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Terry Prosser

with Jane Revell and Jeremy Harmer

Terry Prosser with Jane Revell and Jeremy Harmer intermediate A Teacher’s Guide
Terry Prosser with Jane Revell and Jeremy Harmer intermediate A Teacher’s Guide

intermediate

A

Teacher’s Guide

Letter to you, the teacher

Hello – and a big welcome to Jetstream Intermediate, the course we’ve written to help your students learn English (and improve what they already know). We’ve used engaging and stimulating topics and activities so that, we believe, students will study successfully and enjoyably.

Our intention has been to blend the familiar (activities and exercises with which teachers and students feel comfortable) with some newer, different features which are intended to add extra depth and interest to the learning experience, for example:

Jetstream is thought-provoking. It gets students to think in a variety of different ways, not only about ideas, but also about the language itself;

• Because we live in a connected digital society, Jetstream often invites students to venture beyond the Student’s Book itself (if they can) and bring what they’ve found and enjoyed back to the classroom;

Jetstream presents a wide variety of people, cultural settings and topics – because learning how to communicate also means learning about the world we all live in;

• Above all, Jetstream encourages students to use the language they’re learning in a grown-up way that fits with our increasingly interconnected world.

The thinking behind Jetstream

Underlying everything in Jetstream are a number of principles that have guided us during the writing process. We believe:

• that what students bring to the learning experience (and the Student’s Book) is as important as what’s between the covers. That’s why students are often asked for their input, and to share (if they want) their stories, thoughts, reactions and opinions;

• that providing a range of stimulating topics – and, crucially, a repertoire of appropriately challenging activities – is the key to successful student involvement, and, therefore, learning;

• in providing students with a range of the most appropriate and useful vocabulary at this level – and offering them different ways of meeting, learning and practising that vocabulary;

• that grammar is important (of course!) and that students need to interact with it in enquiring and creative ways;

• in providing a range of stimulating and appropriate practice and production activities which both bolster students’ knowledge whilst at the same time giving scope for creativity and experimentation.

The Teacher’s Guide

As teachers ourselves, we know how busy and demanding a teacher’s life can be. That’s why Jetstream comes with a Teacher’s Guide which can take you through each lesson, step by step. There’s a wealth of support online, too, including extra material and

practice tests. However – and this is important to stress

– you don’t have to use any of this if you don’t feel like

it. It’s there in case you want it and find it useful, that’s all. But if you’re happy to ‘do your own thing’, that’s wonderful too. We believe that Jetstream allows you considerable flexibility if that’s what you’re after!

So this is Jetstream: a course designed to provide

students with a rich and rewarding learning experience;

a course which we believe is extremely enjoyable to teach with.

Have a good time and good luck!

Jane Revell and Jeremy Harmer

Contents

Letter to you, the teacher Jetstream Intermediate Student’s Book contents

4

Introduction Jetstream Intermediate components

6

Jetstream approach – a summary

7

Unit overview

10

Unit notes Introduction

21

Unit 1

30

Unit 2

47

Units 1&2 Review

63

Unit 3

67

Unit 4

80

Units 3&4 Review

95

Unit 5

98

Unit 6

114

Units 5&6 Review

133

Tasks Teacher’s notes

136

Unit 1

138

Unit 2

138

Unit 3

139

Unit 4

139

Unit 5

140

Unit 6

140

Technique banks Using the video

141

Using memory games

142

Working with mixed-ability classes

143

CONTENTS

Jetstream Intermediate

   

VOCABULARY

GRAMMAR

READING AND LISTENING

SPEAKING AND WRITING

INTRODUCTION

LESSON 1 How would you describe yourself?

VOCABULARY PLUS page

be (R)

 

Talking about yourself Finding out about other people Discussing learning strategies Writing an action plan

61

Present simple (R) Present continuous (R) Past simple (R) want / need (R) Superlatives (R)

page 4

The alphabet review Numbers and symbols review Years and dates review

LESSON 2 How do you want to improve your English?

   

VOCABULARY

GRAMMAR

READING AND LISTENING

SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 1

INTRODUCTION

Words connected with water

   

Doing a quiz to learn more about water

Water

page 7

LESSON 1 A very long way!

 

Present perfect v past simple Infinitive of purpose Reflexive pronouns

Reading: He did it first

Talking about the Ice Bucket Challenge and raising money for charity

LESSON 2 Tap or bottled?

 

Modal verbs: can / can’t, have to / don’t have to, must / mustn’t, ought to / ought not to, should / shouldn’t

Reading: Water

Discussing ways to save water Writing a message explaining things you can do to save water

LESSON 3

Water sports and equipment

 

Listening 1: instructions for doing two water sports Listening 2: a talk about a water sport

Demonstrating and describing a sport Giving a talk about a regular activity

Water activities

EVERYDAY ENGLISH VOCABULARY PLUS p62

Asking for more information Wordbuilder: nouns from verbs; verbs with un-

say and tell

Focus on: could

Networking

   

VOCABULARY

GRAMMAR

READING AND LISTENING

SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 2

INTRODUCTION

TV genres Words that go with drama, show, programme watch v look at

   

Talking about TV and the kinds of programmes you watch

Switch on!

page 15

LESSON 1 Stories from Scandinavia

Adjectives for describing a programme

Adverbs of frequency Used to Used to v usually

Reading: Nordic noir Listening: information about Hans Christian Andersen

Finding out what people watched Writing and filming a vlog about past TV preferences

