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a aa i ee u oo e E ai o O ou/ow

/ m M , < c C v V I x X Xs
k (h) f; f fh fp fP F $ nf Nf if nfh Nfh nfs
ng q; q qh qp qP '[ '{ nq Nq iq nqh Nqh nqs
ch (s) r; r rh rp rP R # nr Nr ir nrh Nrh nrs
ny Q; Q Qh Qp QP ] ]} nQ NQ iQ nQh NQh nQs
t (d) l; l lh b B L ^ nl Nl il nlh Nlh nls
N z; z zh zp zP Z Z} nz Nz iz nzh Nzh nzs
th(dh) j; j jh jp jP J J} nj Nj ij njh Njh njs
n e; e eh ep eP E E} ne Ne ie neh Neh nes
p (b) g; g gh gp gP G G+ ng Ng ig ngh Ngh ngs
m k; k kh kp kP K % nk Nk ik nkh Nkh nks
y a; a ah ap aP A A+ na Na ia nah Nah nas
r u; u uh up uP U & nu Nu iu nuh Nuh nus
l y; y yh yp yP Y Y} ny Ny iy nyh Nyh nys
v t; t th tp tP T T+ nt Nt it nth Nth nts
“zh” o; o oh op oP O * no No io noh Noh nos
L s; s sh sp sP S @ ns Ns is nsh Nsh nss
R w; w wh wp wP W W} nw Nw iw nwh Nwh nws
n d; d dh dp dP D D} nd Nd id ndh Ndh nds
ng q;f; nd z;l; ndr d;w; tr w;w;
nj Q;r; ndh e;j;
September 29 Notes and Exercises

µ‘ò ‡ò€î ‡î™


µ“ …ò€î …
×ò ×€î ×ñ™
×è ×€ã ×晐
×Ñ ×€Ì ×Ï™
³ €° ³™ (°í)
µ‘Å µÅ€À µÀ™
µ‘›è ‡›€ã ‡›æ™
µ“›è …›€ã …›æ™
×Ñè ×э€ã ×э晐

If you are using the verbs º’¦™Å, —°Ì’ÉÅ, or ½Ì’ÉÅ, when do you need to add ‰ to the noun?
1. When the noun is general, do not add ‰
‡î™ À€Ý º’¦™Å. I like rain.
2. When the noun is specific, add ‰
… ×€î¿ º’¦™Å. You like him.
þׯ¨Å and þº‘³Å are special. They never add ‰.
×ñ™ µ“ þׯ¨Å. He needs you.
×晐 ³ þº‘³Å. That is enough (for her).

Exercises.
Learn the difference between µ‘›è and µ‘Å. Which word should be used for ‘we’ in the following sentences?
a. Are we there yet?

b. We just saw a lightning bolt. You missed it.

c. Hey everybody, it’s raining. We should go inside.

d. When did you and your brother get here? We got here at noon.)

Indicate whether the object is ‘general’ or ‘specific’. Then translate. (All of the examples are clearly either general or
specific. There should not be confusion.)
1. They want my bag. (ۼ)

2. You like milk.

3. I like your sari. (þœ€Ò)

4. Do I know you?
5. How do I know her?

6. They need him.

7. My cat likes vadai. [Hint: use ¾€î™] , (׀¥)

8. The dog wants a bone. [Hint: use µ‘Ë™], (‡ÕŽ)

9. We like her teacher (female). [use µ‘›è]

10. How much rice is enough (for him)? (cooked rice = þœ‘ì/œ‘°Å)

11. How much do you want?

12. They need a house.

13. You like his ring. (þÀ‘°’ÌÅ)

14. How many rings does he need?


October 6

Command (used for µ“) – Add ‰ to the noun where appropriate


…ò þ׀ҀƢ —œË Do your work
×€î¿ º‘Ñ Look at him
º‘Ö ×‘› Buy milk
…ò °€Ò€Æ¢ œ“Ú Comb your hair
°¯«“Ñ —‘¨ Give (me) water

Infinitive form – can be translated as “(to) Verb”


Weak Verbs (+ ) Strong Verbs (+™)
do —œË —œËÆ to do give —‘¨ —‘¨™ to give
sit …ª‘Ñ …ª‘Ì to sit walk µ¥ µ¥™ to walk
sleep à› à› to sleep see, look at º‘Ñ º‘Ñ™ to see
play ×’€ãÆ‘¨ ×’€ãÆ‘¥ to play hit ¦ ¦™ to hit
cry à Ý to cry wash ³€× ³€×™ to wash
eat œ‘¿º’¨ œ‘¿º’¥ to eat kick …€° …€°™ to kick
buy ב› ב› to buy bite ¦ ¦™ to bite
come ב ×Ì to come
go þº‘ þº‘ to go

When using the Infinitive form with —°Ì’ÉÅ, º’¦™Å, ½Ì’ÉÅ, use ‡î™, …, ×ñ™, etc.
When using the Infinitive form with þׯ¨Å, use µ‘ò, µ“, ×ò, ×è, etc.
¹° þ×€Ò€Æ ×è —œËÆ þׯ¨Å. She needs to do that work.
°’Ï™ µ¥™´ —°Ì’ÉÅ. Kathir knows how to walk.
Æ‘Ý’î’™¢ œ€ÀÆÖ —œËÆ¿ º’¦™Å. Yalini likes to cook.
ƒã›þ‘™´ à›¿ º’¦™Å. Elango likes to sleep.
µ“ à› þׯ¨Å. You need to sleep.

Infinitive + ˜¥‘³ = should not, must not


×è …èþã ×Ì™˜¥‘³. She should not come inside.
Infinitive + ª¨Å = ‘let it happen’
×è …èþã ×̪¨Å. Let her come in.
(Note: When asked as a question, it means “shall”)
µ‘ò …èþã ×̪¨À‘? Shall I come in?
Infinitive + Ò‘Å = may, allowed to
×è …èþã ×ÌÒ‘Å. She may come inside.
Directions: Circle the letter of the sentence that is correct written Thamil. (Careful, some of these sentences
may “sound right” even though they should not be written that way.) Ask your parents if you need help.
Then translate the sentence into English.
1. a. ‡î™ …ò€î þׯ¨Å.
b. ‡î™ µ“ þׯ¨Å.

2. a. ×晐 ‡´°€î ׀¥è þׯ¨Å?


b. ×晐 ‡Ü×ãÚ ×€¥è þׯ¨Å?

3. a. °Åº’™ ƒ¹° µ‘€Æ¿ º’¦™Å.


b. °Åº’™ ƒ¹° µ‘Ë º’¦™Å.

4. a. ×Ï™ ¹° —œÏ¿½ þׯ¨Å.


b. ×Ï™ ¹° —œÏ¿€º þׯ¨Å.

5. a. ‡î™ º’Òò —°Ì’ÉÅ.


b. ‡î™ º’Ò€î —°Ì’ÉÅ.

6. a. … ‡´°€î “€Ì¿—º‘é’ÆÖ þׯ¨Å?


b. … ‡Ü×ãÚ “€Ì¿—º‘é’ÆÖ þׯ¨Å?

7. a. ‡î™ º‘Ö º’¦™Å.


b. ‡î™ º‘€Ò º’¦™Å.

8. a. ‡î™ ƒ¹° º‘Ö º’¦™Å.


b. ‡î™ ƒ¹° º‘€Ò º’¦™Å.

9. a. ×э晐 ƒ³ þº‘³Å.
b. ×э晐 ƒ€° þº‘³Å.

10. a. µÀ™ ×ò þׯ¨Å.


b. µÀ™ ×€î þׯ¨Å.

11. a. —º‘òî’™ µ¥™ —°Ì’ÉÅ.


b. —º‘òî’ µ¥™ —°Ì’ÉÅ.

12. a. µ“ à› þׯ¨Å.


b. … à› þׯ¨Å.

13. a. ×ò ‹¥ º’¦™Å.


b. ×ñ™ ‹¥ º’¦™Å.

14. a. ×è º‘Ö ¦™ ˜¥‘³.


b. ×晐 º‘Ö ¦™ ˜¥‘³.
general vs. specific
A noun in a sentence that is the object sometimes takes the ending –‰. Any object that has
¹°/ƒ¹° in front of it or is a person is specific and should take the -‰.

Of the following English words, indicate whether it is general or specific. (Hint: Think about whether you
would add -‰ to the word if it is used in the following sentence: ‡î™ _word_ º’¦™Å.) Then translate
the word into Thamil. The first two have been done for you.

that box - specific, ¹° —ºª¦ (Hint: ‡î™ ¹° —ºª¦€Æ º’¦™Å.)
flowers - general, ¾™è, ÀÒэè (Hint: ‡î™ ¾™è º’¦™Å. ‡î™ ÀÒэè
º’¦™Å.)

1. animals
2. our house
3. my left hand
4. your head
5. water
6. our teacher
7. his math textbook
8. plants
9. rain
10. this coconut tree
11. that house
12. milk
13. saranya

Now, try to identify whether the following are general or specific:

my handwriting, her questions, Tamil language, mother’s cooking, scent of flowers

It’s not that easy. For these examples, there is no clear cut answer, because it depends on the background in
which the word is being used (the context). Sometimes, even when you consider the context, it’s still hard to
tell whether the object is general or specific. When this happens, you can generally write it either way, with
or without the -‰.

Don’t worry if you don’t quite understand this general vs. specific concept. You will be able to learn it as
you get more and more experience.
Translate the following sentences:
1. Æ‘Ñ …ò æ€Æ —ת¥ þׯ¨Å? (æ = hair, —ת¨ = cut)

2. ×ñ€¥Æ æ€Æ —ת¥Ò‘À‘?

3. ×ò ƒ¿—º‘à³ …èþã ×ÌÒ‘À‘?


þׯ¥‘Å, ×è À캦ÉÅ µ‘€ã ×̪¨Å. (À캦ÉÅ = again, µ‘€ã = tomorrow)

4. º‘¿º‘, µ“ ‡´°€î À«’™ à› þׯ¨Å?

5. µ‘Å ŠÏ €ÀÖ —°‘€ÒÚ ‹¥ þׯ¨Å. (€ÀÖ = mile, —°‘ÒÚ = distance)

6. … ‡›þ þº‘ º’¦™Å?

7. °Åº’: “µ‘ò ƒ¹° °€× Ä¥ª¨À‘?”


¯«ò: “œÌ’, ƒ¹° °€× Ĩ.”
ÅÀ‘: “þׯ¥‘Å, µ“ ƒ¹° °€× Ä¥ ˜¥‘³”

8. º‘¿º‘: “ÅÀ‘, µ‘ò ƒ¹° œªî’€Æ œ‘¿º’¥Ò‘À‘?” (œªî’ = chutney)


ÅÀ‘: “þׯ¥‘Å. ƒ³ ‘Ì¢œªî’. µ“ ‘Ì¢œªî’ œ‘¿º’¥ ˜¥‘³. ¹° œ‘ź‘€Ì
œ‘¿º’¨.” (‘ÌÅ = spicy, ‘Ì¢œªî’ = spicy chutney)
ÅÀ‘: “¹° œ‘ź‘€Ì …ò ¿º‘™ º’¦™Å. … œ‘ź‘Ñ º’¦™À‘?”
º‘¿º‘: “‡î™ œ‘ź‘Ñ º’¦™Å. ÅÀ‘, µ‘ò ˆò ‘Ì¢œªî’ œ‘¿º’¥ ˜¥‘³?”
º‘¿º‘: [à€] (à€ = crying)
ÅÀ‘: “…ò ×Ƴ 10. µ“ Ý ˜¥‘³.” (×Ƴ = age)

9. Ý¹€°: “¿º‘, µ‘ò ‡´°€î ƒãµ“Ñ ¦™Ò‘Å?” (ƒãµ“Ñ = tender coconut water)
¿º‘: “ŠÏ ƒãµ“€Ì Àª¨Å ¦. ƒÌ¯¨ ¦™ ˜¥‘³.” (Àª¨Å = only)
Read over the following words. Read them out loud twice to your parents.
S = strong, w = weak
¦6 º‘Ö drink (S) milk
3
àÚ € wash (w) hand
3
Ĩ °Ú close (w) door
6
º‘Ñ see (S)
3
Ýíì —œÏ¿½ remove (w) shoe
6
³€¥ ¯«‘¦ wipe (S) glass, glasses
3
˜ª¨ °€Ì sweep (w) floor
3
œ¿½ À’ª¥‘Ë suck (w) candy
3
×’€ãÆ‘¨ play (w)
3 3
ג㙐 /³Ò™ ºÖ brush (w) tooth, teeth
3
œ“Ú °€Ò comb (w) head, (hair)
6
…€¥ þ°›‘Ë break (S) coconut
6
þ°Ë ³«’ iron (S) clothes
6
À¦ ³«’ fold (S) clothes
3
ª¨ ד¨ build (w) house
3
ª¨ þת¦, þœ€Ò tie on, wear (w) vEtti, sari
3
þº‘ go (w)-- þº‘
2
ב come (w)– ×Ì
2
…ª‘Ñ sit (w)
3
à› sleep (w)
3
—ת¨ ÀÌÅ, æ cut (w) wood/tree, hair
4
ѡԬ touch (w)
µ’€î™´ —°Ì’¹° ÀîþÀ (http://www.dhool.com/cgi-bin/test.pl?songid=16)
Background: A woman is in love with a man, but they have to break off the relationship because of circumstances
beyond their control. The woman is unable to forget her love for this man and sings the following:
µ’€î™´ —°Ì’¹° ÀîþÀ, … À降´ —°Ì’Æ‘°‘?
ºÝ´ —°Ì’¹° …Æ’þÌ, … גҍ´ —°Ì’Æ‘°‘?
ÀÆ›´ —°Ì’¹° ¯þ«, … …雍´ —°Ì’Æ‘°‘?
ÀÒÌ´ —°Ì’¹° òþº, … À€éÆ´ —°Ì’Æ‘°‘?
‡¨™´ —°Ì’¹° ÌþÀ, …™ —‘¨™´ —°Ì’Æ‘°‘?
ƒî’™´ —°Ì’¹° î’þÆ, …™ œ™´ —°Ì’Æ‘°‘?
º¦™´ —°Ì’¹° ƒ°þÝ, … 晍´ —°Ì’Æ‘°‘?
º¥Ì´ —°Ì’¹° ºî’þÆ, … À€éÆ´ —°Ì’Æ‘°‘?
—‘°’™´ —°Ì’¹° µ’Òþ×, … ã’Ì´ —°Ì’Æ‘°‘?
ã’ÏÅ —°òéÖ ‘íþé, …¿ º’Ì’™´ —°Ì’Æ‘°‘?
º’Ì’™´ —°Ì’¹° ƒ€éב, … ƒ€«™´ —°Ì’Æ‘°‘?
ƒ€«Æ´ —°Ì’¹° °€Òב, … ‡ò€î¿ ½Ì’Æ‘°‘? --¯«°‘œò

µ’€î v. think (strong)


ÀîÅ n. mind
Àé v. forget (strong)
ºÝ v. get to know, learn (weak)
…Æ’Ñ n. life
גҐ v. separate from, step aside (weak)
ÀÆ› v. be charmed (weak)
¯ n. eye
…雐 = à› v. sleep (weak)
ÀÒÑ v. bloom, blossom (weak)
ò½ n. affection
À€é v. to disappear (weak)
ଠv. take (strong)
ÌÅ = € n. hand
—‘¨ v. give (strong)
ƒî’ v. be sweet (strong)
î’ n. fruit
œ v. be bitter (strong)
ƒ°â = …°¨è n. lips
æ v. finish (strong)
º¥Ñ v. spread (weak)
ºî’ n. dew
—‘°’ v. boil (strong)
µ’ÒÚ = µ’Ò‘ n. moon
ã’Ñ v. be cool (weak)
—°òéÖ ‘íì n. southern breeze (brings cool air from the south)
º’Ì’ v. separate (strong)
ƒ€é×ò = ¥Úè = œ‘À’ n. God
ƒ€« v. join (strong)
ƒ€« v. be joined (weak)
°€Ò×ò (here, °€Ò×ò = ‘°Òò) n. leader, main character in a story (here, it is the man
who the woman is in love with)
Quiz, October 6

Translate the following to Thamil. You have 45 seconds for each.

1. You know her.


2. we
3. his hand
4. She is my (elder) sister.
5. That is a tree.
6. This is her house.
7. I want milk.
8. She needs to drink milk.
9. She likes to drink milk.

Answers
1. … ×€ã —°Ì’ÉÅ.
2. µ‘Å/µ‘›è
3. ×ñ€¥Æ €
4. ×è ‡òñ€¥Æ ™‘.
5. ³ ÀÌÅ / ³ ŠÏ ÀÌÅ.
6. ƒ³ ×æ€¥Æ ×“¨.
7. ‡î™ º‘Ö þׯ¨Å.
8. ×è º‘Ö ¦™ þׯ¨Å.
9. ×晐 º‘Ö ¦™ º’¦™Å.
October 13, Part 1 Adding -‰ and –ƒÖ to Nouns

You already know that µ‘ò + ‰ = ‡ò€î, µ“ + ‰ = …ò€î, ×ò + ‰ = ×€î, etc.

Look at the following examples to see how --‰ and --ƒÖ are added to other nouns.
Noun Noun + ‰ Noun + ƒÖ
foot, leg ‘Ö ‘€Ò ‘Ò’Ö regular
water °¯«“Ñ °¯«“€Ì °¯«“Ì’Ö regular
back ó ó€ ó’Ö regular
place ƒ¥Å ƒ¥´€° ƒ¥´°’Ö ends in Å
tree, wood ÀÌÅ ÀÌ´€° ÀÌ´°’Ö ends in Å
house ד¨ דª€¥ דª¦Ö ends in ¨
forest, field ‘¨ ‘ª€¥ ‘ª¦Ö ends in ¨
river ‚ì ‚í€é ‚íé’Ö ends in ì
well ’«ì ’«í€é ’«íé’Ö ends in ì
stone Ö Ö€Ò ÖÒ’Ö one syllable, short (é’Ö) vowel
dirt À¯ À¯€« À¯«’Ö one syllable, short (é’Ö) vowel
bucket ×‘ã’ ×‘ã’€Æ ×‘ã’Æ’Ö ends in ƒ, „, or ‰
hair æ æ€Æ Ã¦Æ’Ö ends in ƒ, „, or ‰
hand € €€Æ €Æ’Ö ends in ƒ, „, or ‰
pen ends in a vowel other than -… or the
þºî‘ þºî‘€× þºî‘×’Ö ones mentioned above
moon ends in a vowel other than -… or the
µ’Ò‘ µ’Ò‘€× µ’Ò‘×’Ö ones mentioned above
flower ends in a vowel other than -… or the
¾ ¾€× ¾×’Ö ones mentioned above
Notice the difference between the way the following two words add the endings:
The first word is regular. The second word is a one syllable word with a short vowel.
milk º‘Ö º‘€Ò º‘Ò’Ö
tooth, teeth ºÖ ºÖ€Ò ºÖÒ’Ö

(Some of these Noun + ƒÖ words don’t make sense in thamil, but write them anyway so that you
understand how to add the ƒÖ ending to any noun that you see.)
Instructions for parents: Ask your children to read each one of the words that they write out loud to you.
Correct their pronunciation if necessary. If you have time, use each word in a sentence so your child
understands its meaning and usage.

Noun Noun + ‰ Noun + ƒÖ

boy ‚¯

girl —º¯
deer À‘ò

gold °›Å

movie °’€Ì¿º¥Å

sky בîÅ

land µ’ÒÅ

hand €

leaf ƒ€Ò

bag ۼ

shirt ϻ۴

umbrella €¥

basket ˜€¥

vadai ׀¥

thOsai þ°‘€œ

silver —×èã’

cloth, clothing ³«’

cart, vehicle ׯ¦

lap À¦

box —ºª¦

fire °“
wall Ÿ×Ñ

column à¯

spear þ×Ö

tail בÖ

bow ×’Ö

grass ½Ö

eye ¯

wound ½¯

lie —º‘Ë

arrow Å½

ball º¹³

towel ³¯¨

beetle ׯ¨

shoe(s) —œÏ¿½

wind ‘íì

calf òì

cooked rice þœ‘ì

belly, stomach ×Æ’ì

rope Æ’ì
nest ˜¨

goat ‚¨

hill þÀ¨

cage ˜¯¨

thing(s) œ‘À‘ò

thing —º‘Ïè

wing œ’é

lightning À’òîÖ

heat (of the sun), —×Æ’Ö


sunlight
cold ã’Ñ

mouth בË

mat º‘Ë

ear ‘³

flower ÀÒÑ

bus þºÏ¹³

male goat ’¥‘

pigeon ½é‘
October 13, Part 2

Translate the following sentences.


1. ƒ¹° °€× Ĩ.

2. ‡î™ ¹° ¾ª€¥ °’降 —°Ì’ÉÅ. ¾ª¨3 – lock; °’é7 (s) -- open

3. ƒ› º‘€Ò œ’¹° ˜¥‘³. œ’¹³3 (w) – spill

4. µ‘ò ‡ò ª¦Ò’Ö à› þׯ¨Å. ª¦Ö -- bed

5. ‡î™ ‡ò °€Òƀ«€Æ º’¦™Å. °€Òƀ« -- pillow

6. ¹° °¯«“Ì’Ö ã’™Ò‘Å. €° ¦™ ˜¥‘³. ã’6 (s) -- shower, bathe

7. µ“ ’«íé’Ö µ“¢œÖ ¦. ‚íé’Ö µ“¢œÖ ¦™ ˜¥‘³.


µ“¢œÖ ¦6 (s), µ“¹³3 (w) -- swim

8. µ“ ˆò º‘´°’Ì´°’Ö °¯«“Ñ †íé þׯ¨Å? º‘´°’ÌÅ – bowl, container; †íì3 (w) – pour

9. ƒ¹° €¥Æ’Ö ×ñ™ ‡´°€î þºÑ —°Ì’ÉÅ? ‡´°€î þºÑ? -- how many people?

10. ×ñ™ ºÒ þºÑ —°Ì’ÉÅ. °î‘Ö ×ñ™ ƒ¹° €¥€Æ º’¦™Å.


ºÒ – many, °î‘Ö – therefore, for that reason

11. ×Ñ Àª¨Å þè×’è þªÒ‘Å. µ“ þª ˜¥‘³. Àª¨Å – only; þè5→þª -- ask
12. (You) Look at the bird in the cage. ˜¯¨ – cage; ºé€× – bird

13. What time do you need to get up? ‡à¹°’Ï7 (=‡à¹³ + ƒÏ7) (strong) – to get up

14. (You) Sit in that chair. µ‘퍑Ғ -- chair

15. You should not throw the ball in the house. º¹³ – ball; ‡é’2→‡é’Æ (w), דŸ3 (w) – throw

16. We need to sell this cow. ×’Ö5→×’í -- sell

17. We need to cross this river in a boat. º¥ – boat, ¥7 (s) – cross

18. You should not put your finger in your mouth. ×’ÌÖ – finger; €×6 (s) – put

19. He likes to suck his thumb. ª€¥ ×’ÌÖ – thumb; ¡¿½3 (w) – suck

20. She needs to spray pesticide in the garden.


þ°‘ª¥Å – garden; ¾¢œ’ ÀϹ³ – pesticide (¾¢œ’ = insect, ÀϹ³ = medicine); —°ã’6 (s) – spray

21. How does she need to spray it?

22. Spray it in the morning.

23. I like to listen to her radio. ב—î‘Ò’ - radio; þè5→þª -- listen to


October 20
Verbs like ב›3
Present Future Past
µ‘ò µ‘ò ב›’þéò µ‘ò ב›þ×ò µ‘ò ב›’þîò
I I buy I will buy I bought

×ò ×ò ב›’é‘ò ×ò ב›×‘ò ×ò ב›’î‘ò


he He buys He will buy He bought

×è ×è ב›’é‘è ×è ב›×‘è ×è ב›’î‘è


she She buys She will buy She bought

×Ñ ×Ñ ×‘›’é‘Ñ ×Ñ ×‘›×‘Ñ ×Ñ ×‘›’î‘Ñ


He/She He/She buys He/She will buy He/She bought

We covered the conjugation of ב›. Now take a look at how to conjugate the verb º‘Ñ (=see).
Verbs like º‘Ñ6
Present Future Past
µ‘ò µ‘ò º‘Ñ™’þéò µ‘ò º‘Ñ¿þºò µ‘ò º‘Ñ´þ°ò
I I see I will see I saw

×ò ×ò º‘Ñ™’é‘ò ×ò º‘Ñ¿º‘ò ×ò º‘Ñ´°‘ò


he He sees He will see He saw

×è ×è º‘Ñ™’é‘è ×è º‘Ñ¿º‘è ×è º‘Ñ´°‘è


she She sees She will see She saw

×Ñ ×Ñ º‘Ñ™’é‘Ñ ×Ñ º‘Ñ¿º‘Ñ ×Ñ º‘Ñ´°‘Ñ


He/She He/She sees He/She will see He/She saw

[This part in parentheses is for those who are older and want more explanation.
Whenever you want to translate the English “to verb” as in “to sing”, “to dance”, or “to buy” from English to
Thamil, you always use the Infinitive verb form.
The Infinitive is made as follows: Verb +  if weak, Verb + ™ if strong]

ב› is a weak verb, so the Infinitive is ב›


×ò ŠÏ œª€¥ ב› þׯ¨Å. He needs to buy a shirt.
º‘Ñ is a strong verb, so the Infinitive is º‘Ñ™
×晐 °’€Ì¿º¥›è º‘Ñ™ º’¦™Å. She likes to watch movies.

The Future Tense usage in Thamil can have two different meanings.
×è þÀ‘Ñ ×‘›×‘è. 1. She will buy buttermilk.
þÀ‘Ñ = buttermilk 2. She (regularly) buys buttermilk.
More Class 3 Verbs like ב›
Verb Verb
àÚ € wash hand
Ĩ °Ú close door
Ýíì —œÏ¿½ remove shoe
˜ª¨ °€Ì sweep floor
œ¿½ À’ª¥‘Ë suck candy
×’€ãÆ‘¨ ¯«‘Ä¢œ’, œ¨¨, play hide-and-go-seek and
ºÖÒ‘›Ý’, ‚¨½Ò’ ‚ª¥Å other games
ג㙐/³Ò™ ºÖ brush tooth, teeth
œ“Ú °€Ò comb head, (hair)
ª¨ ד¨ build house
ª¨ þת¦, þœ€Ò tie on, wear vEtti, sari
à› sleep
—ת¨ ÀÌÅ, æ cut wood/tree, hair
à™ ב㒠lift bucket
‡à³ ¦°Å, þ°ÑÚ write letter, test
´³ scream
‘ª¨ show
†íì º‘Ö, °¯«“Ñ pour
œ’¹³ º‘Ö, °¯«“Ñ spill
þºŸ speak
À‘íì œª€¥ change shirt
‚¨ µ¥îÅ dance
º‘¨ º‘ª¨/º‘¥Ö, °‘Ò‘ª¨ sing song, lullaby
°’Ϩ steal
°’Ï¿½ turn
°èæ push
þ°¨ search for
דŸ º¹³, Ö throw ball, rock
…¨´³ þת¦, þœ€Ò, ½¥€× wear vEtti, sari
µ’ì´³ stop
°’ª¨ scold
‹ª¨ drive
ג̪¨ µ‘Ë, „ chase away dog, fly
ºÆòº¨´³ use
µ’€îÛª¨ remind
¾ª¨ °Ú lock door
µ’Ì¿½ בã’, º‘´°’ÌÅ fill bucket, pot
Ýº¨´³ beautify
*þº‘ go
*‚ become
Translate the following to English.
1. ×è ‡ò ¦‘Ì´€° °’Ϧî‘è.

2. Æ‘Ñ ×€î °’ª¦î‘Ñ?

3. ×ò Æ‘€Ì °’ª¨’é‘ò?

4. ×è ƒ¿—º‘à³ —œÏ¿€º Ýí썒é‘è.

5. µ‘ò ‘€ÒÆ’Ö °€Ò€Æ œ“Úþ×ò.

6. ×è þµíì ‚¦î‘è.

7. µ‘ò ×€î °èã’þîò.

8. ÅÀ‘ €¥Æ’Ö À‘źÝŠב›’é‘Ñ.

9. ×ò ƒ¹° °€× ¾ª¦î‘î‘?

10. ×è þÀ€¥Æ’Ö ‚¨×‘ã‘? ƒÖ€Ò, ×è דª¦Ö Àª¨Å ‚¨×‘è.

11. µ‘ò µ‘€ã þÀ€¥Æ’Ö þºŸþ×ò.

12. ×Ñ ‡Ü×ãÚ þµÌÅ ×’€ãÆ‘¦î‘Ñ?

13. ‚íé’Ö µ“¹° ˜¥‘³. °î‘Ö µ‘ò ’«íé’Ö µ“¹³þ×ò.

14. ×è ¯«‘Ä¢œ’ ×’€ãÆ‘¨’é‘è.

15. ×ò °’Ï¥ò. ×ñ™ —œÏ¿½è º’¦™Å. °î‘Ö ×ò —œÏ¿½è °’Ϩבò.

16. µ‘ò ò鑥ŠºÖ€Ò ג㙐þ×ò. ò鑥Š= daily


17. ×Ñ ‡¿—º‘à³Å °À’Ý’Ö þºŸ×‘Ñ. ‡¿—º‘à³Å = always

18. ‡ò €º ‘þ«‘Å. €° µ‘ò þ°¥ þׯ¨Å. ‘þ«‘Å = not seen, not in sight

19. µ‘ò ò鑥Š‡ª¨ À«’ þµÌÅ à›þ×ò.

In the following sentences, the underlined word is wrong. Replace it with the correct word and translate.
1. ×ò œª€¥€Æ À‘íìבè.

2. ×Ñ ‡›è דª€¥ ª¨’þéò.

3. µ‘ò þµíì ¹° °€Ì€Æ ˜ª¦î‘è.

4. °Åº’ º‘Ö œ’¹°’î‘è. (choose from the following to replace °Åº’: ¿º‘, µ‘ò, °›€)

Translate the following sentences to Thamil.


1. She likes to sing.

2. Throw the ball!

3. You should not cut down this tree.

4. She is wearing a green sari.

5. She always wears saris.

6. He always wears a white vEtti.

7. Tomorrow I will take a test. (use the verb ‡à³)

8. She danced.

9. I reminded father.
More Class 6 Verbs like º‘Ñ6
Verb Verb
º¦ —œË°’´°‘è, ½´°Å read newspaper, book
¦ bite
…€¥ break
ଠtake
¦ hit
ã’ bathe, shower
º’¦ catch, hold
€× put
—‘¨ give
À¦ ³«’, ‘’°Å fold clothes, paper
³€× ³«’ wash clothes
Šã’ hide
¦ °¯«“Ñ, º‘Ö, þÀ‘Ñ drink water, milk, buttermilk
æ þ×€Ò finish work
œ€À cook
‡Ì’ ¿€º, ×’é burn trash, firewood
ºé’ ¾ pluck flower
Ý’ destroy
’Ý’ ³«’, ‘’°Å tear, rip clothes, paper
‘¯º’ show
íº’ teach
À’°’ step on
œ’¹°’, µ’€î, þÆ‘œ’ think
×î’ care for
Ѽԓ tolerate, be patient
—°‘€Ò lose
œ’Ì’ laugh, smile
¯¨º’¦ find
Quiz, October 27

Directions: Read the questions one at a time and ask the student to translate to Thamil. Give about 60
seconds for each sentence (no more than 90 seconds). The words on the right hand side are hints that can be
provided with each question if necessary.

1. She likes me.


2. She needs me.
3. We need to drink water. drink = ¦6 (strong)
4. Do they like to sing? sing = º‘¨3 (weak)
5. I like to read this newspaper newspaper = —œË°’´°‘è, read = º¦6 (strong)
6. We want to buy this pen. pen = þºî‘, buy = ב›3
7. Play in the river! river = ‚ì, play = ×’€ãÆ‘¨3
8. You should not throw that into the well. well = ’«ì, throw = דŸ3 (weak) or ‡é’2 (weak)
9. She will run. run = ܬ3
10. He slept yesterday. yesterday = þµíì
11. I sleep at 9 o’clock every day. daily = òé‘¥Å, nine = Šòº³, o’clock = À«’™

(“I go to sleep at 9 o’clock every day.” is the sentence that people would use in English. I have given the
other version to make it a little bit easier to think about the correct translation to thamil.)

1. ×晐 ‡ò€î º’¦™Å.


2. ×晐 µ‘ò þׯ¨Å.
3. µ‘Å/µ‘›è °¯«“Ñ ¦™ þׯ¨Å.
4. ×э晐 º‘¥ º’¦™À‘?
5. ‡î™ ƒ¹° —œË°’´°‘€ã º¦™ º’¦™Å.
6. µ‘Å ƒ¹° þºî‘€× ב› þׯ¨Å.
7. (µ“) ‚íé’Ö ×’€ãÆ‘¨!
8. µ“ €° ’«íé’Ö ×“œ/‡é’Æ ˜¥‘³.
9. ×è ‹¨×‘è.
10. ×ò þµíì à›’î‘ò.
11. µ‘ò ò鑥ŠŠòº³ À«’™ à›þ×ò.
Oct 27. Translate the following sentences which contain verbs like º‘Ñ6
1. ×Ï™ €°è º¦™ º’¦™Å. story = €°

2. °Åº’: ÅÀ‘, ¯«ò ‡ò€î ¦´°‘ò.


ÅÀ‘: µ“ °Åº’€Æ ¦™ ˜¥‘³.

3. —º¯: µ‘ò À‘´°’€Ì€Æ ¦™Ò‘À‘? pill = À‘´°’€Ì, bite, chew = ¦6


¿º‘: ¦™ ˜¥‘³. µ“ €° ×’à› þׯ¨Å. swallow = ×’à›3 (←like ב›3)

4. µ¯ºÑ: ‡ò þÀ‘°’Ì´€° ×ò ‡›þ ¯¨º’¦´°‘ò?


µ‘ò: …òñ€¥Æ þÀ‘°’Ì´€° ƒ¹° —ºª¦Æ’Ö ¯¨º’¦´°‘ò.

5. ƒ¹° ¯«‘¦€Æ Æ‘Ñ …€¥´°‘Ñ?

6. ÅÀ‘ —×ã’þÆ ÀÖÒ’¿¾ ºé’™’é‘Ñ. jasmine = ÀÖÒ’¿¾

7. µ‘ò ò鑥ŠƒÌ×’Ö ã’¿þºò. ×è ‘€ÒÆ’Ö ã’¿º‘è. night = ƒÌÚ

8. ™‘ °Åº’€Æ ×î’™’é‘è.

9. ™‘€× °Åº’ ×î’™’é‘ò.

1. She sees me.

2. I saw her in the library. library = áҍÅ

3. I will laugh. laugh = œ’Ì’

4. He drinks only milk. only = Àª¨Å, drink = ¦

5. Father reads stories.


November 3, Part 2 Translation Exercises
1. ×€î Æ‘Ñ ¦´°‘Ñ? hit = ¦6

2. ×ò Æ‘€Ì ¦´°‘ò?

3. ™‘ °Åº’€Æ °è捒é‘è. push = °èæ3

4. ™‘€× °Åº’ °è捒é‘ò.

