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Individual Assessment Cover Sheet

Assessment Title: Comparison of Windows 7 professional and Ubuntu 12.04

Programme Title: BACHELOR OF ICT

Course No.: ITB5004

Course Title: unix

Student Names: Sadeq Kadhem-Talal Alaseeri

Student IDs: 201400445-201401092

By submitting this assessment for marking, either electronically or as hard copy, I confirm the
following:

 This assignment is my own work


 Any information used has been properly referenced.
 I understand that a copy of my work may be used for moderation.
 I have kept a copy of this assignment
Sadeq Kadhem 201400445, Talal Alaseeri 201401092
Comparison of Windows 7 professional and Ubuntu 12.04
Dimitrios Liarokapis
10/5/2015
Word Count e.g. 800 words
Contents

.................................................................... 1
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 4
Purpose ............................................................................................................................................... 4
Method ............................................................................................................................................... 4
1. Open/closed source system ............................................................................................................. 5
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 5
1.1 Definitions............................................................................................................................... 5
1.1.1. Open source system: ....................................................................................................... 5
1.1.2. Closed source saystem: ................................................................................................... 5
1.2 The differences........................................................................................................................ 5
1.2.1 Bug free ........................................................................................................................... 5
1.2.2 Price: ............................................................................................................................... 5
1.2.3 Security: .......................................................................................................................... 5
1.2.4 Control : .......................................................................................................................... 6
1.2.5 Support and help from companies and community:........................................................ 6
1.3 Consequences .......................................................................................................................... 6
1.3.1 Open source system consequences: ................................................................................ 6
1.3.2 Closed source system consequences: .............................................................................. 8
2. Software availability: .................................................................................................................... 10
2.1 Word processers .................................................................................................................... 10
2.2 Multimedia: ........................................................................................................................... 12
2.3 Designing softwares .............................................................................................................. 12
2.4 Web browsers........................................................................................................................ 13
2.5 Social media .......................................................................................................................... 13
Summary of software availability: ..................................................................................................... 13
3. Multi and single user system ......................................................................................................... 14
3.1 Multi user system .................................................................................................................. 14
3.2 Single user system................................................................................................................. 15
3.3 Advantages of multi user system over single user system: ................................................... 16
Summary of multi and single user system: ....................................................................................... 16
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................ 16

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Sadeq Kadhem 201400445, Talal Alaseeri 201401092
Comparison of Windows 7 professional and Ubuntu 12.04
Dimitrios Liarokapis
10/5/2015
Word Count e.g. 800 words
Reference List ....................................................................................................................................... 17

Table of figures
Figure 1 Libre office in ubuntu .............................................................................................................. 11
Figure 2 microsoftword......................................................................................................................... 11
Figure 3 Abiword ................................................................................................................................... 12
Figure 4 Multi use system ..................................................................................................................... 14
Figure 5 single user system ................................................................................................................... 15

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Sadeq Kadhem 201400445, Talal Alaseeri 201401092
Comparison of Windows 7 professional and Ubuntu 12.04
Dimitrios Liarokapis
10/5/2015
Word Count e.g. 800 words

Introduction
Purpose
This report aims to discuss the comparison and differences between two operating
systems; Windows 7, which is a closed source system, and Ubuntu 12.04, which is an open
source system and their features. It will also discuss the software availabily for each
operating system and it will compare between single user system and multi user system
features to determine which one (Ubuntu 12.04, windows 7) is single or multi user system

Method
The information in this report was obtained from a range of sources which includes
websites and book researches and extra information gained from class lectures.

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Sadeq Kadhem 201400445, Talal Alaseeri 201401092
Comparison of Windows 7 professional and Ubuntu 12.04
Dimitrios Liarokapis
10/5/2015
Word Count e.g. 800 words
1. Open/closed source system
Introduction
This part of the report is going to discuss the differences between Windows 7 and
Ubuntu 12.04 based on the types of their systems, close source and open source. It will also
review the definitions, differences and outcome of each system.

1.1 Definitions
1.1.1. Open source system:
Open source system can be defined as a system where the user is able to see source
code (the codes which can manipulate the functions of the system) of the system and even
modify it i.e. all the commands can be changed and modified by anyone. An example of an
open source system would be Ubuntu 12.04.( “What is open source?,”)

1.1.2. Closed source saystem:


Closed source systems are systems which have source codes that can only be accessed
by the person or the organization that created the system. The closed source software is the
property of only the authors and modifying or copying the source code would be illegal. An
example of a closed source system would be Windows 7 professional. ( “What is open
source?,”)

1.2 The differences


This section shows some differences between Open Source system like Ubuntu 12.04
and close source system like Windows 7. It will cover some areas such as Bug Free, Exploits
, Price.