LESSON 2 The world of telenovelas

 

Present perfect continuous for and since

Reading: Avenida Brasil

Discussing soap opera issues Talking about long-running TV programmes Writing a scene from a soap

LESSON 3

   

Reading: David Attenborough and Claudia Winkleman Listening 1: a conversation about male and female presenters Listening 2: an interview with a former TV presenter

Giving a short presentation about a TV presenter Talking about attitudes to female TV presenters

Influential people

EVERYDAY ENGLISH VOCABULARY PLUS p63

TV talk

Requests and responses

Asking / Telling people not to do things

 

Wordbuilder: un- and im-

used to v get used to

Focus on: verbs of the senses

Phrasal verbs: turn

REVIEW Units 1 & 2 page 23; Aspects of culture: Water festivals

 
   

VOCABULARY

GRAMMAR

READING AND LISTENING

SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 3 What music does

INTRODUCTION

Musical instruments

   

Talking about what instruments people can play

page 25

LESSON 1 Making music differently

Body metaphors (1)

could / was able to / managed to

Reading: Against the odds

Talking about a time you managed to do something Writing about a friend’s experience of a difficult situation

LESSON 2 Music and rubbish

Where to put things

Past continuous; past perfect

Reading: The world sends us garbage. We send back music.

Acting out a TV interview

LESSON 3

Saying what you like

Past conclusions – can’t / could / must / might have

Listening: a conversation about an extraordinary busker

Giving a short talk about a favourite song or piece of music

The busker

EVERYDAY ENGLISH VOCABULARY PLUS p64

Complimenting someone’s performance

 

Household tasks

Collocations

Phrasal verbs: make

   

VOCABULARY

GRAMMAR

 

READING AND LISTENING

SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 4 Is it art?

INTRODUCTION

Types of art Types of picture Things we use to make art

   

Talking about street art

page 33

LESSON 1

People in the arts

Articles

 

Reading: Scallop

Deciding which work of art should receive a prize

Mystery attacks

 

LESSON 2

Adjectives to describe people

Comparison: considerably, a little bit, a lot, nearly, almost, far, much, significantly, slightly

Reading: There he is – again

Comparing works of art Writing a poem

Mystery man

LESSON 3

Adjectives to describe the arts

Superlative sentences

Listening 1: part of a weekly Arts programme Listening 2: an apology

Describing works of art Talking and disagreeing about works of art

Mystery art

EVERYDAY ENGLISH VOCABULARY PLUS p65

Discussing opinions and making judgements

 

Photography

Where things are

Collocations

Art metaphors

REVIEW Units 3 & 4 page 41; Aspects of culture: Musical instruments

 
   

VOCABULARY

GRAMMAR

READING AND LISTENING

SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 5

INTRODUCTION

   

Reading: How well are you managing your stress?

Talking about stressful situations

Chill out!

page 43

LESSON 1 How did you react?

-ed / -ing adjectives Words connected with the body

something + make + someone + adjective First conditional

Listening: a conversation on the therapist’s couch

Writing an ending to a story Acting out a conversation with a therapist

LESSON 2 Face to face with a bear!

 

unless + first conditional

Reading: How does it work?

Following instructions to

the stress response mechanism

complete a diagram and write a short description

LESSON 3 Nine to five

Words connected with work

the most / the least / more … than / less … than

Listening 1 and 2: a conversation about research on stressful jobs

Saying how you feel about your job or studies Writing about what you do and why it’s enjoyable or

Listening 3: a description of

a

stressful job

stressful

EVERYDAY ENGLISH VOCABULARY PLUS p66

Giving advice and making suggestions

 

Parts of the body review

Jobs review

Wordbuilder: affixes; over-

Focus on: get

   

VOCABULARY

GRAMMAR

READING AND LISTENING

SPEAKING AND WRITING

UNIT 6

INTRODUCTION

Animals and categories

Phrases for certainty and possibility

   

Consequences

page 51

LESSON 1 What would we do without them?

The natural world

Second conditional

Reading: Would we die if honeybees didn’t exist? Listening: a radio interview with a scientist

Making notes Giving a short talk

LESSON 2 Hamburgers and pies!

 

Past obligation and permission

Reading: What a load of junk!

Talking about a fast-food experiment Writing a video script

LESSON 3 Magic or myth?

Superfoods Medicine and health

 

Listening 1: a conversation about an ancient but modern remedy Listening 2: street interviews about home remedies

Giving a talk about a food with special properties Talking about your favourite home remedy

EVERYDAY ENGLISH VOCABULARY PLUS p67

Describing things

Irregular plurals

Phrasal verbs: more or less of something

Focus on: the earth

Wordbuilder: compound nouns; dis-

REVIEW Units 5 & 6 page 59; Aspects of culture: Natural remedies

 

Pages 68 – 73

Information gap activities

Pages 78 – 84

Grammar reference

Pages 74 – 77

and extra material Stories

Pages 85 – 91 Pages 92 – 93

Transcripts Pronunciation and irregular verbs

audio (on CD and mp3 online)

pronunciation activities

test your memory

similar or different to your language?

6 watch the video

EXPLORE ONLINEsimilar or different to your language? 6 watch the video extend your learning with online projects

extend your learning with online projects

VIDEO OPTIONvideo EXPLORE ONLINE extend your learning with online projects make a short film with your phone

make a short film with your phone or camera

Jetstream Intermediate components

For the student:

Student’s Book

The Student’s Book contains 6 units, each consisting of an introductory page plus three double-page lessons and an Everyday English section at the end.