5. I broke my bicycle. break = …€¥6 ; bicycle = À’°’ׯ¦

6. Father will repair my bicycle. fix, repair = ºà³ º‘Ñ6

7. Maaran is writing a letter. À‘éò ; write = ‡à³3 ; letter = ¦°Å

8. Kalaiselvi washed pots yesterday. €Ò¢—œÖ×’ ; wash = àÚ3 ; pot = º‘´°’ÌÅ


yesterday = þµíì

9. Today she is washing dirty clothes. today = ƒòì ; wash = ³€×6 ;


dirty clothes = à™ ³«’

10. Elango caught two fish. ƒã›þ‘ ; catch = º’¦6 ; fish = À“ò

11. Mother will cook one fish. cook = œ€À6

12. I will give one fish to you. give = —‘¨6


13. I am drinking buttermilk. buttermilk = þÀ‘Ñ ; drink = ¦6

14. He lost my money. lose = —°‘€Ò6 ; money = º«Å

15. How much did he lose?

16. I will find it. find = ¯¨º’¦6

17. She will stitch his shirts. stitch = ۡ6 ; shirt = ϻ۴

18. How many will she stitch?

19. I am sailing my boat in the lake. boat = º¥ ; lake = ˆÌ’ ; sail, drive = ‹ª¨3

20. He will sail a ship in the ocean. ship = ¿ºÖ ; ocean = ¥Ö

21. Malar collected water in a bucket. ÀÒÑ ; collect in a bucket, catch = º’¦6 ; bucket = בã’

22. She teaches science in the mornings. science = é’×’ÆÖ ; teach = íº’6

23. She studies math in the evenings at 5 o’clock. study = º¦6 ; evening = À‘€Ò ;
o’clock = À«’™; math = «’°Å
November 3, Part 1
To complete these exercises, use the first page of (Oct 27 Handout.pdf) or (Oct 20.pdf). That page has two
charts. The first chart shows how to conjugate the verb ב›. The second chart shows conjugation of the
verb º‘Ñ.
In the exercises below, if a verb is like ב›3, it will be written like this: ‚¨3, ×’€ãÆ‘¨3
If a verb is like º‘Ñ6, it will be written like this: —‘¨6, ¦6

Directions: Translate the sentences in part a. and part b. of each question. Use the example sentence as a
guide. And use the charts if necessary.

1. ×è à›’é‘è. = She sleeps. sleep = à›3


a. She will sleep. b. He sleeps.

Answer: ×è à›×‘è. Answer: ×ò à›’é‘ò.

2. µ‘ò ¾ ºé’™’þéò. = I pluck flowers. pluck = ºé’6


a. I plucked flowers. b. He plucks flowers.

3. ¿º‘ ‡ò ¯«‘¦€Æ ³€¥´°‘Ñ. = Father wiped my glasses. wipe = ³€¥6


a. Father will wipe my glasses. b. She wiped my glasses.

4. ×ò …ò€î µÅ½×‘ò. = He will believe you. believe = µÅ½3


a. He believed you. b. I will believe you.

5. µ‘ò þ×€Ò Ã¦™’þéò. = I finish the work. finish = æ6


a. I finished the work. b. I will finish the work.

6. ÅÀ‘ ƒ¹° þ×€Ò€Æ ºÝ’é‘Ñ. = Mother is learning this work. learn = ºÝ3
a. Mother will learn this work. b. Mother learned this work.

7. º’Òò ‚íé’Ö µ“¢œÖ ¦¿º‘ò. = Kabilan will swim in the river. swim = µ“¢œÖ ¦6
a. Kabilan swam in the river. b. I will swim in the river.
8. µ‘ò ¥Ò’Ö µ“¹°’þîò. = I swam in the ocean. swim = µ“¹³3
a. I am swimming in the ocean. b. I will swim in the ocean.

9. ¿º‘ ¹° µ‘€Æ ג̪¨’é‘Ñ. = Father is chasing away that dog. chase away = ג̪¨3
a. She is chasing that dog away. b. Father chased that dog away.

10. ×è €° ‡¨¿º‘è. = She will take that. take = ‡¨6
a. She takes that. b. I will take that.
November 10 Negatives

The negative is formed using the Infinitive form. Here is a quick review of the infinitive verb form.
Verbs like ב›3 Infinitive = Verb + 
3
ב› ב›
3
àÚ à×
3
þºŸ þºœ
3
À‘íì À‘íé
6
Verbs like º‘Ñ Infinitive = Verb + ™
6
º‘Ñ º‘Ñ™
6
—‘¨ —‘¨™
6
ã’ ã’™

As we have learned, the following verbs and endings can be added to the Infinitive verb forms above:
1. þׯ¨Å 2. ˜¥‘³ 3. º’¦™Å 4. —°Ì’ÉÅ 5. –Ò‘Å 6. –ª¨Å

** Note: The negative forms in the Past and Present are the same for all nouns!!
Verbs like ב›3
Present Future Past
µ‘ò µ‘ò ב›×’Ö€Ò µ‘ò ב›À‘ªþ¥ò µ‘ò ב›×’րÒ
I I do not buy I will not buy I did not buy

×ò ×ò ב›×’Ö€Ò ×ò ב›À‘ª¥‘ò ×ò ב›×’րÒ


he He does not buy He will not buy He did not buy

×è ×è ב›×’Ö€Ò ×è ב›À‘ª¥‘è ×è ב›×’րÒ


she She does not buy She will not buy She did not buy

×Ñ ×Ñ ×‘›×’Ö€Ò ×Ñ ×‘›À‘ª¥‘Ñ ×Ñ ×‘›×’րÒ


He/She He/She does not buy He/She will not buy He/She did not buy

Verbs like º‘Ñ6


Present Future Past
µ‘ò µ‘ò º‘Ñ™×’Ö€Ò µ‘ò º‘Ñ™À‘ªþ¥ò µ‘ò º‘Ñ™×’րÒ
I I do not see I will not see I did not see

×ò ×ò º‘Ñ™×’Ö€Ò ×ò º‘Ñ™À‘ª¥‘ò ×ò º‘Ñ™×’րÒ


he He does not see He will not see He did not see

×è ×è º‘Ñ™×’Ö€Ò ×è º‘Ñ™À‘ª¥‘è ×è º‘Ñ™×’րÒ


she She does not see She will not see She did not see

×Ñ ×Ñ º‘Ñ™×’Ö€Ò ×Ñ º‘Ñ™À‘ª¥‘Ñ ×Ñ º‘Ñ™×’րÒ


He/She He/She does not see He/She will not see He/She did not see

Exercises: Write the negative form of all sentences in the Nov 3, Part I exercises (1-10, a and b).
November 17

ב›3 Ending Present Future Past


µ‘ò µ‘ò ב›’þéò µ‘ò ב›þ×ò µ‘ò ב›’þîò
-ˆò
I I buy I will buy I bought
µ“ µ“ ב›’é‘Ë µ“ ב›×‘Ë µ“ ב›’î‘Ë
-‚Ë
you You buy You will buy You bought
×ò ×ò ב›’é‘ò ×ò ב›×‘ò ×ò ב›’î‘ò
-‚ò
he He buys He will buy He bought
×è ×è ב›’é‘è ×è ב›×‘è ×è ב›’î‘è
-‚è
she She buys She will buy She bought
×Ñ ×Ñ ×‘›’é‘Ñ ×Ñ ×‘›×‘Ñ ×Ñ ×‘›’î‘Ñ
-‚Ñ
He/She He/She buys He/She will buy He/She bought
³ ³ ב›’é³ ³ ב›Å ³ ב›’î³
-³
it It buys It will buy It bought
µ‘Å/µ‘›è µ‘Šב›’þé‘Å µ‘Šב›þבŠµ‘Šב›’þî‘Å
-‹Å
we We buy We will buy We bought
µ“›è µ“›è ב›’é“Ñè µ“›è ב›×“Ñè µ“›è ב›’î“эè
-„эè
you all, You You all buy You all will buy You all bought
×Ñè ×эè ב›’é‘Ñè ×эè ב›×‘Ñè ×эè ב›’î‘эè
-‚эè
They They buy They will buy They bought

º‘Ñ6 Ending Present Future Past


µ‘ò µ‘ò º‘Ñ™’þéò µ‘ò º‘Ñ¿þºò µ‘ò º‘Ñ´þ°ò
-ˆò
I I see I will see I saw
µ“ µ“ º‘Ñ™’é‘Ë µ“ º‘Ñ¿º‘Ë µ“ º‘Ñ´°‘Ë
-‚Ë
you You see You will see You saw
×ò ×ò º‘Ñ™’é‘ò ×ò º‘Ñ¿º‘ò ×ò º‘Ñ´°‘ò
-‚ò
he He sees He will see He saw
×è ×è º‘Ñ™’é‘è ×è º‘Ñ¿º‘è ×è º‘Ñ´°‘è
-‚è
she She sees She will see She saw
×Ñ ×Ñ º‘Ñ™’é‘Ñ ×Ñ º‘Ñ¿º‘Ñ ×Ñ º‘Ñ´°‘Ñ
-‚Ñ
He/She He/She sees He/She will see He/She saw
³ ³ º‘Ñ™’é³ ³ º‘Ñ™Å ³ º‘Ñ´°³
-³
it It sees It will see It saw
µ‘Å/µ‘›è µ‘Å º‘Ñ™’þé‘Å µ‘Å º‘Ñ¿þº‘Å µ‘Å º‘Ñ´þ°‘Å
-‹Å
we We see We will see We saw
µ“›è µ“›è º‘Ñ™’é“Ñè µ“›è º‘Ñ¿º“Ñè µ“›è º‘Ñ´°“эè
-„эè
you all, You You all see You all will see You all saw
×Ñè ×Ñè º‘Ñ™’é‘Ñè ×Ñè º‘Ñ¿º‘Ñè ×Ñè º‘Ñ´°‘эè
-‚эè
They They see They will see They saw

Future tense for ³ = Infinitive + …Å. Remember, for weak verbs like ב›3, Infinitive = Verb + 
for strong verbs like º‘Ñ6, Infinitive = Verb + ™
Fill in the chart with verbs only. Fill it in from TOP TO BOTTOM in the three columns.
Ĩ3 Ending Present Future Past
µ‘ò -ˆò
I I close I will close I closed
µ“ -‚Ë
you You close You will close You closed
×ò -‚ò
he He closes He will close He closed
×è -‚è
she She closes She will close She closed
×Ñ -‚Ñ
He/She He/She closes He/She will close He/She closed
³ -³
it It closes It will close It closed
µ‘Å/µ‘›è -‹Å
we We close We will close We closed
µ“›è -„эè
you all, You You all close You all will close You all closed
×эè -‚эè
They They close They will close They closed

—‘¨6 Ending Present Future Past


µ‘ò -ˆò
I I give I will give I gave
µ“ -‚Ë
you You give You will give You gave
×ò -‚ò
he He gives He will give He gave
×è -‚è
she She gives She will give She gave
×Ñ -‚Ñ
He/She He/She gives He/She will give He/She gave
³ -³
it It gives It will give It gave
µ‘Å/µ‘›è -‹Å
we We give We will give We gave
µ“›è -„эè
you all, You You all give You all will give You all gave
×эè -‚эè
They They give They will give They gave
Fill in the chart with verbs only. Fill it in from LEFT TO RIGHT.
àÚ3 Ending Present Future Past
µ‘ò -ˆò
I I wash I will wash I washed
µ“ -‚Ë
you You wash You will wash You washed
×ò -‚ò
he He washes He will wash He washed
×è -‚è
she She washes She will wash She washed
×Ñ -‚Ñ
He/She He/She washes He/She will wash He/She washed
³ -³
it It washes It will wash It washed
µ‘Å/µ‘›è -‹Å
we We wash We will wash We washed
µ“›è -„эè
you all, You You all wash You all will wash You all washed
×эè -‚эè
They They wash They will wash They washed

¦6 Ending Present Future Past


µ‘ò -ˆò
I I drink I will drink I drank
µ“ -‚Ë
you You drink You will drink You drank
×ò -‚ò
he He drinks He will drink He drank
×è -‚è
she She drinks She will drink She drank
×Ñ -‚Ñ
He/She He/She drinks He/She will drink He/She drank
³ -³
it It drinks It will drink It drank
µ‘Å/µ‘›è -‹Å
we We drink We will drink We drank
µ“›è -„эè
you all, You You all drink You all will drink You all drank
×эè -‚эè
They They drink They will drink They drank
November 17

ב›3 Ending Present Future Past


µ‘ò
-ˆò µ‘ò -’þéò µ‘ò -þ×ò µ‘ò - ’þîò
I
µ“
-‚Ë µ“ -’é‘Ë µ“ -×‘Ë µ“ - ’î‘Ë
you
×ò
-‚ò ×ò -’é‘ò ×ò -בò ×ò - ’î‘ò
he
×è
-‚è ×è -’é‘è ×è -×‘è ×è - ’î‘è
she
×Ñ
-‚Ñ ×Ñ -’é‘Ñ ×Ñ -×‘Ñ ×Ñ - ’î‘Ñ
He/She
³
-³ ³ -’é³ ³ -Å ³ - ’î³
it
µ‘Å/µ‘›è
-‹Å µ‘Å -’þé‘Å µ‘Å -þבŠµ‘Å - ’þî‘Å
we
µ“›è
-„Ñè µ“›è -’é“Ñè µ“›è -×“Ñè µ“›è - ’î“эè
you all, You
×эè
-‚Ñè ×эè -’é‘Ñè ×эè -×‘Ñè ×эè - ’î‘эè
They

º‘Ñ6 Ending Present Future Past


µ‘ò
-ˆò µ‘ò -™’þéò µ‘ò -¿þºò µ‘ò -´þ°ò
I
µ“
-‚Ë µ“ -™’é‘Ë µ“ -¿º‘Ë µ“ -´°‘Ë
you
×ò
-‚ò ×ò -™’é‘ò ×ò -¿º‘ò ×ò -´°‘ò
he
×è
-‚è ×è -™’é‘è ×è -¿º‘è ×è -´°‘è
she
×Ñ
-‚Ñ ×Ñ -™’é‘Ñ ×Ñ -¿º‘Ñ ×Ñ -´°‘Ñ
He/She
³
-³ ³ -™’é³ ³ –™Å ³ -´°³
it
µ‘Å/µ‘›è
-‹Å µ‘Å -™’þé‘Å µ‘Å -¿þº‘Å µ‘Å -´þ°‘Å
we
µ“›è
-„Ñè µ“›è –™’é“Ñè µ“›è -¿º“Ñè µ“›è -´°“эè
you all, You
×эè
-‚Ñè ×эè -™’é‘Ñè ×эè -¿º‘Ñè ×эè -´°‘эè
They

Future tense for ³ = Infinitive + …Å. Remember, for weak verbs like ב›, Infinitive = Verb + 
for strong verbs like º‘Ñ, Infinitive = Verb + ™
January 12 Verbs like ƒÏ7

ƒÏ7 Ending Present Future Past


µ‘ò
-ˆò µ‘ò -™’þéò µ‘ò -¿þºò µ‘ò -¹þ°ò
I
µ“
-‚Ë µ“ -™’é‘Ë µ“ -¿º‘Ë µ“ -¹°‘Ë
you
×ò
-‚ò ×ò –™’é‘ò ×ò -¿º‘ò ×ò -¹°‘ò
he
×è
-‚è ×è –™’é‘è ×è -¿º‘è ×è -¹°‘è
she
×Ñ
-‚Ñ ×Ñ -™’é‘Ñ ×Ñ -¿º‘Ñ ×Ñ -¹°‘Ñ
He/She
³
-³ ³ -™’é³ ³ –™Å ³ -¹°³
it
µ‘Å/µ‘›è
-‹Å µ‘Å -™’þé‘Å µ‘Å -¿þº‘Å µ‘Å -¹þ°‘Å
we
µ“›è
-„Ñè µ“›è –™’é“Ñè µ“›è -¿º“Ñè µ“›è -¹°“эè
you all, You
×эè
-‚Ñè ×Ñè –™’é‘Ñè ×эè -¿º‘Ñè ×эè -¹°‘эè
They

ƒÏ7 is a strong verb, so Infinitive = Verb + ™

ב›3 µ‘ò ב›’þéò µ‘ò ב›þ×ò µ‘ò ב›’þîò


º‘Ñ6 µ‘ò º‘Ñ™’þéò µ‘ò º‘Ñ¿þºò µ‘ò º‘Ñ´þ°ò
ƒÏ7 µ‘ò ƒÏ™’þéò µ‘ò ƒÏ¿þºò µ‘ò ƒÏ¹þ°ò

‹ª¨3 µ‘ò ‹ª¨’þéò µ‘ò ‹ª¨þ×ò µ‘ò ‹ª¦þîò


º¦6 µ‘ò º¦™’þéò µ‘ò º¦¿þºò µ‘ò º¦´þ°ò
°’é7 µ‘ò °’降’þéò µ‘ò °’é¿þºò µ‘ò °’é¹þ°ò

Exercises
Make sentences with the verb and noun provided in the correct tense. Then translate the sentence to English.
The first one has been done for you.
1. Noun: µ‘ò Verb: Àé7 Tense: past
Answer: µ‘ò Àé¹þ°ò. I forgot

2. Noun: ¯«ò Verb: ¦6 Tense: Future

3. Noun: µ‘Ë Verb: €Ì6 = bark Tense: Present


4. Noun: ‚œ’Ì’ÆÑ Verb: ´³3 = scream Tense: Past

5. Noun: Ý¹€° Verb: º’é7 = be born Tense: Past

6. Noun: µ‘Å Verb: ×’€ãÆ‘¨3 Tense: Present

7. Noun: µ“›è Verb: ƒÝ7 = to lose (something) Tense: Future

Translate the following


1. a. You need to open the door. open = °’é7, door = °Ú

b. I did not open the door.

c. When will he open the door?

d. She opened the door.

2. a. We will write a letter. write = ‡à³3, letter = ¦°Å

b. Does she like to write letters?

c. I wrote this letter.

d. They did not write a letter.


More Verbs like ƒÏ7
¦Æ’Ï live
°’é open
º’é be born
ºé fly
Ď die
ƒÝ lose (something)
é milk
µ¥ walk
À« marry
¥ cross (over)
’¥ be somewhere
×’Æ be surprised
Ò mix

More Verbs like …ª‘Ñ2


«’ wear
î’ crouch, put head down
…«Ñ feel
À’â be happy
€¥ achieve a state of something
€Ò roam, wander
þÀË graze
¦—ºÆÑ move (to a different place)
‡é’ throw
ÀÑ sit
בâ live
‡à rise
Šã’ to hide (oneself)
×’à fall
×€Ì draw
º‘Ë flow

More Verbs like œ‘¿º’¨4


ѡԬ touch
٬ shoot; make thOsai or vadai
˜¿º’¨ call
þº‘¨ put
½é¿º¨ leave (a place)
×’¨ leave (something)
þ‘º¿º¨ be angry
Åº’¨ pray
—×ã’Æ’¨ release/publish a book
µ¨ plant (a tree)
—¨ go bad
‘Æ¿º¨, ½¯º¨ get hurt
January 19 Verbs like …ª‘Ñ2
Verb Type Present Future Past Infinitive

…ª‘Ñ -’í -Ü -¹´ -


…ª‘э’é‘ò …ª‘Ñבò …ª‘ѹ°‘ò …ª‘Ì

ב› -’í -Ü -’ò -


ב›’é‘ò ב›×‘ò ב›’î‘ò ב›

º‘Ñ -™’í -¿¿ -´´ -™


º‘Ñ™’é‘ò º‘Ñ¿º‘ò º‘Ñ´°‘ò º‘Ñ™

ƒÏ -™’í -¿¿ -¹´ -™


ƒÏ™’é‘ò ƒÏ¿º‘ò ƒÏ¹°‘ò ƒÏ™

Translate the following sentences.


1. Will she translate this question? question = þè×’, translate = —À‘Ý’—ºÆÑ6

2. The cow grazes in the field. cow = À‘¨, field = ‘¨, graze = þÀË2

3. We live in America. live = בâ2

4. They live in that house. live = ¦Æ’Ï7

5. The soldier died in the war. soldier = º€¥×“Ìò, œ’¿º‘Ë ; war = þº‘Ñ ; die = ƒé7

6. You should not walk here. walk = µ¥7

7. Little brother fell down. He will get up. fall down = ×’à2, get up = ‡à2

8. His water is sweet. to be sweet = ƒî’6


January 26 “am doing” Verb
You have already learned how to make the present, future, past, and infinitive verb forms. There is a
another important verb form called the Adverbial Participle, which we will abbreviate from now on as
“AvP”. Notice in the chart below that this verb form is very similar to the past tense.
Verb Type Present Future Past Infinitive AvP

…ª‘Ñ2 -’í- -Ü- -¹´- - -¹³


…ª‘э’é‘ò …ª‘Ñבò …ª‘ѹ°‘ò …ª‘Ì …ª‘ѹ³

ב›3 -’í- -Ü- -’ò- - -ƒ


ב›’é‘ò ב›×‘ò ב›’î‘ò ב› ב›’

º‘Ñ6 -™’í- -¿¿- -´´- -™ -´³


º‘Ñ™’é‘ò º‘Ñ¿º‘ò º‘Ñ´°‘ò º‘Ñ™ º‘Ñ´³

ƒÏ7 -™’í- -¿¿- -¹´- -™ -¹³


ƒÏ™’é‘ò ƒÏ¿º‘ò ƒÏ¹°‘ò ƒÏ™ ƒÏ¹³
Examples: µ‘ò …ª‘ѹ³ —‘¯¨ ƒÏ™’þéò. I am sitting.
×ò ‡ò€î ¦´³ —‘¯¨ ƒÏ™’é‘ò. He is hitting at me. (¦6 = hit)
¿º‘ €¥Æ’Ö º‘Ö ×‘›’ —‘¯¨ ƒÏ™’é‘Ñ. Father is buying milk in the store.
°Åº’ º‘Ö é¹³ —‘¯¨ ƒÏ™’é‘ò. Little brother is milking (the cow). (é7 = milk)

The AvP can be used in combination with —‘¯¨ + ƒÏ7 to make a different form of the present tense
as you see in the sentences above. (It can also be used by itself. We will learn that next week.) This form of
the present tense is used more often than the form of the present tense that you know already.

Converbial + —‘¯¨ + ƒÏ7 = am doing Verb (right now)

Write the converbial of the following verbs.


1. ׀Ì2 4. ã’6 7. —ת¨3

2. µ¥7 5. °’é7 8. —‘¨6

3. þºŸ3 6. בâ2 9. þÀË2

Translate the following sentences using the AvP + —‘¯¨ + ƒÏ7 construction.
10. They are wearing saris. (wear = «’2; sari = þœ€Ò, ½¥€×)

11. We are talking. (þºŸ3; Ìª€¥ ¦6)

12. I am sleeping. (à›3)


13. The cow is grazing. (graze = þÀË2)

14. The dog is running. (ܬ3)

15. They are washing clothes. (clothes = ³«’; wash = ³€×6)

16. She is drawing kolams. (draw = ׀Ì2; kolam = þ‘ÒÅ)

17. Father is sleeping on the thinnai. (thinnai = °’¯€«; à›3)

18. The water is flowing in the vaaykkaal. (flow = º‘Ë2)

19. You are laughing. (laugh = œ’Ì’6)

20. I am hiding. (hide = Šã’2)

21. We are drinking milk. (º‘Ö; ¦6)

22. They are walking to school. (ºèã’™; µ¥7)

Plan for upcoming class:


1. learn how to conjugate verbs like œ‘¿º’¨4
œ‘¿º’¨’þéò, œ¿º’¨þ×ò, œ‘¿º’ªþ¥ò
2. learn another use of the AvP
×è ‡ò€î º‘Ñ´³ œ’Ì’´°‘è.
µ‘ò …èþã …ª‘ѹ³ º¦¿þºò.
February 2 Verbs like œ‘¿º’¨4 ; Use of the AvP

Verb Type Present Future Past Infinitive AvP

…ª‘Ñ2 -’í- -Ü- -¹´- - -¹³


…ª‘э’é‘ò …ª‘Ñבò …ª‘ѹ°‘ò …ª‘Ì …ª‘ѹ³

ב›3 -’í- -Ü- -’ò- - -ƒ


ב›’é‘ò ב›×‘ò ב›’î‘ò ב› ב›’

œ‘¿º’¨4 -’í- -Ü- -ªª- - -ª¨


œ‘¿º’¨’é‘ò œ‘¿º’¨×‘ò œ‘¿º’ª¥‘ò œ‘¿º’¥ œ‘¿º’ª¨

º‘Ñ6 -™’í- -¿¿- -´´- -™ -´³


º‘Ñ™’é‘ò º‘Ñ¿º‘ò º‘Ñ´°‘ò º‘Ñ™ º‘Ñ´³

ƒÏ7 -™’í- -¿¿- -¹´- -™ -¹³


ƒÏ™’é‘ò ƒÏ¿º‘ò ƒÏ¹°‘ò ƒÏ™ ƒÏ¹³
4 2 2
Verbs like œ‘¿º’¨ are like …ª‘Ñ and ב› in the Present and Future tense. It differs in the Past tense.

The AvP can be used to connect sentences with two different verbs. Examples are below.
µ‘ò …ª‘ѹ³ œ‘¿º’¨þ×ò. I will sit down and eat.
×è ב€Ý¿ºÝŠב›’ œ‘¿º’ª¥‘è. She bought and ate a banana.
×ò …ª‘ѹ³ À™€ã º‘Ñ´³ —‘¯¨ ƒÏ™’é‘ò. He is sitting and watching people.

1. The hunter will shoot a deer. hunter = þ×¥ò, deer = À‘ò, shoot = Ÿ¨4

2. We like to eat potatoes. potato = …π㙍’Ý›

3. He does not pray to God at home. He only prays to god in temples.


God/god = ¥Úè, œ‘À’, ƒ€é×ò; temple = þ‘×’Ö; pray = Åº’¨4

4. Did father plant the tree in the backyard? backyard = —‘րÒ, plant = µ¨4

5. Look over there! He is planting it there.

6. What are you eating? You should not eat these mushrooms. mushroom = ‘ã‘ò
7. Why is she reading that book? She needs to sleep. book = áÖ, ½´°Å

8. I left the money at home. leave (something behind) = ×’¨4

9. He will pick up and throw a rock. rock = Ö, pick up = à™3, throw = ‡é’2

10. We bought and drank milk. ¦6

11. Mother made and ate vadai. make ׀¥ or þ°‘€œ = Ÿ¨4

12. I will dig a hole and bury the tomato. tomato=°™‘ã’, hole=Ý’, dig = þ°‘¯¨3, bury = ½€°6

13. They removed and washed their clothes. clothes = ³«’, remove = Ýíì3, wash = ³€×6

14. They will iron and fold their clothes. iron = þ°Ë6, fold = À¦6

15. Little sister drew a picture and showed it to me. picture = º¥Å, draw = ׀Ì2, show = ‘ª¨3

16. I will sit down and read over there.

17. The children are running and playing in the park. park = ¾›‘, play = ×’€ãÆ‘¨3, ‹¨3

18. She fell and got hurt. fall = ×’à2, get hurt = ‘Æ¿º¨4, ½¯º¨4

19. Father wrote a check and gave it to me. check = ‘þœ‘€Ò, write = ‡à³3, give = —‘¨6
Feb 9 Commonly-used Irregular Verbs

Verb Present Future Past Infinitive AvP

ב2 ×ύ’í- ×ÏÜ- ×¹´- ×Ì ×¹³


come ×ύ’þéò ×Ïþ×ò ×¹þ°ò

þº‘3 þº‘’í- þº‘Ü- þº‘ò- þº‘ þº‘Ë


go þº‘’þéò þº‘þ×ò þº‘þîò

‚3/‚3 ‚’í- ‚Ü- ‚ò- ‚ ‚Ë, ‚’


become ‚’þéò ‚þ×ò ‚þîò

—œ‘Ö4 —œ‘֍’í- —œ‘ÖÜ- —œ‘òò- —œ‘ÖÒ —œ‘ÖÒ’


say —œ‘Ò’þéò —œ‘Öþ×ò —œ‘òþîò

þè5 þª’í- þª¿- þªª- þª þª¨


ask þª’þéò þªþºò þªþ¥ò

µ’Ö5 µ’퍒í- µ’í¿- µ’òí- µ’í µ’òì


stand µ’퍒þéò µ’íþºò µ’òþéò

going to Verb = Infinitive + þº‘3


µ‘ò ƒ€° º¦™ þº‘’þéò. I am going to read this. (º¦º‘Ñ Infinitive=º¦™)
×ò œ‘€ÒÆ’Ö ‹¥ þº‘’é‘ò. He is going to run in the road. (‹¨×‘› Infinitive=‹¥)

Translate the following sentences.


1. Father will stand on stage and speak. stage=þÀ€¥, on stage = þÀ€¥ + ƒÖ; þºŸ3

2. We went to the park and ate. ¾›‘

3. She did not come with us.

4. They are going to become teachers.

5. He asked a question. þè×’

6. I will answer. (to) answer (a question) = º°’Ö + —œ‘Ö


(Hint: The Infinitive verb form needs to be used to translate all of the remaining sentences.)
7. à›3 Infinitive = à›
a. He likes to sleep at 10 o’clock.

b. We need to sleep now.

c. She is going to sleep.

d. You should not sleep here.

e. I did not sleep in your bed. º¨™€ = bed

f. May I sleep on the floor? °€Ì = floor; on the floor = °€Ì + ƒÖ

8. ¦6; Infinitive = ¦™


a. I am going to drink milk.

b. They like to drink tender coconut water. ƒãµ“Ñ

c. You should not drink this.

d. I will not drink your water.

e. May I drink this paayasam? º‘ÆœÅ

f. The dog needs to drink this medicine. ÀϹ³


February 23 Adding -…Å

When connecting two nouns, the word ‘and’ is made with the ending -…Å:
Noun1 and Noun2 = Noun1 + …Å Noun2 + …Å
µ‘ÉÅ ¾€îÉÅ dog and cat
µ‘ñÅ ¿º‘ÚÅ father and I
º‘ÕÅ ºÝÃÅ milk and fruit (banana)

The ending -…Å is added to the nouns after other endings like ‰, , or ƒÖ.
‡î™ ×€îÉÅ ×€ãÉÅ º’¦™Å. I like him and her.
—œ¹°’Հ¥Æ ‘Ò’ÕÅ ÀÌñ€¥Æ €Æ’ÕÅ ½¯ ƒÏ™’é³.
There is a wound on Sendhil’s leg and Kumaran’s hand.
ò½À«’™Å ÌŸ™Å ×è ¾ —‘¨´°‘è. She gave a flower to Anbumani and Arasu.

Translate
1. I saw your picture on tv and in the newspaper. º¥Å, —°‘€Ò™‘ªœ’ + ƒÖ, —œË°’´°‘è + ƒÖ

2. You and I need to eat immediately. …¥þî = immediately

3. We like dogs and cats. µ‘Ë, ¾€î

4. You and I need money. º«Å

5. She is going to buy my umbrella and hat. €¥ = umbrella, —°‘¿º’ = hat

6. Father will give pori to me and younger brother. —º‘Ì’ = pori (kind of like RiceKrispies)

7. We will see the Kaveri river in Thanjavur and Thiruchi. ‘×’Ì’ ‚ì, °¤œ‘ÛÑ, °’Ï¢œ’

8. My head hurt yesterday at school and on the bus. It did not hurt at home. °€Ò + ×Ò’6 = hurt
ºèã’ + ƒÖ, þºÏ¹³ + ƒÖ, ד¨ + ƒÖ
March 2 If/Then (Conditional) Verb Form

In Thamil, the ‘if/then’ (conditional) form of a verb is made as follows:


Root Past Tense Conjugation with ×è If/Then verb form

…ª‘Ñ2 …ª‘ѹ°‘è …ª‘ѹ°‘Ö

ב›3 ב›’î‘è ב›’î‘Ö

œ‘¿º’¨4 œ‘¿º’ª¥‘è œ‘¿º’ª¥‘Ö

º‘Ñ6 º‘Ñ´°‘è º‘Ñ´°‘Ö

ƒÏ7 ƒÏ¹°‘è ƒÏ¹°‘Ö

Simply change the last letter of the past tense conjugation with ×è (or ×ò) to Ö
The ‘if/then’ (conditional) verb form can be used with any pronoun as follows:

×ò °€× °’é¹°‘Ö, µ‘ò €° Ĩþ×ò. If he opens the door, I will close it.
º‘ŀº º‘Ñ´°‘Ö, À™è ‹¨×‘эè. If they see a snake, people will run away.
µ“ ºèã’™ þº‘î‘Ö, µ¯ºÑæ¥ò ×’€ãÆ‘¥Ò‘Å. If you go to school, you may play with friends.
µ‘ò à›’î‘Ö, ‡ò€î ‡à¿½. If I go to sleep, wake me up.

Exercises. Translate.
1. If she sits in this small chair, she will break it. œ’òî=small; µ‘퍑Ғ=chair, …€¥6=break

2. If she breaks the chair, we have to buy a new chair. …€¥6 = break; ½³ = new

3. If you call your teacher on the phone, I will speak with her.
˜¿º’¨4 = call; —°‘€Òþºœ’ + ƒÖ; þºŸ3 = speak

4. If they run, I will walk slowly. ‹¨3; µ¥7; —À³×‘ = slowly

5. If he goes, I will come. If he comes, I will go. ב2irregular; þº‘3irregular

6. You need to suck on this candy. If you bite it, your teeth will hurt.
œ¿½3 = suck; À’ª¥‘Ë = candy; ¦6 = bite; ºÖ; ×Ò’6 = hurt

7. If you draw a pretty picture, the teacher will praise you.


׀Ì2 = draw; Ý‘î = pretty; º¥Å = picture; º‘Ì‘ª¨3 = praise
March 9 Prepositions that use Noun + (™)

Many prepositions in Tamil require the Noun to be of the form Noun + (™).

My house is near the school.


‡ò ד¨ ºèã’™ Ï’Ö ƒÏ™’é³. Ï’Ö = near; ºèã’ = school

Prepositions that use Noun + (™)


…èþã inside þÀí west (of)
—×ã’þÆ outside µ¨×’Ö between
þÀþÒ above Ãòî‘Ö, Ãò in front of
“þÝ below º’òî‘Ö, º’ò behind
×¥™ north (of) ‡°’Ñ opposite of; across from
—°í south (of) º™´°’Ö, Ï’Ö near
’Ý™ east (of) º’é, ¿½éÅ after

þÀ‘°’ÌÅ —ºª¦™ …èþ㠃ϙ’é³. The ring is inside the box.


—œò€î ½³¢þœÌ’™ ×¥™ ƒÏ™’é³. Chennai (Madras) is north of Pondicherry.
×è °Ú™Å µ‘퍑Ғ™Å µ¨×’Ö …ª‘ѹ³—‘¯¦Ï™’é‘è.
She is sitting between the door and the chair.

Translate.
1. Thirunelveli is south of Madurai. °’Ï—µÖþ×Ò’, À³€Ì

2. I will build my house behind your school. ª¨3=build

3. Mother is spraying insecticide outside the house. ¾¢œ’ÀϹ³=insecticide; —°ã’6=spray

4. Father spoke instead of you. þºŸ3

5. They are playing between the fence and the pond. þ×Ò’=fence; ª€¥=pond; ×’€ãÆ‘¨3

6. The bridge is over the river. º‘ÒÅ=bridge; ‚ì=river

7. Walk in front of me! µ¥7


March 30 Noun + ‚Ö and (æÉÅ) | Noun + ƒÒ’Ϲ³ and Noun + ƒ¥À’Ϲ³

Noun Noun + ‰ Noun +  Noun + ‚Ö Noun + ƒ¥À’Ϲ³


µ‘ò ‡ò€î ‡î™ ‡òî‘Ö ‡òî’¥À’Ϲ³
µ“ …ò€î … …òî‘Ö …òî’¥À’Ϲ³
×ò ×€î ×ñ™ ×î‘Ö ×î’¥À’Ϲ³
×è ×€ã ×晐 ×ã‘Ö ×ã’¥À’Ϲ³
×Ñ ×€Ì ×Ï™ ×Ì‘Ö ×Ì’¥À’Ϲ³
³ €° ³™ (°í) °î‘Ö
µ‘Å µÅ€À µÀ™ µÅÀ‘Ö µÅÀ’¥À’Ϲ³
µ‘›è ‡›€ã ‡›æ™ ‡›ã‘Ö ‡›ã’¥À’Ϲ³
µ“›è …›€ã …›æ™ …›ã‘Ö …›ã’¥À’Ϲ³
×Ñè ×э€ã ×э晐 ×эã‘Ö ×э㒥À’Ϲ³

Noun + ‚Ö is the construction used to translate the English “by means of.” It is added to nouns just like
ƒÖ or ‰. Anytime the word “with” is used in English to mean “by means of” or “using”, then it is
translated into Thamil using Noun + ‚Ö. It is incorrect to use Noun + ‹¨/…¥ò to translate such
sentences. The following examples will illustrate this.
1. She stabbed me with a knife. ×è ‡ò€î ´°’Æ‘Ö ´°’î‘è.
(She stabbed me ‘using’ a knife.) stab = ´³3; knife = ´°’
2. I will comb my hair with my hand. µ‘ò ‡ò €Æ‘Ö °€Ò€Æ œ“Úþ×ò.
(I will comb my hair ‘using’ my hand.) comb=œ“Ú3 + °€Ò

Translate the following sentences using Noun + ‚Ö.


