leads to a 30% reduction in the initial stiffness of the

assuming four different stiffness reduction factors (ranging from TCC beam (Fig. 13a). In addition, it is observable that the ultimate

40% to 100%) for shear connection A3 and the load-deflection and end slip in the TCC beams decreases as the number of slab panels

load-slip results are shown in Fig. 12a and b, respectively. The sig- increases, because part of the slip is diminished within the gap

nificant influence of the stiffness reduction factor on the structural between the slab panels.

response (i.e. load-deflection, peak load carrying capacity and ser- Finally, the adequacy and capabilities of the models adopted for

viceability stiffness) of the TCC beams is evident from Fig. 12a. It capturing different aspects of the behaviour of a deconstructable

can be also concluded that when the stiffness of the connectors TCC beam with prefabricated RC slab panels are summarised and

is noticeably reduced (e.g. 40–60% reduction factor) and/or the compared in Table 6. Amongst the analysis options considered,

number of shear connectors over the beam length is inadequate the analytical formulation is the simplest and most efficient one,

(e.g. under-designed TCC beams), significant non-linearities can whereas the continuum-based FE model is the most complex and

be observed in both the load-deflection and load-slip responses computationally expensive option. The continuum-based FE for-

of the TCC beams, and such situations warrant development of mulations are also the most versatile models for capturing various

120 120

100 100

Total Load (kN)

80 80

60 60

Test Test

40 40

100% A3 connector 100% A3 connector

80% A3 connector 80% A3 connector

20 20

60% A3 connector 60% A3 connector

40% A3 connector 40% A3 connector

0 0

0 20 40 60 80 100 0 2 4 6 8

Mid span deflection (mm) End slip (mm)

(a) (b)

Fig. 12. Sensitivity of (a) load-deflection response and (b) load-slip response, with respect to different connector stiffness.

120 120

100 100

Total Load (kN)

80 80

60 60

Test Test

40 Full contact 40 Full contact

4 segments 4 segments

20 6 segments 20 6 segments

8 segments 8 segments

0 0

0 20 40 60 80 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Mid span deflection (mm) End slip (mm)

(a) (b)

Fig. 13. Sensitivity of (a) load-deflection response and (b) load-slip response, with respect to different number of slab segments.

810 N. Khorsandnia et al. / Construction and Building Materials 163 (2018) 798–811

Table 6

Comparison of predictive models with respect to different characteristics of deconstructable TCC beams.

Full-designed TCC beams (adequate no. of connections) U U U

Under-designed TCC beams (inadequate no. of connections) ✗ U U

Service loads U U U

Ultimate loads ✗ U U

Minor segmentation effect U U U

Significant number of segments ✗ ✗ U

Negligible gap between segments U U U

Significant gap between segments ✗ ✗ U

Hard material as filler between segments U U U

Soft material as filler between segments ✗ ✗ U

Negligible change in connector stiffness after reassembling U U U

Significant change in connector stiffness after reassembling ✗ U U

Simplicity Easiest Moderate Most complex

Efficiency Highest Moderate Lowest

aspects of the structural behaviour of deconstructable TCC systems The results of the parametric study show that the gaps between

with precast panelised slabs. The comparison of different models in the RC slab panels, the use of soft filler materials (with low elas-

Table 6 can serve as a preliminary guide for choosing simplest yet tic modulus) between the slab segments and/or increasing the

sufficiently accurate models for the analysis of TCC beams with number of RC slab panels over the beam length has a minor

precast panels. influence on the ultimate loading capacity of TCC beams with

precast segmented slabs. However, the structural performance

4. Conclusions under service loading conditions can be significantly influenced

by the number of slab panels, size of gaps or elastic modulus of

The simple analytical model of BS EN 1995-1 [31], a non-linear filler between the RC slab panels.

1D frame FE and a 2D continuum-based FE model were proposed Dismantling and reassembling TCC beams by unscrewing and

and employed for the analysis of deconstructable TCC beams with re-screwing the shear connectors can lead to a noticeable

precast panelised RC slabs. The proposed formulations were veri- reduction in the stiffness of shear connection, that in turn can

fied against experimental data from 4-point bending tests con- significantly reduce the structural performance of the decon-

ducted previously by the authors, and the adequacy and accuracy structable TCC beams with panelised slabs under service and

of the models for capturing various aspects of the structural beha- ultimate limit state loading conditions.

viour of TCC beams with segmented slabs were discussed. The non- Practical design of conventional TCC floors/beams (particularly

linear 2D FE models are the most accurate (among the analysis the long-span floors) is significantly influenced and mostly gov-

methods considered) and the 2D FE models can adequately capture erned by the short- and long-term serviceability limit state

the local response (strain in timber and concrete) and the global design requirements. Accordingly, further study is recom-

response (load-deflection, load-slip, stiffness and peak/ultimate mended to shed light on long-term behaviour of decon-

load carrying capacity) of TCC beams with panelised slabs. Accord- structable TCC joints and beams under variable environmental

ingly, a parametric study was carried out using the 2D FE models to conditions.

evaluate the structural behaviour of TCC beams with respect to the

number of slab panels, the size of the gaps between the panels, the

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