It also contains the following:

• a two-page Review unit after every two units

• a Vocabulary plus section, with a page for each unit

• a comprehensive grammar reference section

• information-gap activities and extra material

• complete transcripts for the audio

• a Pronunciation spread focusing on problematic sounds

• an irregular verbs list.

Workbook with audio

The Workbook contains 6 units of five pages – four pages covering the three SB lessons, and one page for Vocabulary plus and Everyday English.

It also contains the following:

• a Review quiz after every two units

• a Check your progress test after every two units

• one page of dedicated Writing practice for each unit, giving students a structured writing development course

• a ‘do-it-yourself’ dictionary listing the key vocabulary (with phonetics) for each unit and space for students to write their translations or definitions.

E-zone

The e-zone is an online resource for students and teachers containing:

• the video for all the Everyday English pages

• a cloud book – an interactive version of the Student’s Book, including all video and audio

• cyber homework – interactive activities covering grammar, vocabulary, reading, listening and dialogues. They’re assigned by the teacher in a virtual classroom and have automatic feedback. (They can also be used in self-study mode – see below.)

• mp3 audio files

• online training – pronunciation exercises, exam practice (Cambridge PET, TOEFL, IELTS and TOEIC) and cyber homework in self-study mode (extra practice)

• CLIL projects.

For more information on the e-zone, see page 9.

For the teacher:

Teacher’s Guide with class audio CDs

The Teacher’s Guide contains full teaching notes for each unit, including all transcripts, keys and useful background and cultural information, plus extra ideas for early finishers and mixed-ability suggestions. Three class audio CDs contain all the listening material for the Student’s Book. The Teacher’s Guide also contains the following extra material:

• one task per unit with accompanying teaching notes

• three ‘technique banks’ giving ideas in the following areas:

Using the video Using memory games Working with mixed-ability classes

Interactive book for whiteboards DVD-ROM

E-zone

Full access to the students’ area plus:

• the video for all Everyday English pages

• mp3 audio files

• downloadable Teacher’s Guide with answer keys

• Helbling placement test

• Testbuilder containing 12 unit tests covering grammar, vocabulary, functions and the four skills and six progress tests.

Jetstream approach – a summary

Motivation

Research shows that motivation is key to learning; to learn, students need to be interested! Jetstream has been written to be highly motivating for students, and includes the following:

• interesting and relevant topics

• stimulating and often thought-provoking photos

• lots of personalisation activities where students are encouraged to talk about themselves

• communicative activities which give students a real purpose for completing a task

• highly motivating tasks throughout the Student’s Book, and also a bank of photocopiable tasks in the Teacher’s Guide

• a Song / Poem / Video / Music Link in every unit which encourages students to use their English in a fun and less formal way

Everyday English pages at the end of every unit which provide immediately useful conversations practising different functions, including short video clips

• plenty of games and game-like activities.

Grammar

Grammar is an important element in Jetstream. It’s dealt with in the following way:

• It’s introduced gradually – each of the three main lessons in a unit usually has a grammar point. This enables the grammar to be introduced step-by-step, practised and easily absorbed.

• It’s revised in the Review units that occur after every two units.

• The grammar for a lesson is introduced in context. The grammar form is highlighted and students are given activities where they deduce the form and meaning.

• Activities are realistic and meaningful.

• A clear and straightforward grammar reference section at the end of the Student’s Book explains each lesson’s grammar.

• The Irregular verbs section provides an invaluable reference for students.

Vocabulary

It’s increasingly recognised that vocabulary is just as important as – or perhaps even more important than – grammar when learning a language. Jetstream has a high vocabulary input so that students can understand, speak, read and write with ease. Stimulating and unusual pictures and motivating activities ensure students absorb the vocabulary easily, and there’s plenty of practice. Most of the three main lessons in Jetstream have a vocabulary component. In addition:

Vocabulary plus pages (one for each unit) at the back of the SB provide an opportunity for vocabulary enrichment.

Focus on sections within the Vocabulary plus pages highlight and practise high-frequency words and phrases and their different uses and meanings.

Preposition park sections in the Review units focus on prepositions, usually within an interesting text.

Similar or different? activities (

interesting text. • Similar or different? activities ( ) get students comparing new words with words

) get students

comparing new words with words which are the same or different in their own language.

Reading

The main reading focus in Jetstream is usually in Lesson 2 of each unit, but there are often other, shorter reading texts elsewhere. There’s a variety of high-interest text types – real- life stories, articles, quizzes, blogs, etc. Where possible at this level, texts are based on real people, places and events.

• Activities develop students’ ability to scan a text for its general meaning and guess meaning from context.

• Texts, whether in the form of human-interest articles or fictional stories, are absorbing and memorable and a key way of learning and practising language.

Other sections that provide very short, high- interest texts for additional reading comprehension relevant to the topic are:

Song / Poem / Video / Music Link

Did you know?

The Aspects of culture section in the Review units also provides additional reading matter. It offers interesting and practical information on different cultures and should lead to stimulating discussions.

Writing

Regular short Writing sections in the Student’s Book provide guided writing practice through a variety of tasks. The core writing course, however, is to be found at the back of the Workbook, which includes a full page of guided writing tasks per unit. In this writing development course, students cover the following areas:

• an email petition

• a TV blog

• a celebrity profile

• a description of an artwork

• a letter of advice

• an online restaurant review

• an online discussion post

• a description of a film

• a flyer

• a fairy tale

• a description of a game

• a narrative.