1. The hunter will shoot the bird with a gun. þ×¥ò=hunter; ºé€×=bird; ³¿º‘™’=gun; shoot=Ÿ¨4

2. We built our house with wood. build=ª¨3; wood=ÀÌÅ

3. I will cut your hair with scissors. hair=æ; scissors=´°Ì’™þ‘Ö; cut=—ת¨3

4. She hit the snake with a stick. hit=¦6; snake=º‘Ž; stick=¢œ’

The verb æÉÅ means “able to” do something. In English, the word “can” is often used to express this
concept. The verb æÉÅ is used like the verbs þׯ¨Å, º’¦™Å, —°Ì’ÉÅ, ½Ì’ÉÅ. The only
difference is that instead of using Noun + (™), the verb æÉÅ requires the use of Noun + ‚Ö. The
following sentences will illustrate these points.
1. I can lift this rock. ‡òî‘Ö ƒ¹° Ö€Ò à™ æÉÅ.
(I am ‘able to’ lift this rock.) rock=Ö; lift=à™3
2. That child can walk. ¹° Ý¹€°Æ‘Ö µ¥™ æÉÅ.
(That child ‘is able to’ walk.) child=Ý¹€°; walk=µ¥7
Translate the following sentences using æÉÅ and Noun + ‚Ö.
5. My little brother can talk. þºŸ3

6. He can break the mirror. mirror=¯«‘¦; break=…€¥6

7. We are able to swim now. swim=µ“¢œÖ ¦6

Noun + ƒÒ’Ϲ³ is used to mean ‘from [a place]’.


Noun + ƒ¥À’Ϲ³ is used to mean ‘from [a person]’.
1. I am coming from school. µ‘ò ºèã’ƒҒϹ³ ×¹³—‘¯¦Ï™’þéò.
2. This letter came from Poongunran. ƒ¹° ¦°Å ¾›òéî’¥À’Ϲ³ ×¹°³.
3. She bought the shirt from me. ×è œª€¥€Æ ‡òî’¥À’Ϲ³ ב›’î‘è.
4. He will buy a ball from this store. ×ò º¹³ ƒ¹° €¥Æ’ҒϹ³ ב›×‘ò.

Translate the following sentences.


8. They will run from my house to the river. run=‹¨3; river=‚ì

9.Thieves stole a cow from them. thief=°’Ï¥ò; cow=À‘¨; steal=°’Ϩ3

10. I took this ball from that basket. ball=º¹³; basket=˜€¥; take=‡¨6

11. We need 10 dollars from you. dollar=—×èã’; need=þׯ¨Å

12. They will borrow a rope from us. rope=Æ’ì; borrow=¥ò ב›3

13. He fell from a tree. tree=ÀÌÅ; fall=×’à…ª‘Ñ


April 12 Negative Verb Forms of þׯ¨Å, —°Ì’ÉÅ, æÉÅ, þº‘³Å, º’¦™Å, ½Ì’ÉÅ

Positive Negative Negative


(future or habitual) (past or present) (future or habitual)
like º’¦™Å º’¦™×’Ö€Ò º’¦™‘³
know —°Ì’ÉÅ —°Ì’Æ×’Ö€Ò —°Ì’Æ‘³
be able to æÉŠæÆ×’Ö€Ò Ã¦Æ‘³
understand ½Ì’ÉÅ ½Ì’Æ×’Ö€Ò ½Ì’Æ‘³
want, need þׯ¨Å þׯ¥‘
be enough þº‘³Å þº‘°×’Ö€Ò þº‘°‘³

You have already learned the use of the words in the first column. (Reminder, “habitual” means something
that happens regularly or usually or is always true.) The use of the Negative forms will be demonstrated in
the following examples:

1. ‡î™ À‘›‘Ë †ì‘Ë º’¦™Å. ‚î‘Ö ‡î™¿ ¾¯¨ …ì‘Ë º’¦™‘³.


I like mango pickle (Positive habitual), but I do not like garlic pickle (Negative habitual).

2. À‘°×’: “µ“ ƒ¹°¿ ½³ °’€Ì¿º¥´€°¿ º‘Ñ´°‘Æ‘? µ‘ò ƒ€°¿ º‘Ñ™ þׯ¨Å.”


Í’Ö: “‚Å, ƒ€°¿ º‘Ñ´þ°ò. ‡î™¿ º’¦™×’րÒ. …Šº’¦™‘³.”
Madhavi: Did you see this new movie? I want to see it.
Mukil: Yes, I saw it. I did not like it (Negative past). You will not like it either (Negative future).

3. ÅÀ‘: ƒ¹° ׀¥€Æ¢ œ‘¿º’¨.


Àò: œÌ’
ÅÀ‘: µò鑍 ƒÏ™’é°‘?
Àò: ‡î™ ƒ¹° ׀¥€Æ¿ º’¦™×’րÒ.
Mother: Eat this vadai.
Son: Okay.
Mother: Is it good?
Son: I don’t like this vadai (Negative present).

4. ÆÖ×’Ý’: … º’̤Ÿ —À‘Ý’ —°Ì’ÉÀ‘?


À‘éò: ×’ÆÌœñ™´ —°Ì’ÉÅ. ‡î™´ —°Ì’Æ‘³.
Kayalvizi: Do you know French?
Maaran: Kaviyarasan knows it (Positive habitual). I don’t know it (Negative habitual).

5. ƒòì þ°ÑÚ ƒÏ¹°³. °î‘Ö þµíì ƒÌÚ ‡òî‘Ö à› æÆ×’Ö€Ò.


There was a test today. Therefore, I was not able to sleep last night.

6. ‡î™¢ þœ‘ì þׯ¥‘Å. ‡î™¿ ºÝ›æÅ ‘ˍé’ÉÅ þׯ¨Å.


I do not want cooked rice. I want fruits and vegetables.
Translate
1. “What did you eat last Thursday in the morning?” “I don’t know.”
last = þº‘î; Thursday = ×’Æ‘Ý™’݀À; morning = ‘€Ò

2. He always mumbles. As a result, I did not understand his speech.


always = ‡¿—º‘à³Å; mumble = îî ‡òì þºŸ3; as a result = °î‘Ö; speech = þº¢Ÿ

3. Three thosais were not enough for me. I want one more thosai. one more = ƒò—î‘Ï

4. I am going to watch a movie at night. Five dollars will not be enough. I need ten dollars.
movie = °’€Ì¿º¥Å; at night = ƒÌÚ + ƒÖ; dollar = —×èã’

5. “Do you know her name?”


“I spoke with her yesterday. I forgot her name. I do not know it.”
name = —ºÆÑ; yesterday = þµíì; speak = þºŸ3; forget = Àé7
Class 1 ˜ª¨ – to sweep
œ¿½ – to suck (on something)
à – to cry
œ’¹³ – to spill
‚è – to rule
œ“Ú - to comb, shave/pare off
—‘Ö – to kill
°èæ – to push
—‘è – to do to oneself (reflexive)
°’ª¨ – to scold
ŸÝÖ – to whirl
°’Ϩ – to steal
—œË – to do
°’Ï´³ – to correct
—ºË – to rain
°’Ï¿½ – to turn
³Ò™ – to brush
Class 2
þ°¨ – to search
€¥ - to achieve a state of something
þ°‘¯¨ – to dig
«’ - to wear
µÅ½ – to believe
ÀÑ - to sit
µ’ì´³ – to stop
€Ò – to wander
µ’€îÛª¨ – to remind
…ª‘Ñ - to sit
µ’Ì¿½ – to fill
…«Ñ - to feel
µ“¹³ – to swim
‡à – to raise
º› – to share
‡é’ - to throw
ºÆòº¨´³ – to use
Šã’ - to hide (oneself)
º‘¨ – to sing
¦—ºÆÑ - to move (to a different place)
º‘Ì‘ª¨ – to praise
î’ - to crouch
¾ª¨ – to lock
*°‘ - to give
þºŸ – to speak
º‘Ë – to flow
*þº‘ - to go
À’â – to be happy
À‘íì – to change
þÀË – to graze
Ĩ - to close
ב - to come
ב› – to buy
ב⠖ to live
ג̪¨ – to chase away
×’à – to fall
ג㙐 – to brush, make shine
×€Ì – to draw
×’€ãÆ‘¨ – to play
דŸ – to throw
Class 3
—ת¨ – to cut
Ýº¨´³ – to beautify
*‚/‚ – to become
⬠Рto dance
…¨´³ – to wear
†íì – to pour
‡à³ – to write
ܬ Рto run
‹ª¨ – to drive
ª¨ – to build, tie on, or wear
´³ – to scream
àÚ - to mix
Ýíì – to remove
‘ª¨ – to show
Class 4 æ – to finish
‘Æ¿º¨ – to get hurt œ€À – to cook
Åº’¨ – to pray ‡Ì’ - to burn
˜¿º’¨ – to call ºé’ - to pluck, dig a hole
—¨ – to go bad/rot Ý’ - to erase, destroy
þ‘º¿º¨ – to get angry ’Ý’ - to tear or rip
œ‘¿º’¨ – to eat ‘¯º’ - to show
Ÿ¨ – to shoot or make (þ°‘€œ, ׀¥) íº’ - to teach
—œ‘Ö – to say À’°’ - to step on
½¯º¨ – to get hurt œ’¹°’ - to think
—°‘¨ – to touch þÆ‘œ’ - to think
µ¨ – to plant ×î’ - to care for
½é¿º¨ – to leave (a place) —º‘ì – to tolerate, to be patient
þº‘¨ – to put —°‘€Ò – to lose
×’¨ – to leave (something) œ’Ì’ - to smile or laugh
—×ã’Æ’¨ – to release/publish (a book) ¯¨º’¦ – to find
€° - to sew/stitch
Class 5 ³€¥ - to wipe
…¯ – to eat €Ì – to bark
þè – to ask —À‘Ý’—ºÆÑ - to translate
°’ò – to eat (often of animals)
µ’Ö – to stand Class 7
×’Ö – to sell ƒÏ – to be
µ¥ - to walk
Class 6 Àé – to forget
—‘¨ – to give œ - to be bitter
º‘Ñ - to see °’é – to open
¦ – to hit ‡à¹°’Ï – to get up
¦ – to bite ¥ - to cross
µ’€î – to think º’é – to be born
ã’ - to bathe ƒÝ – to lose
€× – to put or to have ¦Æ’Ï – to live (as in a house)
þ°Ë – to iron, rub ºé – to fly
—°ã’ - to spray ƒé – to die
º¦ – to study, read é – to milk
…€¥ - to break À« - to marry
½€° - to bury ’¥ - to be somewhere
‡¨ – to take ×’Æ – to be surprised
º’¦ – to catch, hold Ò – to mix
×Ò’ - to hurt
ƒî’ - to be sweet
À¦ – to fold
³€× – to wash
Šã’ - to hide
¦ – to drink
VERBS AND NOUNS TO USE AROUND THE HOUSE

Verb Root Noun
extinguish, turn off €«6 ג㙐
wash àÚ3 º‘´°’ÌÅ; €
wash (clothes) ³€×6 ³«’
fold À¦6 ³«’
dry ‘ƀ×6 ³«’; ³¯¨
cover þº‘Ñ´³3 þº‘р×
look, see º‘Ñ6 —°‘€Ò™‘ªœ’
hear; ask þè5 ב—î‘Ò’
open °’é7 °Ú
close œ‘´³3 °Ú
close Ĩ3 —ºª¦, €º, Ħ, º‘´°’ÌÅ
lift à™3 —ºª¦, œ‘À‘ò, €º
drive ‹ª¨3 À’°’ׯ¦
lock ¾ª¨3 °Ú
read; study º¦6 —œË°’´°‘è; ¦°Å; ˆ¨; áÖ; º‘¥Å
cook œ€À6 …«Ú
eat …¯5 þœ‘ì
eat [snacks] °’ò5 Ã왐; ׀¥; ºÝÅ
eat œ‘¿º’¨4  
send ñ¿½3 ¦°Å; º«Å
swallow ×’à›3 À‘´°’€Ì
suck œ¿½3 À’ª¥‘Ë
tear ’Ý’6 ‘’°Å
break …€¥6 °ª¨; ¯«‘¦
cut —ת¨3 µÅ; æ
buy ×’€ãÆ‘¨3 ×’€ãÆ‘ª¨
write ‡à³3 ¦°Å; þ°ÑÚ; º‘¥Å
pour †íì3 °¯«“Ñ, º‘Ö
spill œ’¹³3 °¯«“Ñ, º‘Ö
wipe ³€¥6
push °èæ3
bathe ã’6
sweep ˜ª¨3 °€Ì
comb (hair) œ“Ú3 °€Ò
shine; brush ג㙐3 ºÖ; º‘´°’ÌÅ
shine; brush ³Ò™3 ºÖ; º‘´°’ÌÅ
rub; brush þ°Ë6 ºÖ; ³«’
iron þ°Ë6 ³«’
give —‘¨6
buy ב›3
call ˜¿º’¨4
take and come ‡¨´³™—‘¯¨ ב2
take and go ‡¨´³™—‘¯¨ þº‘3

NOUNS

ג㙐 light Ã왐 murukku


º‘´°’ÌÅ pot ׀¥ vadai
€ hand ºÝÅ fruit
³«’ cloth, clothing ‘Ëé’ vegetable
³¯¨ towel ÝŽ thickened sauce
þº‘Ñ€× sheet, blanket º«Å money
—°‘€Ò™‘ªœ’ television À‘´°’€Ì tablet, pill
ב—î‘Ò’ radio À’ª¥‘Ë candy
°Ú door ‘’°Å paper
—ºª¦ box, suitcase °ª¨ plate
€º bag ¯«‘¦ glasses, mirror
Ħ cover, lid µÅ fingernail, toenail
œ‘À‘ò thing æ hair
À’°’ׯ¦ bicycle ×’ãÆ‘ª¨ game
—œË°’´°‘è newspaper þ°ÑÚ test, exam
¦°Å letter °¯«“Ñ water
ˆ¨ book, magazine º‘Ö milk
áÖ book °€Ì floor
º‘¥Å lesson °€Ò head
…«Ú food ºÖ tooth
þœ‘ì cooked rice
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by ChangeDetection

http://www.duke.edu/~skc9/tamilclass/ 5/4/2010
Ý’ °’€Ì¿º¥Å – לîÅ

À‘«×эè: ‰¹³ µ‘ò ƒÏº³. ‚ì µ‘ò ƒÏº´³ µ‘ò.


‚œ’Ì’ÆÑ: µÖÒ œ´°À‘ —œ‘ÖÕ›è.
À‘«×эè: ˆà µ‘ò ƒÏº´³ ‡ª¨. ‡ª¨ µ‘ò ÿº´³ ƒÌ¯¨. Šòº³ µ‘ò µ‘íº´³
‰¹³. º´³ µ‘ò µ‘íº³.
À‘«×ò 1: ˆ œ¯Ã‘! µò鑍 º‘Ñ´³ —‘è. µ‘ÀÅ þº‘ª¥ «’Ö °‘ò —œÆ’™Å ‡òì
—œ‘֍’þéò.
À‘«×ò 2: ‡ò «’ÕÅ °‘ò µ‘ÀÅ þº‘ª¦Ï™’é³. ¹° «’֍ã’Ö ‡¹° «’Ö
—œÆ’™’éþ°‘ ³ þÀÖ ‚ì —‘ª€¥. º¹°ÆÅ ª¨’é‘Æ‘? þ¥Ë … ½Ì’¹°°‘ ¥‘?
‚œ’Ì’ÆÑ: ב˿º‘ª€¥ —œ‘ÖÒ —œ‘òî‘Ö, ù°’Ì’ —‘ª€¥ þº‘ª¨ º¹°ÆÅ ª¦™—‘¯¨
ƒÏ™’é“эã‘? ‡à¹°’Ϲ³ µ’ÖÕ›è ¥‘. ª€¥Æ‘, µ“ —œ‘Ö. µ‘òÅ ÄòìÅ ‡òî?
ª€¥Æò: µ‘òÅ ƒÌ¯¨Å ºòî’̯¨.
‚œ’Ì’ÆÑ: º‘Ñ´°“э㑠¥‘? ×’€ãÆ‘¦î‘ÕÅ º‘¥´°’Ö ‡Ü×ãÚ ×îÀ‘ ƒÏ™’é‘эè.
ª€¥Æ‘ …ª‘Ñ. [ª€¥ÆñÅ ‘›þÆñÅ …ª‘э’é‘эè.] ˆ, ‘›þÆ‘, …ò€î Æ‘Ñ
…ª‘Ì —œ‘òî³? ÄòìÅ ÄòìÅ ‡´°€î ¥‘? ‡òî’¥À’Ϲ³ °¿º’ —‘èãÒ‘Å ‡òì
º‘Ñ™’é‘Æ‘?
‘›þÆò: ÄòìÅ ÄòìÅ º°’€î¹³.
‚œ’Ì’ÆÑ: €ºÆòè Ÿª¦¿º‘ ƒÏ™’é‘Ñè º‘Ñ´°‘Æ‘? ƒ¿—º‘à³ ‡ÖÒ‘ÏÅ
ª€¥Æñ™Å ‘›þÆñ™Å þœÑ¹³ þœ‘Ì‘ €€Æ °ª¨›è º‘Ñ™Ò‘Å.
[°‘´°‘Ú¥ñÅ º‘ª¦É¥ñÅ —º¯ ×ύ’é‘è.]
ƒ€° º‘Ï›è ¥‘. ƒ¹° º‘¿º‘ —ºÆÑ °îÒªŸÀ’. ƒòé’ҒϹ³ µÅ א¿º’Ö °‘ò º¦™
þº‘’é³. ½×̒ƒҒϹ³ µÅ ºèã’™ ×¹°’Ï™’é³. °‘´°‘ º‘ª¦ דª¦Ò’Ϲ³ º¦™
þº‘’é³. ˆË, ‡ÖÒ‘Ì’¥ÃÅ —œ‘ÖÒ’ —‘荒þéò. ƒ¹° °îÒªŸÀ’Æ’¥Å Ƒ̑׳
ª¥‘œÅ º¯«’ בґª¦î“Ñè ‚î‘Ö....
°‘´°‘: µ“ À’ª¥‘Ë ‡¨´³ —‘¨ ÅÀ‘. Ã°Ö Ã°Ö ×‘´°’Æ‘Ï™ —‘¨ ÅÀ‘ À’ª¥‘Ë.
º‘ª¦: À’ª¥‘Ë —‘¨´°‘Ö þº‘³À‘? ‘Ò’Ö ×’à¹³ Åº’¨. ×Ñ Ïî‘°Ñ, ÖÒב?
À‘«×ò: þ¥›¿º‘, º‘Ñ´°‘Æ‘ ¥‘ Ïî‘°€Ì?
‚œ’Ì’ÆÑ: ˆË, ‡ò€î º‘Ñ´°‘Ö Ïî‘°Ñ À‘°’Ì’ ƒÖ€ÒÆ‘? ‘³ þª‘³ ‡òì
µ’€î´°‘Æ‘?
—º¯: ƒòñÅ Šòì þׯ¨À‘? ‡¨´³ —‘è.
ƒ¹°‘ µò鑍 º¦ ÅÀ‘.
À‘«×эè: ƒÌ¯¨ ‰¹³ º´³. Äòì ‰¹³ º°’€î¹³. µ‘ò ‰¹³ ƒÏº³. ‰¹³ ‰¹³
ƒÏº´³ ‰¹³. ‚ì ‰¹³ ÿº³. ˆà ‰¹³ ÿº´³ ‰¹³. ‡ª¨ ‰¹³ µ‘íº³. Šòº³ ‰¹³
µ‘íº´³ ‰¹³.
ב€Æ °’é. À’ª¥‘€Æ ×‘Æ’Ö þº‘ª¨ —‘è. ‰þÆ‘ ‰þÆ‘ œ“ œ“, œ’›Å. ˆË ‡ò€î
º‘þÌò. º‘þÌò. º‘ב€¥Æ’Ö ³€¥´³ —‘è.
µÖÒ = good œ´°À‘ = œ´°Å + ‚ = loudly
µ‘ÀÅ = religious mark aligned vertically «’Ö = squirrel
6
—œÆ’ = win, be victorious þº‘¨4 = to put (here: to have a µ‘ÀÅ)
þÀÖ = on, on top —‘ª€¥ = seed ù°’Ì’ = cashew
º¹°ÆÅ = bet ב˿º‘ª¨ = mathematical tables
7
‡à¹°’Ï = stand up ×’€ãÆ‘¨3 = play
ª€¥Æò, ‘›þÆò, œ¯ÃÅ = names
º‘¥Å = lesson ×îÅ = care, concern
3
°¿½ = escape €ºÆò = boy
Ÿª¦¿º‘ = Ÿª¦¿½ + ‚ =
‡ÖþÒ‘ÏÅ = ‡ÖÒ‘ÏÅ = everyone þœÑ2 = join (together)
þœ‘Ì‘ = °ª¨3 = clap (hands)
º‘¿º‘= girl ½×̒ = name of a place
°‘´°‘ = grandfather º‘ª¦ = grandmother
ª¥‘œÅ = atrocity (here: mischief) º¯®3 = —œË1 = do
×‘Ö = tail ‚ª¨3 = shake, wag בґª¨3 = tease
À’ª¥‘Ë = candy ‡¨6 = take
Ã°Ö = first ב´°’Æ‘Ñ = ‚œ’Ì’ÆÑ = teacher
2
×’à = fall Åº’¨4 = pray, pay respect
Ïî‘°Ñ = venerable teacher, master À‘°’Ì’ = þº‘Ö = like
‘³ = ear þè5 = hear, ask, listen Infinitive = þª
ƒ¹°‘ = Here, take this! ƒòñÅ = still (here: in another)
×‘Ë = mouth °’é7 = open
œ’›Å = dirty º‘ב€¥ = skirt
6
³€¥ = wipe
Verb + ˆò = a type of command, loosely translated as “Why don’t you....”
¥þÒ‘Ì™ ‘íì – לîÅ
µ‘ò ‡òñ€¥Æ —œ‘¹° ‘Ò’þÒ °‘ò µ’퍒þéò.

µ‘ò —œ‘ÖÒ —œ‘ÖÒ þª‘ÀÖ þº‘î×ò. …ÆÌÀ‘ °‘ò þº‘Æ’Ï¿þºò. ›þ °‘ò navy
¦´³ þº‘ª¥³. µ‘ò ×€Ò€Æ —ת¦ þº‘ª¨ ×¹³ ×’ªþ¥ò. ‡òî µ¥¹°þ°‘ ‡î™
—°Ì’Æ‘³. ×èã´°’Ö þº‘Ë þ°¨þבÀ‘?

‡ò °Åº’ µ¥¹°³?

µ’€éÆ À“ò ¿ºª¦Ï™’é³ ¯þ«.

ˆò ¥‘ …ÆÌ þº‘î‘Ë µ“?

…ÆÌ …ÆÌ þº‘‘þ°.

°Åº’™ ¥Ò’þÒ Àª¨À’Ö€Ò °€ÌÆ’þÒÉÅ À“ò ¿º¨’é³.

…ÆÌ þº‘î‘Ö °‘ò µ’€éÆ ‘Ÿ …€Ý™Ò‘Å.

‡òî µ¥¹°³ ‡òì —œ‘ÖþÒò ¥‘ ¿º‘.

µ“ ˆò ¥‘ °Åº’ Ÿª¥¿ºª¨ …€Ý™ þׯ¨Å? ¿º‘ …€Ý´³ €×´³ ƒÏ™’é³ ‡ÖÒ‘Å


… °‘þî. ×ò —œ‘֍’é³Å œÌ’ °‘þî.

‡î™ ŠÏ ‡°’Ѻ‘Ñ¿½ ƒÏ™’é³. ³ œÌ’ ×ÏÀª¨Å …ÆÌ …ÆÌ °‘ò þº‘þ×ò.

‡î™ ‡òì —œ‘¹°À‘Ë …€Ý™ þׯ¨Å ‡òì µ’€î™’þéò.

—œ‘ÖÒ —œ‘ÖÒ ‘ª À‘ªþ¥ò ‡òì ×’ªþ¥ò.


×ò —œ‘֍’é³Å œÌ’ °‘þî.

î™ …€Ý™’é³ ‡òé‘Ö …ÆÌ …ÆÌ °‘ò þº‘ þׯ¨Å.

°î’Æ‘ —°‘Ý’Ö —œË³ µ’€éÆ …€Ý™’é³ ‡î™Å ×’Ï¿ºÅ °‘ò. ‚î‘Ö °î’Æ‘
ב♀ þ°¥ þº‘Ë ‡î™ —ãÌ× º’Ì¢œ€î ×ύ’é³ ‡òé‘Ö, µ‘ò º€ÝÆ ¡€œÆ‘
°‘ò À‘ìþ×ò.
—œ‘¹°Å = own
µ’Ö5 = stand
Present/Future/Past with µ‘ò = µ’퍒þéò / µ’íþºò / µ’òþéò
þª‘ÀÖ = without listening þº‘î×ò = person who went (male)
…ÆÌÅ = height (here: far out to sea)

¦6 = hit ×€Ò = net —ת¨3 = cut


µ¥7 = take place, happen ×èãÅ = þ°¨3 = search
µ’€éÆ = a lot À“ò = fish ¿º¨4 = get caught, get trapped
¥Ö = sea, ocean Àª¨Å = only °€Ì = land
6
‘Ÿ = money …€Ý = earn (money)
Verb + ˆò = a type of command, loosely translated as “why don’t you...”
Ÿª¥ º¨4 = º‘¨ º¨4 = struggle, undergo hardship
€×6 = have ‡ÖÒ‘Å = everything œÌ’ = correct, accurate
°‘ò = word used for emphasis ‡°’Ѻ‘Ñ¿½ = expectation
6
µ’€î = think î™ = a lot
°î’ = alone —°‘Ý’Ö = business
×’Ï¿ºÅ = desire ‚î‘Ö = but, however
ב♀ = life —ã×ÌÅ = pride, honor
º’Ì¢œ€î = problem º€ÝÆ = old
¡€œ = a name À‘ì3 = change
Quiz 1

Fill in the blanks.


Pronoun/Noun Direct Object
µ‘ò 1.
2. ɘ۔
×ò 3.
×è 4.
³ 5.
6. µÅ€À
µ‘›è 7.
8. …›€ã
×эè 9.
º¹³ 10.

Give the Thamil equivalents of the following verbs:

11. (to) sit


12. (to) throw
13. (to) see/look
14. (to) buy
15. (to) touch

Translate the following sentences to Thamil.


16. She throws the ball outside.
17. We look up.
18. It touches the food. (…«Ú)
19. Father opens the door. (°Ú)
20. I see you.
21. You see me.
22. Buy it!
23. Little brother sits down.

24. Explain the difference between µ‘Å and µ‘›è.

25. ×è à›’é‘è. means "She sleeps." How would you write "I sleep"?

26. µ‘›è °€Ò€Æ¢ œ“ڍ’þé‘Å. means "We comb our hair." How would you write
the command "(You) comb your hair!"?

27. µ‘ò µ¥™’þéò. means "I walk." How would you write "It walks inside."?
µ’€î™´ —°Ì’¹° ÀîþÀ http://www.dhool.com/cgi-bin/test.pl?songid=16
Background: A woman is in love with a man, but they have to break off the relationship because of circumstances
beyond their control. The woman is unable to forget her love for this man and sings the following:
µ’€î™´ —°Ì’¹° ÀîþÀ, … À降´ —°Ì’Æ‘°‘?
ºÝ´ —°Ì’¹° …Æ’þÌ, … גҍ´ —°Ì’Æ‘°‘?
ÀÆ›´ —°Ì’¹° ¯þ«, … …雍´ —°Ì’Æ‘°‘?
ÀÒÌ´ —°Ì’¹° òþº, … À€éÆ´ —°Ì’Æ‘°‘?
‡¨™´ —°Ì’¹° ÌþÀ, …™ —‘¨™´ —°Ì’Æ‘°‘?
ƒî’™´ —°Ì’¹° î’þÆ, …™ œ™´ —°Ì’Æ‘°‘?
º¦™´ —°Ì’¹° ƒ°þÝ, … 晍´ —°Ì’Æ‘°‘?
º¥Ì´ —°Ì’¹° ºî’þÆ, … À€éÆ´ —°Ì’Æ‘°‘?
—‘°’™´ —°Ì’¹° µ’Òþ×, … ã’Ì´ —°Ì’Æ‘°‘?
ã’ÏÅ —°òéÖ ‘íþé, …¿ º’Ì’™´ —°Ì’Æ‘°‘?
º’Ì’™´ —°Ì’¹° ƒ€éב, … ƒ€«™´ —°Ì’Æ‘°‘?
ƒ€«Æ´ —°Ì’¹° °€Òב, … ‡ò€î¿ ½Ì’Æ‘°‘? --¯«°‘œò

µ’€î v. think (strong)


ÀîÅ n. mind
Àé v. forget (strong)
ºÝ v. get to know, learn (weak)
…Æ’Ñ n. life
גҐ v. separate from, step aside (weak)
ÀÆ› v. be charmed (weak)
¯ n. eye
…雐 = à› v. sleep (weak)
ÀÒÑ v. bloom, blossom (weak)
ò½ n. affection
À€é v. to disappear (weak)
ଠv. take (strong)
ÌÅ = € n. hand
—‘¨ v. give (strong)
ƒî’ v. be sweet (strong)
î’ n. fruit
œ v. be bitter (strong)
ƒ°â = …°¨è n. lips
æ v. finish (strong)
º¥Ñ v. spread (weak)
ºî’ n. dew
—‘°’ v. boil (strong)
µ’ÒÚ = µ’Ò‘ n. moon
ã’Ñ v. be cool (weak)
—°òéÖ ‘íì n. southern breeze (brings cool air from the south)
º’Ì’ v. separate (strong)
ƒ€é×ò = ¥Úè = œ‘À’ n. God
ƒ€« v. join (strong)
ƒ€« v. be joined (weak)
°€Ò×ò (here, °€Ò×ò = ‘°Òò) n. leader, main character in a story (here, it is the man
who the woman is in love with)
http://www.dhool.com/cgi-bin/test.pl?songid=2333

‘Ò›ã’Ö ×è ל¹°Å


€Òã’þÒ ×è ‹×’ÆÅ
À‘°›ã’Ö ×è À‘эݒ
ÀÒэã’þÒ ×è ÀÖÒ’€

ºé€×ã’Ö ×è À«’¿½é‘


º‘¥Öã’Ö ×è °‘Ò‘ª¨
î’ã’þÒ ×è À‘›î’
‘íé’î’þÒ ×è —°òéÖ

º‘Ö þº‘Ö œ’Ì’¿º°’Ö º’è€ã


×è ºî’ þº‘Ö €«¿º°’Ö òî’
¯ þº‘Ö ×ãÑ¿º°’Ö ò€î
×è ×’£ò ‚™’î‘è ‡ò€î

-- ¯«°‘œò

‘ÒÅ = time, season ל¹°Å = ƒãþ×î’Ö = spring


€Ò = fine art ‹×’ÆÅ = painting
À‘°Å = month À‘эݒ = a month (mid December to mid January)
ÀÒÑ = ¾ = flower ÀÖÒ’€ = jasmine
ºé€× = bird À«’¿½é‘ = dove
º‘¥Ö = º‘ª¨ = song °‘Ò‘ª¨ = lullaby
î’ = ºÝÅ = fruit À‘›î’ = À‘źÝÅ = mango fruit ; À‘ = mango, big/great
‘íì = wind (‘íé’î’Ö = ‘íé’Ö) —°òéÖ = southern breeze (brings cool air)
þº‘Ö = like œ’Ì’6 = laugh ; œ’Ì’¿º°’Ö = in laughing
º’è€ã = Ý¹€° = child ºî’ = dew, mist ; (also used for snow)
6
€« = hug ; €«¿º°’Ö = in hugging
òî’ = girl ¯ = eye
6
×ãÑ = to raise (a child or animal) ò€î = °‘Ë = ÅÀ‘
×’£ò = poet (male) ‚™3 = to make
[°À’Ý“Ý´°’ò Ý °î’ Ý
‡›è °‘ƍ´°’ò —ºÏ€À é’ÉÅ …Ґ]

¥Ö ¡â¹° Ƒ⿺‘«Å º¥ þº‘Ö ƒÏ™Å


€Ì À«Ò’Ö µ¯¨è ˆþ°þ°‘ ’왐Å

€¥ þº‘ÕÅ º€îÀÌÅ º‘Ñ¿þº‘€Ì ÀÆ™Å


—‘è€ã Ý ‡òì …ÒþÀ ×’Æ™Å

þ‘«À‘À€Ò À“°’Ö €Ò þÀ‘°’ º‘ÉÅ


˜ª¥À‘Ë ‡Ý’Ö À‘òè ¥þÒ‘ÌÅ þÀÉÅ

þ°Ë µ’Ò‘ ‘Ò´°’Ö ¥Ò’Ö —º‘ò ¾™Å


°“¹°À’â¿ ½Ò×ò € ‡à³þ‘Ö à™Å

Àª¨ µÑ À¯«’Ö À“ò ˜¥ º‘¨Å


À«Ö þÀª¦Ö ¥Ö ‘íé’Ö —°ò€î ˜´°‘¨Å

ºª¦¿º€ã ×ÆÖè °›À‘Ë ‘Ë™Å


ºÌ¯ À“³ …Ý×Ñ¿ —º¯ °À’â¿ º‘¥Ö þªÅ

×’Ý’ã’Ö ×òî’ µ’ÒÅ Ý èã’ —œ‘Ì’ÉÅ


þ×Ñ ƒÖÒ‘ —œ¦€Æ þº‘Ö ÀÆ’Ö ‚¦ °’Ì’ÉÅ

‡Ý’Ö þ°‘˹° Àòî‘Ì’Ö Ã´³™è ’€¥™Å


„Ý´°’ò °’€œ µ‘òÅ ‹×’ÆÅ º€¥™Å

-- ‘œ’ ‚î¹°ò
(º‘¥Ñ -- þ°î’€œ —œÖÒ¿º‘)

°À’Ý“ÝÅ = °À’â „ÝÅ = Thamileelam


Ý = beauty °î’ = separate °î’ Ý = unique beauty
°‘ƍŠ= homeland —ºÏ€À = pride é’2 = know
…Ґ = …ҍŠ= world ¥Ö = sea, ocean
2
¡â = surround (¡â¹° = is surrounded) Ƒ⿺‘«Å = Jaffna
º¥ = boat þº‘Ö = like €Ì = shore
À«Ö = sand µ¯¨ = crab
(ˆþ°þ°‘ = ˆþ°‘ + ˆþ°‘) ˆþ°‘ = something
’왐3 = scribble €¥ = umbrella º€îÀÌÅ = palmyra tree
3
º‘Ñ¿þº‘Ñ = people who see ÀÆ™ = charm, bring under a spell
—‘è€ã = enormous Ý = beauty ‡òì = this word is used to quote something
þ‘«À‘À€Ò = the mountain after which the harbor city Trincomalee (°’Ï™þ‘«À€Ò) is named
À“°’Ö = on €Ò = wave þÀ‘³3 = crash
º‘Ë2 = spring (on/at something), bounce (on/at something)
˜ª¥Å = crowd ; ˜ª¥À‘Ë = ˜ª¥À‘ = as a crowd
‡Ý’Ö = Ý = beauty À‘ò = deer ¥Ö = sea
2
‹ÌÅ = side þÀË = graze
2
þ°Ë = wear away ; µ’Ò‘ = moon þ°Ë µ’Ò‘ = waning moon
‘ÒÅ = time, season —º‘ò = °›Å = gold
6
¾ = blossom, bloom °“¹°À’â = sweet Thamil
½Ò×ò = ×’£ò = poet € = hand
‡à³þ‘Ö = writing instrument (‡à³3 = write ; þ‘Ö = stick)
à™3 = lift Àª¨= Àª¥™ã¿½ = Batticaloa, a city on the eastern coast of TE
À«Ö=sand þÀ¨=hill ¥Ö=sea,ocean
‘íì=wind —°ò€î=coconut species (here: coconut tree)
3 3
˜´°‘¨ = ˜´³ + ‚¨ = sing and dance
ºª¦¿º€ã = pattippaLai, a place in Thamileelam
×ÆÖ = (fertile) field ‘Ë6 = bear fruit, yield a crop
°›Å = —º‘ò = gold (°›À‘Ë = °›Å + ‚Ë = °›Å + ‚ = golden)
ºÌ¯ = loft À“³ = on, at (here: on top of)
…Ý×Ñ = farmer —º¯ = girl
º‘¥Ö = º‘ª¨ = song
þè5 = hear, listen to, ask (irregular verb)
Present tense and Future tense = þè → þª þª’þéò, þª’é‘Ë, þª’é‘ò, etc.
þªþºò, þªº‘Ë, þªº‘ò, etc.
Past tense = þªþ¥ò, þª¥‘Ë, þª¥‘ò, þª¥‘è, þª¥³, þªþ¥‘Å, etc.
Infinitive = þª AvP = þª¨
×’Ý’ = ¯ = eye ×òî’ = Vanni, name of a region in central Thamileelam
µ’ÒÅ = land, ground Ý = beauty èæ3 = scoop up
—œ‘Ì’2 = to pour down (as of rain) þ×Ñ = root(s)
ƒÖÒ‘ = without —œ¦ = plant
þº‘Ö = like (use Noun + ‰ for the word þº‘Ö : —œ¦€Æ þº‘Ö)
ÀÆ’Ö = peacock ‚¨3 = dance °’Ì’2 = roam, wander
‡Ý’Ö = beauty þ°‘Ë2 = be soaked, be covered
Àòî‘Ñ = Mannar, a city on the western coast of Thamileelam across the Palk Strait from Rameswaram
‡Ý’Ö þ°‘˹° Àòî‘Ñ = Mannar, a city covered with beauty
ô³ = pearl ’€¥™Å = to be available
„ÝÅ = Eelam °’€œ = direction
µ‘ò = four µ‘òÅ = µ‘ò + …Å = all four
‹×’ÆÅ = painting º€¥6 = create, produce, make
°À’þÝ …Æ’þÌ ×«™Å -- ‘œ’ ‚î¹°ò
http://www.intamm.com/songs/Tamizhe.html

[°À’þÝ …Æ’þÌ ×«™Å.