1.2.1 Bug free


The closed source systems do not show their source code and only the company can
debug the source code and manage the operating system. On the other hand, the source code
of the opened source system is available for everyone and anyone have some programming
skills can debug the source code.(Basha,2001)

1.2.2 Price:
In the closed source system you have to pay to get the operating system and also you
have to pay a lot of many on the add-ons. To compare that with the opened source system, it
is usually free and most of the add-ons are free. (Basha,2001)

1.2.3 Security:
security level does not rely on just having open or closed source operating system, it
is more about the process that affects the operating system. Based on that the open source
system is more useful for knowing how tuned the process is and you do not have to depend

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Sadeq Kadhem 201400445, Talal Alaseeri 201401092
Comparison of Windows 7 professional and Ubuntu 12.04
Dimitrios Liarokapis
10/5/2015
Word Count e.g. 800 words
on companies or any other things like the closed source system that needs the producers
hands.(Miller,2004)

1.2.4 Control :
Because the source code is not available for the normal users nobody can make any
changes, know what is happening in the computer and have to trust other companies which
created this operating system. However, because the source code is available for everyone,
things is more under control and everybody have some programming skills can make his own
changes. (Basha,2001)

1.2.5 Support and help from companies and community:


When you face any problems or issues on your device, open source system gives you
more space to solve it by different ways and by using different web site which has a very
helpful community that gives useful solutions for your problem, also because it is open
source system you can do any changes that you want to solve your device’s issue. On the
other hand, all help you can get from a closed source operating system is from the support
staff. There might be some channels or web site that gives help but it does not compare with
the open source system ones. (Basha,2001)

1.3 Consequences
This section of the report will discuss the consequence of open and closed source
systems for end user, developer and system administrator.

1.3.1 Open source system consequences:


Debugging :

End User : The Source code of the open sources system is available for any kind of
user. Due to that, the debugging and removing exploits is an available option, although that
could not be done if the end user does not have enough programming skills.

Developer:

The developer of the open source system can certainly access the source code and
debug it because he is considered the creator of the system itself.

Administrator:

Like the end user, the source code is available to the public including the
administrator. Although the administrator would only access the source code and debug if
given access by the company.

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Sadeq Kadhem 201400445, Talal Alaseeri 201401092
Comparison of Windows 7 professional and Ubuntu 12.04
Dimitrios Liarokapis
10/5/2015
Word Count e.g. 800 words
Price:

End User:

The open source system is usually free of price so the end user would not have to pay
for the system to use it.

Developer:

In general, the developer of the system will not pay for his own system, the open
source system is free.

Administrator:

The open source system is free for everyone including the administrator, which would
save the company a lot of costs.

Security:

End user:

The open source systems in general are not targeted as the source code is available for
everyone and there are fewer reasons to make viruses. However, the installation of firewall
and anti-virus is necessary. The installation is usually free of cost.

Developer:

Like the end user, the developer also needs to install an anti-virus and a firewall, but it
will be free of cost. Being the developer of the system, he would know the best way to keep
his system clean.

Administrator:

The administrator’s job in keeping the company’s system safe is much easier in open
source system. This is because the system is easy to protect and all the applications needed is
free of cost.

Control:

End User:

The end user has the power to control the system and edit as much as desired if he has
enough programming skills because the source code is available.

Developer:

The Developer obviously has the ability to alter the system as much as needed
because he is the person that created the source code itself.

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Sadeq Kadhem 201400445, Talal Alaseeri 201401092
Comparison of Windows 7 professional and Ubuntu 12.04
Dimitrios Liarokapis
10/5/2015
Word Count e.g. 800 words

Administrator:

The administrator's control over the system largely benefits the workplace as the
system can be adapted to the environment of the workplace if adjusted properly.

Support and help from company and community:

End User:

The end user can do anything with the source code and can also get help from the
community and websites.

Developer:

The developer obviously knows how to use the system and does not need any support
as he has developed the system itself.

Administrator:

Being the administrator, he should have enough experience using the system that he
does not need support in an open source system. However, help is available from
communities and companies when needed.

1.3.2 Closed source system consequences:


Debugging:
End User:

The end user would not be able debug the system or to remove exploits as the source
code would not be available for them. The only way that they could debug it or remove the
exploits is by either paying for it or waiting for a new patch to be installed, costing both time
and money.