There are reminders of useful expressions and other language features: connectors, reduced clauses, time expressions, etc. Check it! sections allow students to review and improve their work.

Listening

The main listening focus in Jetstream is in Lesson 3 of each unit, but there are often short listening activities elsewhere. The Everyday English page provides further listening practice in the form of functional dialogues. To train students in useful and relevant listening skills, the listening texts reflect a variety of real-life situations, including conversations, interviews, talks, reports and radio programmes. The transcripts of the listening texts can be found at the back of the Student’s Book for students’ reference and are also reproduced with the relevant activity notes in the Teacher’s Guide.

Speaking

For many learners of English, speaking is the most important language skill. There are speaking activities at all stages of a lesson in Jetstream:

• At this level, activities are carefully designed so that students can express themselves freely without making a lot of mistakes.

• The main speaking section of a lesson generally has longer speaking activities than earlier in the lesson.

• The photos, cartoons, listening and reading texts all provide stimulating platforms for speaking activities.

You first! at the start of some lessons uses a short question to get students engaged with the lesson topic immediately.

Everybody up! sections encourage students to stand up and move around the class, interacting with each other to find out information.

• The Link and Did you know? sections in the main units, and the Aspects of culture sections in the Review units, also provide platforms for stimulating discussions.

• The photocopiable tasks in the Teacher’s Guide and the information-gap activities at the back of the Student’s Book provide further communicative practice.

Pronunciation

Short pronunciation activities in the Everyday English sections provide clear practice of some common areas, including:

• specific sounds

• word and sentence stress

• intonation.

In addition, students are encouraged to listen to and repeat the main vocabulary groups throughout the book. The Pronunciation section on page 92 of the Student’s Book includes a phonemic chart for students’ reference and practice of sounds that students often have difficulty with.

Consolidation and review

Consolidation of recently acquired language and regular revision are crucial to learning. After every two units, there’s a Review unit that revises key language from these units. Each Review unit contextualises the language through reading and sometimes listening texts. There are also grammar exercises and writing and speaking tasks. The Workbook provides further practice and testing of the language in a unit. In addition, after every two units in the Workbook, there’s a Review quiz. This is followed by a Check your progress test.

Online resources – available on e-zone

Online resources – available on e-zone HELBLING Placement Test Designed to give students and teachers of

HELBLING Placement Test Designed to give students and teachers of English a quick way of assessing the level of a student’s knowledge of English grammar and usage.

Online training

Resources and interactive activities for individual student access. Includes:

• exam practice

• pronunciation

• all exercises from the cyber homework in self- study mode.

Cloud book An interactive version of the Student’s Book and Workbook, where students can access all audio and video content at the click of a mouse or touch of a screen. Students can complete the activities, check their results and add their own notes.

the activities, check their results and add their own notes. Cyber homework Interactive activities assigned to
the activities, check their results and add their own notes. Cyber homework Interactive activities assigned to
the activities, check their results and add their own notes. Cyber homework Interactive activities assigned to

Cyber homework Interactive activities assigned to students by their teacher within an online virtual classroom. Results and feedback are automatically given when the deadline fixed by the teacher has been reached.

when the deadline fixed by the teacher has been reached. Projects Open-ended tasks on both cultural

Projects Open-ended tasks on both cultural and global themes, where students can embed other resources such as web links or files and share them with the teacher and their class.

How to integrate an LMS (a Learning Management System) into your teaching

Initial assessment

Assessment

System) into your teaching Initial assessment Assessment HELBLING Placement Test > 1 6 2 5 3

HELBLING Placement Test

Initial assessment Assessment HELBLING Placement Test > 1 6 2 5 3 4 > > Lesson
> 1 6 2 5 3 4 > >
>
1
6
2
5
3
4
>
>
Placement Test > 1 6 2 5 3 4 > > Lesson enrichment • Resources •

Lesson enrichment

Test > 1 6 2 5 3 4 > > Lesson enrichment • Resources • Videos

• Resources

• Videos

• Interactive book for whiteboards

• Teacher downloads

Planning

book for whiteboards • Teacher downloads Planning Scope & sequence Teacher’s Guide Exam practice

Scope & sequence Teacher’s Guide

Exam practice

Testbuilder

Class routine

Student’s Book

Workbook

Virtual class and self-study practice

Book Workbook Virtual class and self-study practice • Projects • Online training • Cyber homework •

• Projects

• Online training

• Cyber homework

• Student downloads

Unit overview

Unit overview Everybody up! This is a chance for students to move around the classroom and

Everybody up!

This is a chance for students to move around the classroom and use specific language in a controlled way to get information from other students. This kind of short, intensive practice can be very lively and also very rewarding if students succeed in completing the task using the language resources available to them. In addition, it allows them to interact with lots of different people. The act of physically getting up and moving around is also mentally refreshing; being physically active helps us to learn. Students may naturally find that they engage in longer conversations than the activity requires. If time allows, this is good and enjoyable practice for them. However, it’s a good idea to set a time limit for this type of activity.

a good idea to set a time limit for this type of activity. Did you know?

Did you know?

These are very short, interesting pieces of information related to the theme of the lesson. The section can usually be done at any point in the lesson. The teacher’s notes sometimes suggest ways of exploiting it, but if students want to know more, they can be encouraged to search online.