°‘Ë º’è€ã …éÚ ÅÀ‘, …Š‡î™Å]

À’âþ° µ“ ƒÖ€Ò ‡òé‘Ö


´°€îÉŠבâ×’Ö œ™Å ½ã’™Å

°À’þÝ …ò€î µ’€€î™Å °À’Ýò


‡ò —µ¤œÅ ƒî’™Å œ’Ò’Ñ™Å

À’âþ°, …ò ‡Ý’Ö µ’€î´°‘Ö


‚Æ’ÌÅ ¾™è œ’Ì’™Å, —œÝ’™Å

°À’þÝ µ“ ‡ò ƒÆ™Å
°‘Ë µ“ ³€« ‡ò ×Ý’™Å µ€¥™Å

À’âþ° µ“ °ÏÅ ƒòºÅ


¦þÆò בâ×’Ö þ×ì ‡›þ ’€¥™Å

°À’þÝ ƒòì …ò€î ºÝ’™Å


°Ï™ò …ҍ’Ö ƒÏ™Å ׀̙Å

À’âþ° µ“ בàÅ À¯«’Ö


îþÒ —°é’™Å, îþÒ —°é’™Å

°À’þÝ, … ˆò Ò™Å


°‘þÆ, —º‘ì ÅÀ‘
ÃÝ™Å —צ™Å

À’âþ°, …ò€î ‡×ò —°‘ª¥‘Ö


×€î ‡ò €×‘è Ý’™Å, 晐Å
…Æ’Ñ = life ׫™Å = respectful form of greeting; prayer (to god)
°‘Ë = ò€î = ÅÀ‘ = mother º’è€ã = Ý¹€° = child
…éÚ = relationship À’â³ = ƒî’€À = sweetness
X ‡òé‘Ö = if X
‡´°€î = how many ´°€î = that many ´°€îÉÅ = here: everything
בâÚ = ב♀ = life
œ7 = be bitter ½ã’6 = be sour
µ’€î6 = think about —µ¤œÅ = heart
6
ƒî’ = be sweet œ’Ò’Ñ6 = be thrilled
‡Ý’Ö = beauty ‚Æ’ÌÅ = 1,000
¾ = ÀÒÑ = flower
œ’Ì’6 = laugh, smile —œÝ’6 = flourish
ƒÆ™Å = movement (political, social, etc.)
×Ý’ = path µ€¥ =
2
°ÏÅ = giving (from °‘ = give)
ƒòºÅ = À’⢜’ = happiness
¦þÆò = µ‘ò, a term of humility used by one who practices self-effacement
þ×ì = another, other
’€¥™Å = be available ºÝ’6 = abuse ºÝ’™Å = abusing
°Ï™ò = enemy, lowlife
…Ґ = …ҍŠ= world
×€Ì = ׀̙Å = until (here: as long as)
בâ2 = live בàÅ = living À¯ = ground, dirt
6
îÖ = heat, fire —°é’ = spray, splash, (of sparks) fly off
Ò™Å = state of confusion or disturbance, uneasy feeling
—º‘ì6 = be patient ÃÝ™Å = roar
6
—צ = explode —°‘¨4 = touch
בè = sword Ý’6 = destroy
æ6 = finish
¾›‘íì °’ÏŽÀ‘?
http://www.raaga.com/channels/tamil/movie/T0000104.html

[‚¯]¾›‘íì °’ÏŽÀ‘? ‡ò º‘ª€¥ ×’ÏŽÀ‘?


º‘Ì‘ª¥ À¦Æ’Ö €×´³ °‘Ò‘ª¥
‡î™ ŠÏ °‘Ë À¦ ’€¥™À‘?
[—º¯] ƒÌ‘œ‘þ×, ×Ï´°À‘? ‚‘ÆÅ ŸÏ™À‘?
ˆ›‘þ°, €° …ҍŠ°‘›‘þ°
¨™À‘, ¡Ì’Æò Ï™À‘?
[‚¯] ‡òî —œ‘ÖÕþ×ò ‡ò …èãÅ °‘›×’րÒ
—À´€° ב›’þîò, à™´€° ב›×’րÒ
[—º¯] ƒ¹° þ×°€î Æ‘Ï™ °‘ò ƒÖ€Ò
…ò€î À“éþ× †Ï™è ‚è ƒÖ€Ò
[‚¯] ˆþ°‘ ‡ò º‘ª¨™ º‘ª¨ º‘¦
—œ‘ÖÒ‘° þœ‘´€° —œ‘òþîò ¦
[—º¯] þœ‘ ƒÌÅ þœ‘Å °‘þî
[‚ò] Æ‘Ñ ³ þº‘’é³
[—º¯] Æ’Ö º‘¥Ò‘Å. °ò ÍŠ‘ª¨À‘?
[‚¯] …èþã à’þéò, —×ã’þÆ œ’Ì’™’þéò.
µÖÒ þץŠ°‘ò, —×æ´³ ב›’þéò.
[—º¯] …›è þץŠ°‘ò —‘¤œÅ À‘é þׯ¨Å
‡›è œ‘À’™ À¥Å ˆé þׯ¨Å
[‚¯] À‘þî ‡ò —µ¤Ÿ™ º‘Ö ×‘Ñ´° þ°þî
Ãòþî ‡ò ב ב —º¯þ«
[—º¯] ‡œ¿ º‘ª€¥ º¦´þ°ò µ‘þî
[‚¯] ¾›Æ’Ö Æ‘Ñ ³?
[—º¯] —‘¤œÅ º‘Ï›è. —º¯ Æ’Ö µ‘ò -…›è
[‚¯] ¦ µ“ °‘î‘ ¹° Æ’Ö
Æ‘Ñ ×“ª¨ —œ‘¹° Æ’Ö
‚´°‘¦ Àèþ㠍‘í鑦
ºé¹°þ° …ҍþÀ Àé¹°þ°
[—º¯] µ‘ò °‘þî ¹° Æ’Ö
°‘ ×¹° Æ’Ö
‚´°‘¦ Àèþ㠍‘í鑦
ºé¹°°‘ …ҍŠ°‘ò Àé¹°°‘?

-- €×Ìô³
°’€Ì¿º¥Å : Ã°Ö ÀÌ’Æ‘€°
º‘Ì‘ª¨3 = appreciate, praise À¦ = lap
6
€× = to keep ; €×´³ (AvP) °‘Ò‘ª¨3 = sing lullaby
ƒÌ‘œ‘ = rajaa, term of endearment ×Ï´°Å = sadness
‚‘Æ, = בîÅ = sky ŸÏ›3 = shrink
ˆ›3 = long for …ҍŠ= world
3
°‘› = bear, endure, tolerate, withstand ¨™À‘? = local expression
¡Ì’Æò = ºÌ’°’ = £Æ’ì = sun Ï™3 = darken
—œ‘ÖÕþ×ò (less formal) = —œ‘Öþ×ò (formal)
…èãÅ = heart —À´€° = mattress
à™Å = sad þ×°€î = sadness
À“é = better than ‚è = person
†Ï™è = †Ñ + …™ + …è = in the village
…è =inside ; Noun + ™/…™ + …è
‡ò º‘ª¨™ = doing something by oneself for no particular reason
—œ‘ÖÒ‘° = unsaid þœ‘Å = sadness
ƒÌÅ = type Æ’Ö = koel (has a beautiful song)
°ò = its own ÍŠ= face
3
‘ª¨ = show …èþã = …è = inside
1
à = cry —×ã’ = —×ã’þÆ = outside
6
œ’Ì’ = laugh, smile þץŠ= mask
3
—×æ´³ ב› = do something very well
—‘¤œÅ = little bit À‘ì3 = change
œ‘À’ = god (here: )
À¥Å = crown ˆì3 = rise (here: be crowned)
À‘ò = deer —µ¤Ÿ = heart
6
×‘Ñ = here: pour þ°ò = honey
Ãò = in front of
‡œ¿º‘ª¨ = style of folk song in which a man and woman sing back and forth, sometimes trying to
outdo one another
¾›Æ’Ö = ¾ + Æ’Ö = type of Æ’Ö
˔٠= mind, heart
Àèþã = ÀîŸ + ™ + …è = in ÀîŸ
‘í鑦 = pinwheel ºé7 = fly
…ҍŠ= world Àé7 = forget
À‘›’ã’ÉÅ ÀÌ›—‘´°’ÉÅ -- ‘œ’ ‚î¹°ò

[À‘›’ã’ÉÅ ÀÌ›—‘´°’ÉÅ ˜¨ °’Ïź °€¥ ƒÖ€Ò


µ‘›è Àª¨Å …ҍ´°’þÒ µ‘¨ °’Ïź æÆ×’Ö€Ò]

œ’›ã×ò º€¥ בî’Ö


—µÏ¿€º èã’ —œ‘Ì’’é³
‡›è …Æ’Ñ °À’Ý“ÝÅ
Ÿ¨‘¥‘ ‡Ì’’é³

°‘Ë °é º’è€ãã’ò


—µ¤Ÿ€ã ’Ý’™’é‘ò
‘Ë ‚Å Ãòþî
ƒãÅ º’¤Ÿ€ã Ý’™’é‘ò

—ºíé×Ñè †Ì’þÒ
ˆ›’é‘Ñè º‘œ´°’þÒ
‡´°€î µ‘è ‘´°’Ï¿þº‘Å
¨´°×ò þ°œ´°’þÒ

…¯«ÚŠæװ’րÒ
…雍ÚŠæװ’րÒ
‡¯«ÚŠæװ’րÒ
ƒòñÅ °‘ò ×’¦×°’րÒ

’ª¦¿½è ¦´³ µ‘›è


×’€ãÆ‘¨Å —°Ï×’þÒ
ª¦ €×´³ Ÿ¨’é‘î‘Å
Æ‘Ñ Àî³Å …ύגրÒ

†Ñ™¦°Å º¦™€Æ’þÒ
×’À’ —µ¤Ÿ —צ™’é³
þº‘Ñ ½Ò’è º™´°’þÒ
þº‘ ÀîÅ ³¦™’é³
À‘›’ã’ = À‘ + ’ã’ = mango + parrot = a species of parrot
ÀÌ›—‘´°’ = ÀÌÅ + —‘´°’ = woodpecker
(ÀÌÅ = wood ; —‘´³3 = stab with sharp instrument)
˜¨ = nest °’ÏŽ3 = turn around (here: turn around and go back)
°€¥ = ban Àª¨Å = only …ҍŠ= world
µ‘¨ = country œ’›ã×ò = Sinhalese º€¥ = army
בò = בîÅ = sky —µÏ¿½ = °“ = fire èæ3 = scoop
—œ‘Ì’2 = pour …Æ’Ñ = life °À’Ý“ÝÅ = Thamileelam
2
Ÿ¨‘¨ = cremation ‡Ì’ = burn
°‘Ë = ÅÀ‘ = ò€î = mother °ì3 = wail, scream
º’è€ã = child —µ¤Ÿ = heart ’Ý’6 = tear, rip
‘Ë = green (unripen) fruit ‚3 = become Ãò = before
ƒãÅ = young º’¤Ÿ = tender (unripen) fruit [before the ‘Ë stage]
6
Ý’ = destroy —ºíé×эè = —ºíþé‘Ñ = parents
†Ñ = town (here: hometown) ˆ›3 = long for
º‘œÅ = affection µ‘è = day ‘´°’Ï7 = wait
¨´°×ò = another person þ°œÅ = µ‘¨ = country
¨´°×ò þ°œÅ = ¨´°×ñ€¥Æ þ°œÅ
æװ’Ö€Ò = (here:) æÆ×’Ö€Ò
…¯5 = eat …雐3 = sleep ‡¯®3 = think
ƒòñÅ = still ×’¦2 = dawn
’ª¦¿½è = game played by children with sticks (tip-cat)
¦6 = play, here: play ’ª¦¿½è ×’€ãÆ‘¨3 = play
—°Ï = street ª¨3 = tie
ª¦ €×6 = leave tied up Ÿ¨4 = shoot
ÀîŸ = ÀîÅ = Àî³ = mind, heart …ϐ3 = melt
†Ñ™¦°Å = letter from home º¦™€Æ’Ö = when reading (from º¦6 = read)
×’ÅÃ3 = sob, weep —צ6 = explode þº‘Ñ = war
½Ò’ = tiger º™Å = º™´°’þÒ = by the side of
6
³¦ = (of heart) beat
°À’Ý‘, µ“ þºŸ×³ °À’Ý‘? -- ‘œ’ ‚î¹°ò
http://www.intamm.com/songs/Thamizha.html

°À’Ý‘ µ“ þºŸ×³ °À’Ý‘


ò€î€Æ °À’â ×‘Æ‘Ö mummy ‡òì €Ý´°‘Ë
Ý Ý¹€°€Æ baby ‡òì €Ý´°‘Ë
‡òî ¥‘ °¹€°€Æ daddy ‡òì €Ý´°‘Ë
ƒòñÆ’Ñ °À’€Ý —‘òì —°‘€Ò´°‘Ë

…é€× love ‡òé‘Ë, …°×‘° ב♀


Wife ‡òé‘Ë À€î×’€Æ, º‘Ñ …¹°ò þº‘™€
ƒÌ€× night ‡òé‘Ë, ×’¦Æ‘° …ò ב♀
ƒî’¿€º sweet ‡òé‘Ë, ì´³ ‡é’ µ‘™€

—‘¯¥ µ¯º€î friend--‡òº°‘?


þ‘Ò´ °À’â —À‘Ý’€Æ ‚›’ÒÅ °’òº°‘?
¯¥×€Ì ‡ÖÒ‘Å sir ‡òì —œ‘Ö×°‘?
¯ Ãòþî °‘Ë —À‘Ý’ œ‘׳ µÖÒ°‘?

ׯ¦™‘ÌÑ þª¥‘Ñ left--‚? right--‚?


×Ý™é’£Ñ þª¥‘Ñ, ‡òî °Åº’ fight--‚?
³¯¨™‘ÌÑ þª¥‘Ñ, ˜ª¥Å late--‚?
—°‘€ÒÆ‘°‘ °À’â ƒ¿º¦ þª¥‘Ö?

º‘ª¥ò €Æ’þÒ walking stick—‚?


º‘ª¦Æ’ò …°ª¦þÒ lipstick--‚?
דª¦þÒ —º¯ã’ò °€ÒÆ’þÒ ribbon--‚?
—×è€ã™‘Ìò °‘ò µÀ™ ¿ºî‘?
þºŸ3 = €°6 = say, speak €Ý6 = call
ò€î = °‘Ë = ÅÀ‘ = mother ×‘Ë = mouth
Ý = beauty Ý¹€° = child
°¹€° = ¿º‘ = father
ƒòñÆ’Ñ = sweet life ƒî’€À = sweetness ; …Æ’Ñ = life
1
—‘Ö = kill present / future / past = —‘֍’þéò / —‘Öþ×ò / —‘òþéò
AvP = —‘òì Infinitive = —‘ÖÒ
6
—°‘€Ò = lose …éÚ = relationship, (here: close relationship)
3
…°Ú = help …°×‘° = helpless (here: useless)
À€î×’ = ³€«×’ = wife …¹°ò = …ò = …òñ€¥Æ
þº‘™ = behavior, conduct, course, direction ƒÌÚ = ƒÌ‘´°’Ì’ = night
2
×’¦ = dawn ×’¦Æ‘° = without dawning (here: life will never be bright)
ƒî’¿½ = sweetness ì6 = cut
‡é’2 = throw µ‘ = µ‘™ = tongue
1
—‘¯¥ is from —‘è = have µ¯ºò = friend
‡òº³ = ‡òì —œ‘Ö׳ (here: to be called)
þ‘ÒÅ = design made on the ground þ‘Ò´ °À’â = beautiful Thamil (?)
—À‘Ý’ = language ‚›’ÒÅ = English
5
°’ò = eat °’òº³ (here: to be eaten)
Ãò = in front of
œ‘2 = die present / future / past = œ‘’þéò / œ‘þ×ò / —œ´þ°ò
AvP = —œ´³ Infinitive = œ‘
œ‘׳ (here: to be dying)
µÖÒ³ = good thing ׯ¦™‘ÌÑ = driver ׯ¦ = vehicle
×Ý™é’£Ñ = ×™“Ö = lawyer ³¯¨™‘ÌÑ = towel person ; ³¯¨ = towel
˜ª¥Å = crowd —°‘€Ò2 = be lost
º‘ª¥ò = grandfather € = hand
º‘ª¦ = grandmother …°¨ = lip
°€Ò = head —×è€ã™‘Ìò = white person
¿ºò = father (call as ¿º‘)
—×움 ‡òº³ Ä¥´°îÅ -- ×’£Ñ °‘Ì‘º‘Ì°’

—×움 ‡òº³ Ä¥´°îÅ


…ò ×’ÌÖè º´³Å ÄÒ°îÅ
Ï›Ö º‘€éÉÅ —µ‘웍’ ×’àÅ
…ò €ã’Ö ¾À’ ŸÝòì ×ÏÅ

ĀÒÆ’Ö ’¥™Å בҒºþî


…ò ó’Ö þ×€Ò€Æ þ°¨’é‘Ë
º‘€Ò ×îÅ °‘ò ב♀ ‡î
—×ìÅ ºÖÒ×’ ‡°íþ º‘¨’é‘Ë?

×’Ì™°’ ‡òñÅ œ’Ò¹°’ ×€Ò™è


þ×›€ ½Ò’ µ“ à›×°‘?
µ“ ƒÏª€¥ ’Ý’™Å —×ã’¢œ™ “íì
‡›þ ’Ý™ ‡î þ°¨×°‘?

×’Ý’ ×’Ý’ …ò ×’Ý’ —µÏ¿½ ×’Ý’


…ò ×’Ý’ Ãò ¡Ì’Æò œ’òî —º‘é’
‡à ‡à þ°‘Ý‘ …ò ‡à¢œ’
ƒî’ ƒÆ퀍 À¦Æ’Ö —ºÏÅ ½Ìªœ’

þ°‘èè …î³ —°‘ݒ휑€Ò


µ“ —°‘¨Å ƒ¥Å ‡ÖÒ‘Å ÀÒÑ¢þœ‘€Ò
þ°‘Ö×’þã …î™ ƒÖ€Ò
ƒî’ —°‘¨×‘îÅ °‘ò …ò ‡Ö€Ò
—×ìÅ = by itself € = hand —×움 = here: empty hand
Ä¥´°îÅ = idiotic belief ×’ÌÖ = finger
ÄÒ°îÅ = capital Ï›Ö = black rock
º‘€é = boulder —µ‘원3 = get crushed
×’à2 = fall ¾À’ = land
ŸÝÖ1 = swirl Ä€Ò = corner
’¥6 = be בҒºò = young person
ó = back þ°¨3 = search, look for
º‘€Ò ×îÅ = desert ב♀ = life
‡î = ‡òì ºÖÒ×’ = chorus
‡°í = ˆò = why º‘¨3 = sing
×’Ì™°’ = bitterness (caused by frustration) œ’Ò¹°’ = spider
×€Ò = web
þ×›€ = tiger ½Ò’ = tiger
à›3 = …雐3 = sleep ƒÏª¨ = night
’Ý’6 = tear, rip —×ã’¢œÅ = light
“íì = ray, beam (of sunlight)
’Ý™ = east ×’Ý’ = ¯ = eye
—µÏ¿½ = fire ¡Ì’Æò = £‘Æ’ì = ºÌ’°’ = °’Ì×ò = sun
œ’òî = small, little —º‘é’ = spark
‡à2 = arise þ°‘Ýò = comrade, brother
‡à¢œ’ = awakening ƒî’ = ƒî’þÀÖ = from now on
ƒÆ퀍 = nature À¦ = lap
—ºÏÅ = large ½Ìªœ’ = revolution
þ°‘è = shoulder —°‘ݒ휑€Ò = factory
—°‘¨4 = touch ƒ¥Å = place
ÀÒÑ¢þœ‘€Ò = flower garden þ°‘Ö×’ = failure
—°‘¨×‘îÅ = horizon ‡Ö€Ò = limit, border
º‘¥Ö: ¯þ« €ÒÀ‘þî º¥Å: Äòé‘Å º’€é
×Ì’è: ¯«°‘œò http://www.musicindiaonline.com/music/l/WW000C0X

[¯þ« €ÒÀ‘þî òî’ ÀÆ’Ö ‡î


¯þ¥ò …ò€î µ‘þî
¹°’¿ ºÖ …ò€î µ‘ò º‘Ñ™’þéò
‚¯¥×€î ƒ€° °‘ò þª’þéò
Ì‘Ì’ÌþÌ‘ ŠÌ‘Ì’þÌ‘]

†€À ‡òé‘Ö ŠÏ ׀ €À°’


ˆ€Ý ‡òé‘Ö °’Ö ŠÏ €À°’
µ“þÆ‘ ’ã’¿þº¨ º¯ º‘¨Å ‚î¹°™ Æ’Ö þº¨
ˆþî‘ —°Ë×Å œ°’ —œË°³ þº€° þº‘Ò ×’°’ —œË°³

‘°Ö —‘¯þ¥ò î×’€î ×ãÑ´þ°ò


¯À«’ …ò€î µ‘ò Ï´°’Ö µ’€î´þ°ò
…î™þ …Æ’Ñ ‚þîò ‡¹µ‘æÅ ‡ò€î µ“ Àéבþ°
µ“ ƒÖÒ‘ÀÖ ‡³ µ’ÅÀ°’ µ“ °‘þî ‡ò œòî’°’

¯þ« = my eyes, term of endearment þº€°- naive person


€ÒÀ‘þî = deer, term of endearment À‘ò = deer
×’°’- fate
òî’ ÀÆ’Ö- young peacock, term of endearment ‡î = ‡òì
‘°Ö- love
‘¯5 - to see present / future / past = ‘¯’þéò / ‘¯þºò / ¯þ¥ò
AvP = ¯¨ Inf = ‘«
1
—‘è = to have, to hold
¹°’¿ ºÖ- dusk îÚ- dream
‚¯¥×ò, —°Ë×Å – God ×ãÑ7 – to grow
Ì‘Ì’ÌþÌ‘ ŠÌ‘Ì’þÌ‘ = typical lines from lullaby
¯À«’- term of endearment
†€À- mute person Ï´³- thoughts
׀- type, kind of …Æ’Ñ - life
ˆ€Ý = poor
‚3 = become present / future / past = ‚’þéò / ‚þ×ò / ‚þîò
AvP = ‚’ Inf = ‚
‡¹µ‘æÅ = everyday, all days
€À°’- silence, here peace Àé7 – to forget
’ã’- parrot µ’ÅÀ°’- peace
þº¨ – female bird œòî’°’- temple, house of deity
º¯ - melody
‚î¹°Å = À’⢜’ = happiness
Æ’Ö- type of bird
œ°’ - plot conspiracy
º‘¥Ö: µ‘ò ŠÏ œ’¹³ ‘צ¢œ’¹³
º¥Å: œ’¹³ €ºÌ×’

http://www.raaga.com/channels/tamil/movie/T0000159.html

µ‘ò ŠÏ œ’¹³ ‘צ¢œ’¹³


Ì‘Å ½Ì’Æ×’Ö€Ò …èã þœ‘Å —°Ì’Æ×’Ö€Ò
°¹€° ƒÏ¹³Å °‘ÉÅ ƒÏ¹³Å
—œ‘¹°Å ‡³ÚÅ ƒÖ€Ò ¥ —œ‘ÖÒ —°Ì’Æ×’Ö€Ò

(µ‘—î‘Ï œ’¹³)

ƒÖÒ‘° …éÚ™ ‡ò—îòî —ºÆþÌ‘


µ‘þ¥‘¦¿ º‘ª¨™´ °‘Ë °¹€° Æ‘þÌ‘
×’°’þÆ‘¨ µ‘ò ƒòñÅ ×’€ãÆ‘¥¿ þº‘’þéò
×’€ãÆ‘° º‘ª¨™ ×’€° þº‘ª¥³ Æ‘Ñ?
º‘ª€¥ º¦´°‘Ö œ›°’ …¯¨
‡ò º‘ª¨™èþã œ›°’ …¯¨
¯¨º’¦

(µ‘—î‘Ï œ’¹³)
—º¯ òì º‘Ÿ þ°¨ º‘Ñ™’òé
ÅÀ‘ ‡òì —œ‘ÖÒÚÅ °’‘ÌÅ ƒÖ€Ò
‡ò ×’°’ ¿þº‘þ° æ¹³ ƒÏ¹°‘þÒ
Ñ¿º´°’Ö µ‘þî €Ò¹³ ƒÏ¿þºþî
°€Ò ‡Ã´³ ‡òî ‡ò Ã°Ö ‡à´³ ‡òî
—œ‘ÖÕ›þãò

œ’¹³ –song of melodic type °’‘ÌÅ- rights


‘צœ’¹³- a type of sindhu æ2- to end
Ì‘Å – melody Ñ¿ºÅ- pregnancy
þœ‘Å – sadness €Ò2 - here, to abort a baby
°¹€° - father ¯¨º’¦6- to find out
—œ‘¹°Å – relatives
…éÚ - relations (mother, etc...) ×’€°- seed
µ‘þ¥‘¦¿ º‘ª¨ – nomadic songs (of unknown origin)
×’°’- fate
×’€ã2 - to grow- ×’€ãÆ‘°- that which won’t grow
œ›°’ = —œË°’ = news
°€Ò ‡Ã´³ - your destiny
Ã°Ö ‡à´³ - her initial (parents names; she is an orphan)
òì - calf ºŸ = female cow
þ׀ã - time, (not O’Clock, ex: this time I’m going to get you.)
º‘¥Ö: ×’¦Æ‘° ƒÌÚ ‡òì ‡³ÚÀ ƒÖ€Ò
º¥Å: ƒ¹°’Ì‘
×Ì’Öè: €×Ìô³ http://www.musicindiaonline.com/music/l/WW00081C

×’¦Æ‘° ƒÌÚ ‡òì ‡³ÚÅ ƒÖ€Ò


æƑ° ³ÆÌÅ ‡òì ‡³ÚÅ ƒÖ€Ò
צƑ° —×èãÅ ‡òì ‡³ÚÅ ƒÖ€Ò
ב¥‘° ב♀ ‡òì ‡³ÚÅ ƒÖ€Ò
Ì‘ÌÌ‘......

ˆ ¢œÅ ¢œÅ ƒÖ€Ò ƒî’ ¦€À ‡¯«Å ƒÖ€Ò


µÅ ‘ÒÅ ƒ›þ ˜¦¿ þº‘Æ’íì ¯«“Ñ À’¢œÅ ƒÖ€ÒþÆ (2)

‘ÒÅ À‘é’¿ þº‘Æ’íì µÅ ¯«“Ñ À‘é’¿ þº‘Æ’íì


µ‘€ã µÖÒ µ‘þã ‡òé µÅº’™€ …¯¥‘Æ’íì (2)

(ˆ ¢œÅ)

¹° µ’Ò‘ µ’Ò‘ µ’Ò‘ ‹¦ ב (2)


ºª¥‘ž¢œ’ ŸíìÅ, Àî’°ò ‡òî Àª¥Å ¥
ƒòñÅ —‘¤œÅ þº‘î‘Ö ‡òî? בîÅ °€ÒÆ’Ö °ª¨Å (2)

ב¦ ƒ€ãÆ—œÖÒ’þÆ... ב¦ ƒ€ãÆ—œÖÒ’þÆ


µÅ ‘ÒÅ —œ‘ÖÕÅ µÅ€À בݢ —œ‘ÖÒ’þÆ
ÅÀ‘ Ý™ ¯«ÅÀ‘, ÅÀ‘ Ý™ ¯«ÅÀ‘
ƒ³ µÅ ¾À’ ‡òì à´°’¢ —œ‘Ö ÅÀ‘

(ˆ ¢œÅ)

ÒÖÒ‘ ÒÖÒÖÒÖþÒ‘ ºª¥‘ž¢œ’ (2)

בîÅ º™Å ƒî’ ב♀ µ’Ìź º™Å


¢œÅ ¢œÅ ³¢œÅ ‡òé‘Ö º™Å º™Å —œ‘Ñ™Å (2)

¾À’ °’é¹³ ’¥™’é³ ¥ Àñœ¿€ºÆò ÀîŸ ¾ª¦ ’¥™’é³ (2)

(ƒî’ ¢œÅ)
ƒòº™ ‘íì דœª¨Å ‡ª¨´°’™Å ºÌת¨Å
ºÌת¨Å ºÌת¨Å ºÌת¨Å ºÌת¨Å
Àî’°¿ ¾™è ÀÒ̪¨Å Àî›è ƒòñÅ ×’¦Æª¨Å
×’¦Æª¨Å ×’¦Æª¨Å ×’¦Æª¨Å ×’¦Æª¨Å

ƒòº™ ‘íì דœª¨Å ‡ª¨´°’™Å ºÌת¨Å


Àî’°¿ ¾™è ÀÒ̪¨Å Àî›è ƒòñÅ ×’¦Æª¨Å
íéÅ íéÅ ‡Ì’ƪ¨Å ŸíéÅ ŸíéŠבݪ¨Å
ת¥Å ת¥Å ג̒ƪ¨Å בîÅ —°‘ª¨ ×ã̪¨Å (2)

þ‘Ý’¢œ’é’Ö ¤€œ¿þº‘Òþ× ¾À’¿º¹³ …雍ª¨Å


Ì´°Å œ’¹°‘ áí鑯¨ ½´°Å ½°’°‘Ë ÀÒ̪¨Å

×’¦- to become morning ³¢œÅ- anything which a person regards as nothing for him
íéÅ- fault
ƒÌÚ = night ºª¥‘ž¢œ’- butterfly —œ‘Ñ™Å- heaven
‡³ÚÅ ƒÖ€Ò- there’s no thing ŸíìÅ- to go around °’é7- to open
æ2- to end Àª¥Å- bad Àñœ¿ºÆ- (slang: man)
³ÆÌÅ- grief ƒ€ãÆ- young ÀîŸ- hearts
2
¢œÅ- fear בâ - to live ¾ª¦- closed
¦€À- subservient, slave Ý- beautiful ’¥7- to be
‘ÒÅ- era, time ¾À’, ¾À’¿º¹³ - earth ƒòºÅ- happiness
˜¨3- to join 3
à´³ = stress, emphasize דŸ3 - to blow (wind)
¯«“Ñ- tears בîÅ- sky ºÌÚ3 - to spread
À’¢œÅ- left over º™Å- near ÀÒÑ 2- to bloom
À‘ì3 – to change µ’Ìź- a lot ƒòñÅ – still
‡Ì’ 2- to burn ת¥Å – circle ×’Ì’2 – to expand
—°‘¨4 - to touch ×ãÌ2- to grow …雐 3- to sleep
Ì´°Å - blood œ’¹³ 3- to spill (œ’¹°‘ = œ’¹°‘° = negative verbal adjective)
áí鑯¨- century ½´°Å ½°’³ – brand new
‡ª¨´°’™Å- eight directions ŸíéÅ – relatives, kith and kin
þ‘Ý’ = chicken œ’é = wing ¤Ÿ = chick
þº‘Ò = like …¯¨ = ƒÏ™’é³ ¯«ÅÀ‘ = a name
þ°‘«’1 (adapted from A Basic Tamil Reader and Grammar – James Lindholm and . ºÌÀœ’×Å)
‘×’Ì’Æ’Ö2 —×èãÅ3 ƒÏ™’é³. µ‘ò °’Ï¢œ’Æ’Ö4 ƒÏ™’þéò. ™€Ì™5 þº‘
þׯ¨Å. þºÏ¹³6 ’€¥Æ‘³7. ½€×¯¦8 ’€¥Æ‘³. ‚í雍€ÌÆ’Ö9 ŠÏ þ°‘«’
ƒÏ™’é³. µ‘ò þ°‘«’™‘Ìî’¥Å10 “‡ò€î ™€Ì™ —‘¯¨ þº‘11. … º´³
—×èã’€Æ12 —‘¨¿þºò.” ‡òì13 —œ‘֍’þéò14. ×ò “œÌ’” ‡òì —œ‘֍’é‘ò.
ƒ¿þº‘³ þ°‘«’ ‚íé’ò15 µ¨×’Ö16 ƒÏ™’é³. µ‘ñÅ þ°‘«’™‘ÌñÅ17 þ°‘«’Æ’Ö
ƒÏ™’þé‘Å. µ‘ò ×Š—œ‘֍’þéò, “°Åº’! µ“ ƒ€ã£ò18. … º¦™ —°Ì’ÉÀ‘?”
“ƒÖ€Ò”
“¥¥‘!19 µ“ ב♀Æ’Ö20 ÃòþîìבƑ21?! …ò ב♀ º‘°’22 ד¯23.”
“‰Æ‘24! …›æ™ µ“¢œÖ25 —°Ì’ÉÀ‘?”
“—°Ì’Æ‘³.”
“¥¥‘! …›è ב♀ Ãà׳Å26 ד¯. þ°‘«’Æ’Ö ‹ª€¥27 ƒÏ™’é³. ‡î™
µ“œ¢Ö —°Ì’ÉÅ.”

1
þ°‘«’ = boat
2
‘×’Ì’ = Kaveri, important river in Thamilnadu
3
—×èãÅ = flood
4
°’Ï¢œ’ = °’Ï¢œ’Ì‘¿º‘èã’ = Thiruchi, a big city in Thamilnadu
5
€Ì = shore ; ™€Ì = that shore ; ™€Ì™ = to that shore
6
þºÏ¹³ = bus
7
’€¥Æ‘³ = “There is no ___”
8
½€×¯¦ = train ; ½€ = smoke ; ׯ¦ = vehicle
9
‚í雍€Ì = ‚ì + €Ì = river bank
10
þ°‘«’™‘Ìò = boat man ; þ°‘«’™‘ÌŠ= to the boatman
11
—‘¯¨ þº‘ = take (something) to (a place)
12
—×èã’ = dollar (they use this word for ‘dollar’ in Singapore)
13
‡òì is the quotation word. It is used to quote something.
14
—œ‘Ö4 = say
15
‚ì + ƒò
16
µ¨×’Ö = middle
17
and = …Å – it gets added to both words; —œ¹°’ÕÅ À‘ÏÅ = sendhil and kumar
18
ƒ€ã£ò = youth (male); youngster (male)
19
¥¥‘ = an expression, loosely translated as ‘too bad’
20
ב♀ = life
21
Ãòþîì3 = make progress, advance
22
º‘°’ = half
23
ד¯ = waste
24
‰Æ‘ = a term of respect
25
µ“¢œÖ = swimming
26
Ãà׳Š= entire, complete
27
ܻ۴ = hole
’Ì‘ÀÅ (adapted from A Basic Tamil Reader and Grammar by James Lindholm and . ºÌÀœ’×Å)

œ’òî †Ñ ’Ì‘ÀÅ. —ºÌ’Æ †Ñ µÌÅ. °À’ÝÌ’ò °‘ƍ›ã’Ö µÌ›€ã ×’¥ ’Ì‘À›è


°’Å. ٍ‘Öבœ’¿ þºÑ ’Ì‘À›ã’Ö ¦ ƒÏ™’é‘эè.