Developer:

The developer is able to debug the closed source system because its source code is
only available to the developers and authors. Therefore, debugging the system would be
simple.

Administrator:

The administrator’s company is required to pay for all the debugging processes
because the administrator does not have access to the source code unless his company pays
for it.

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Sadeq Kadhem 201400445, Talal Alaseeri 201401092
Comparison of Windows 7 professional and Ubuntu 12.04
Dimitrios Liarokapis
10/5/2015
Word Count e.g. 800 words

Price:

End User:

The End user will have to pay for the system in order to install and use it. The closed
source system is not for free.

Developer:

As a developer of the system, it is safe to say that the developer has a free access to
the system as he developed it.

Administrator:

Although the closed source system is not for free, the administrator himself would
not have to pay for the system. The company that the administrator works in is responsible
for paying to make the system available to the administrator.

Security:

End User:

The end user needs to install a firewall or anti-virus in the closed source system as
there are many viruses that might infect the system because it is more targeted. The anti-virus
and firewall usually does not come for free and needs to be paid for.

Developer:

The developer of the system needs to install a firewall and anti-virus as well, but the
only difference would be that they would not usually pay for it.

Administrator:

Administrators needs to keep their systems clean from viruses all the time and install
firewalls and anti-viruses. However, the payment would be done by the company and not the
administrator himself.

Control:
End User:

The end user has no control over the system and cannot access the source code
legally whatsoever.

Developer:

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Sadeq Kadhem 201400445, Talal Alaseeri 201401092
Comparison of Windows 7 professional and Ubuntu 12.04
Dimitrios Liarokapis
10/5/2015
Word Count e.g. 800 words
Unlike the users, the developer has control over the system and can manipulate with it
as much as desired.

Administrator:

The Administrator can have a certain amount of control over the workplace’s system
but not over the main system installed in a closed source system.

Support and help from company and community:

End User:

The end user using a closed source system cannot find solutions to errors and
malfunctions and have no other way than getting help from the support staff.

Developer:

The Developer of the system can make the source code available for himself and can
fix any errors occurring at any time.

Administrator:

The Administrator also cannot do anything to solve problems occurring in the system,
just like the user, the only way to get help is from the support staff.

2. Software availability:
The following section is going to discuss the software availability of Ubuntu 12.04
under different categories of softwares:

2.1 Word processers


LibreOffice , which is under OpenOffice.org, is a word processor which is installed
by default in Ubuntu 12.04. It does not have as many features as Microsoft Office, but it is
the perfect choice for a free word processor for an open source system. An advantage of
LibreOffice would be its continuous updates and its better security features. Unfortunately,
LibreOffice tends to be very slow, especially when first started, and the menus and options
sometimes appear to be confusing. It is not a good choice for quick document viewing too.
However, another word processor called AbiWord has those features. AbiWord is another
word processor which is used in Ubuntu 12.04. One of its features is that it can adapt itself
with almost all operating systems and changes its platform depending on the graphics of the
operating system itself. Other than that, AbiWord can read and edit most file formats such as
Microsoft office , Open office and Rich Text.

On the other hand, the worldwide office package that users prefer when using
windows 7 is Microsoft Office. Microsoft word, a word processor in the Microsoft Office

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Sadeq Kadhem 201400445, Talal Alaseeri 201401092
Comparison of Windows 7 professional and Ubuntu 12.04
Dimitrios Liarokapis
10/5/2015
Word Count e.g. 800 words
package, gives the use the best experience a word processor can ever have, with various
features, add-ins and options. The biggest disadvantage would be that it is not free like most
other word processors. However, it is worth paying for if the user does more than simple text
editing and uses the unique features of word. Small features, like the word count at the
bottom of the page, are not available in many other word processors. Those features can
make the user choose Microsoft Word over any other word processor if relied on. However,
other word processors like gnome office and LibreOffice can also be installed in Windows as
an alternative to Microsoft Office. (Gordon,2011),( “LibreOffice 3.4”,2011),( Paul,2012)

Figure 1 Libre office in ubuntu

Figure 2 microsoftword

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Sadeq Kadhem 201400445, Talal Alaseeri 201401092
Comparison of Windows 7 professional and Ubuntu 12.04
Dimitrios Liarokapis
10/5/2015
Word Count e.g. 800 words

Figure 3 Abiword

2.2 Multimedia:
The best alternative for multimedia player would be the VLC player in Ubuntu 12.04.
The VLC player is a free multimedia player which is ad-free and has no spyware. It is simple
and fast and can play most codecs; MP3, WMV, MPEG-2 etc. However, some people prefer
using Totem, a video player installed by default with Ubuntu, and Banshee, a free music
player.