Explore online
Explore online

This is an opportunity for students

to go beyond the page and find out more about some aspect of the topic:

a sort of mini project. They should

do the research online, make notes and report back, working either alone or in pairs. You may want to set this up in the classroom by suggesting possible websites or just by eliciting suggestions for words and phrases to type into the search engine. As with

the Link feature (see page 14), there’s

a natural mixed-ability element to this section.

You first! You’ll find a You first! box on many of the large photos at

You first!

You’ll find a You first! box on many of the large photos at the beginning of a lesson. It has a triple purpose. Firstly, to engage students and get them saying something immediately. Secondly, to allow students to use what they already know and boost their confidence. And thirdly, to give you an idea of what and how much they already know so that you can target your teaching much more effectively. What if your students don’t respond at all? That’s fine. Now you know. Just move on and start to teach them something.

Search and think

These exercises invite students to look through a text that they’ve recently read or listened to, in order to find particular grammatical structures (or sometimes categories of vocabulary) and think about how they’re used or what they mean, before going on to practise them in further exercises.

Mini-talk Students write down their ideas in answer to questions relating to the lesson and

Mini-talk

Students write down their ideas in answer to questions relating to the lesson and then shape them up into a short talk, using digital presentation media where appropriate. They then present their talk to a (small) group of other students.

Grammar reference

There’s a useful grammar reference at the back of the Student’s Book. Each main grammar point from the grammar boxes throughout the book has a relevant section in the grammar reference.

the book has a relevant section in the grammar reference. Take a break Apart from providing

Take a break

Apart from providing tiny practical texts to read, these sections are there to help students unwind from time to time. Why? Because, quite simply, we don’t learn well when we’re stressed; we learn best when we’re relaxed. These little exercises give students the opportunity to switch off for a few moments, in order

to recharge their batteries and come back to the task in hand with renewed energy!

If it’s a piece of advice, talk

about it with students. If it’s

a physical exercise, students

can read it and follow the instructions. Do it there and then in the classroom if you can. Then you can use it again and again, whenever it’s useful (see, for example, SB page 33, volume B, where students are asked to massage their ‘brain buttons’).

(see, for example, SB page 33, volume B, where students are asked to massage their ‘brain
Predict Students use different elements (photos, titles, questions, etc) to predict what’s in a text.

Predict

Students use different elements (photos, titles, questions, etc) to predict what’s in a text. The idea is to motivate them to engage with the material; to give them a very good reason for reading or listening to see if they were right!

Think

This is used to signal a creative or critical-thinking exercise. Students are asked

to work something out for themselves, give their opinions or comments or use their creativity, rather than find an answer directly on the page.

A simple example might

be where a text describes a problem at work and students are invited to come up with solutions. Encouraging students to think creatively means they increase their engagement with the material. The increased alertness enhances their learning capacity. With these sections – as

indeed with many others – it’s

a good idea to give students a

chance to look at the material and think about (or even write down) their ideas individually (for say 30 seconds) before they start talking to each other. Some students are quick thinkers and talkers, while others need more time. Giving them ‘thinking time’ evens it out a little.

Link Each unit contains a Link section, featuring a song, a poem, a piece of
Link
Link

Each unit contains a Link section, featuring a song, a poem, a piece of music or a video clip which relates to themes and topics in the lesson. These sections utilise students’ natural interest in these things to motivate them and transfer the topic language to a new context. The tasks give students the opportunity to listen to / read / view the material and then research online to answer some questions or do a small associated activity. They then bring the information back to the class, which should often stimulate lively discussions. There’s a natural mixed-ability element:

more competent students will be able to take it further than those who are less competent.

Information gap

There’s an information-gap activity in every second unit. In these, students need to get information from each other in order to complete a task. All the material students need to do the tasks is in the back of the Student’s Book on pages 68–73.

is in the back of the Student’s Book on pages 68–73. Video option Students think or

Video option

Students think or find out about – and/or take a photo of – something related to the lesson. After writing and/or making notes, they record a short piece to camera using their smartphones or tablets (like a video blog). They can then share their video clip with other students or upload it to a video-sharing site such as YouTube if they want.

Similar or different? This symbol often occurs where new vocabulary is introduced and it suggests
Similar or different? This symbol often occurs where new vocabulary is introduced and it suggests

Similar or different?

This symbol often occurs where new vocabulary is introduced and

it suggests that you ask students which words are the same as

or similar to words in their own language – and which are very

different. This feature of Accelerated (or Holistic) Learning (see page 20) aims to draw students’ attention to the fact that they already know some words. It serves to reassure them, build their confidence and lighten their learning load. It can also give them

a basis for wordbuilding (eg the fact that words ending in -ion

in English may also end in -ion in their language). Suddenly they know ten words, not just one.

Note: Very often, if the word is a similar one, the difference is in the pronunciation – especially the word stress – or the spelling. Also, Similar or different? is obviously easier if you have a unilingual class, especially when you’re familiar with the students’ mother tongue, but it can work well with a multilingual class, where students can compare words in different languages.

Guess

Asking students to ‘guess’ answers before reading or listening to information not only gets them to interact, it also frees them up from having to know the ‘right’ answer and thus inhibiting their response. In addition, it prepares them for the text and gives a valid reason for reading or listening to something – to see if they were right. For this reason, it’s very important not to confirm if students are right or not in their guesses. Just say things like Hmm or That’s interesting or Possibly, etc and let the text provide the answers. These exercises are similar to Predict ones, but involve more guesswork, rather than ideas based on evidence.