’Ì‘À´³™ º™´°’Ö ×ÆÖ ƒÏ™’é³. ’Ì‘À´°’Ö Ã™’Æ´ —°‘Ý’Ö ×’×œ‘ÆÅ.


’Ì‘Àבœ’ã’Ö ×’×œ‘Æ’è °’Å. °À’â µ‘ª¨ גל‘Æ´°’Ö Ã™’Æ¿ ºÆ’Ñ —µÖ.

גל‘Æ´³™ °¯«“Ñ þ°€×. °¯«“Ï™ ‚þé‘ ãþÀ‘ ’«þé‘ ƒÏ™’é³. …ÝÚ™


ƒÆ¹°’ÌÅ ƒÖ€Ò; À‘¨è ƒÏ™’òéî.

’Ì‘À´°’Ö —ºÌ’Æ ×“¨è —‘¤œÅ. ¦€œè °’Å.

°À’â µ‘ª¦Ö œ’òî™ ’Ì‘À´°’ÕÅ À’òœ‘Ì ×œ°’ ƒÏ™’é³. ºÒ ד¨ã’Ö À’òœ‘Ì ×’ã™
ƒÏ™’é³.

’Ì‘ÀÅ = œ’íêÑ = village (œ’íêÑ = œ’ì + †Ñ ; œ’ì = small)


œ’òî X —ºÌ’Æ= small X big °À’ÝÑ = Tamils
°‘ƍŠ= motherland
(°‘ƍŠ= °‘Ë + Å ; °‘Ë = ò€î = ÅÀ‘ = mother ; Å = place, region)
×’¥ = than
A is ____ than B. = A B + ‰ ×’¥ _____.
Kumar is taller than Mukil = À‘Ñ Ã’€Ò ×’¥ …ÆÌÀ‘ ƒÏ™’é‘ò.
I am more beautiful than you. = µ‘ò …ò€î ×’¥ Ý‘ ƒÏ™’þéò.
His shirt is more black than my shirt. = ×ñ€¥Æ œª€¥ ‡ò œª€¥€Æ ×’¥ Ï¿º‘ ƒÏ™’é³.
°’Å = a lot
‘Ö = one-fourth €Ì = one-half ٍ‘Ö = three-fourths
-בœ’ = suffix added to ‘Ö, €Ì, or ٍ‘Ö to mean ‘portion’ or ‘part’
þºÑ = people ¦ ƒÏ7 = live
º™´°’Ö = nearby ; use Noun + -™/-…™ when using this preposition
º™´°’Ö, Ï’Ö, and ’ª¥ all mean closeby or nearby
×ÆÖ = (fertile) fields גל‘ÆÅ = þ×㑯€À = farming
’Ì‘Àבœ’ = people who reside in ’Ì‘ÀÅ
גל‘Æ’ = …Ý×Ñ = farmer ºÆ’Ñ = crop
—µÖ = (rice) paddy, both the grain and crop
þ°€× = need, necessity ãÅ = pond (for irrigation); pond in a temple
’«ì = well
A+‹ B+‹ C+‹ = A, B, or C
…ÝÚ = plowing, turning the soil with a plow
ƒÆ¹°’ÌÅ = machine —‘¤œÅ = small amount
¦€œ = hut with a thatched roof
À’òœ‘ÌÅ = electricity ל°’ = facility, amenity, convenience
ºÒ = many ג㙐 = light
—°ò€îÉÅ ½ÖÕÅ (adapted from A Basic Tamil Reader and Grammar by James Lindholm and . ºÌÀœ’×Å)

ŠÏ €ºÆò ŠÏ —°ò€î ÀÌ´€° º‘Ñ´°‘ò. ƒãµ“Ñ ¦™ þׯ¨Å ‡òì ×ñ™


‚€œ ×¹°³. —°ò€î ÀÌ´°’Ö ˆé’î‘ò. º‘°’ ˆé’ “þÝ º‘Ñ´°‘ò.
þ°‘ª¥™‘Ìò ¿þº‘³ ›þ ×¹°‘ò. €ºÆò ×€î º‘Ñ´³ “þÝ ƒé›’î‘ò.
“‡ò —°ò€î ÀÌ´°’Ö ˆò ˆé’î‘Ë?” ‡òì €ºÆ€î À’̪¦î‘ò þ°‘ª¥™‘Ìò.
“’À‘ª¨™ ½Ö —‘¯¨×‘’ ‡òì ¿º‘ —œ‘òî‘Ñ. ½Ö ºé’™ °‘ò ˆé’þîò” ‡òì
€ºÆò —œ‘òî‘ò.
“—°ò€î ÀÌ´°’Ö ½Ö ƒÏ™’é°‘?”
“ƒÖ€Ò, ¯«‘. ÀÌ´°’Ö ½Ö ’€¥Æ‘³. °î‘Ö °‘ò ƒé›’ ×¹þ°ò.” ‡òì
—œ‘ÖÒ’ €ºÆò —×ã’þÆ ‹¦ þº‘î‘ò.

—°ò€î = coconut species ½Ö = grass


€ºÆò = boy ÀÌÅ = tree, wood
6
º‘Ñ = look at, see
ƒãµ“Ñ = ƒãÅ + µ“Ñ = tender coconut water (ƒãÅ = youth ; µ“Ñ = water)
¦6 = drink ‚€œ = desire, wish
2
ב = come (irregular verb)
Present tense and Future tense = ב → ×Ï ×ύ’þéò, ×ύ’é‘Ë, ×ύ’é‘ò, etc.
×Ïþ×ò, ×ÏבË, ×Ïבò, etc.
Past tense = ×¹þ°ò, ×¹°‘Ë, ×¹°‘ò, ×¹°‘è, ×¹°‘Ñ, ×¹°³, ×¹°³ ×¹þ°‘Å, etc.
Infinitive = ×Ì AvP = ×¹³
3
ˆì = climb º‘°’ = half
“þÝ = down, below þÀþÒ = up, top
þ°‘ª¥™‘Ìò = farm person (þ°‘ª¥Å = garden, farm)
¿þº‘³ / ƒ¿þº‘³ / ‡¿þº‘³ = then / now / when? = ¿—º‘à³ / ƒ¿—º‘à³ / ‡¿—º‘à³
›þ / ƒ›þ / ‡›þ = there / here / where?
ƒé›3 = climb down À’̪¨3 = threaten, speak threateningly
—‘¯¨ ב2 = bring [something] —‘¯¨ þº‘3 = take [something to some place]
—œ‘Ö3 = say, tell (irregular verb)
Present Tense and Future Tense are regular
Past tense = —œ‘òþîò, —œ‘òî‘Ë, —œ‘òî‘ò, —œ‘òî‘è, —œ‘òþî‘Å, etc.
Infinitive = —œ‘ÖÒ AvP = —œ‘ÖÒ’
7
ºé’ = pick, pluck (vegetables, flowers, etc.)
°‘ò = word used for emphasis
’€¥Æ‘³ = “there isn’t _____” / “there aren’t any _____”
°î‘Ö = therefore ; as a result ; for that reason (“due to that”)
°î‘Ö °‘ò = that’s why .... ; it’s for just that reason that ...
—×ã’, —×ã’þÆ = outside …è, …èþã = inside
3
ܬ = run
°À’â µ‘¨ (adapted from A Basic Tamil Reader and Grammar by James Lindholm and . ºÌÀœ’×Å)

ƒ¹°¿ º¥´€°¿ º‘Ï›è. ƒ³ °À’â µ‘ª¦ò º¥Å. °À’â µ‘ª¨™ —°ò’Ý™þ ƒÒ›€
ƒÏ™’é³. ƒÒ›€™ þ×ì —ºÆÑ ƒÏ™’é³. ³ „ÝÅ. °À’â µ‘ª¨™ ×¥ ’Ý™’Ö
‚¹°’Ì‘ ƒÏ™’é³. ƒ°ñ€¥Æ Ãà¿—ºÆÑ ‚¹°’Ì¿ º’Ìþ°œÅ. °À’â µ‘ª¨™ ×¥ þÀ퍒Ö
Ïî‘¥Å ƒÏ™’é³. Ãòþî ƒ°ò —ºÆÑ €À¡Ñ. °À’â µ‘ª¨™ þÀíþ þÌã‘
ƒÏ™’é³.

°À’â µ‘ª¦ò °€Ò µÌÅ —œò€î. ƒ°ò ‚›’Ò¿—ºÆÑ À°Ì‘Ÿ. ƒ³ ¥í€ÌÆ’Ö


ƒÏ™’é³. ƒ¹° µÌ´°’Ö ³€éÍŠƒÏ™’é³. —°ò ‚œ’Ƒגò ٍ’Æ´ ³€éÍ›ã’Ö
ƒ³ Šòì. —œò€îÆ’ò À™è —°‘€ 20 ƒÒªœÅ; °‘׳ 2,000,000.

°À’â µ‘ª¦Ö þ×ì —ºÌ’Æ †Ñè ƒÏ™’òéî. €× À³€Ì, °’Ï¢œ’Ì‘¿ºèã’, þœÒÅ,
þ‘ÆŽ´àÑ, °¤œ‘ÛÑ.

À³€Ì °À’â µ‘ª¦ò À’¿ º€ÝÆ µÌÅ. ƒ³ Ãòþî º‘¯¦Æэã’ò °€Ò µÌÅ. °¤œ‘ÛÑ
‘×’Ì’ (‘þ×Ì’) ‚íé’ò €ÌÆ’Ö ƒÏ™’é³. ƒ³ Ãòþî þœ‘Ýэã’ò °€Ò µÌÅ.
þ‘ÆŽ´àÌ’Ö µ’€éÆ ‚€Òè ƒÏ™’òéî. ƒ³ ŠÏ —°‘Ý’Ö µÌÅ.

º¥Å = picture º‘Ñ6 = see, look at


×¥™ = (to) north —°í = (to) south
’Ý™ = (to) east þÀí = (to) west
—°ò’Ý™ = southeast ×¥’Ý™ = northeast
ƒÒ›€ = „ÝÅ = island to the southeast of Thamilnadu, (also known as Sri Lanka)
þ×ì = different, another, other Ãà = full, whole, complete —ºÆÑ = name
ƒ°ñ€¥Æ = possessive form for ƒ³ (ƒ³ + …€¥Æ = ƒ°ñ€¥Æ)
‚¹°’Ì‘ º’Ìþ°œÅ = Andhra Pradesh Ïî‘¥Å = Karnataka
Ãò = before, in front of (here: in earlier times)
þÌã‘ = Kerala °€Ò = head ; µÌÅ = city ; °€Ò µÌÅ = capital city
—œò€î = Madras ‚›’ÒÅ = English
¥í€Ì = ¥Ö + €Ì ; ¥Ö = sea, ocean ; €Ì = shore, riverbank
³€éÍŠ= harbor ‚œ’Æ‘ = Asia ٍ’ÆÅ = important
À™è = people —°‘€ = amount À™è—°‘€ = population
ƒÒªœÅ = 10,000 þ‘¦ = 10,000,000 °‘׳ = ‘in other words’
—ºÑ’Æ = big †Ñ = city/town
€× = plural form of it (no counterpart in English)
Pronoun for µ‘Ë is ³
Pronoun for µ‘ˍè is €×
ƒÏ™’òéî is the conjugation of ƒÏ7 with €× in the present tense
À’ = very º€ÝÆ = old
‘×’Ì’ ‚ì = important river in Thamilnadu
º‘¯¦Æэè / þœ‘Ýэè = ancient kingdoms in Thamilnadu
µ’€éÆ = a lot ‚€Ò = mill, factory —°‘Ý’Ö=industry, occupation
‘×’Ì’ (adapted from A Basic Tamil Reader and Grammar by James Lindholm and . ºÌÀœ’×Å)

‘×’Ì’ ‚ì ¥ µ‘ª¦Ö º’降’é³; Ïî‘¥´°’ÕÅ °À’ⵑª¦ÕÅ º‘ˍ’é³. ×›‘ã™


¥Ò’Ö Ò™’é³.

°À’â µ‘ª¦Ö ‘×’Ì’ ‚ì Äòì À‘ת¥›è (þœÒÅ, °’Ï¢œ’Ì‘¿ºèã’, °¤œ‘ÛÑ À‘ת¥›è)


×Ý’Æ‘ ‹¨’é³. ºÝ›‘Ò´°’Ö ƒ¹° À‘ת¥›æ™ —ºÆÑ þœ‘Ý µ‘¨. þœ‘Ý µ‘ª¨™
þ×ì —ºÆÑ ‘×’Ì’ µ‘¨.

°¤œ‘ÛÑ À‘ת¥Å °À’â µ‘ª¦ò —µÖ ã¤œ’ÆÅ. —µÖ ×ã´³™ ٍ’Æ™ ‘Ì«Å ‘×’Ì’
‚ì.

‘×’Ì’ ‚í왐 µ¨×’Ö Äòì °“Úè ƒÏ™’òéî. ٍ’Æ´ °“Ú °’Ï×Ì›Å. (Ì›Å
‡òé‘Ö ‚íì´ °“Ú.) °’Ï×Ì› °“Ú °’Ï¢œ’Ì‘¿ºèã’™ º™´°’Ö ƒÏ™’é³. ƒ¹° °“×’Ö
ƒÏ þ‘×’Öè ƒÏ™’òéî. ƒ¹° þ‘ג֍ã’Ö ‡ÖÒ‘ À‘°›ã’ÕÅ °’Ï×’Ý‘ ƒÏ™’é³.

‘×’Ì’ = ‘þ×Ì’ = Kaveri, Cauvery (the most important river in Thamilnadu)


¥ = Kudaku, a name º’é7 = be born
Ïî‘¥Å = Karnataka º‘Ë2 = flow
×›‘ãÅ = Bengal ¥Ö = sea, ocean
7
Ò = mix À‘ת¥Å = district (À‘=big, great | ת¥Å=circle)
×Ý’=way, path (×Ý’ + ‚ = by way of) ‹¨3 = run
ºÝ›‘ÒÅ = º€ÝÆ + ‘ÒÅ = olden times, ancient times (º€ÝÆ = old | ‘ÒÅ = time)
þœ‘Ý µ‘¨ = chOzha country þ×ì = different, other
—µÖ = paddy (rice) ã¤œ’ÆÅ = granary, storehouse
×ãÅ = abundance, fertility ٍ’ÆÅ = important
‘Ì«Å = reason µ¨ = center, middle (use Noun + ™/…™ for the presposition µ¨)
°“Ú = island
°’Ï×Ì›Å = °’Ï + Ì›Å °’Ï = prefix that means holy, respected
A ‡òé‘Ö B = “If A, then B” ; “A means B” ; “A implies B”
Ì›Å = a name that means ‚íì´°“Ú
º™´°’Ö = nearby ; use Noun + -™/-…™ when using this preposition
º™´°’Ö, Ï’Ö, and ’ª¥ all mean closeby or nearby
þ‘×’Ö = temple ‡ÖÒ‘ = all
À‘°Å = month °’Ï×’Ý‘ = holy festival (×’Ý‘ = festival, celebration)

‡ÖÒ‘ À‘°›ã’Ö+…Å = in all À‘°›è ; adding the -…Å emphasizes the word ‘all’
µ’€î¿½Å µ¥¿½Å (adapted from A Basic Tamil Reader and Grammar by James Lindholm and . ºÌÀœ’×Å)

‘€ÒÆ’Ö £‘Æ’ì …°’´°³. ã´°’Ö °‘À€Ì ¾ ÀÒѹ°³. ŠÏ þ°î“ ›þ ×¹³ °‘À€Ì
¾×’Ö …э‘ѹ°³/ƒÏ¹°³. ¾×’ҒϹ³ þ°€î ¦´°³. ‚î‘Ö °ñ€¥Æ ‚€œ
€éÆ×’Ö€Ò. ³ ºÖ Ãà׳Šþ°€î ¦´°³. À‘€Ò þµÌ´°’Ö °‘À€Ì ¾ ˜Åº’î³.
þ°î“ °‘À€Ì ¾Ú™è ƒÏ¹°³. þ°î“Æ‘Ö —×ã’þÆ ×Ì Ã¦×’Ö€Ò. ‚î‘Ö ³
×€Ò¿º¥×’րÒ.

“µ‘ò ƒ¹° ¾Ú™è ƒÌÚ °›þ×ò. —º‘à³ ×’¦ÉÅ. £‘Æ’ì …°’™Å. °‘À€Ì À캦ÉÅ
ÀÒÏÅ. ¿þº‘³ µ‘ò —×ã’þÆ ºé¿þºò.” ‡òì þ°î“ µ’€î´°³. ¿þº‘³ ›þ ŠÏ
Æ‘€î ×¹°³. °¯«“Ì’Ö ƒé›’î³. Æ‘€îÆ’ò ‘Õ™ ¦Æ’Ö °‘À€Ì ¾ œ’™’î³. ¾
µŸ›’î³. þ°î“ ƒé¹°³.

µ’€î6 = think µ’€î¿½ = thought


7
µ¥ = walk, happen µ¥¿½ = event
‘€Ò = morning £‘Æ’ì=ºÌ’°’=¡Ì’Æò=°’Ì×ò = sun
6
…°’ = to rise (sun) ãÅ = tank, pond, pool
°‘À€Ì = lotus ¾ = ÀÒÑ = flower
þ°ò = honey „ = fly þ°î“ = honeybee
6
¦ = drink ‚î‘Ö = but, however
‚€œ = desire, wish €é2 = decrease, subside
ºÖ = daytime Ãà׳Š= entire, whole
À‘€Ò = evening, garland þµÌÅ = time
3
˜Å½ = close up (as of a flower)
¾Ú™è = ¾ + ™ + …è = inside the flower …è = inside
Noun + ™/…™ + …è = inside Noun
×€Ò¿º¨4 = worry [×€Ò=worry (noun)] ƒÌÚ = night
3
°› = stay —º‘à³ = time, time-segment of the 24 hour day
2
×’¦ = become light, dawn À캦ÉÅ = again
2
ÀÒÑ = bloom, blossom ¿þº‘³ = then, at that time
—×ã’þÆ = outside ºé7 = fly
Æ‘€î = elephant °¯«“Ñ = water
ƒé› = descend, climb down, get off (opposite of ˆì3 = climb, get up)
3

‘Ö = foot, leg ¦ = base, bottom, underneath, beneath


Noun + ™/…™ + ¦ = below Noun
3
œ’™ = get entangled, get caught
µŸ›3 = get crushed, get squished
Ď7 = die
…Ì’€À (adapted from ‘œ’ ‚î¹°ò €°è -- ‘œ’ ‚î¹°ò)

À€Ý —ºË’é³. °×€ã À’⢜’þÆ‘¨ …Ì™ ÌÖ ‡à¿½’é³.


ã´°’Ö ‹Ñ ‚€À °×€ã€Æ º‘Ñ´³ —œ‘òî³:
“ƒ¿º¦ ´³’é“эþã. …›è Ì€Ò þª¨ º‘Ž …›€ã º’¦´³×’ª¥‘Ö …›è µ’€Ò
‡òî ‚Å?”
°×€ã œ’Ì’´°³.
“µ‘ò —‘¤œÃÅ ×€Ò¿º¥ À‘ªþ¥ò.” ‡òì ˜é’Ƴ °×€ã.
Šò—î‘Ï °×€ã —œ‘òî³:
“Ä¢€œ ƒÝ™Ò‘Å.
þº¢€œ ƒÝ™Ò‘À‘?”

…Ì’€À = right(s) À€Ý = rain


1
—ºË = rain °×€ã = frog
À’⢜’ = happiness …Ì™ = out loud
ÌÖ = voice ‡à¿½3 = raise (voice)
ãÅ = pond, tank, pool ‚€À = turtle
6
º‘Ñ = see, look at —œ‘Ö3 = say, tell
ƒ¿º¦ = like this ; ¿º¦ = like that ´³3 = scream
þè5 = ask, hear, listen to ; AvP = þª¨
º‘Ž = snake º’¦6 = catch
µ’€Ò = state, condition ‚3 = happen
œ’Ì’6 = laugh
—‘¤œÅ = a little bit ; —‘¤œÃÅ = —‘¤œÅ + …Å = even a little bit
×€Ò¿º¨4 = worry ˜ì3 = say, tell
ƒò—î‘Ï = another Ä¢Ÿ = breath
7
ƒÝ = lose þº¢Ÿ = speech

ºÝ—À‘Ý’è = proverbs

º‘Ñ´°‘Ö ¾€î, º‘˹°‘Ö ½Ò’


º‘Ñ6 = see, look at ¾€î = cat
º‘Ë2 = to pounce ½Ò’ = tiger

‚ÝÅ —°Ì’Æ‘ÀÖ ‘€Ò €×™‘þ°.


‚ÝÅ = depth —°Ì’Æ‘ÀÖ = without knowing
‘Ö = foot, leg €×6 = put

ƒ™€Ì™ ™€Ì º¢€œ (ƒ™€Ì€Æ ×’¥ ™€Ì º¢€œ)


€Ì = shore ƒ™€Ì = ƒ¹° €Ì ; ™€Ì = ¹° €Ì
×’¥ = than ; Use Noun + ‰ with ×’¥ º¢€œ = green
‚´°’Ì™‘ÌÏ™ ½´°’ €éÚ
‚´°’ÌÅ = anger, rage --‘ÌÑ = suffix for –person
½´°’ = é’Ú = knowledge €éÚ = low, less

×’€ãÉÅ ºÆ’Ñ Ã€ãÆ’þÒ —°Ì’ÉÅ


×’€ã2 = grow (of plants) ºÆ’Ñ = crop
Àã = shoot, sprout

‰¹°’Ö ×’€ãÆ‘³. ‰Åº°’Ö ×’€ãÉÀ‘?


‰¹³ = five ‰Åº³ = fifty
2
×’€ã = grow (of plants)

‚¨ µ€î’é³ ‡òì ‹î‘Ë à’é³.


‚¨ = goat µ€î2 = get wet
‹î‘Ë = coyote à1 = cry

¹€° œ™’ ª¨


¹€° = worn clothes œ™3 = squeeze and rinse (linen)
ª¨3 = tie, wear clothes

º‘×Å ŠÏ º™Å, ºÝ’ ŠÏ º™Å


º‘×Å = act of sinning º™Å = side
ºÝ’ = blame

€éÆ’Ö ‚¦ ÀºÒ´°’Ö ‚¥ þׯ¨Å.


€é = room ‚¨3 = dance
ÅºÒÅ = another name for Chidambaram, where the famous Natarajar (Sivan) dance took place

þºÌ‘€œ —ºÏÅ µª¥Å


þºÌ‘€œ = greed —ºÏÅ = big
µª¥Å = loss

ºÝ ºÝ º‘ÕÅ ½ã’™Å


ºÝ3 = get to know º‘ÕÅ = º‘Ö + …Å = even milk
½ã’6 = turn sour

º€î ÀÌ´³™ ¦Æ’Ö º‘Ö ¦´°‘ÕÅ, €° è ‡òì °‘ò µ’€î¿º‘эè.


º€î ÀÌÅ = palmyra tree º‘Ö = milk
¦Æ’Ö = bottom, below ; use Noun + ™/…™ for ¦Æ’Ö
¦6 = drink è = toddy, an alcoholic drink made from the palmyra tree
°‘ò = word used for emphasis µ’€î6 = think
‰þÆ‘! (adapted from A Basic Tamil Reader and Grammar by James Lindholm and . ºÌÀœ’×Å)

¯«ò ŠÏ µ‘è °òñ€¥Æ À‘À’(´€°) דª¨™ þº‘î‘ò. ÀÏÀñ™‘ ×è ŠÏ


°’òº¯¥Å —œË°‘è. ¹° º¯¥´€° ×ò °’òì º‘Ñ´°‘ò. ³ Ÿ€×Æ‘ ƒÏ¹°³.

“À‘À’(´€°)! ƒ¹° º¯¥´³™ ‡òî —ºÆÑ?” ‡òì þª¥‘ò, ¯«ò.

“—‘à™ª€¥” ‡òì ×è —œ‘òî‘è.

¯«ò —×ã’™’ª¥‘ò(½é¿ºª¥‘ò). ×Ý’ ‡ÖÒ‘Å —‘à™ª€¥€Æ µ’€î´³ —‘¯þ¥


µ¥¹°‘ò. ‘³€«×’Æ’¥Å —œ‘ÖÒ þׯ¨Å. ×è —‘à™ª€¥ —œËƪ¨Å.’ ‡òì ×ò
µ’€î´°‘ò. ×Ý’Æ’Ö ŠÏ À³º‘î €¥ ƒÏ¹°³. °’Ö ¯«ò À³º‘€ã ב›’
¦´°‘ò. ×ñ™ þº‘€° ×¹°³.
×ò þº‘€°Æ’þÒ ×“ª¨™ µ¥¹³ —‘¯¦Ï¹°‘ò. ×Ý’Æ’Ö ŠÏ —ºÌ’Æ ÀÌÅ ƒÏ¹°³.
°’ҒϹ³ ŠÏ ’€ã Ãé’¹³ ג๰³. “‰þÆ‘” ‡òì ´°’ —‘¯þ¥ ¯«ò ג๰‘ò.
×ñ™ ÀÆ™Å ×¹³ ×’ª¥³. —‘¤œ þµÌ´°’Ö ÀÆ™Å —°ã’¹°³. ×ñ€¥Æ …¥Åº’Ö
‘ÆÅ ‡³ÚÅ ˆíº¥×’րÒ. ‚î‘Ö ×ò °’òº¯¥´°’ñ€¥Æ —ºÆ€Ì Àé¹³ ×’ª¥‘ò.
“‰þÆ‘” ‡òº³ °‘ò µ’€î×’Ö ƒÏ¹°³. “‰þÆ‘, ‰þÆ‘” ‡òì —œ‘ÖÒ’ —‘¯þ¥ דª¨™
×¹°‘ò.

¯«ò ³€«×’Æ’¥Å “‡î™ ‰þÆ‘ þׯ¨Å. —œË³ —‘¨” ‡òì þª¥‘ò.

×è, “‰þÆ‘ ‡òé‘Ö ‡òî? €° ‡¿º¦ —œËÆ þׯ¨Å?” ‡òì þª¥‘è.

“ƒ¹° º¯¥Å … —°Ì’Æ‘°‘? ‡ò€î ˆÀ‘íé º‘Ñ™’é‘Æ‘?” ‡òì —œ‘ÖÒ’ ¯«ò
³€«×’€Æ ˆœ’î‘ò(°’ª¦î‘ò). º’ò½ ×€ã ¦™ —°‘¥›’î‘ò.

×è, “‰þÆ‘ ‰þÆ‘” ‡òì Òé’î‘è.

×ò, “³ °‘ò! ³ °‘ò!” ‡òì —œ‘òî‘ò.

˜¢œ€Ò þª¨ º™´³ דª¨™‘Ì’ ×¹°‘è. ×è ¯«î’¥Å, “þ¥Ë! ³€«×’€Æ ˆò


ƒ¿º¦ ¦™’é‘Ë? ƒ×æ€¥Æ …¥Å½ ‡ÖÒ‘Å —‘à™ª€¥ þº‘Ò ×“›’ ×’ª¥þ°.” ‡òì
—œ‘òî‘è.

“‚‘! ³ °‘ò º¯¥´°’ò —ºÆÑ.” ‡òì —œ‘òî‘ò ¯«ò.

“ƒ€° ðҒþÒþÆ —œ‘ÖÒ’ ƒÏ™ ˜¥‘°‘?” ‡òì ³€«×’ þª¥‘è.


°òñ€¥Æ = °ò = his/her own À‘À’ = ´€° = aunt
ÀÏÀò = nephew °’òº¯¥Å = snack
5
°’ò = eat present / future / past = °’ò’þéò, °’òþºò, °’òþéò
AvP = °’òì Inf = °’òî
6
AvP + º‘Ñ = try verb and see
°’òì º‘Ñ6 = eat and see (i.e. taste, try the food item)
Ÿ€× = ƒÏœ’ = taste Ÿ€×Æ‘ = tasty (here: Ÿ€× + ‚ + verb)
5
þè = ask, listen, hear present / future / past = þª’þéò / þªþºò / þªþ¥ò
AvP = þª¨ Inf = þª
—‘à™ª€¥ = a type of sweet
×Ý’ = way, path µ’€î6 = think
µ¥7 = walk, happen ³€«×’ = À€î×’ = wife
3
—œ‘Ö = say, tell present / future / past = —œ‘֍’þéò / —œ‘Öþ×ò / —œ‘òþîò
AvP = —œ‘ÖÒ’ Inf = —œ‘ÖÒ
À³ º‘îÅ = alcoholic drink €¥ = store
6
¦ = drink þº‘€° = drunkenness
—ºÌ’Æ = big ÀÆ™Å = dizziness, unconsciousness
‰þÆ‘ = an expression, used to express emotions such as surprise, shock, or disappointment
AvP + —‘¯þ¥ = AvP + —‘¯¨ (the ˆ is for emphasis)
—‘¤œÅ = small amount þµÌÅ = time
2
—°ã’ = clear up …¥Å½ = body
‘ÆÅ = wound ˆíº¨4 = to occur
‚î‘Ö = however, but Àé7 = forget
X ‡òé‘Ö ‡òî? = What does X mean? ˆÀ‘íì3 = cheat
ˆŸ3 (°’ª¨3 ) = scold º’ò½ = then, later
3
—°‘¥› = begin Infinitive of —°‘¥› is —°‘¥› and means here “began to”
3
Òì = scream ˜¢œÖ = noise, clamor
º™´³ ד¨ = house next door þº‘Ò = like
3
ד› = swell
Ã°Ö = first Ã°Ò’Ö = in the beginning
«×ò ×¹°‘ò (adapted from A Basic Tamil Reader and Grammar by James Lindholm and . ºÌÀœ’×Å)

òîŠדª¦Ò’Ϲ³ °Ú ×Ý’Æ‘ —°Ï€× º‘Ñ´³ —‘¯¨ ƒÏ¹°‘è. ×è °ò


«×ò ×Ï׀° ‡°’Ѻ‘Ñ´°‘ã‘? ‡°’Ѻ‘Ñ´°’Ï™ æƑ³(ƒÆÒ‘³). ×æ€¥Æ «×ò
ŠÏ À‘°À‘ דª¨™ ×Ì×’Ö€Ò. º™´³ דª¨™‘Ì’è œ‘€¥À‘€¥Æ‘ þºœ’î‘эè. ×ò
þ×ì ŠÏ —º¯þ«‘¨ ב⍒é‘ò ‡òì —œ‘òî‘эè. òîÅ °ò€î ºíé’
×€Ò¿º¥×’րÒ. °ò Àò —œÖ×€î ºíé’ÉÅ ×€Ò¿º¥×’րÒ. «×ñ™ —ª¥ —ºÆÑ
ˆíº¨’éþ° ‡òì °‘ò ×è ×€Ò¿ºª¥‘è.
—œÖ×î’ò ×Ƴ µ‘ò. ×ò °î’Æ‘ —°Ï×’Ö ×’€ãÆ‘¦ —‘¯¨ ƒÏ¹°‘ò. ŠÏ
—º¯ ¹° —°Ï ×Ý’Æ‘ ×¹°‘è. ×晐 º°’î‘ì ×Ƴ ƒÏ™Ò‘Å. ×è —œÖ׀î
º‘Ñ´°‘è. ˆþî‘ °Æ›’ µ’òé‘è. Ÿíé’ÕÅ º‘Ñ´°‘è. —°Ï×’Ö ×€ãÉÅ —œÖ׀îÉÅ °×’Ì
þ×ì Æ‘ÏÅ ƒÖ€Ò. ×è À캦ÉÅ —œÖ×€î …íì º‘Ñ´°‘è. “¯«‘! µ“ …ò ¿º‘€×
þº‘Òþ× ƒÏ™’é‘þÆ! …ò —ºÆÑ ‡òî?” ‡òì þª¥‘è. ×ò “—œÖ×ò” ‡òì º°’Ö
ã’´°‘ò. “ƒ›þ ב” ‡òì ×€î ˜¿º’ª¥‘è. ×ò ×晐 º™´°’Ö ×¹°‘ò. ×è
œ’ì׀î À‘Ñþº‘¨ €«´³ —‘¯¥‘è.
ƒ€° ‡ÖÒ‘Å °Ú ×Ý’Æ‘ º‘Ñ´° òîÅ ¹° —º¯ Æ‘Ñ ‡òì ½Ì’¹³ —‘¯¥‘è.
òîÅ þ׍À‘ —°ÏÚ™ þº‘î‘è. ¹° —º¯€«ÉÅ °ò À€îÉÅ þœÑ´³ °à×’
—‘¯¥‘è. ¹° —º¯ °’¨™’ª¥‘è. °€Ò î’¹³ µ’òé‘è. òîÅ ×ã’¥Å, “ˆò
ºÆ¿º¨’é‘Ë. µ“ÉÅ ƒ×ñ™ °‘Ë °‘þî!” ‡òì þª¥‘è. ¹° ƒãÅ—º¯«’ò °€Ò
î’¹°³. ×è ›’Ϲ³ þº‘Ë×’ª¥‘è.
ò€é™ ƒÌ×’Ö òî´°’ò «×ò דª¨™ °’Ïź’ ×¹³ ×’ª¥‘ò.
òîÅ = swan °Ú = door
×Ý’ = way, path ×Ý’Æ‘ = (here: through the)
—°Ï = street «×ò = husband
6
‡°’Ѻ‘Ñ = expect, await À‘°Å = month
º™´³ ד¨ = house next door œ‘€¥À‘€¥ = insinuation
þ×ì = different, another בâ2 = live
ºíé’ = about | use the Noun + ‰ construction with ºíé’
×€Ò¿º¨4 = worry Àò = son
—ª¥ = bad ˆíº¨4 = happen, occur
×Ƴ = age ×’€ãÆ‘¨3 = play
ˆþî‘ = ˆò °Æ›3 = hesitate
µ’Ö5 = stand present / future / past = µ’퍒þéò / µ’íþºò / µ’òþéò
Ÿíé’Ö = Ÿíì + ƒÖ = in the surroundings
°×’Ì = except for | use the Noun + ‰ construction with °×’Ì
À캦ÉÅ = again …íì = closely
¯«‘! = term of affection, from the word ¯ (?)
þº‘Ò = like | use the Noun + ‰ construction with þº‘Ò
º°’Ö = answer ã’6 = here: give
˜¿º’¨4 = call
º™´°’Ö = nearby | use the Noun + ™/…™ construction with º™´°’Ö / Ï’Ö
œ’ì×ò = little child À‘ѽ = chest
6
€« = hug ‡ÖÒ‘Å = everything
2
½Ì’ = understand þ׍Š= ×’€ÌÚ = speed
6
þœÑ = join °àÚ3 = embrace
°’¨™’¨4 = be frightened, be startled °€Ò = head
2
î’ = bow (head) ºÆ¿º¨4 = ¤Ÿ3 = be scared, be afraid
°‘Ë = ò€î = ÅÀ‘ = mother ƒãÅ = young
°‘Å (adapted from A Basic Tamil Reader and Grammar by James Lindholm and . ºÌÀœ’×Å)

×ñ™ ×Ï´°ÃÅ Ý¿ºÃÅ ˆíºª¥³. ×ò °ò ‘°Ò’€Æ º‘Ñ´³ µ‘ò µ‘èè


‚’ ×’ª¥³. ³ °‘ò ×ñ€¥Æ ×Ï´°´³™Å Ý¿º´³™Å ‘Ì«Å. µ‘ò µ‘ªæ™
Ãò ×€Ì ×Ñè °’î¹þ°‘ìÅ œ¹°’¿º‘эè.