The main multimedia player for Windows is Windows media player. It is installed by
default along with windows making the reason why every windows user has windows media
player installed. It is a powerful player, which also allows the user to browse online for music
or video files. Other users might install the VLC Player just as an extra player incase the
windows media player has an error or because some users think VLC player is better.(
Paul,2012),( Claerr,2011)

2.3 Designing softwares


Windows 7 has a lot of designing applications which are required to be paid for such
as Photoshop ccthe most famous application for designing and it is the most impressive photo
editing applicatinon. Also there many other applications likeSerif PhotoPlus X7 and
DxOOpticsPro 10…etc.

However, Ubuntu 12.04 has also designing applications which most of them are free
for instance GIMP,Inkscape, Photoshop Elements 13 which is the most suitable alternative
application for Photoshop and it does not need subscription like “Photoshop cc”.(“ 18
essential photo editing apps,”)

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Comparison of Windows 7 professional and Ubuntu 12.04
Dimitrios Liarokapis
10/5/2015
Word Count e.g. 800 words
2.4 Web browsers
Windows 7 is famous with its default browser internet explorer, but it have some
issues that users suffer from such as slowness, so they changed to other browsers such as
chrome, fire fox ,safari...etc.

On the other hand, Although Ubuntu 12.04 has its default browses fire fox, it has
many alternative web browsers like Chromium which is the same as chrome, Elinks,
Konqueror,links 2…etc. However, fire fox is still dominant.( Mendenhall,2014)

2.5 Social media


windows 7 have many famous social media softwares such as facebook, twitter,
yahoo messenger , windows live messenger and a lot of many other applications which is
available to almost everyone in the world use .

Ubuntu did not have a lot of social media applications in the past when the
tweetmania started, but quickly and in short time large amount of application has released on
Ubuntu 12.04 and these are five of the top applications : Gwibber the default social media
application for Ubuntu and has got a lot of popularity in Linux community, Choqok,
Hotot,Tweetdeck and Spaz.( Auza,2011)

Summary of software availability:


Ubuntu 12.04 and Windows 7 both have many categories of softwares and almost of
the same quality. Windows 7 has its own software packages and has a wider range of
software than Ubuntu. On the other hand, Ubuntu has alternative softwares that can replace
Windows 7’s software packages and most softwares are for free, which is slightly more
beneficial.

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Comparison of Windows 7 professional and Ubuntu 12.04
Dimitrios Liarokapis
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Word Count e.g. 800 words
3. Multi and single user system
Other than their source code, the operating systems can be classified into many
different categories, one of which is single and multi user system. It is obvious that those two
types of operating system differ based on the number of users using the system. Ubuntu 12.04
is an example of a multi user operating system and Windows 7 is an example of a single user
system.

3.1 Multi user system


Multi-User:

Gives the permission to many users to access one system which is the system of the
main computer. The user of the main computer is the system administrator and the rest of the
users are administrators for their own PC’s.

Figure 4 Multi use system

Multi-tasking:

Each user is given a time slice from the main computer’s CPU in which to do a
certain process in. The time slice is extremely short that it appears that all users have the CPU
all the time.(Sakinah,2014)

Sharing Hardware:

The multi user operating systems can share hardware such as printers and there is no
need for each user to have his own printer. It can also share hard drives therefore sharing
memory.(Sakinah, 2014)

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Comparison of Windows 7 professional and Ubuntu 12.04
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Word Count e.g. 800 words
File System:

The sending and receiving of files is not of importance in a multi user operating
system as all the files in the main system can be seen by everyone and edited as well. The
updated file can be seen by everyone as soon as it has been saved as well. (Sakinah, 2014)

Mechanisms:

The most important mechanism a multi user operating system should have is an
authentication mechanism to uniquely identify each user allowed into the system. It should
also have a protection mechanism to protect the system from malwares, viruses and
spywares. An accounting mechanism is also needed to limit the amount of resources for each
user.(“Basic Operating System Concepts,”)

3.2 Single user system


Used by only one person:

single user system is an operating system which is developed and made to be used by
only single user on computer or any other device that this operating system is working on at
any time. It is the most used operating system on home computer, office computer and other
work areas. This single user is the system administrator.( Wiesen,2015)

Figure 5 single user system

Multi-tasking:

In the single user system there is multi-tasking and single-task operating system. Even
though that we can connect to other operating systems with networking, but actually only
single person use this system which makes it different that the multi-user system. Also this
feature gives the user the ability to use more than one programme in the same time. .(
Wiesen,2015)

single application:

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Sadeq Kadhem 201400445, Talal Alaseeri 201401092
Comparison of Windows 7 professional and Ubuntu 12.04
Dimitrios Liarokapis
10/5/2015
Word Count e.g. 800 words
some kinds of single user operating system runs only one application and cannot run
other one in the same time. However, this operating system has all the fundamental parts as
all the other types of operating systems. For example is mp3 player.( “Single user, single
application,”)

file management:

The single user system has a file management which controls the files on the backing
storage of computer.(“ The Main Functions Of a Single User Operating System,”)

memory management:

the single user system has the feature of managing the storage of applications and data
in main memory (RAM,ROM). (“ The Main Functions Of a Single User Operating System,”)

3.3 Advantages of multi user system over single user system:


The most obvious advantage of multi user systems over single user systems is that it
has many computers connected with one main computer. The sharing of resources, for
example, can save a lot of money as both the hardware and the software can be shared; a
multi user system needs only one printer for all users. Files are seen by all users when created
or updated is a good advantage as it is much easier than sending the new or updated files to
every user. Multi user operating systems also saves a lot of time as many users can work on
the same system in the same time so work can be done easily. Workplaces such as offices,
schools and airlines use multi user operating systems. (Sakinah, 2014)

Summary of multi and single user system:


Multi user and single operating systems have much more differences than the number
of users (as shown in the above section). The file systems, connections, and resources all
differ from each other. Although, it is concluded that multi user operating systems are better
when in a workplace, or when more than oneuser needs to access the system at the same time.
However, the single user operating system is the perfect type of OS for a home PC.

Conclusion
To conclude, the report has clearly discussed the differences and consequences of
Windows 7 and Ubuntu 12.04 based on their source codes. It has also listed some of the
categories of softwares that is available in both operating systems and compared between
them to discuss the software availability for each. Lastly, this report has clearly listed the
features of the single and multiuser operating systems along with the advantage of the
multiuser over the single user. Based on this report, it is determined that changing the IT
infrastructure into Ubuntu 12.04 is much more beneficial. Ubuntu 12.04 is more secure, with
full control and power, with a fine range of free softwares and is multi user operating system
based on this report.

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Word Count e.g. 800 words

Reference List
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Basha, A. (2001, September 13). Open-Source Systems versus Closed-Source Systems.


Retrieved March 27, 2015, from
http://www.enderunix.org/docs/opensource_vs_closedsource.html

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https://www.safaribooksonline.com/library/view/understanding-the-
linux/0596005652/ch01s04.html

Claerr, J. (2011, April 6). Windows Media Player Review. Retrieved May 2, 2015, from
http://www.brighthub.com/computing/windows-platform/reviews/57206.aspx

Gordon, W. (2011, December 13). The Best Word Processing App for Windows. Retrieved
May 2, 2015, from http://lifehacker.com/5867623/the-best-word-processing-app-for-
windows

LibreOffice 3.4. (2011, June 15). Retrieved May 2, 2015, from


http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2386963,00.asp

Mendenhall, J. (2014, January 21). 10 Alternative Web Browsers for Ubuntu Linux.
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for-ubuntu-linux/

Miller, J. (2004, September 30). Open Source Versus Closed Source Security. Retrieved May
2, 2015, from http://www.securityfocus.com/columnists/269

Paul, R. (2012, April 30). Free as in awesome: Our favorite open source apps for Ubuntu
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in-awesome-our-favorite-open-source-apps-for-ubuntu-1204/

Sakinah, F. (2014, December 14). MULTI-USER OPERATING SYSTEM. Retrieved May 2,


2015, from https://prezi.com/smzn1pvfmhn7/multi-user-operating-system/

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The Main Functions Of a Single User Operating System. (n.d.). Retrieved May 2, 2015, from
https://cosidesk.wikispaces.com/The+Main+Functions+Of+a+Single+User+Operatin
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Wiesen, G. (2015, April 17). What Is a Single-User Operating System? Retrieved May 2,
2015, from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-single-user-operating-system.htm

What is open source? (n.d.). Retrieved March 27, 2015, from


http://opensource.com/resources/what-open-source

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Comparison of Windows 7 professional and Ubuntu 12.04
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Word Count e.g. 800 words
18 essential photo editing apps. (2015, April 2). Retrieved May 2, 2015, from
http://www.creativebloq.com/software/best-photo-editor-51411752

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