Listening This symbol tells you that there’s recorded material that goes with the activity. This

Listening

This symbol tells you that there’s recorded material that goes with the activity. This can either be a full listening text, as here, or it might be listening to check answers and hear the correct pronunciation. Full transcripts are given in the back of the Student’s Book.

transcripts are given in the back of the Student’s Book. Your story Takeaway language These exercises
transcripts are given in the back of the Student’s Book. Your story Takeaway language These exercises

Your story

are given in the back of the Student’s Book. Your story Takeaway language These exercises are
are given in the back of the Student’s Book. Your story Takeaway language These exercises are

Takeaway language

These exercises are optional. They pull out useful everyday expressions from a text or dialogue and present them for students to think about and ‘take away’ and use themselves.

Students generally enjoy personalising what they’ve just learnt; these exercises ask them to think about some aspect of the lesson as it relates to them personally, and then share their ‘story’ with other members of their group.

P Everyday English This section provides practice in the everyday functional language that students need
P Everyday English This section provides practice in the everyday functional language that students need
P Everyday English This section provides practice in the everyday functional language that students need
P
P

Everyday English

This section provides practice in the everyday functional language that students need when interacting with people, such as making suggestions, giving advice, discussing opinions and so on.

Role-play

Students are given a scenario / roles / questions, often based on a dialogue they’ve just heard, and are asked to script a short scene for themselves, which they then act out. The level of support given can be adapted to suit students’ abilities, ranging from allowing them to look at the original text as they work to completely reinventing the conversation off the top of their heads.

reinventing the conversation off the top of their heads. 6 Video Pronunciation The main conversation in

6 Video

Pronunciation

The main conversation in the odd- numbered Everyday English sections appears on video, which provides extra contextualisation for the functional language. (If you don’t have the video or prefer not to use it, then just play the audio version.) See also Using the video on page 141.

The pronunciation activities appear in the Everyday English section of each unit of the Student’s Book. At Intermediate level, there’s work on stress and intonation, as well as sounds, as these can often pose problems for students. All the pronunciation activities are recorded so that students can hear the correct sounds or stress. There’s also a Pronunciation section at the back of the Student’s Book on page 92. This provides practice in various key areas that often cause students difficulty, including weak forms, consonant clusters and diphthongs.

Review Three Review units revise key language from the preceding two units, using a reading
Review
Three Review units revise key
language from the preceding two
units, using a reading text as the
main presentation.
Finish it

These exercises are personalisation tasks where students complete short sentence stems with their own information or ideas, and then compare with other students (often in an Everybody up! activity).

Preposition park This section appears in many of the Review units and provides a short

Preposition park

This section appears in many of the Review units and provides a short text that revises and extends prepositions that students already know, enabling them to recycle prepositions in a new way, or introduces new ones.

recycle prepositions in a new way, or introduces new ones. Aspects of culture Each of the

Aspects of culture

Each of the Review units finishes with an Aspects of culture section. This is often an opportunity to reflect on how people do things differently (or not!) in different parts of the world and how we can begin to be sensitive to these differences and act accordingly. There’s usually a short reading text with a task or questions, often leading to a discussion and a comparison with the students’ own culture(s).

and a comparison with the students’ own culture(s). Memory This symbol represents your brain! Memory is

Memory

This symbol represents your brain! Memory is a crucial component in learning anything and it’s like a muscle:

the more you exercise it, the stronger it’ll be. These simple games ask students to remember a variety of things:

vocabulary items, facts from an article and so on. But you can do a lot more activities than the ones suggested here (see pages 142–143). And remember that the more you get students to exercise their memory in English, the more it’ll serve them in other aspects of their life as well.

A final word

The features new to Jetstream, which occur throughout the units, are informed – in a gentle way – by some of the key principles of Holistic Learning (sometimes called Accelerated Learning*):

1 We learn with our body as well as our mind:

they are connected. Hence the value we attach to bringing more physical activities into the classroom and paying attention to students’ physical well-being.

2 Different learners prefer different kinds of input. Some people learn more with their eyes, some more with their ears and some more with their bodies and movement. We aim to provide a variety of activities to reflect these preferences.

3 What we learn with emotion, we tend to remember best. We hope to engage students’ emotions through the use of stories, songs and games – and making them laugh.

4 Our memory is very powerful … and we can make it work even better. The reason for all the little memory-training games is to give students practice in using their memory, and aid their learning.

5 People know a lot already – more than they think. Good teaching and good material can help to make students aware of what they already know and boost their confidence.

6 People are different. Some people are more outgoing and sociable, while others are more introspective and reflective. The former readily enjoy interacting with others, while the latter often prefer to work on their own. They usually welcome time to think on their own too, before being asked to participate in an activity. As teachers, we need to try to cater for these differences.

*The roots of Accelerated Learning go back to the Bulgarian educator, Georgi Lozanov, who developed something called ‘Suggestopaedia’ in the early 1960s. Helping learners feel comfortable, relaxed and confident meant that they were able to absorb and remember more information more quickly. That’s it in a nutshell!

UNIT

FOCUS

Introduction

FUNCTIONS: talking about yourself; finding out about other people; discussing learning strategies

Lesson 1 How would you describe yourself? pp4–5

Aim

The focus of this first lesson in the introductory unit is to give students the opportunity to find out more about each other.