×ñ™Å ×晐Š—µ¨ µ‘è …éÚ ƒÏ¹°³. ×Ñè ƒÏ×ÏÅ œ’ì º’è€ãã‘
ƒÏ¹° ‘Ò´°’þÒþÆ ºÝ™Å ˆíºª¥³. ×ò —°Ï À«Ò’Ö ×“¨ ª¦ ×’€ãÆ‘¨×‘è. ×ò
¹° ×Ý’Æ‘ ×Ïבò. “‡ò€îÉÅ ×’ãÆ‘ª¦Ö þœÑ´³ —‘è” ‡òì —œ‘Öבò. ×è
“þœÑ™ À‘ªþ¥ò” ‡òì —œ‘Öבè. ×è ‚€œþÆ‘¨ ª¦î דª€¥ ×ò °ò ‘Ò‘Ö
œ’€°¿º‘ò. œ’Ò œÀÆÅ ×è º¹³ ×’€ãÆ‘¨×‘è. ×ò º¹€° ‡¨´³ —‘¯¨ ‹¦ ×’¨×‘ò.
ƒ¿º¦ —°‘¥›’î ×Ñæ€¥Æ µª½ µ‘晐 µ‘è ×ãѹ³ ×¹°³. ƒÏ×ÏÅ
ƒãźÏ×´€° €¥¹°‘эè. ×Ñè °î’€ÀÆ’Ö œ¹°’´°‘эè. ×Ñæ€¥Æ œ¹°’¿½
Àíé×э晐 —°Ì’Æ‘³ ‡òì ×Ñè µ’€î´°‘эè.

‚î‘Ö ‡¿º¦þÆ‘ ×æ€¥Æ ÅÀ‘™ —°Ì’¹³ ×’ª¥³. —ºíé×è ŸÅÀ‘ ƒÏ¿º‘ã‘?


“דª€¥ ×’ª¨ —×ã’þÆ þº‘ ˜¥‘³” ‡òì À€ã ª¨¿º¨´°’î‘è. °î‘Ö °‘ò ×ã‘Ö
×€î œ¹°’™ æÆ×’Ö€Ò.

×ò ×€ã œ¹°’™ ³¦´°‘ò. ×æ€¥Æ ×“ª¨™ Ãòî‘Ö µ’òé‘ò. “ÅÀ‘!


°‘þÆ! °‘À‘ ƒÏ™’é³. —‘¤œÅ °¯«“Ñ —‘¨›è” ‡òì —œ‘òî‘ò. ÅÀ‘ œ€À´³
—‘¯¨ ƒÏ¹°‘è. —×ã’þÆ µ’íº×ò Æ‘Ñ ‡òì ×晐 —°Ì’Æ‘³. “º‘×Å! —œÅº’Ö
°¯«“Ñ —‘¯¨ ב! ×ñ€¥Æ €Æ’Ö †íé’×’ª¨ ב” ‡òì Àã’¥Å —œ‘òî‘è.

Àè בœÕ™ ×¹³ ‘°Ò€î º‘Ñ´°‘è. ×晐 À’⢜’ÉÅ ºÆÃÅ ˆíºª¥³.


×è °ò À° ª¨¿º¨´°’ —‘¯¥‘è. “€€Æ µ“ª¨. °¯«“Ñ †í썒þéò.” ‡òì
—œ‘òî‘è. ×ò ×æ€¥Æ €€ã º’¦´°‘ò. ×ñ€¥Æ º’¦Æ’Ö ¯«‘¦ ׀ãÆÖ
…€¥¹°³. …€¥¹° ³¯¨ ×æ€¥Æ €€Æ ´°’î³. ×è “ÅÀ‘!” ‡òì Òé’î‘è.
°‘Ë º°é’ בœÕ™ ‹¦ ×¹°‘è. “‡òî µ¥¹°³?” ‡òì þª¥‘è. Àè œÀ‘ã’´³
—‘¯¥‘è. “°¯«“Ñ ¦™Å þº‘³ ƒ×ñ™ ×’™Ö ‡¨™’é³.” ‡òì —œ‘òî‘è. “×’™Ö
‡¨´°‘Ö Ã³€ °¥×’ ×’¥ þׯ¨Å. Òé’î‘Ö ‡òî ºÆò?” ‡òì °‘Ë —œ‘òî‘è. °‘Ë
×ñ€¥Æ ó€ °¥×’ ×’¥ —°‘¥›’î‘è. ×ò œ’Ì’´°‘ò. °ò ‘°Ò’€Æ €¥™¯«‘Ö
º‘Ñ´°‘ò. ¹° º‘Ñ€× ×€ã —‘òì ×’¨Å þº‘Ö ƒÏ¹°³.
(from Ò’´—°‘€ -- é’¤œ’ 15)

°‘Å = thirst ×Ï´°Å = sorrow, distress


Ý¿ºÅ = confusion, bewilderment ˆíº¨4 = occur, happen
°ò = own (here: his own) ‘°Ò’ = girlfriend
µ‘è = day ‚3 = become
Ãò = before, earlier, in front of | Use Noun + ™/…™ with Ãò
°’îÅ = daily þ°‘ìÅ = word used as a suffix with time expressions like ‚¯¨, À‘°Å, µ‘è,
°’îÅ, and days of the week to mean ‘every’
œ¹°’6 = meet ×€Ì = until, up to —µ¨ = long
…éÚ = relationship, kinship ƒÏ×ÏÅ = both people œ’ì = œ’òî = small, little
º’è€ã = child ‘ÒÅ = time ºÝ™Å = familiarity
4
ˆíº¨ = occur, happen —°Ï = street À«Ö = sand
3 3
×’€ãÆ‘¨ = play ª¨ = build (ª¦ = AvP)
×Ý’ = way, path ×Ý’Æ‘ = ×Ý’ + ‚ ×’€ãÆ‘ª¨ = game
6
þœÑ = combine, include, join (þœÑ´³ = AvP)
‚€œ = desire, wish ª¦î = Past verbal adjective of ª¨3 = build
‘Ö = leg œ’€°6 = ruin, destroy
œ’Ò = some ; œÀÆÅ = time ; œ’Ò œÀÆÅ = sometimes
º¹³ = ball ‡¨6 = take (‡¨´³ = AvP)
‹¨3 = run (‹¦ = AvP) —°‘¥›3 = begin, start (—°‘¥›’î = past verbal adjective)
µª½ = friendship ×ãÑ2 = grow (×ãѹ³ = AvP)
µ‘晐 µ‘è = day by day µ‘è = day
ƒãÅ = youth, young ºÏ×Å = stage ƒãźÏ×Å = young adulthood
°î’ = alone ; °î’€À = singleness, solitude, ‘alone-ness’
œ¹°’¿½ = meeting Àíé×эè = other people ; Àíé = other
6
µ’€î = think, believe ‚î‘Ö = but
‡¿º¦+‹ = somehow —°Ì’2 = to know (—°Ì’¹³ = AvP)
—ºíé×è = lady who gave birth to ŸÅÀ‘ = ‘just’, ‘nothing’
7 4
ŸÅÀ‘ ƒÏ = be quiet, do nothing ×’¨ = (here: leave) (×’ª¨ = AvP)
—×ã’þÆ = —×ã’ = outside ª¨¿º¨´³3 = control
°î‘Ö = for that reason ³¦6 = throb, quiver
Ãòî‘Ö = Ãò = in front of (see Ãò above)
µ’Ö5 = stand present / future / past = µ’퍒þéò / µ’íþºò / µ’òþéò
AvP = µ’òì Inf = µ’í
—‘¤œÅ = little bit °¯«“Ñ = water
6
œ€À = cook (œ€À´³ = AvP) µ’íº×ò = person standing
º‘×Å = expression of pity —œÅ½ = small water pot
2
—‘¯¨ ב = bring [something] with †íì3 = pour (†íé’ = AvP)
בœÖ = entrance, doorway ‘°Òò = boyfriend À’⢜’ = happiness
3
ºÆÅ = ¢œÅ = fear ÀîÅ = mind µ“ª¨ = stretch out
6
º’¦ = grab hold of, catch º’¦ = hold, grasp ¯«‘¦ = glass
2
׀ãÆÖ = bangle …€¥ = break (…€¥¹° = past verbal adjective)
3
´³ = stab Òì3 = scream º°ì3 = be agitated
µ¥7 = happen, take place œÀ‘ã’6 = handle a situation ×’™Ö = hiccup
6
¦6 = drink (¦™Å = future verbal adjective) ×’™Ö + ‡¨
3
ó = back °¥Ú = rub (°¥×’ = AvP) ºÆò = use
3 6
—°‘¥› = begin (—°‘¥› = Infinitive) œ’Ì’ = smile
€¥™¯ = corner of eye º‘Ñ€× = look þº‘Ö = like
þº‘Ö ƒÏ¹°³ = it seemed like
—‘Ö1 = kill present / past / future = —‘֍’þéò / —‘Öþ×ò / —‘òþéò
AvP = —‘òì Inf = —‘ÖÒ
‚íì´°¯«“Ñ (adapted from A Basic Tamil Reader and Grammar by James Lindholm and . ºÌÀœ’×Å)

‘€Ò ˆÝ€Ì À«’. “°’Ìב!” ‡òì ÌÖ þª¥³. ˜¿º’ª¥×ò ¯«‘À€Ò ‡òì °’Ì×ò
…«Ñ¹°‘ò. בœÕ™ ×¹°‘ò. “°’Ìב! ‚í왐 ×ύ’é‘Æ‘?” ‡òé‘ò ¯«‘À€Ò.
“—‘¤œÅ ƒÏ. ƒþ°‘ ×¹³ ×’ªþ¥ò.”
°’Ì×ò דª¨™è þº‘Ë ³¯€¥ÉÅ œÒ€× ª¦€ÆÉÅ ‡¨´³—‘¯¨ ×¹°‘ò.
×ñÅ ¯«‘À€ÒÉÅ …èçÑ¿ ºèã’™˜¥´°’Ö º´°‘Šא¿½ º¦´³ —‘¯¨
ƒÏ¹°‘эè. ƒÏ×ÏÅ —µÏ›’Æ µ¯ºÑè. þºœ’™—‘¯þ¥ ‚í雍€Ì€Æ €¥¹°‘эè.
º¦´³€éÆ’Ö °’Ì×ò þת¦™ œÒ€× þº‘¥ ‚Ìź’´°‘ò. ¯«‘À€Ò €ÌÆ’Ö
…ª‘ѹ³ Ÿíé’ÕÅ º‘Ñ´³ —‘¯¨ ƒÏ¹°‘ò. º¦´³€é™ ×¥ ½éÅ ŠÏ×ò ƒÌ¯¨
À‘¨€ã ã’¿º‘ª¦ —‘¯¨ ƒÏ¹°‘ò. —°ò ½éÅ, €ÌÆ’Ö —×ã’™ þº‘Ë ×’ª¨ ×¹°
ŠÏ×ò, ‘Ö à×’ —‘¯¨ ƒÏ¹°‘ò.
“µÅ µ‘¨ ‡¿þº‘³ °‘ò Ãòþîé þº‘’éþ°‘?” ‡òé‘ò ¯«‘À€Ò.
“‡òî ¥‘, °’§Ñ ‡òì µ‘ª¨¿ºíì ×¹³ ƒÏ™’é³.”
“µ“ °‘ò º‘þÌò! ×¥™þ ŠÏ×ò À‘¨ ã’¿º‘ª¨’é‘ò. —°íþ ŠÏ×ò ‘Ö
àڍ’é‘ò. ƒ¹° °¯«“Ì’Ö °‘þî µ“ÉÅ µ‘ñÅ ã’™ þׯ¨Å? ƒ¹° °¯«“€Ì °‘þî
ƒ¹° †Ñ À™è ‡ÖÒ‘Å ¦™ þׯ¨Å?”
“þ¥! … ŠÏ ºÝ—À‘Ý’ —°Ì’ÉÀ‘? ‘°‘€Æ °èã’î‘ÕÅ °¯«“€Ì °èã æƑ³.’”
“ƒ¿º¦ ºÝ€À ºÝ€À ‡òì µ‘Å º’òþî þº‘Ë —‘¯¨ ƒÏ™’þé‘Å. ½³€À€ã
¯¨º’¦´³ þÀÖµ‘ª¥‘Ñ Ãòþî썒é‘эè.”
“°´³×Å þºœ‘þ°. ƒ›þ À‘¨ ã’¿º‘ª¨×³Å ‘Ö àÚ׳Š…ò ¯«’Ö º¨’é
‘Ì«´°‘Ö µ“ ‚´°’Ì¿º¨’é‘Ë. ƒ¹° ‚ì …íº´°’ ‚’é ƒ¥´°’ҒϹ³ ƒ¹° ƒ¥Å ׀Ì
‡´°€î þºÑ À‘Ÿ —œË’é‘эþã‘! ³ ‡ÖÒ‘Å …ò ¯«’Ö º¥×’րÒ. ‚þ× €°
ºíé’ µ“ ‚´°’Ì¿º¥×’րÒ. ¿º¦ °‘þî?”
“ƒÖ€Ò ‡¹° ƒ¥´°’ÕÅ ‚íé’Ö À‘Ÿ —œËÆ ˜¥‘³ ‡òì °‘þî —œ‘֍’þéò.”
“—º‘Ë. µ“ …¯€ÀÆ’þÒþÆ ¿º¦ µ’€î´°‘Ö ‡ò þÀþÒÉÅ ‚´°’Ì¿ºª¨ ƒÏ™
þׯ¨Å. µ‘ò þת¦™ œÒ€× þº‘¨×³Å °¿½ °‘þî? µÀ™ þׯ¦Æ×Ñè —œË׳
°¿º‘ —°Ì’Æ×’Ö€Ò. ¯®™ À€éב µ¥™’é °¿½€ãÉÅ µ‘Å œ’¹°’¿º°’րÒ.”
“ƒ¿þº‘³ µ“ °´³×Å þºŸ’é‘Ë. ‚íì °¯«“€Ì àˀÀÆ‘ €×´³ —‘èã
þׯ¨À‘ ƒÖ€ÒÆ‘? ƒ¹° þè×’™ º°’Ö —œ‘Ö.”
“°¯«“Ñ °‘þ× àˀÀ ‚’ ×’¨’éþ°! À“òè œ’Ò à™€ã —‘´°’
×’¨’òéî. À«Ö þ×ì œ’Ò à™€ã º¦Æ €×™’é³. þ°›’é œ‘™€¥ µ‘íéÅ
‡¨™’鑳. ‹¨’é ‚ì ‡¿þº‘°‘׳ µ‘íéÅ ‡¨™’é°‘?”
“¯®™ —°Ì’Æ‘° ’ÏÀ’è. ‚íì °¯«“Ì’Ö ºÌ×Ò‘þÀ? à™ µ“Ñ °‘ò —°‘íì
þµ‘ˍ晐 ‘Ì«Å ‡òì º¦™’þé‘þÀ!”
“‚íì °¯«“Ì‘Ö —°‘íì þµ‘ˍè ×ÏÅ ‡òé‘Ö µÅ Ãòþî‘Ñè ‡ÖÒ‘Å ‡¿º¦
º’€Ý´°‘эè? µ‘Å ‡¿º¦ º’é¹þ°‘Å?”
¯«‘À€Ò º°’Ö —œ‘ÖÒ‘ÀÖ °¯«“Ì’Ö ƒé›’î‘ò. ƒ°íè °’Ì×ò þת¦€Æ
³€×´³ æ´³ ×’ª¥‘ò. ×ñÅ °¯«“Ì’Ö ƒé›’î‘ò. ×э晐 Ãò½éÅ ŠÏ×ò
ºÖ€Ò þ°Ë´³ °¯«“Ì’Ö —‘¿ºã’´³ —‘¯¨ ƒÏ¹°‘ò.
“‰Æ‘! —‘¤œÅ °èã’ ³¿½›è. ƒ›þ ‚è ã’™’é³ ¯®™ —°Ì’Æ×’Ö€ÒÆ‘?”
‡òì °’Ì×ò þ‘ºÀ‘ þºœ’î‘ò.
¯«‘À€Ò œ’Ì’´°‘ò.
‚ì = river ‘€Ò = morning ˆâ + €Ì = eleven + half
À«’ = time ÌÖ = voice ˜¿º’¨4 = call
…«Ñ2 = feel בœÖ = entrance, doorway —‘¤œÅ = a little bit
³¯¨ = towel œÒ€× ªª = soap …èçÑ = local, “inside village”
ºèã’™˜¥Å = school º´°‘Å = tenth א¿½ = grade
3
—µÏ› = be close (—µÏ›’Æ = verbal adjective) µ¯ºÑ = friend
2
‚í雍€Ì = river bank €¥ = reach, arrive º¦´³€é = steps on river bank
4
þת¦ = vEtti þº‘¨ = put ‚Ìź’6 = begin
×¥ = north ½éÅ = side À‘¨ = cow
3
ã’¿º‘ª¨ = bathe (something) —°ò = south
€Ì = bank (of river) —×ã’ = outside àÚ3 = wash
µ‘¨ = country Ãòþîì3 = improve, come up (Ãòþîé = infinitive)
þº‘’éþ°‘ = þº‘’é³ + ‹ = asking a rhetorical question
‡ò5 = say, tell (‡òé‘ò = past tense for ×ò)
°’§Ñ ‡òì = suddenly µ‘ª¨¿ºíì = nationalism
º‘þÌò = º‘Ñ + ˆò = why don’t you look ã’6 = shower, bathe
À™è = people ‡ÖÒ‘Å = everything (here: everyone)
ºÝ—À‘Ý’ = saying °èæ3 = push, shove
ºÝ€À = oldness º’ò = behind (here: backward) ½³€À = newness
þÀÖµ‘¨ = western country ; þÀÖ µ‘ª¥‘Ñ = people in western countries
°´³×Å = philosophy º¨4 = here: to appear ‘Ì«Å = reason
4 4
‚´°’Ì¿º¨ = ‚´°’ÌÅ + º¨ = be angry …íº´°’ = production
3
‚/‚ = become ×€Ì = until, up to À‘Ÿ = pollution
ºíé’ = about | Use Noun + ‰ for ºíé’ —º‘Ë = lie
6
…¯€À = truth µ’€î = think, believe ‡ò þÀÖ = here: at me
°¿½ = mistake À€éÚ = ‘hidden-ness’ (À€éב = Noun + ‚)
6
œ’¹°’ = think, ponder àˀÀ = cleanliness
þè×’ = question º°’Ö = answer °‘ = by itself
À“ò = fish à™ = dirty —‘´³3 = peck at
À«Ö = sand þ×ì = other œ’Ò = some
2 3
º¦ = settle þ°› = stagnate (þ°›’é = present verbal adjective)
œ‘™€¥ = ditch µ‘íéÅ = odor ‡¨6 = take, (here: to take on)
‹¨3 = run (‹¨’é = running) ’ÏÀ’ = bacteria
3
ºÌÚ = spread —°‘íì þµ‘Ë = leprosy —µ‘Ë = disease
A ‡òé‘Ö B = If A, then B Ãòþî‘Ñ = ancestors º’€Ý6 = survive
ƒé›3 = climb down, descend ƒ°íè = ƒ³™ + …è = before it, inside it
³€×6 = wash (clothes) æ6 = finish ºÖ = tooth, teeth
6
þ°Ë = brush (teeth), rub —‘¿ºã’6 = swish (and spit)
3
°èæ = move, shove ³¿½3 = spit ‚è = person
6
œ’Ì’ = smile, laugh
Big Class Test 1 June 30, 2003
Make the plural and the direct object for each noun. If you don’t remember how to make these
constructions (Noun + ?), then ask sendhil.
Plural Direct Object
1. hand = €

2. forest/jungle/field = ‘¨

3. leg/foot= ‘Ö

4. law = œª¥Å

Translate.
5. they 6. her mother 7. their house

8. ‡òñ€¥Æ ¿º‘ ‡ò€î ¦´°‘Ñ. (¦6 = hit)

9. µ‘›è µ‘€ã þ°Ñ€× ‡à³þבÅ. (þ°ÑÚ = þœ‘°€î„ = test ; ‡à³3 = write, take test; µ‘€ã =
tomorrow)

10. ×Ñè ‡›€ã À°’™’é‘эè. (À°’6 = respect)

11.µ‘Å ×€ã þµíì œ¹°’´þ°‘À‘? (œ¹°’6 = meet)

12. ¿º‘, µ“›è ˆò Ö€Ò à™’î“эè? (à™3 = lift ; Ö = stone/rock)

13. When did he lift this rock?

14. Did ÅÀ‘ make þ°‘€œ? (Ÿ¨4 = make thosai / shoot a gun)

15. I will cook rice. (þœ‘ì = cooked rice ; œ€À6 = cook)

16.The dog is growing. (µ‘Ë = dog ; ×ãÑ2 = grow)

17. ‡Ü×ãÚ À€Ý —ºË°³? (À€Ý = rain ; —ºË1 = rain)

18. Father, put the ball down! (“þÝ = down ; º¹³ = ball ; þº‘¨4 = put)

19. Look at our friends! (º‘Ñ6 = look at / see ; friend = µ¯ºÑ)


Small Class Test 1 June 30, 2003
Make the plural and the direct object for each noun. If you don’t remember how to make these
constructions (Noun + ?), then ask sendhil. (I didn’t ask you to know direct object, but you can still try.)
Plural Direct Object
1. hand = €

2. forest/jungle/field = ‘¨

3. leg/foot= ‘Ö

4. law = œª¥Å

Translate.
5. ×эè 6. ×æ€¥Æ ÅÀ‘

7. you all 8. my house

9. She is his sister.

10. I want your money. (‘Ÿ, º«Å = money)

11. Do you want this food? (œ‘¿º‘¨, …«Ú = food)

12. ×ñ™ ‡òñ€¥Æ œª€¥ þׯ¥‘Å. (shirt = œª€¥)

13. ×Ñè ‡›€ã À°’™’é‘эè. (À°’6 = respect)

14. The dog is growing. (µ‘Ë = dog ; ×ãÑ2 = grow)

15. ƒòì À€Ý —ºË’é³. (ƒòì = today; À€Ý = rain ; —ºË1 = rain)

16. It is her picture. (i.e. That is her picture.) (º¥Å = picture)

17. Is he your friend? (µ¯ºÑ = friend)

18. ÅÀ‘ is making þ°‘€œ. (Ÿ¨4 = make thosai / shoot a gun)

19. I am cooking rice. (þœ‘ì = cooked rice ; œ€À6 = cook)


Test 2 July 8, 2003
Make the constructions below. If you don’t remember how to make these constructions (Noun + ?), then
ask sendhil.
1. hand = € + ‚Ö 2. forest/jungle/field = ‘¨ + ƒÖ

3. leg/foot = ‘Ö + ‰ 4. law = œª¥Å + …™/™

5. boat = º¥ + ƒÖ 6. airport = ×’À‘î µ’€ÒÆÅ + ƒÒ’Ϲ³

7. with me 8. from the house (ד¨)

9. to Chennai (—œò€î) 10. baby’s stomach (Ý¹€°/º’è€ã ; ×Æ’ì)

11. to us / for us 12. by means of money, using money (º«Å)

Fill in the blank with a Noun + ƒÖ, ƒ¥À’Ϲ³, ƒÒ’Ϲ³, ‚Ö, …€¥Æ, ™/…™, …¥ò/‹¨,
‰, or ƒò construction that makes sense. Write the appropriate word in the blank. Translate the sentence.

13. ×Ñ ________________________ º¦™’é‘Ñ. (º¦6=read, study) [Noun = ºèã’ = school]

14. º’Òò À‘é€î ________________ ¦¿º‘ò. (º’Òò, À‘éò=°À’â —ºÆэè) [Noun=¢œ’


= stick]

15. —œÖÒÅÀ‘è _______________________ ‘€œ ב›’î‘è. [Noun = they/them/their]

16. þ×Òò ‡òñ€¥Æ _________________ ×ύ’é‘ò. [Noun = þ°‘ª¥Å = garden, farm]

17. ____________ ¯€« º‘Ñ™‘þ°!. (¯ = eye ; º‘Ñ6 = see, look at) [Noun = º‘Ž = snake]

Translate.
18. The chicken will grow. (chicken = þ‘Ý’ ; grow = ×ãÑ2)

19. µ‘€ã À€Ý —ºËÉÀ‘? (À€Ý = rain ; µ‘€ã = tomorrow ; —ºË1 = (to) rain)

20. Father! You should not smoke inside. (inside = …èþã ; smoke = ½€ º’¦6)
21. I do not know that girl. (girl = —º¯ ; know = —°Ì’ÉÅ)

22. Are you able to break this lock with an axe? (lock = ¾ª¨ ; axe = þ‘¥‘Ì’ ; break = …€¥6)

23. µ‘ò À‘°×’™ ב´°’ò ꀥ€Æ —‘¨™ þº‘’þéò. (ב´³ = duck ; ꀥ = egg)

24. May we eat on the floor? (floor = °€Ì)

25. They spoke with me yesterday. (yesterday = þµíì ; speak = €°6, þºŸ3)

26. µ“›è ‡ò€î ¨´° À‘°Å º‘Ñ™ À‘ª§Ñè. (¨´° = next; À‘°Å =month ; º‘Ñ6 = see)

27. ×è º«™‘Ìî’¥À’Ϲ³ µ€€Æ °’Ï¥×’Ö€Ò. (º«™‘Ìò = wealthy person ; µ€ =


jewelry ; °’Ϩ3 = steal)

28. Three tomatoes were not enough for him. (Äòì = three ; °™‘ã’ = tomato)

29. We do not want these seeds. (seed = ×’€°)

30. We are going to tell a lie. (lie = —º‘Ë ; tell, say = —œ‘Ö3)

31. ×Ñ ºÝ´°’ҒϹ³ —‘ª€¥€Æ €Æ‘Ö ‡¨´°‘Ñ. (ºÝÅ=fruit ; —‘ª€¥=seed ; ‡¨6=take)

32. µ‘ò ƒ¹° œª€¥€Æ þº‘¥ª¨À‘? (œª€¥ = shirt ; þº‘¨4 = put [here: wear])

33. I did not see her. (see = º‘Ñ6)

34. She did not act with the students in the play. (student = À‘«×Ñ ; play = µ‘¥Å; act = µ¦6)
Test 3 July 15, 2003
Translate.

1. °›€ °€Ò ב̒ —‘èבè. (°€Ò = head ; בÏ3 = comb (of hair))

2. Have you all finished (completely, once and for all) your homework? (homework = דª¨¿º‘¥Å,
finish = æ6)

3. In which month will she get a degree then go to work. (month = À‘°Å ; degree = ºª¥Å ; get =
ב›3 ; work = þ׀Ò)

4. We are taking the test in that room (right now, at this moment). (test = þ°ÑÚ / þœ‘°€î ; room =
€é ; ‡à³3 = take a test)

5. No one speaks like me. (‘speaks’ is habitual ; like me = ‡ò€î þº‘Ö ; speak = þºŸ3 / €°6)

6. If he does not catch me now, I will fall. (now = ƒ¿—º‘à³ ; catch = º’¦6 ; fall = ×’à2)

7. Are they participating in the contest without preparing? (contest = þº‘ª¦ ; participate = Ò¹³
—‘è1 ; prepare = ºÆ’휒 —œË1)

8. µ‘›è —°‘€Ò™‘ªœ’€Æ º‘Ñ´³ —‘¯¨ דª¨¿º‘¥´€° º¦¿þº‘Å.


(—°‘€Ò™‘ªœ’ = television ; º‘Ñ6 = see, watch ; דª¨¿º‘¥Å = homework ; º¦6 = study)

9.Will Kavin wear new clothes and come to the concert? (×’ò = a name ; new = ½³ ; clothes =
‚€¥ ; concert = ¢þœÌ’)

10. ¿º‘ þµÌ´€° ‡¿—º‘à³Å ד«‘™ À‘ª¥‘Ñ. (þµÌÅ = time ; ד«‘™3 = waste )

11. ƒ¹° ×’€°€Æ Ƒ̑׳ בœ’´°“эã‘? (×’€° = poem ; בœ’6 = read out loud)

12. They do not help anyone. (‘help’ is habitual ; help = …°Ú3)

13. µ“›è ‡î™ …¥þî ‘€œ ñ¿º×’Ö€Ò ‡òé‘Ö, ‡ò€î œ’€éÆ’Ö þº‘¨×‘эè.
(…¥þî = immediately ; ñ¿½3 = send ; œ’€é = jail ; þº‘¨4 = put)
14. µ‘ò °Åº’€Æ דª¦Ö º‘Ñ™×’րÒ. ×ò —×ã’þÆ ‡›‘׳ ×’€ãÆ‘¨’é‘î‘?
(º‘Ñ6 = see ; —×ã’þÆ = outside ; ×’€ãÆ‘¨3 = play)

15. ÅÀ‘! µ‘›è ‡¿—º‘à³ ƒ¹° ½³ þ°µ“€Ì ב›’ ¦™Ò‘Å?


(½³ = new ; þ°µ“Ñ = tea ; ¦6 = drink)

16. —œÏ¿€º Ýíé‘ÀÖ ×“ª¦Ö þº‘ ˜¥‘³. (—œÏ¿½ = sandals, shoes; Ýíì3 = remove)

17. Let it drink the hot water. (¦6 = drink ; ¡¨ = heat ; µ“Ñ = water)
[—×òî“Ñ is the word for hot water, but don’t use this. Write hot water using the adjective construction.]

18. This actor speaks humorously. (actor = µ¦Ñ ; humor = µ€¢Ÿ€×)

19. ƒ×Ñè ã’Ñ¢œ’Æ‘î º‘€Ò ב›×‘эè. (ã’Ñ¢œ’ = coolness ; º‘Ö = milk)

20. Where have you seen my gold necklace? (use the construction for ‘have you seen’, not the
construction for ‘did you see’ ; gold = °›Å [becomes °› when combined with necklace] ; necklace
= œ›’Ò’ / À‘€Ò ; º‘Ñ6 = see)
Test 3 Topics

Uses of the AvP


1. Combining verbs
µ‘ò ºÝ´€° ב›’ œ‘¿º’ªþ¥ò. (ºÝÅ = fruit)
I bought the fruit and ate it.
×è ‡ò€î º‘Ñ´³ œ’Ì’´°‘è. (º‘Ñ6 = see ; œ’Ì’6 = laugh, smile)
She saw me and laughed/smiled.

2. Reflexive: AvP + —‘è1


µ‘ò ã’´³ —‘荒þéò.
I am bathing (myself).
µ“ …òñ€¥Æ æ€Æ/ÀÆ’€Ì —ת¦ —‘¯¥‘Æ‘? (æ/ÀÆ’Ñ = hair ;
—ת¨3 = cut)
Did you cut your hair?

3. Definitive: AvP + ×’¨4


‡òñ€¥Æ °¯«“€Ì ¿º‘ ¦´³ ×’ª¥‘Ñ. (°¯«“Ñ = water ; ¦6 = drink)
Two possible meanings: Appa drank (and finished off) my water. OR Appa has
finished drinking my water.
×è ‘€Ò …«€× œ‘¿º’ª¨ ×’ª¥‘ã‘? (‘€Ò = morning; …«Ú = food)
Did she finish eating breakfast?

4. Having completed: AvP + ×’ª¨ + Verb


(This one is often used when the two verbs being combined are unrelated to one another.
The construction in #1 above is used when the two verbs are related. But this isn’t an
exact rule. You’ll have a better idea of this as you get more experience.)
µ‘›è ¹° °€× ¾ª¦ ×’ª¨ דª¨™ ×¹þ°‘Å. (°Ú = door ; ¾ª¨3 = lock)
We locked the door and came home.
(We finished locking the door, then came home.)
µ‘›è œ‘¿º’ª¨ ×’ª¨ ×’€ãÆ‘¨þבÅ. (×’€ãÆ‘¨3 = play)
We will finish eating, then play.

5. Continous: AvP + —‘¯¨ + ƒÏ7


µ“›è œ‘¿º’ª¨ —‘¯¨ ƒÏ™’é“эã‘?
Are you all eating right now?
À‘«×Ñè —×ã’þÆ ×’€ãÆ‘¦ —‘¯¦Ï™’é‘эè. (×’€ãÆ‘¨3 = play ;
—×ã’þÆ = outside)
The student are playing outside.
6. Continuous: AvP + —‘¯¨ + Verb
×ò œ’Ì’´³ —‘¯¨ €°™’é‘ò/þºŸ’é‘ò. (€°6/þºŸ3 = speak;
œ’Ì’6 = laugh/smile)
He is laughing and speaking (at the same time).
Britney Spears ‚¦ —‘¯¨ º‘¨×‘è. (‚¨3 = dance ; º‘¨3 = sing)
Britney Spears dances while singing (at the same time).
[º‘¨×‘è is future tense habitual, so it is translated as ‘sings’ in this
sentence. It could also be translated as ‘will sing’]

Negative AvP
Infinitive + ‘ÀÖ
°Åº’ œª€¥€Æ þº‘¥‘ÀÖ —×ã’þÆ ×ύ’é‘î‘? (œª€¥ = shirt ; —×ã’þÆ = outside ;
þº‘¨4 = put, wear)
Is little brother coming outside without wearing a shirt?
µ‘›è œ‘¿º’¥‘ÀÖ ×’€ãÆ‘¦þî‘Å. (×’€ãÆ‘¨3 = play)
We played without eating.

Conditional
made from Past tense (Change the last letter of the past tense conjugation of ×ò / ×è to Ö,
and use this construction for all pronouns.)
×Ñè ƒ› ƒÏ¹°‘Ö, µ‘ò ƒ›’Ϲ³ þº‘þ×ò. (ƒ› = here)
If they are here, then I will go from here.
µ“›è ‡òñ¥ò ºèã’™/º‘¥œ‘€Ò™ ×¹°‘Ö, µ‘ò °‘À°À‘ þº‘þ×ò. (×¹°‘Ö =
Conditional of ב2 = come ; ºèã’/º‘¥œ‘€Ò = school ; °‘À°Å = late)
If you all come with me to school, I will go there late.

Negative Conditional
1. Infinitive + ‘×’ª¥‘Ö
µ‘ò …›æ™ º«´€°/‘€œ —‘¨™‘×’ª¥‘Ö, µ“›è ‡òî —œËדэè?
If I do not give you money, what will you do?
ÅÀ‘ º‘¥‘×’ª¥‘Ö, Ý¹€° àÅ. (º‘¨3 = sing ; à1 = cry)
If mother does not sing, the baby will cry.
2. Negative past/present conjugation + ‡òé‘Ö / ‚î‘Ö
µ‘ò …›æ™ º«´€°/‘€œ —‘¨™×’Ö€Ò ‡òé‘Ö, µ“›è ‡òî —œËדэè?
µ‘ò …›æ™ º«´€°/‘€œ —‘¨™×’Ö€Ò ‚î‘Ö, µ“›è ‡òî —œËדэè?
If I do not give you money, what will you do?
ÅÀ‘ º‘¥×’Ö€Ò ‡òé‘Ö, Ý¹€° àÅ.
ÅÀ‘ º‘¥×’Ö€Ò ‚î‘Ö, Ý¹€° àÅ.
If mother does not sing, the baby will cry.

Question Word + ‚׳ (means some___/any___)


°’鿀º/œ‘×’€Æ —°‘€Ò´þ°ò. µ‘ò €° ‡¿º¦Æ‘׳ ¯¨º’¦™ þׯ¨Å.
(°’鿽/œ‘×’ = key ; —°‘€Ò6 = lose ; ¯¨º’¦6 = find)
I lost my key. I need to find it somehow.
…›æ€¥Æ —ºª¦€Æ Ƒ̑׳ °’é¹´°‘эã‘? (—ºª¦ = box, suitcase ; °’é7 = open)
Did someone open your suitcase? (Did anyone open your suitcase?)
Question Word + …Å (used in the negative, means no___)
×ñ™ Æ‘ÏÅ º«´€°/‘€œ —‘¨™ À‘ª¥‘эè. (º«Å / ‘Ÿ = money)
No one will give him money.
µ‘›è …›æ€¥Æ œ‘×’€Æ/°’鿀º ‡›Å º‘Ñ™×’րÒ.
(œ‘×’ / °’鿽 = key ; º‘Ñ6 = see)
We did not see your key anywhere. (We did not see your key nowhere.)

Noun + ‚î
×Ñè µ‘€ã ¦îÀ‘î þ°Ñ€×/þœ‘°€î‘€Æ ‡à³×‘эè.
(µ‘€ã = test ; ¦îÅ = difficult ; þ°ÑÚ / þœ‘°€î = test ; ‡à³3 = write)

Noun + ‚
Ìœ‘›Å œ‘€Ò€Æ ÒÀ‘ ª¨’é³.
(Ìœ‘›Å = government ; œ‘€Ò = road ; ÒÅ = width ; ª¨3 = build)
The government is building the road wide.
×ò €éב œ‘¿º’¨’é‘ò. €éÚ = deficiency, small amount, less
He is eating a little bit.

Perfect Tense
1. Present perfect = AvP+ ƒÏ7 = have Verb
µ‘ò ƒ¹° ª¨€Ì€Æ º¦´³/בœ’´³ ƒÏ™’þéò.
(º¦6 / בœ’6 = read ; ª¨€Ì = article)
I have read this article.

2. Future perfect = AvP + ƒÏ7 = had Verb


µ‘€ã ×эè דª¨™ ×¹³ ƒÏ¿º‘эè.
They will have come home tomorrow.

3. Past perfect = AvP + ƒÏ7 = will have Verb


þº‘î À‘°Å ƒ¹° €¥Æ’Ö þ×€Ò —œË°‘Ñ. þº‘î ‚¯¨ ‡ò Õ×ҍ´°’Ö /
º«’À€îÆ’Ö þ×€Ò —œË³ ƒÏ¹°‘Ñ. (þº‘î À‘°Å = last month ; €¥ = store ; þ×€Ò =
work ; þº‘î ‚¯¨ = last year ; Õ×ҍŠ/ º«’À€î = office)
Last month he did work in this store. Last year he had worked in my office.
Test 3 Practice Sentences and Answers

1. Don’t leave without brushing your teeth.


ג㙐3 / —Àñ™3 = brush ; ½é¿º¨4 / ’ãŽ3 / —×ã’™’¨4 = leave
[Negative AvP = Inf + ‘ÀÖ ; Negative Command = Inf + ‚þ° / Inf + ‚°“эè]
ºÖ€Ò —Àñ™‘ÀÖ µ“ —×ã’™’¥‘þ° / ºÖ€Ò —Àñ™‘ÀÖ µ“›è —×ã’™’¥‘°“эè
ºÖ€Ò ג㙍‘ÀÖ µ“ ½é¿º¥‘þ° / ºÖ€Ò ג㙍‘ÀÖ µ“›è ½é¿º¥‘°“эè
ºÖ€Ò ג㙍‘ÀÖ µ“ ’ãź‘þ° / ºÖ€Ò ג㙍‘ÀÖ µ“›è ’ãź‘°“эè

2. µ‘ò ×¹°’Ï™’þéò. µ“›è µ’â¢œ’€Æ —°‘¥›Ò‘Å.


µ’â¢œ’ = event ; —°‘¥›3 = start, begin
[Present Perfect = AvP + ƒÏ7 ; Inf + Ò‘Å = may do something]
I have arrived. You may start the event/performance.

3. We went quickly. speed = ×’€ÌÚ


[Adverb = Noun + ‚]
µ‘Å/µ‘›è ×’€Ìב þº‘þî‘Å.

4. I write truthful news. Do you write untruthful news?


…¯€À = truth ; —º‘Ë = lie (untruth) ; —œË°’ = news ; ‡à³3 = write
[Adjective = Noun + ‚î]
µ‘ò …«€ÀÆ‘î —œË°’€Æ ‡à³þ×ò. µ“›è —º‘ËÆ‘î —œË°’€Æ ‡à³×“эã‘?

5. She will have called me. ˜¿º’¨4 = call


[Future Perfect = AvP + ƒÏ7]
×è ‡ò€î ˜¿º’ª¨ ƒÏ¿º‘è.

6. Will they leave without seeing me? º‘Ñ6 = see ; ’ãŽ3 / ½é¿º¨4 / —×ã’™’¨4 = leave
[Negative AvP = Infinitive + ‘ÀÖ]
×Ñè ‡ò€î º‘Ñ™‘ÀÖ ’èÀ½×‘эã‘?
×Ñè ‡ò€î º‘Ñ™‘ÀÖ —×ã’™’¨×‘эã‘?
×Ñè ‡ò€î º‘Ñ™‘ÀÖ ½é¿º¨×‘эã‘?

7. If your daughter becomes a dentist, will you accept it? ºÖÀÏ´³×Ñ = dentist
‚3 = become present ‚’þéò / future ‚þ×ò / past ‚þîò
1
ˆíì —‘è = accept
[Conditional = Past tense of ×è/×ò with last letter changed to Ö]
…›è Àè ºÖÀÏ´³×Ñ ‚î‘Ö, µ“›è €° ˆíì —‘èדэã‘?

8. þµíì ×ò ×¹³ þœÑ¹°’Ϲ°‘эè. ×¹³ þœÑ2 = arrive


[Present Perfect = AvP + ƒÏ7]
She has arrived yesterday. (note: i know that you would not write or say the sentence like this in
english; this is the direct translation.)

9. She bought the bangle and did not wear it. ׀ãÆÖ = bangle ; «’2 = wear
[AvP, used for joining verbs]
×è ׀ãÆ€Ò ×‘›’, «’Æ×’Ö€Ò.
10. The children are playing kittippul on the playground. child = Ý¹€° ; playground = €À°‘îÅ
kittippul = ’ª¦¿½è ; play = ×’€ãÆ‘¨3
[Continuous = AvP + —‘¯¨ + ƒÏ7]
Ý¹€°è/º’è€ãè €À°‘î´°’Ö ’ª¦¿½è€ã ×’€ãÆ‘¦ —‘¯¨ ƒÏ™’é‘эè.

11. µ’Ò´°’Ö °¯«“€Ì †íé’×’ª¨ —œ¦€Æ µ¥ þׯ¨Å.


µ’ÒÅ = ground ; °¯«“Ñ = water ; †íì3 = pour ; —œ¦ = plant ; µ¨4 = plant
[AvP + ×’ª¨ + Verb]
(One) should plant the plant after pouring water on the ground.

12. ÝñÅ ÌŸÅ þ×€Ò€Æ Ã¦´³ ×’ª¥‘эè. þ×€Ò = work ; æ6 = finish
[AvP + ×’¨4 = completion of Verb]
Azhakan and Arasu finished the work.

13. They lost our ring. We were not able to find it.
ring = þÀ‘°’ÌÅ ; lose = —°‘€Ò6 ; find = ¯¨º’¦6
[AvP + ×’¨4 = completion of Verb | Infinitive + æÉÅ/æƑ³/æÆ×’Ö€Ò = able/unable to do]
×Ñè ‡›è þÀ‘°’Ì´€° —°‘€Ò´³ ×’ª¥‘эè. €° ‡›ã‘Ö ¯¨ º’¦™
æÆ×’Ö€Ò.

14. Ÿ×Ì’Ö ¿º‘×’ò º¥´€° ÅÀ‘ À‘ª¦ —‘¯¥‘è.


Ÿ×Ñ = wall ; º¥Å = picture ; À‘ª¨3 = hang, affix
[Reflexive = AvP + —‘è1]
Mother hung father’s picture on the wall.

15. ƒÌÚ º´³ À«’™ º¨´°‘Ö, ‘€Ò 6 À«’™ ‡à¹°’Ï¿º‘Ñ.


ƒÌÚ = night ; À«’™ = o’clock ; ‘€Ò = morning ; ‡à¹°’Ï7
[Conditional = Past tense of ×è/×ò with last letter changed to Ö]
[Future Perfect = AvP + ƒÏ7]
If he/she (respectful) lies down and goes to sleep at 10 o’clock, he/she (respectful) will get up at 6
o’clock.

16. Pick up the trash and throw it outside! trash = ¿€º ; pick up = ‡¨´³ —‘è1
outside = —×ã’þÆ ; throw = ‡é’2
[AvP, combining verbs ; Reflexive = AvP + —‘è1]
¿€º€Æ ‡¨´³ —‘¯¨ —×ã’þÆ ‡é’É›è!
17. Where is father lying down?
º¨6 = lie down, sleep
[Present continuous = AvP + —‘¯¨ + ƒÏ7]
¿º‘ ‡›þ º¨´³ —‘¯¨ ƒÏ™’é‘Ñ.
¿º‘ ‡›þ º¨™’é‘Ñ.
(you could also use the simple Present tense for this sentence and it would not be wrong.)

18. ×è œ’¹°’´³ œ’¹°’´³ ‡à³×‘è.


œ’¹°’6 = think ; ‡à³3 = write
[AvP, combining verbs]
She thinks (and thinks) and writes.

19. ×π¥Æ ×Ƴ 80. ×Ñ þÀ€¥Æ’Ö …ª‘ѹ³ —‘¯¨ …€Ì ‚íìבÑ.
×π¥Æ ×Ƴ 80. ×Ñ þÀ€¥Æ’Ö ƒÏ¹³ —‘¯¨ …€Ì ‚íìבÑ.
×Ƴ = age ; þÀ€¥ = stage ; …ª‘Ñ2 / ƒÏ7 = sit ; …€Ì + ‚íì3 = give speech
[AvP + —‘¯¨ + Verb]
His age is 80. He gives speeches while sitting. (He will give a speech while sitting.)

20. If you do not comb your hair, others will look at you and laugh.
hair = æ / ÀÆ’Ñ ; comb = œ“Ú3 / ƒà2 ; others = Àíé×эè ; laugh = œ’Ì’6
[Negative conditional = Infinitive+ ‘×’ª¥‘Ö]
µ“ …òñ€¥Æ æ€Æ œ“בגª¥‘Ö, Àíé×Ñè œ’Ì’¿º‘эè.
µ“›è …›æ€¥Æ ÀÆ’€Ì ƒà™‘×’ª¥‘Ö, Àíé×Ñè œ’Ì’¿º‘эè.

21. €¥™‘Ìò ×’€Ò€Æ €é´³ —Àà×Ñ´°’€Æ ×’íº‘Ñ.


€¥™‘Ìò = shopkeeper ; ×’€Ò = price ; €é6 = decrease ; —Àà×Ñ´°’ = candle
present / future / past = ג퍒þéò / ×’íþºò / ×’íþéò
[AvP, combining verbs]
The translation of the corrected sentence is:
The shopkeeper will decrease the price and sell the candle.]
Chart 1. Verb Classes
Root Pattern Present Verb Stem Future Verb Past Verb Infinitive Adverbial
Stem Stem (Inf) Participle (AvP)
1a Root + í/òí Root + Ü Root + ´ Root +  Past Stem + …
—œË —œË(ò)í —œËÜ —œË´ —œËÆ —œË³
à à(ò)í àÜ à´ Ý à³
1b . . . Ö → òí— . .
— ‘Ö ends in Ö — ‘Ö(ò)í — ‘ÖÜ ‘òí — ‘ÖÒ — ‘òì
ŸÝÖ ŸÝÖ(ò)í ŸÝÖÜ ŸÝòí ŸÝÒ ŸÝòì
1c . . . è → ¯ª . .
‚è ends in è ‚è(ò)í ‚èÜ ‚¯ª ‚ã ‚¯¨
— ‘è — ‘è(ò)í — ‘èÜ — ‘¯ª — ‘èã — ‘¯¨
2 . . Root + ¹´ . .
…ª ‘Ñ …ª ‘Ñ(ò)í …ª ‘ÑÜ …ª ‘ѹ´ …ª ‘Ì …ª ‘ѹ³
‡ê ‡ê(ò)í ‡êÜ ‡ê¹´ ‡êÆ ‡ê¹³
3 . . . … → ƒò . … → ƒ
ב›" ends in … ב›"(ò)í ב›"Ü ×‘›ò ב› ב›
±Ï¿½ ±Ï¿½(ò)í ±Ï¿½Ü ±Ï¿»ò ±Ï¿º ±Ï¿»
4a . . . ì → íí . Past Stem + …
—ºì ends in ì —ºì(ò)í —ºìÜ —ºíí —ºé —ºíì
…ì …ì(ò)í …ìÜ …íí …é …íì
4b . . . ¨ → ªª . .
ب ends in ¨ ب(ò)í Ø¨Ü Øªª —°‘¥ ت¨
—°‘¨ —°‘¨(ò)í —°‘¨Ü —°‘ªª Ø¥ —°‘ª¨
5 . Root + ¿ . .
±ò ±ò(ò)í ±ò¿ Irregular ±òî Irregular
…¯ …¯(ò)í …¯¿ …¯«
6 Root + ™í/™òí Root + ¿¿ Root + ´´ Root + ™ .
— ‘¨ — ‘¨™(ò)í — ‘¨¿¿ — ‘¨´´ — ‘¨™ — ‘¨´³
º‘Ñ º‘Ñ™(ò)í º‘Ñ¿¿ º‘Ñ´´ º‘Ñ™ º‘Ñ´³
7 generally two . . Root + ¹´ .
±é short syllables ±é™(ò)í ±é¿¿ ±é™ ±é¹³
±é¹´
ƒÏ ending in  ƒÏ™(ò)í ƒÏ¿¿ ƒÏ™ ƒÏ¹³
ƒÏ¹´
A Sampling of Verb Forms and Their Uses
1. Root - used as a command for µ“ 2. Respectful Command = Root + …›è
(µ“) …ª‘Ñ! (µ“›è) …ª‘Ï›è!
(µ“) ƒ€°™ —‘¨! (µ“›è) ƒ€°™ —‘¨›è!

3. Negative Command = Inf + ‚þ° 4. Negative Respectful Command = Inf + ‚°“эè


(µ“) …ª‘Ì‘þ°! (µ“›è) …ª‘Ì‘°“эè!
(µ“) ƒ€°™ —‘¨™‘þ°! (µ“›è) ƒ€°™ —‘¨™‘°“эè!

5. Finite Verb = Past/Present/Future Stem + Pronoun Suffix


µ‘ò …ª‘ѹþ°ò. I sat.
ƒ×è …ª‘э’é‘è. She sits.
ƒ×Ñè …ª‘Ñבэè. They will sit.
Exception. For ƒ³ and ƒ€×, finite future verb = Inf + …Å
ƒ³ …ª‘ÏÅ. It will sit.

6. Negative Finite Verb (Past and Present) = Inf + Ü + ƒÖ€Ò


µ‘ò …ª‘Ì×’Ö€Ò. I did not sit. / I do not sit.
µ‘Å …ª‘Ì×’Ö€Ò. We did not sit. / We do not sit.

7. Negative Finite Verb (Future) = Inf + À‘ªª + Pronoun Suffix


ƒ×Ñ …ª‘ÌÀ‘ª¥‘Ñ. He/She (respectful) will not sit.
µ‘›è °€×´ °’降À‘ªþ¥‘Å. We will not open the door.
Exception. For ƒ³, negative finite verb = Inf + ‚³
ƒ¹° À‘¨ €×™þ‘€Ò´ °’ò. That cow will not eat straw.
Exception. For ƒ€×, negative finite verb = Inf + ‚
µ‘Ëè €×™þ‘€Ò´ °’òî‘. Dogs do not eat straw.

8. Conditional (If X, then ...) = Past Stem + ‚Ö


ŠÏ׀̙ —‘òé‘Ö, °¯¥€î ’€¥™À‘?

9. Negative Conditional (If not X, then …) = Inf + ‚×’ª¥‘Ö


þ׀ҀƢ —œËƑגª¥‘Ö, ƒ×ò þ‘º¿º¨×‘ò. (þ‘º¿º¨4)

10. Adverbial Participle (AvP) is used to connect the actions of two or more verbs.
þ°ò—À‘Ý’ —œË°’€Æ¿ º¦´³ À’¹°‘è. (º¦6, À’â2)
þºÏ¹°’Ö ˆé’ דª¨™¢ —œòþé‘Å. (ˆì3, —œÖ1)

11. Negative AvP = Inf + ‚ÀÖ/‚³


œª€¥€Æ «’¹³ —×ã’þÆ ’ãź’î‘ò. («’2, ’ãŽ3)
œª€¥€Æ «’Æ‘ÀÖ —×ã’þÆ ’ãź’î‘ò.
œª€¥€Æ «’Æ‘³ —×ã’þÆ ’ãź’î‘ò.

12. Perfect Verb = AvP + ƒÏ7


µ‘ò €° ב›’ƒϹþ°ò. I had bought it.
µ‘ò €° ב›’Æ’Ï™’þéò. I have bought it.
µ‘ò €° ב›’Æ’Ï¿þºò. I would have bought it.
13. Continuous Verb = AvP + —‘¯¦Ï7
×è à°‘è. (à1) She cried.
×è à³—‘¯¦Ï¹°‘è. She was crying.
×è à’é‘è. She cries.
×è à³—‘¯¦Ï™’é‘è. She is crying.
×è àבè. She will cry.
×è à³—‘¯¦Ï¿º‘è. She will be crying.

14. Passive Verb = Inf + º¨4


×ò ‡ò€î ¦´°‘ò. (¦6) He hit me.
×ò ‡ò€î ¦™’é‘ò. He hits me.
×ò ‡ò€î ¦¿º‘ò. He will hit me.
µ‘ò ×î‘Ö ¦™¿ºªþ¥ò. I was hit by him.
µ‘ò ×î‘Ö ¦™¿º¨’þéò. I am hit by him.
µ‘ò ×î‘Ö ¦™º¨þ×ò. I will be hit by him.

15. Verbal Adjective (Past and Present) = Past/Present Stem + 


°Åº’ þ°Ñ¹—°¨´° º¹€° ™‘ ב›×‘è. (þ°Ñ¹—°¨6)
°Åº’ þ°Ñ¹—°¨™’é º¹€° ™‘ ב›×‘è.

16. Verbal Adjective (Future) = Inf + …Å


°Åº’ þ°Ñ¹—°¨™Å º¹€° ™‘ ב›×‘è.

17. Verbal Noun (Past/Present/Future) = Past/Present/Future Stem + ³


×эè ×¹°€° µ‘›è °¨™Ã¦Æ×’Ö€Ò. (ב2, °¨6)
×эè ×ύ’逰 µ‘›è °¨™Ã¦Æ×’Ö€Ò.
×эè ×Ï׀° µ‘›è °¨™Ã¦Æ×’Ö€Ò.

18. Negative Verbal Noun (Past/Present/Future) = Inf + ‚°³


×эè ×Ì‘°³ ‡ò€î ×’Æ™€×´°³.

19. “Even if X …” = Conditional + …Å


×ò ×¹°‘Ö, µ‘ò ×ÌÀªþ¥ò. If he comes, I will not come.
×ò ×¹°‘ÕÅ, µ‘ò ×ÌÀ‘ªþ¥ò. Even if he comes, I will not come.

20. “As soon as X …” = Past Verbal Adjective + …¥ò = Past Verbal Noun + …Å
ÅÀ‘ ×¹°Ú¥ò Ý¹€°Æ’ò à€ µ’òé³.
ÅÀ‘ ×¹°³Å Ý¹€°Æ’ò à€ µ’òé³.

21. “Even though X …” = AvP + …Å


×ò ×¹³Å µ“ ×Ì×’Ö€Ò.
ÅÀ‘ ×¹³Å Ý¹€°Æ’ò à€ µ’í×’րÒ.

22. (to) try X = Inf + º‘Ñ6


¿º‘€× ‡à¿º¿ º‘Ñ´þ°ò. ×Ñ ×’Ý’×’րÒ. (‡à¿½3, ×’Ý’6)
¹° ׯ¦€Æ ‹ª¥¿ º‘Ñ¿þºò. ³ ‹¨þÀ‘ —°‘’Æ×’Ö€Ò. (‹ª¨3, ‹¨3)
23. (to) try and see X = AvP + º‘Ñ6
¿º‘€× ‡à¿º’¿ º‘Ñ´þ°ò. ×Ñ °’Ïź¿ º¨´³´ à›’×’ª¥‘Ñ.
(º¨6, à›3)
¹° ׯ¦€Æ ‹ª¥¿ º‘Ñ¿þºò. €° ‡Ü×ãÚ —°‘€Òב ‹ª¥
æÉþÀ‘ —°‘’Æ×’Ö€Ò.

Chart 2. Pronouns and corresponding suffixes.

Pronoun Suffix
µ‘ò ˆò
µ“ ‚Ë
×ò ‚ò
×è ‚è
×Ñ ‚Ñ
³ ‚³
µ‘Å ‹Å
µ‘›è ‹Å
µ“›è „эè
×Ñè ‚Ñè
€× î

Chart 3. Common Irregular Verbs

Root Present Verb Future Verb Past Verb Stem Infintive (Inf) Adverbial
Stem Stem Participle (AvP)

œ‘2 œ‘’í œ‘Ü —œ´´ œ‘ —œ´³


ב2 ×ύ’í ×ÏÜ ×¹´ ×Ì ×¹³
°‘2 °Ï’í °ÏÜ °¹´ °Ì °¹³
‚/‚3 ‚’í ‚Ü ‚ò ‚ ‚’
þº‘3 þº‘’í þº‘Ü þº‘ò þº‘ þº‘Ë
—œ‘Ö3 —œ‘֍’í —œ‘ÖÜ —œ‘òò —œ‘ÖÒ —œ‘ÖÒ’
þè5 þª’í þª¿ þªª þª þª¨
×’Ö5 ג퍒í ×’í¿ ×’íí ×’í ×’íì
Ö5 í’í í¿ íí í íì
þ°‘Ö5 þ°‘퍒í þ°‘í¿ þ°‘íí þ°‘í þ°‘íì
áÖ5 á퍒í áí¿ áíí áí áíì
µ’Ö5 µ’í’í µ’í¿ µ’òí µ’í µ’òì
‘¯5 ‘¯’í ‘¯¿ ¯ª ‘« ¯¨
…¯5 …¯’í …¯¿ …¯ª …¯« …¯¨
°’ò5 °’ò’í °’ò¿ °’òí °’òî °’òì
‡ò5 ‡ò’í ‡ò¿ ‡òí ‡òî ‡òì
LESSON 1: Verb Root

Opposites

þÀþÒ X “þÝ …èþã X —×ã’þÆ ƒ›þ X ›þ


up X down inside X outside here X there

Verb Roots are used to make commands.


þº‘ go
ב come
…ª‘Ñ sit
º‘Ñ look, see

Examples: ›þ þº‘! Go there!


…èþã ב! Come inside!

Note -- In this and following lessons, statements or declarative sentences will always end in a
period (.), and commands will always end in an exclamation mark (!)
Ex. You come! Command
You come. Statement/Declaration

Exercises
1. Translate to English. 2. Translate to Thamil.
a. ƒ›þ ב! a. Sit outside!
b. “þÝ …ª‘Ñ! b. Come up!
c. þÀþÒ º‘Ñ! c. Look here!
d. —×ã’þÆ þº‘! d. Go inside!

3. Memorize the following:


µ‘ò I
µ“ you
×ò he
×è she
³ it
LESSON 2: Pronouns and Present Tense Conjugation

µ‘ò I µ‘ò º‘Ñ™’þéò. I look.


µ“ you µ“ º‘Ñ™’é‘Ë. You look.
×ò he ×ò º‘Ñ™’é‘ò. He looks.
×è she ×è º‘Ñ™’é‘è. She looks.
³ it ³ º‘Ñ™’é³. It looks.

Exercises
1. Translate the following sentences to Thamil. The first sentence is translated for you.
a. It looks down. ³ “þÝ º‘Ñ™’é³.
b. He looks here.
c. She looks up.
d. It looks inside.
e. I look there.
f. You look outside.

2. Translate the following sentences to English.


a. ×è …èþã º‘Ñ™’é‘è.
b. µ‘ò “þÝ º‘Ñ™’þéò.
c. ³ þÀþÒ º‘Ñ™’é³.
d. µ“ ›þ º‘Ñ™’é‘Ë.
e. ×ò —×ã’þÆ º‘Ñ™’é‘ò.

3. Memorize the following:


‡ò€î me
ɘ۔ you
×€î him
×€ã her
€° it
LESSON 3: Present Tense (cont.) and Direct Object

When conjugating the verb º‘Ñ, we added ™’þéò, ™’é‘Ë, ™’é‘ò, etc. to the verb root.
For the following two verbs, we add ’þéò, ’é‘Ë, ’é‘ò, etc. to the verb root.

—°‘¨ (to) touch ‡é’ (to) throw


µ‘ò —°‘¨’þéò. I touch. µ‘ò ‡é’’þéò. I throw.
µ“ —°‘¨’é‘Ë. You touch. µ“ ‡é’’é‘Ë. You throw.
×ò —°‘¨’é‘ò. He touches. ×ò ‡é’’é‘ò. He throws.
×è —°‘¨’é‘è. She touches. ×è ‡é’’é‘è. She throws.
³ —°‘¨’é³. It touches. ³ ‡é’’é³. It throws.

Look at the two example sentences below:

Ex. He throws the ball.


subject: he
verb: throws
direct object: ball

Ex. I see him.


subject: I
verb: see
direct object: him

In a sentence, the action of the verb is performed by the subject on the direct object.

In general, the direct object answers the questions "What?" or "Whom?"


Referring to the examples above, we can ask: What does he throw? the ball
Whom do I see? him
Pronoun/Noun Direct Object Pronoun/Noun Direct Object
I me µ‘ò ‡ò€î
you you µ“ …ò€î
he him ×ò ×€î
she her ×è ×€ã
it it ³ €°
ball ball º¹³ º¹€°
food food …«Ú …«€×

In Thamil, the general rule for forming the direct object is: noun + -‰
Examples:
‡ò€î¿ º‘Ñ! Look at me!
×è º¹€° þÀþÒ ‡é’’é‘è. She throws the ball up.
€°´ —°‘¨! Touch it!
×ò …«€×¿ º‘Ñ™’é‘ò. He looks at the food.
Exercises
1. Translate to English. 2. Translate to Thamil.
a. µ‘ò …ò€î¿ º‘Ñ™’þéò. a. She sees the food inside.
b. ×ò º¹€° …èþ㠇钍’é‘ò. b. Come outside! Throw the ball outside!
c. ³ ‡ò€î´ —°‘¨’é³. c. He throws the food down.
d. º¹€° ƒ›þ ‡é’! d. It looks at her. / It sees her.
e. µ“ …«€×´ —°‘¨’é‘Ë. e. It touches him.
f. She throws it there.
3. Memorize the following words:
°Ú door ¹° that
°’é (to) open —ºª¦ ox
ב› to) buy œª€¥ shirt
ƒ¹° this ¾ flower
LESSON 4: Plural and Respective Pronouns
In Thamil, there are two pronouns for the English pronoun "we".
They are µ‘Å and µ‘›è.
When using µ‘Å, the person being spoken to is included in "we."
When using µ‘›è, the person being spoken to is NOT included in "we."
Examples:
1. When telling a neighbor about your family vacation, you might say, "We spent 6 weeks in
Thamil Naadu." Here, the word µ‘›è would be used for "we" because the person being
spoken to (here: neighbor) is excluded from the we (here: your family).
2. When speaking to your family members about an idea for a family vacation, you might say,
"We should all travel to Thamil Naadu this summer." In this case, the word µ‘Å would be
used for "we" because the people being spoken to (here: your family) are included in the we
(here: your family).

The pronoun µ“›è has two meanings. It can mean "you all." Or it can be used for "you" to
give respect. µ“ is used for "you" only if respectful addressing is not necessary.

The pronoun ×Ñ is used for "he" or "she" when giving respect. ×ò and ×è are used for
"he" and "she" only if respectful addressing is not necessary.

The pronoun ×эè has two meanings. It can mean "they." Or it can be used in place of
×Ñ.

Pronoun Direct Object Pronoun Direct Object


he/she him/her ×Ñ ×€Ì
we us µ‘Å µÅ€À
we us µ‘›è ‡›€ã
you (all) you (all) µ“›è …›€ã
they them ×Ñè ×э€ã

The following chart shows the Present Tense Verb Endings for each pronoun.

Pronoun Present Tense Verb Ending


I µ‘ò (™)’þéò = (™)’í + ˆò
you µ“ (™)’é‘Ë = (™)’í + ‚Ë
he ×ò (™)’é‘ò = (™)’í + ‚ò
she ×è (™)’é‘è = (™)’í + ‚è
it ³ (™)’é³ = (™)’í + ³
he/she ×Ñ (™)’é‘Ñ = (™)’í + ‚Ñ
we µ‘Å (™)’þé‘Å = (™)’í + ‹Å
we µ‘›è (™)’þé‘Å = (™)’í + ‹Å
you (all) µ“›è (™)’é“эè = (™)’í + „эè
they ×эè (™)’é‘эè = (™)’í + ‚эè
°’é forms the present tense by adding ™’þéò, ™’é‘Ë, ™’é‘ò, etc.
ב› forms the present tense by adding ’þéò, ’é‘Ë, ’é‘ò, etc.

°’é (to) open ב› (to) buy


µ‘ò °’降’þéò. I open. µ‘ò ב›’þéò. I buy.
µ“ °’降’é‘Ë. You open. µ“ ב›’é‘Ë. You buy.
×ò °’降’é‘ò. He opens. ×ò ב›’é‘ò. He buys.
×è °’降’é‘è. She opens. ×è ב›’é‘è. She buys.
³ °’降’é³. It opens. ³ ב›’é³. It buys.
×Ñ °’降’é‘Ñ. He/She opens. ×Ñ ×‘›’é‘Ñ. He/She buys.
µ‘Å °’降’þé‘Å. We open. µ‘Šב›’þé‘Å. We buy.
µ‘›è °’降’þé‘Å. We open. µ‘›è ב›’þé‘Å. We buy.
µ“›è °’降’é“эè. You (all) open. µ“›è ב›’é“эè. You (all) buy.
×Ñè °’降’é‘эè. They open. ×эè ב›’é‘эè. They buy.

Exercises
1. Translate to Thamil.
a. We µ‘Å) buy it here.
b. Father sees that ball. He throws it outside.
c. You all see them. / You all look at them.
d. This dog (µ‘Ë) opens the door.
e. She touches us (µÅ€À).
f. Father, you are buying food.
g. They look up.
h. He touches them.

2. Memorize all pronouns and their uses.

3. Memorize the following verbs and conjugate each in the present tense with
×Ñ, µ‘Å, µ‘›è, µ“›è, and ×эè. (20 sentences total)
—œË (to) do ’þéò, ’é‘Ë, ’é‘ò, etc.
…¯ (to) eat ’þéò, ’é‘Ë, ’é‘ò, etc.
…ª‘Ñ (to) sit ’þéò, ’é‘Ë, ’é‘ò, etc.
—‘¨ (to) give ™’þéò, ™’é‘Ë, ™’é‘ò, etc.
LESSON 5: Direct Object (cont.)

As demonstrated earlier, the direct object of most nouns ending in -… is formed by adding ‰.
Noun Direct Object
…«Ú …«€×
º¹³ º¹€°
°Ú °€×

For nouns ending in -ƒ, -„, and -‰, the direct object is formed by adding €Æ.
Noun Direct Object
—ºª¦ —ºª¦€Æ
°“ °“€Æ
ϻ۴ ϻ۴ۮ

Nouns ending in all other vowels add €× to form the direct object.
Noun Direct Object
ÅÀ‘ ÅÀ‘€×
¾ ¾€×

Exercises
1. Write the direct object of the following nouns.
a. œ“¿½ comb e. ‘³ ear
b. ¿º‘ father f. „ housefly
c. € hand g. µ’Ò‘ moon
d. ´°’ knife h. þ×€Ò work
2. Translate
a. The fly sees you. f. She buys that shirt.
b. I see the fly. g. You touch father.
c. He opens the box. h. I throw the flower outside.
d. Open this door! i. It touches the moon.
e. We (µ‘›è) eat the food. j. You do this work!

3. Thamil verbs are divided into 7 classes. Memorize the following verbs and the corresponding
verb class.
—œË1
‡é’2
ב›3
ѡԬ4
…¯5
º‘Ñ6
°’é7
LESSON 6: Present Tense Conjugation

The verb classes are used to systematically describe the past, present, and future tense
conjugation of verbs. Each new verb should be learned along with its class.

Present Tense Conjugation


Classes 1-5 Root + ’í + ˆò, ‚Ë, ‚ò, etc.
Classes 6-7 Root + ™’í + ˆò, ‚Ë, ‚ò, etc.

Exercises
1. For each of the following verbs, conjugate it in the present tense with the given
noun/pronoun.
a. à1 µ“ (to) cry
b. —‘¨6 µ‘Å (to) give
7
c. µ¥ ×è (to) walk
5
d. °’ò µ‘Ë (to) eat
4
e. þº‘¨ ×ò (to) put
f. à›3 ×эè (to) sleep
g. …ª‘Ñ2 µ‘ò (to) sit

2. Give the classes of the following verbs:


a. —°‘¨ e. º‘Ñ
b. —œË f. ‡é’
c. °’é g. ב›
d. …¯

3. Memorize the following words:


ד¨ house ˜¯¨ cage
‚ì river ˜¨ nest
À‘¨ cow þœ‘ì cooked rice
×Æ’ì stomach þÀ¨ hill
‘íì wind
’«ì well
Æ’ì rope
×’€ãÆ‘ª¨ game
‚¯¨ year
òì calf
ׯ¨ beetle
LESSON 7: ¨ and ì Endings-Direct Object (cont.)

Some nouns ending in ¨ and ì follow a special rule for forming the direct object. Look at the
following list of nouns and their direct objects:
Noun Direct Object
×’€ãÆ‘ª¨ ×’€ãÆ‘ª€¥
‚¯¨ ‚¯€¥
òì ò€é
‘íì ‘í€é
ד¨ דª€¥
À‘¨ À‘ª€¥
‚ì ‚í€é
×Æ’ì ×Æ’í€é

When a noun ends in ¨/ì that is not preceded by a dotted consonant, the ¨/ì becomes ª¨/íì
before adding ‰ to form the direct object.

Exercises
1. Write the direct object of the following nouns:
a. ‘¨ field; forest h. º‘ª¨ song
b. Æ’ì rope i. ׯ¨ beetle
c. ’«ì well j. Ì¯¦ spoon
d. ¾€î cat k. ™‘ elder sister
e. þ‘ king l. ³¯¨ towel; piece
f. °€Ò head m. ‚¨ goat
g. °À’â µ‘¨

2. Translate
a. He chases the cat. (to) chase = ³Ì´³3
b. We (µ‘Å) build that house. (to) build = ª¨3
c. She holds the spoon. (to) hold = º’¦6
d. They cross the river. (to) cross = ¥7
e. I touch the cow.
f. The dog chews the rope. (to) chew = —ÀÖ1
g. You (all) throw the box.
LESSON 8: Direct Object (cont.)

Nouns ending in Å form the direct object by dropping the Å and adding ´€°.

, ƒ, …, ‡, Š are short vowels.


One syllable nouns containing a short vowel form the direct object by doubling the final
consonant and adding ‰.

All other nouns form the direct object by simply adding ‰ to the final consonant.
Examples
Noun Direct Object
ÀÌÅ ÀÌ´€° tree, wood
ºÝÅ ºÝ´€° fruit
ºÖ ºÖ€Ò tooth
º‘Ö º‘€Ò milk
Ö Ö€Ò rock, stone
‘Ö ‘€Ò leg, foot
—µË —µË€Æ melted butter
‘Ë ‘€Æ vegetable

Exercises
1. Write the direct object forms of the following nouns.
a. ௠column, pillar
b. —º¯ girl, female
c. ‚¯ boy, male
d. ¦°Å letter
e. ‘€Ò morning
f. °À’Ý“ÝÅ
g. Ãè thorn
h. þ‘ºÅ anger
i. µ’ÒÅ land
j. °¯«“Ñ cold water
k. À€Ý rain
l. ×‘Ë mouth
m. ׯ¦ cart
n. º‘Ž snake

2. Translate
a. She writes the letter. (to) write = ‡à³3
b. We (µ‘›è) drink water. (to) drink = ¦6
c. They plow the land. (to) plow = …à1
d. I open an eye. (to) open = °’é7
e. The cart goes. (to) go = þº‘3
f. The king says it. (to) say = —œ‘Ö4
g. Father throws this rock.
h. He sees the girl. / He looks at the girl. (to) see = ‘¯5
LESSON 9: Future Tense

The future tense is formed as follows:


[NOTE: ³ is an exception to this rule. Its future tense conjugation will be introduced later.]