Warm-up

Introduce the topic with a game. Write the headings politician, novelist, singer, sportsperson, musician on the board. Put students into two teams and give them five minutes to come up with as many famous people in each category as they can. They get a point for every name, plus a bonus point for every name the other team hasn’t got. The team with the most points wins.

1 Students stand up and walk around the room to introduce themselves to each other. Model the activity and tell them to include extra information, such as where they’re from and any hobbies they have. Also encourage students to ask extra questions to keep the conversation going. Monitor and write down any mistakes or good sentences you hear. You can come back to these later if you have time.

Alternatively, do this as a game with students in two lines facing each other. They introduce themselves to the person opposite, then move down the line and repeat the process until they get back to where they started.

Extra ideas: Focus on intonation and different ways of saying Hi (in a monotonous way or an enthusiastic way). Ask how many /aɪ/ sounds there are in the three example sentences (Ten).

2 Students look at the photos and answer the questions in groups. Get feedback and ask extra questions (eg Have you read any of Paulo Coelho’s books? Did you like them?) to encourage personalisation and speaking.

MA Encourage early finishers to use their smartphones or mobile devices to find out a bit more about some of the people pictured.

Answers

A Aung San Suu Kyi (Burmese politician)

B Paulo Coelho (Brazilian novelist)

C JK Rowling (British novelist)

D Buffy Sainte-Marie (Canadian singer- songwriter)

E Muhammad Ali (American boxer)

F Manu Chao (French / Spanish musician)

Extra idea: To promote pairwork and discussion, ask students to look at the photo at the top of the page. They then discuss these questions with a partner:

What does the body language of the two men tell you? How important is a firm handshake? How important is eye contact? What other things can we do when we first meet people? How do things change when we meet people from other cultures? Get feedback and check their ideas.

3 Students look at the quotations then work in pairs and guess who said each one. Which quotation did they like best, and why? Encourage them to explain why they found a quotation funny, interesting or surprising, eg It’s surprising that JK Rowling doesn’t believe in magic, because she wrote the Harry Potter books.

believe in magic, because she wrote the Harry Potter books. 4 Students look at the highlighted

4 Students look at the highlighted parts of

the quotations in 3 and rewrite them in a

personalised way. Do the first one together as a model and encourage students to write funny and creative quotations.

Introduction

21

5 Students walk around the room, introducing themselves to each other and sharing their ideas from 4.

Extra idea: A few students report back facts that they learnt about their classmates. They’ll need to change the first person statements they heard into third person statements.

Song link Quotations 1 and 2 come from songs.

1

I’m not a queen, I’m a woman are words from a song called Until it’s time for you to go written by Buffy Sainte-Marie in 1965 and also later sung by Nancy Sinatra. It’s written in English, and the next line is Take my hand.

2

I like planes, I like you. I like travelling, I like you is the translation of words from a 2001 Manu Chao song called Me gustas tú, which is in Spanish (and a bit of French). The next line is Me gusta la mañana, me gustas tú (I like the morning, I like you).

Ask students to find a translation online of Me gustas tú or, if they speak Spanish, have them translate the lyrics themselves or check an existing translation (some are terrible!).

 

Culture notes

 

• Buffy Sainte-Marie is a Canadian singer- songwriter, born 20 February, 1941. She has campaigned throughout her life for the rights of Native Americans and takes a keen interest in education and social issues. She has released over 20 albums in her career, which spans over five decades.

• Manu Chao was born in France on 21 June, 1961, to Spanish parents. He’s played in several bands, the best-known of which is probably Mano Negra. His musical style has a variety of influences, including rock and punk. He sings in many languages, including Spanish, French, English, Portuguese, Galician and Arabic, often mixing several languages in the same song (as he does in Me gustas tú).

6

GUESS
GUESS

When you see

GUESS
GUESS

in front

of an instruction, it means students can talk about what they think the answers are, but they don’t have to know for sure. For more information about these exercises, see the

Introduction, page 15. Students work in pairs to complete the quotations with the phrases in the box. Compare answers as a class to see how many pairs agreed.

Answers

1 a great big baked potato

2 an education

3 superheroes

4 story; story

5 money

6 an uneventful and safe life

Quotation 5 comes from Can’t buy me love by The Beatles.

Extra idea: Ask students if they’ve heard of the people quoted in 6. They could research those they don’t know for homework.

7

Write the sentence starter All I want

on the

board. Students complete it in their own words and read out their ideas. They then complete

two of the other sentences from 6 and share their ideas with a partner.

8

8 1.2 Students look at the photo and speech

1.2

Students look at the photo and speech

bubble and say what the three questions are (If you were a colour, what colour would you be? If you were a car, what car would you be? If you were a bird, what bird would you be?). Play the recording and pause after the first answer. Elicit that this only answers one of the questions (If you were a colour, what colour would you be?) and ask students for the answer (red). Play the rest of the recording for students to make notes of the answers they hear. They shouldn’t try to write down every word. They should then check their answers with a partner.

Transcript

1 If I were a colour, what colour would I be? Oh, red, of course!

2 A colour? Um, I think I’d be black.

3 Green? Blue? Purple and pink? Absolutely no idea. It’s a very silly question.

4 What kind of car would I be? What kind of question is that?

5 Car? Oh, that’s a no-brainer. I’d definitely be a Porsche! Definitely!

6 A Mini! Oh no, hang on a minute, I’d be a BMW Z4 Roadster.

7 A bird? Oh, I haven’t a clue. I don’t know any birds. A chicken?!

8 Ooh. That’s an interesting question. I think

I’d be a

pigeon!