Future Tense Conjugation


Classes 1-4 Root + Ü + ˆò, ‚Ë, ‚ò, ‚è, etc.
Class 5 Root + ¿ + ˆò, ‚Ë, ‚ò, ‚è, etc.
Classes 6-7 Root + ¿¿ + ˆò, ‚Ë, ‚ò, ‚è, etc.

Examples
µ‘ò —œËþ×ò. I will do.
µ‘ò ‡é’þ×ò. I will throw.
µ‘ò ב›þ×ò. I will buy.
µ‘ò —°‘¨þ×ò. I will touch.
µ‘ò …¯þºò. I will eat.
µ‘ò º‘Ñ¿þºò. I will see.
µ‘ò °’é¿þºò. I will open.

Exercises
1. Form the future tense of the following verbs with the pronouns listed.
a. —×Ö1 µ‘ò (to) win, conquer
6
b. ã’ ×эè (to) bathe
7
c. ºé ×è (to) fly
5
d. ‘¯ µ“
e. ×’à2 ×ò (to) fall
3
f. þ°¨ ×Ñ (to) search
4
g. ½é¿º¨ µ‘Å (to) leave, depart

2. Translate the following sentences.


a. We (µ‘›è) will build a big house. big = —ºÌ’Æ; (to) build = ª¨3
b. I will eat cooked rice tomorrow. tomorrow = µ‘€ã; (to) eat = …¯5
c. You will eat murukku. Ã왐; (to) eat [snacks] = °’ò5
d. Father will catch this fish. (to) catch = º’¦6
e. Tomorrow mother will forget it. (to) forget = Àé7
f. We (µ‘Å) will sit there.
g. They will graze the cow. (to) graze = þÀË6
h. Elder brother will kill the snake. elder brother = ¯«ò; (to) kill = —‘Ö1
i. Elder sister will step on the beetle. elder sister = ™‘; (to) step on = À’°’6
j. She will eat this sauce. She likes it. sauce = ÝŽ; (to) eat = œ‘¿º’¨4
(to) like = ×’ÏŽ3
LESSON 10: Irregular Verbs

The following verbs are irregular in the present and future tenses. To conjugate these verbs in
the present and future tenses, the roots undergo a change when making the present stem and
future stem.

Root Modified Root


(to) ask þè5 → þª
(to) give °‘2 → °Ï
(to) come ב2 → ×Ï
(to) stand µ’Ö5 → µ’í
(to) sell ×’Ö5 → ×’í

Examples
Root Present Tense Future Tense
þè5 µ‘ò þª’þéò. µ‘ò þªþºò.
µ’Ö5 µ“ µ’퍒é‘Ë. µ“ µ’íº‘Ë.
ב2 ×ò ×ύ’é‘ò. ×ò ×Ïבò.

In Thamil, the word “a” = ŠÏ and the word “an” = ‹Ñ


The rules for using ŠÏ and ‹Ñ are the same as the rules for using “a” and “an” in English.
ŠÏ is used for nouns that begin with a consonant. ‹Ñ is used for nouns that begin with a
vowel. ŠÏ and ‹Ñ are also used for the word “one” when it is used as an adjective (e.g. one
eye, one box).

Exercises
1. Conjugate the verbs in both the present and future tenses with the given pronoun and direct
object. Then write the English translation of each sentence.
a. þè5; ×è; radio = ב—î‘Ò’
b. °‘2; ×Ñ; ºÝÅ
c. ב2; workers = þ×€Ò™‘Ìэè
d. µ’Ö5; µ‘ò; …èþã
e. ×’Ö5; µ‘›è; rope = Æ’ì

2. Translate the following phrases.


a. one girl girl = —º¯
b. a male male = ‚¯
c. a dog dog = µ‘Ë
d. one goat goat = ‚¨
e. one plant plant = —œ¦
f. a hand hand = €
Lesson 11: The Respective Command

The respective command is used when addressing someone with respect or when addressing a
group of people.

Respective Command = Root + -…›è


[Roots ending in -… or - add ›è]

Root Respective Command


—œË1 —œËÉ›è
‡é’2 ‡é’É›è
ב›3 ב››è
—°‘¨4 —°‘¨›è
…¯5 …¯®›è
º‘Ñ6 º‘Ï›è
œ€À6 œ€ÀÉ›è
°’é7 °’雍è
ב2 בϛè
þº‘3 þº‘›è

Notice that the respective command is formed according to similar rules as the Noun + ‰
for the direct object. Verbs like ‡é’2 and œ€À6 add É›è because they end in -ƒ and -‰.
—œË1 and …¯5 form the respective command by doubling the final consonant before adding
…›è.
The respective commands of the irregular verbs ב2 and þº‘3 have also been included in
the chart. The formation of the respective command for these two verbs is also irregular, but it
is regular for verbs like þè5 and µ’Ö5.

Exercises
1. Use the respective command to translate the following English sentences.
a. Buy this dress! dress = º‘ב€¥
b. Eat the cooked rice! (to) eat = …¯5
c. Put the bag down! (to) put = þº‘¨4
d. Help the girl! (to) help = …°Ú3; girl = º‘¿º‘, —º¯
e. Call him! (to) call = ˜¿º’¨4
f. Do the work!
g. Look there! [use ‘¯5]

2. Translate the following sentences to English.


a. —×ã’þÆ þº‘›è!
b. °€×´ °’雍è!
c. ƒ¹° á€Ò¿ º¦É›è!
d. ŠÏ º‘ª€¥¿ º‘¨›è!
e. ³«’€Æ´ ³€×É›è!
f. ƒ›þ בϛè!
LESSON 12: Plural

The general rule for converting a singular noun to the plural form follows:

Plural = Noun + è

Formation of the plural involves advanced topics that will be discussed in detail. For now, it is
important to make note of the following two exceptions to the general rule:

Nouns ending in a long vowel (‚, „, †, ˆ, ‹) add ™è

Nouns ending in Å change the Å to › upon addition of è

Examples
Noun Plural
ÀÌÅ ÀÌ›è
µ’Ò‘ µ’Ò‘™è
¾ ¾™è

Exercises
1. Write the plural form of the following singular nouns.
a. ×’Ý‘ festival, party
b. ד¨ house
c. À“ò fish
d. ¯ eye
e. ‘Ö foot
f. º¥Å picture
g. ºÝÅ fruit
h. ½é‘ pigeon
i. „ fly

2. Translate the following sentences to Thamil.


a. They will buy pens. pen = þºî‘
b. Mother will pluck flowers. (to) pluck = ºé’6
c. A goat chases the students. goat = ‚¨; (to) chase = ³Ì´³3
student = À‘«×Ñ
d. The students will chase the dog.
LESSON 13: The Infinitive

Like the verb root, the infinitive verb form is used extensively in Thamil. The infinitive is
formed as follows:

Infinitive
Classes 1-5 Root + 
Classes 6-7 Root + ™

Regular Verbs Irregular Verbs


Root Infinitive Root Infinitive
1 3
—œË —œËÆ þº‘ þº‘
1 2
à Ý ב ×Ì
‚è1 ‚ã °‘2 °Ì
2 5
‡é’ ‡é’Æ þè þª
2 5
…ª‘Ñ …ª‘Ì µ’Ö µ’í
2 5
¸€Ý ¸€ÝÆ ×’Ö ×’í
ב›3 ב›
ѡԬ4 ѡԴ
5
…¯ …¯«
5
‘¯ ‘«
º‘Ñ6 º‘Ñ™
°’é7 °’降

The Root +  infinitive is formed according to the same rules as the Noun + ‰ direct object.
For example, ‡é’2 and ¸€Ý2 form the infinitive by adding Æ. —œË1 and …¯5 form the
infinitive by doubling the final consonant and adding .

The infinitive forms of irregular verbs have to be memorized individually.

Exercises
1. Write the infinitive of the following verbs.
a. ÀÑ2 (to) sit
b. —ºË1 (to) rain
c. …°Ú3 (to) help
5
d. °’ò
e. ¯¨º’¦6 (to) find
f. þº‘¨4 (to) put

2. Based on your knowledge of verb classes and present tense conjugation, write the root and
the infinitive form of the verb in each of the following sentences. Identify whether the root is
in Classes 1-4, Class 5, or Classes 6-7.
a. ×Ñ …€Ý™’é‘Ñ. verb = (to) toil
b. ×è ×€Ò¿º¨×‘è. verb = (to) worry
c. ¾€î ‹¨’é³. verb = (to) run; cat = ¾€î
d. µ‘ò œ’Ì’¿þºò. verb = (to) laugh, smile
LESSON 14: Future Tense of ³

Future tense verb form for the pronoun ³ = Infinitive + …Å

Root Infinitive Future Tense for ³


—œË1 —œËÆ ³ —œËÉÅ.
‡é’2 ‡é’Æ ³ ‡é’ÉÅ.
ב›3 ב› ³ ב›Å.
—°‘¨4 —°‘¥ ³ —°‘¨Å.
…¯5 …¯« ³ …¯®Å.
º‘Ñ6 º‘Ñ™ ³ º‘Ñ™Å.
°’é7 °’降 ³ °’限Å.

Exercises
1. For each verb root, give the infinitive and conjugate in the future tense with ³.
a. …€°6
b. —œÖ1
c. ƒÏ7
d. —ºì4
e. ×’ÏŽ3
f. Ď7

2. Translate the following sentences.


a. The bird will build a nest. bird = ºé€×; (to) build = ª¨3; nest = ˜¨
b. This goat will bite you. goat = ‚¨; (to) bite = ¦6
c. The flower will bloom. flower = ¾; (to) bloom = ¾6
d. It will be inside. (to) be = ƒÏ7
e. The calf will be born. calf = òì; (to) be born = º’é7
f. The wound will heal. wound = ½¯; (to) heal = ‚ì3

3. Memorize the following words:

¨´° next ˆ—îòé‘Ö because


בÌÅ week °î‘Ö as a result
‚¯¨ year ‚ therefore
‚î‘Ö but, however À캦ÉÅ again
LESSON 15: The Negative Command

The negative commands are formed as follows:

Negative command = Infinitive + ‚þ°


Negative respective command = Infinitive + ‚°“эè

As with the positive respective command, the negative respective command is used when
addressing someone with respect or when addressing a group of people.

Root Infinitive Negative Command Negative Respective Command


—œË1 —œËÆ —œËÆ‘þ° —œËÆ‘°“эè
‡é’2 ‡é’Æ ‡é’Æ‘þ° ‡é’Æ‘°“эè
ב›3 ב› ב›‘þ° ב›‘°“эè
—°‘¨4 —°‘¥ —°‘¥‘þ° —°‘¥‘°“эè
…¯5 …¯« …¯«‘þ° …¯«‘°“эè
º‘Ñ6 º‘Ñ™ º‘Ñ™‘þ° º‘Ñ™‘°“эè
°’é7 °’降 °’降‘þ° °’降‘°“эè

Exercises
1. Translate the following sentences using the negative command and negative respective
command.
a. Do not watch television! Read this book! television = —°‘€Ò™‘ªœ’; book = áÖ
b. Do not play here! Go outside!
c. Do not bite the candy! Suck it! candy = À’ª¥‘Ë; (to) bite = ¦6; (to) suck = œ¿½3
d. Do not buy this shirt! Buy that doll! doll = —º‘ŀÀ
e. Do not throw the ball here!

2. Translate the following sentences.


a. µ‘ò ŠÏ á€Ò¿ º¦™’þéò. ‚î‘Ö ×è —œË°’´°‘€ã¿ º¦¿º‘è.
book = áÖ; newspaper = —œË°’´°‘è
b. ™‘ °Åº’€Æ ¦™’é‘è. °î‘Ö ×ò à’é‘ò.
(to) cry = à2
c. µ‘Å …èþã þº‘þבÅ. ˆ—îòé‘Ö › µ‘Ë µÅ€À´ ³Ì´³’é³.
(to) chase = ³Ì´³3
d. ƒòì À€Ý —ºËÉÅ. ‚ ×Ñ µ‘€ã µ’Ò´€° …àבÑ.
rain = À€Ý; (to) rain = —ºË1; land = µ’ÒÅ; (to) plow = …à1

3. Memorize the following:


þµíì yesterday
ƒòì today
µ‘€ã tomorrow
…¥þî immediately
°’§—Ìî suddenly
µ’€éÆ a lot
þº‘î previous (e.g. previous week, last week = þº‘î בÌÅ)
LESSON 16: Past Tense

Class 1 and 2 verbs form the past tense as follows:

Past Tense
Class 1 Root + ´ + ˆò, ‚Ë, ‚ò, etc.
Class 1 (Root ends in Ö) Ö→ òí + ˆò, ‚Ë, ‚ò, etc.
Class 1 (Root ends in è) è→ ¯ª + ˆò, ‚Ë, ‚ò, etc.
Class 2 Root + ¹´ + ˆò, ‚Ë, ‚ò, etc.

Root Past Stem Past Tense


—œË1 —œË´ µ‘ò —œËþ°ò.
—œÖ1 —œòí µ‘ò —œòþéò. —œÖ1 = (to) go
‚è1 ‚¯ª µ‘ò ‚¯þ¥ò. ‚è1 = (to) rule
…ª‘Ñ2 …ª‘ѹ´ µ‘ò …ª‘ѹþ°ò.

Exercises
1. For each of the following verbs, conjugate it in the past tense with the given noun/pronoun.
a. —ºË2 À€Ý (to) rain
b. ×ãÑ2 µ‘Ë (to) grow
c. ×’à2 ×Ñ (to) fall
d. —œÖ1 µ“ (to) go
e. íì™—‘è1 µ‘ò (to) learn

2. Translate the following sentences.


a. It rained last week. rain = À€Ý; (to) rain = —ºË1
b. I killed the flies. fly = „; (to) kill = —‘Ö1
c. They won the competition. competition = þº‘ª¦; (to) win = —×Ö1
d. We (µ‘›è) sat outside.
e. He threw the ball up suddenly.
f. That girl fell down. (to) fall = ×’à2
g. We did a lot of work (to) do = —œË1; work = þ׀Ò
h. The king ruled the country. (to) rule = ‚è1; king = Ìœò; country = µ‘¨
i. A girl cried yesterday. (to) cry = à1
LESSON 17: Past Tense (cont.)

The past tense forms of Class 5 verbs are irregular and will be covered in a later lesson.
The past tense of verbs in Classes 3, 4, 6, and 7 is formed as follows:

Past Tense
Class 3 Root + ò + ˆò, ‚Ë, ‚ò, etc.
Class 4 (Root ends in ¨) ¨→ªª + ˆò, ‚Ë, ‚ò, etc.
Class 4 (Root ends in ì) ì→íí + ˆò, ‚Ë, ‚ò, etc.
Class 6 Root + ´´ + ˆò, ‚Ë, ‚ò, etc.
Class 7 Root + ¹´ + ˆò, ‚Ë, ‚ò, etc.

Root Past Stem Past Tense


ב›3 ב›’ò µ‘ò ב›’þîò.
œ‘¿º’¨4 œ‘¿º’ªª µ‘ò œ‘¿º’ªþ¥ò.
—ºì4 —ºíí µ‘ò —ºíþéò. (to) get, receive = —ºì4
º‘Ñ6 º‘Ñ´´ µ‘ò º‘Ñ´þ°ò.
ƒÏ7 ƒÏ¹´ µ‘ò ƒÏ¹þ°ò. (to) be = ƒÏ7

In addition to the form given above, the past tense verb of ³ can be formed in two other
ways. All three forms are given below. The last one is most common.
Past Tense verb form for ³
1. Root + ò + ³ ³ ב›’î³.
2. Root + Ë + ³ ³ ב›’Ƴ.
3. Root + ƒíì ³ ב›’íì.

Exercises
1. For each of the following verbs, conjugate it in the past tense with the given noun/pronoun.
a. à›3 µ“›è (to) sleep
b. ½é¿º¨4 µ‘Å (to) leave, depart
c. ƒé7 ×Ñ (to) die
6
d. ã’ µ“ (to) bathe
7
e. ºé ºé€× (to) fly
f. ´³3 À‘¨ (to) moo
2. Translate the following sentences.
a. Mother folded the towels. (to) fold = À¦6; towel = ³¯¨
b. I swept the floor again. (to) sweep = ˜ª¨3; floor = °€Ì
c. We received a present. (to) receive = —ºì4; present = ºÌ’Ÿ
d. The baby walked outside. (to) walk = µ¥7; baby = Ý¹€°
e. They pulled the rope. (to) pull = ƒà7; rope = ã™
f. She shot a gun. (to) shoot = Ÿ¨4; gun = ³¿º‘™’
g. He ate this food. (to) eat = œ‘¿º’¨4; food = …«Ú
h. The horse jumped over the fence. horse = °’€Ì;(to) jump over = °‘¯¨3;fence = þ×Ò’
i. I screamed. As a result, father became angry.
(to) scream = ´³3; (to) become angry = þ‘º¿º¨4
LESSON 18: Memorizing Verb Classes and Conjugation Rules

So far, we have learned the rules for form the past, present, and future verb tense. The
easiest way to learn and master these rules is to memorize a representative set of verb
conjugations. If you can memorize the past, present, and future verb conjugations for a given
verb in a specific verb class, then you can easily regenerate the conjugation rules for that verb
class.
For example, suppose you encounter a new verb, °èæ3, (to) push. If you want to
conjugate in the past, present, and future tenses, you simply recall the conjugation of the Class 3
verb ב›3:
ב›’þéò, ב›þ×ò, ב›’þîò. By analogy, you can determine the conjugation of
°èæ3: °è捒þéò, °èæÜþ×ò, °èã’þîò.
Ideally, the representative set of verb conjugations will contain verbs used frequently in
everyday conversation. The following chart lists the important conjugations of a representative
set of verb roots.

Root Present Tense Future Tense Past Tense


—œË1 —œË’þéò —œËþ×ò —œËþ°ò
—œÖ1 —œòþéò
‚è1 ‚¯þ¥ò
…ª‘Ñ2 …ª‘э’þéò …ª‘Ñþ×ò …ª‘ѹþ°ò
ב›3 ב›’þéò ב›þ×ò ב›’þîò
œ‘¿º’¨4 œ‘¿º’¨’þéò œ‘¿º’¨þ×ò œ‘¿º’ªþ¥ò
—ºì4 —ºíþéò
…¯5 …¯’þéò …¯þºò Irregular
º‘Ñ6 º‘Ñ™’íþéò º‘Ñ¿þºò º‘Ñ´þ°ò
ƒÏ7 ƒÏ™’þéò ƒÏ¿þºò ƒÏ¹þ°ò

Except for ƒÏ7, all Class 7 verbs are made up of two, short syllables and end in -
º’é7 (to) be born; ƒé7 (to) die; ã7 (to) measure; Àé7 (to) forget; µ¥7 (to) walk; °’é7

All regular Class 3 and Class 4 verbs end in -….

Exercises
1. Translate each sentence. Based on the verb conjugations observed in each pair of sentences,
write the verb root and class.
a. µ‘Å þ°›‘€Æ™ ¯¨º’¦¿þº‘Å. µ‘Å þ°›‘€Æ™ ¯¨º’¦´´þ°‘Å.
coconut = þ°›‘Ë; verb = (to) find
b. ׯ¦ µÑ’é³. ׫¦ µÑ¹°³. vehicle, cart = ׯ¦; verb = (to) move
c. µ‘ò º‘€Ò¢ œ’¹³’þéò. µ‘ò º‘€Ò¢ œ’¹°’þîò. milk = º‘Ö; verb = (to) spill
d. µ“ ƒ¹° µ“㴀° ã¿º‘Ë. µ“ ƒ¹° µ“㴀° ã¹°‘Ë.
length = µ“ãÅ; verb = (to) measure
e. À’ò×’œ’é’ ŸÝ֍’é³. À’ò×’œ’é’ ŸÝòé³. electric fan = À’ò×’œ’é’; verb = (to) spin
f. ×Ñ ›þ À’ÌèבÑ. ×Ñ ›þ À’̯¥‘Ñ. verb = (to) be scared
LESSON 19: Past Tense of Irregular Verbs

The past tense verb conjugations of Class 5 verbs are all irregular. Their past stems have to be
memorized individually along with those of the other irregular verbs.

Past Tense Conjugation = Past Stem + ˆò, ‚Ë, ‚ò, etc.

The past tense verb forms of some common irregular verbs are given below:

Root Past Stem Past Tense


(to) come ב2 ×¹´ µ‘ò ×¹þ°ò.
(to) give °‘2 °¹´ µ“ °¹°‘Ë.
(to) be, become ‚/‚3 ‚ò ×ò ‚î‘ò.
(to) go þº‘3 þº‘ò ×è þº‘î‘è.
(to) say —œ‘Ö3 —œ‘òò ³ —œ‘òî³.
(to) eat …¯5 …¯ª ×Ñ …¯¥‘Ñ.
(to) eat °’ò5 °’òí µ‘Å °’òþé‘Å.
(to) ask þè5 þªª µ‘›è þªþ¥‘Å.
(to) stand µ’Ö5 µ’òí µ“›è µ’òé“эè.
(to) sell ×’Ö5 ×’íí ×эè ×’íé‘эè.

The past tense verb forms of the Class 3 Irregular Verbs with ³ are given below:
Root Past Tense for ³
3
‚/‚ ‚î³, ‚’Ƴ, ‚Æ’íì
3
þº‘ þº‘î³, þº‘Æ’íì
—œ‘Ö3 —œ‘òî³, —œ‘ÖҒƳ, —œ‘ÖÒ’íì

Exercises
1. For each of the following verbs, conjugate it in the past tense with the given noun/pronoun.
a. µ’Ö5 µ‘ò
2
b. ב ×Ñ
3
c. þº‘ µ‘›è

2. Translate the following sentences.


a. We sold the balls. (to) sell = ×’Ö5; ball = º¹³
b. They asked a question. (to) ask = þè5; question = þè×’
c. She said the answer. (to) say = —œ‘Ö4; answer = º°’Ö
d. You ate that food. (to) eat = …¯5; food = …«Ú
e. The dog ate the murukku. (to) eat = °’ò5; Ã왐
f. Father gave money. (to) give = °‘2; money = º«Å
LESSON 20: The Indirect Object

The indirect object of a sentence is the recipient of the verbal action. In general, the indirect
object answers the questions, “To whom?” or “For whom?”

He throws me the ball. (To whom does he throw the ball? me)
Subject: He
Verb: (to) throw
Direct object: the ball
Indirect object: me

I bought this present for you. (For whom did I buy the present? you)
Subject: I
Verb: (to) buy
Direct object: present
Indirect object: you

In Thamil, the suffix (…)™ is used for the indirect object.

The indirect object forms of pronouns are irregular and listed below:
Pronoun Indirect Object Pronoun Indirect Object
I to/for me µ‘ò ‡î™
you to/for you µ“ …
he to/for him ×ò ×ñ™
she to/for her ×è ×晐
he/she to/for him/her ×Ñ ×Ñ™
it to/for it ³ ³™
we to/for us µ‘Å µÀ™
we to/for us µ‘›è ‡›æ™
you (all) to/for you (all) µ“›è …›æ™
they to/for them ×Ñè ×э晐

Exercises
1. Translate the following sentences:
a. ™‘ ×ñ™¿ —º‘ŀÀ€Æ™ —‘¨™’é‘è. doll = —º‘ŀÀ
b. ‡î™ ŠÏ œª€¥€Æ´ €°É›è! shirt = œª€¥; (to) stitch = €°6
c. µ‘ò …›æ™¿ ºÌ’Ÿ€ã ב›þ×ò. present = ºÌ’Ÿ
d. Father shows the newspaper to us. (to) show = ‘ª¨3; newspaper = —œË°’´°‘è
e. I drew a picture for her. (to) draw = ׀Ì2; picture = º¥Å
f. She sold me that ball. (to) sell = ×’Ö5; ball = º¹³
g. They built this house for us. (to) build = ª¨3; house = ד¨
h. Do not throw the ball to them! (to) throw = ‡é’2; ball = º¹³
i. I will find a pen for you. (to) find = ¯¨º’¦6; pen = þºî‘
j. Cook food for her! (to) cook = œ€À6; food = …«Ú
k. You all do this work for him! (to) do = —œË1; work = þ׀Ò
LESSON 21: Noun + (…)™

The rules for adding (…)™ to nouns are in many ways similar to the rules for adding ‰
For nouns ending in ¨/ì not preceded by a dotted consonant, the ¨/ì becomes ª¨/íì
before adding ™.
All other nouns ending in vowels simply add ™.
Noun Noun + (…)™
°Ú °Ú™ door
—ºª¦ —ºª¦™ box
°“ °“™ fire
œª€¥ œª€¥™ shirt
ÅÀ‘ ÅÀ‘™ mother
¾ ¾™ flower
À‘¨ À‘ª¨™ cow
‚ì ‚í왐 river

In general, the Noun + (…)™ construction whenever the words "to" or "for" are used in
English. In addition to forming the indirect object, the Noun + (…)™ construction is used to
show motion to a destination.
Examples: [store = €¥; (to) walk = µ¥7; school = ºèã’]
×ò €¥™¿ þº‘î‘ò. He went to the store.
µ‘ò ºèã’™ µ¥™’þéò. I walk to school.

Exercises
1. Add the (…)™ suffix to the following nouns:
a. œ“¿½ comb i. ‘¨ field; forest q. þ‘ king
b. ¿º‘ father j. º‘ª¨ song r. ³¯¨ towel
c. € hand k. Æ’ì rope s. °€Ò head
d. ´°’ knife l. ׯ¨ beetle t. ‚¨ goat
e. ‘³ ear m. ’«ì well u. °À’ⵑ¨
f. „ housefly n. Ì¯¦ spoon v. ×Æ’ì stomach
g. µ’Ò‘ moon o. ¾€î cat.
h. þ×€Ò work p. ™‘ elder sister

2. Translate the following sentences:


a. The bird will fly to Thamil Naadu. (to) fly = ºé7; bird = ºé€×
b. I give a banana to the goat. (to) give = —‘¨6; banana = ב€Ý¿ºÝÅ
c. She walked home. (to) walk = µ¥7
d. We will run to the store. (to) run = ‹¨3; store = €¥
e. I give the money to little brother. (to) give = °‘2; money = º«Å
f. Go to the river! (to) go = þº‘3; river = ‚ì
g. They went to the well. (to) go = —œÖ1; well = ’«ì
h. The farmer gives straw to the cow. farmer = …Ý×Ñ; straw = €×™þ‘Ö
LESSON 22: Noun + (…)™ (cont.)

Nouns ending in Å change the Å to ´³ before adding ™.


Nouns ending in Ñ and Ë add ™.
Nouns made up of one, short syllable double the final consonant before adding …™.
Words ending in Ë are an exception to this rule. They add ™ according to the previous rule.
All other nouns ending in consonants add …™.
Noun Noun + (…)™
ÀÌÅ ÀÌ´³™ tree
—µË —µË™ melted butter
‚œ’Ì’ÆÑ ‚œ’Ì’ÆÑ™ teacher
Ö ÖÕ™ rock
º‘Ö º‘Õ™ milk

Exercises
1. Add the (…)™ suffix to the following nouns:
a. ௠column, pillar h. þ‘ºÅ anger
b. —º¯ girl i. µ’ÒÅ land
c. ‚¯ boy j. °¯«“Ñ cold water
d. ¦°Å letter k. ×‘Ë mouth
e. ‘€Ò morning l. ׯ¦ cart, vehicle
f. °À’Ý“ÝÅ m. º‘Ž snake
g. Ãè thorn

2. Translate the following sentences:


a. We give the shirt to the teacher. (to) give = —‘¨6; shirt = œª€¥
b. The teacher will teach for money. (to) teach = íº’6; money = º«Å
c. I will go to Thamileelam. (to) go = —œÖ1; °À’Ý“ÝÅ
d. Do not show the rock to that girl! (to) show = ‘ª¨3; girl = —º¯; rock = Ö
e. Father threw a bone to the dog. (to) throw = ‡é’2; bone = ‡ÕŽ; dog = µ‘Ë
f. They went to this village. (to) go = þº‘3; village = †Ñ
g. Open the door for that son! (to) open = °’é7; son = Àò; door = °Ú
h. The farmer brings the seeds to the field.
(to) bring = —‘¯¨ ב2; field = ×ÆÖ; seed = ×’€°; farmer = …Ý×Ñ
i. Mother will wash the dress for this daughter.
(to) wash = ³€×6; dress = º‘ב€¥; daughter = Àè
j. The driver drove the bus to the bus station.
(to) drive = ‹ª¨3; driver = ‹ª¨µÑ; bus = þºÏ¹³; bus station = þºÏ¹³ µ’€ÒÆÅ
LESSON 23: Past and Present Tense Negative

For ALL pronouns, the past and present tense negative verb form = Infinitive + Ü + ƒÖ€Ò
= Infinitive + ×’Ö€Ò

Present Tense
µ‘ò …ª‘э’þéò. I sit. ×ò …ª‘э’é‘ò. He sits.
µ‘ò …ª‘Ì×’Ö€Ò. I do not sit. ×ò …ª‘Ì×’Ö€Ò. He does not sit.

Past Tense
µ‘ò …ª‘ѹþ°ò. I sat. ×ò …ª‘ѹ°‘ò. He sat.
µ‘ò …ª‘Ì×’Ö€Ò. I did not sit. ×ò …ª‘Ì×’Ö€Ò. He did not sit.

The suffix -‚ is added to change a statement or declarative sentence into a yes/no question.
To answer these questions, use: ‚Å = yes; ƒÖ€Ò = no

×è ×¹°‘ã‘? Did she come?


‚Å, ×è ×¹°‘è. Yes, she came.
ƒÖ€Ò, ×è ×Ì×’Ö€Ò. No, she did not come.

Exercises
1. Translate the following sentences to English.
a. ×Ñè µ’òé‘эã‘? ƒÖ€Ò, ×Ñè …ª‘ѹ°‘эè. ×Ñè …ª‘Ì×’Ö€Ò.
b. º‘¿º‘ œ’Ì’™’é‘ã‘? ƒÖ€Ò, ×è à’é‘è.
c. þµíì דª¨™¿ þº‘î‘эã‘? ƒÖ€Ò, ƒ›þ ƒÏ¹°‘эè. ƒòì
½é¿º¨×‘эã‘?
d. Ý¹€° à›’é°‘? ƒÖ€Ò, Ý¹€° ×’€ãÆ‘¨’é³.

2. Translate the following sentences to Thamil.


a. Does he chase the birds? No, he watches the birds. for (to) watch , use ‘¯5; bird = ºé€×
b. She does not watch the game. for "(to) watch", use º‘Ñ6;
game = ×’€ãÆ‘ª¨
c. Did you swallow a pill? No, you did not swallow a pill. You drank medicine.
(to) swallow = ×’à›3; pill = À‘´°’€Ì; (to) drink = ¦6; medicine = ÀϹ³
d. Is father angry? No, father is not angry? (to) be angry = þ‘º¿º¨4
e. Did you all receive a present? I did not send it.
(to) receive = —ºì4; present = ºÌ’Ÿ; (to) send = ñ¿½3
f. We did not wear shoes outside. shoe = —œÏ¿½; (to) wear = «’2
g. I did not kick the ball. I did not throw the ball. I hit the ball, because I did not win.
(to) kick = …€°6; ball = º¹³; (to) throw = ‡é’2; (to) win = —×Ö1
h. Did she kill a scorpion? (to) kill = —‘Ö1; scorpion = þ°è
i. We study chemistry. We do not study math.
(to) study = º¦6; science = é’×’ÆÖ; math = «™
j. Did it rain? No, it did not rain. It thundered. [Use the nouns for “rain” and “thunder” in
place of “it.”]
rain = À€Ý; (to) rain = —ºË1; thunder = ƒ¦; (to) thunder = ƒ¦6
LESSON 24: Future Tense Negative

Future tense negative for ³ = Infinitive + ‚³


For all other pronouns, future tense negative = Infinitive + À‘ªª + ˆò, ‚Ë, ‚ò, etc.

µ‘ò …ª‘Ñþ×ò. I will sit. ×ò …ª‘Ñבò. He will sit.


µ‘ò …ª‘ÌÀ‘ªþ¥ò. I will not sit. ×ò …ª‘ÌÀ‘ª¥‘ò. He will not sit.

³ …ª‘ÏÅ. It will sit. ³ ×ÏÅ. It will come.


³ …ª‘Ì‘³. It will not sit. ³ ×Ì‘³. It will not come.

When the Noun + (…)™ construction is used for the word “for” (such that it answers the
question “For whom?” or “For what?”), the suffix -‚ is often added to Noun + (…)™.

×è ‡î™‘ ×Ïבã‘? Will she come for me?


‚Å, ×è …î™‘ ×Ïבè. Yes, she will come for you.
ƒÖ€Ò, ×è …î™‘ ×ÌÀ‘ª¥‘è. No, she will not come for you.

Exercises
1. Translate the following sentences.
a. Did he sell this farm for her? He did not sell it. Will he sell it next year? No, he will
not sell the farm.
(to) sell = ×’Ö5; farm = þ°‘ª¥Å; next year = ¨´° ‚¯¨
b. This camel drinks water now. It will not drink tomorrow.
camel = Šª¥Å; (to) drink = ¦6; now = ƒ¿—º‘à³; tomorrow = µ‘€ã
c. I will not spill the milk. (to) spill = œ’¹³3; milk = º‘Ö
d. They bought murukku for me. They will not buy it for you. murukku = Ã왐
e. Will you cut the vegetables for mother?
(to) cut vegetables = µì™3; vegetable(s) = ‘ˍé’
f. We will not read a book. (to) read = º¦6; book = áÖ
g. You all will not sleep here again.
(to) sleep = à›3; here = ƒ›þ; again = À캦ÉÅ
h. She washes clothes for me. (to) wash = ³€×6; clothes = ³«’
i. She will not cook food for us. (to) cook = œ€À6; food = …«Ú
j. I did not send a letter to you. (to) send = ñ¿½3; letter = ¦°Å
k. Will you all turn the light off for me? (to) turn off = €«6; light = ג㙐
l. We will not do this work. (to) do = —œË1; work = þ׀Ò
m. I will not touch a snake. (to) touch = —°‘¨4; snake = º‘Ž
n. Father will not sit outside.
LESSON 25: Habitual Verbs - Present Tense vs. Future Tense

In English, when a verb expresses something that occurs habitually or on a regular basis, the
verb is always conjugated in the present tense. In Thamil, these verbs are conjugated in the
future tense.

Examples
We watch movies. µ‘›è °’€Ì¿º¥›€ã¿ º‘Ñ¿þº‘Å.
I do not read this newspaper. µ‘ò ¹°¢ —œË°’´°‘€ã¿ º¦™ À‘ªþ¥ò.
He walks to school. ×ò ºèã’™ µ¥¿º‘ò.
She takes this bag to the office.
×è ƒ¹°¿ €º€Æ Õ×ҍ´³™ ‡¨´³™—‘¯¨ þº‘בè.

Exercises
1. Translate the following sentences containing habitual verb forms to Thamil.
a. Mother does not make vadai. vadai = ׀¥; (to) make vadai = Ÿ¨4
b. He often looks down. often = ¦™¦; (to) look = º‘Ñ6; down = “þÝ
c. She wears a lot of jewellery. (to) wear = «’2; a lot = µ’€éÆ; jewellery = µ€
d. We go to work every day. (to) go = —œÖ1; work = þ׀Ò; every day = òé‘¥Å
e. Father does not wash the clothes. Mother washes the clothes.
(to) wash = ³€×6; clothes = ³«’
f. They ask a lot of questions. (to) ask = þè5; question = þè×’
g. He does not cook. Therefore, he buys food. (to) cook = œ€À6; (to) buy = ב›3
h. This dog barks, but it does not bite. (to) bark = €Ì6; (to) bite = ¦6
i. It rains during the month of Aippasi. Aippasi = ‰¿ºœ’; rain = À€Ý; (to) rain = —ºË1
j. The wind blows during the month of Aadi. Aadi = ‚¦; wind = ‘íì; (to) blow = דŸ3
k. It does not rain during the month of Maasi. Maasi = À‘œ’