9 Um, birds, birds be an eagle!

oh I know! An eagle! I’d

Answers

1

red

2 black

3 –

4 –

5 Porsche

6

BMW Z4 Roadster

7 chicken

8 pigeon

9

eagle

Extra idea: Write the structure If you were

a

board and ask students to think of other similar questions (eg If you were a fruit, what fruit would you be? If you were a shape, what shape would you be?) to ask.

, what

would you be? on the

9

Students discuss the questions in pairs. Get feedback and encourage them to give reasons for their ideas. Give them a chance to listen again if necessary.

10

TAKEAWAY LANGUAGE

When you see in front of an

TAKEAWAY LANGUAGE

instruction, it indicates a focus on colloquial language that’s not featured elsewhere. For more information about these exercises, see the Introduction, page 16. Students match the phrases from the interviews. Check answers and elicit what each expression means from the context.

11

THINK
THINK

When you see

THINK
THINK

in front of

an instruction, it means students should think about ideas on their own for a moment before they talk to other students (think–pair–share). This type of exercise often asks students to be imaginative or creative, or to work something out. In this case, students look at the ideas in the box and think about related metaphors. For more information about these exercises, see the Introduction, page 13. Ask students if they know what the word metaphor means (= an expression, often found in literature, that describes a person or object by referring to something that is considered to have similar characteristics to that person

or object). Students make metaphors about themselves using the ideas in the box.

Extra idea: Review lexical sets by doing a column dictation. Dictate two or three different headings to students, who have to write as many related words as they can in a list under each heading (eg Furniture:

wardrobe, cupboard, sofa; Animals: cat, dog, mouse, lion, etc).

12 Students work in groups of three or four and invite each other to guess what they wrote for each idea in 11. Get feedback and check the funniest and best ideas.

Poem link

a Students work in pairs to see how many different lines they can make. Encourage them to be as creative as they want! Explain that bananas can also mean ‘mad’ or ‘crazy’.

b Students use their smartphones or tablets to search for the poem on the internet. They should be able to find it by typing very poet bananas into their search engine. They then discuss the questions in pairs and compare the poem with their answers to a) – did any of their lines match the actual poem? Encourage them to search for an image of Georgio de Chirico’s painting.

to search for an image of Georgio de Chirico’s painting. Extra idea: Give each student a

Extra idea: Give each student a line or lines from the poem and have them collaborate in a class recital.

Culture note Wendy Cope is a contemporary English poet, born 21 July, 1945. She spent 15 years as a primary school teacher before becoming a full-time writer, critic and poet. She has won several awards for her light- hearted, often comical, poetry, and some of her poems have been used as song lyrics. In this poem, she plays with English syntax by using the same words in a different order to form each ‘verse’.

Lesson 2 How do you want to improve your English? p6

Aim

The focus of this second lesson in the introductory unit is to encourage students to think about why they’re studying English.

Warm-up

Students look at the four photos on the page and think about which skills are being used in each one (top left: reading; top middle: speaking and listening; top right: writing; bottom left: listening, speaking and writing).

1 Students think about the questions for a moment, then discuss their ideas in small groups.

Alternatively, ask students to identify the three tenses in questions 1–3 (present continuous, present simple, going to future) and elicit why each tense is used (present continuous: to describe actions happening at the moment; present simple: to describe things we do regularly; going to future: to describe future plans).

Also focus on the use of be able to as an infinitive of can in question 7 to describe ability.

Tip: The process of asking students to think about a topic or question individually, then discuss it with a partner before finally sharing ideas with the whole class is sometimes known as ‘think–pair– share’. This technique is useful in many situations.

share’. This technique is useful in many situations. 2 FINISH IT in front of an instruction,

2 FINISH IT

in front

of an instruction, it indicates a personalisation exercise where students complete short sentence stems with their own information. For more information about these exercises, see the Introduction, page 18. Students complete the sentence in their own words, then share their ideas with a partner.

When you see

FINISH IT

Extra idea: Do a quick class survey to find out students’ most important learning goals. This will also provide you with helpful information about students’ needs that will help you plan future lessons.

3

EVERYBODY UP!

When you see in front of an instruction,

EVERYBODY UP!

it means that this is a chance for students to move around the classroom and use the language they’ve learnt. For more information about these exercises, see the Introduction, page 10. Students walk around and share their goals from 2 with each other. When they’ve found someone with the same goal, they should take a note of that person’s name.

Alternatively, students write each goal on a separate piece of paper. Collect their ideas and read them out one by one. Stick them on the board, grouping similar ideas together (get students involved in deciding how to do the grouping). At the end of the process, students draw circles around groups of ideas to show which ideas are most / least popular.

 

Extra idea: Students write out their goals and put them up around the room, so they are constantly reminded of them.

4

Brainstorm a few ideas with students for how they can improve their English outside the classroom (eg using social media, setting up a class library with graded readers, compiling a list of useful websites). Put them in groups and ask them to think of as many strategies as they can. Set a time limit so they work quickly. Elicit their ideas and encourage them to write down and remember as many as possible.

5

5 1.3 Students listen to the recording and

1.3

Students listen to the recording and

complete the table. Pause the recording as

necessary.

 

Answers

 
 

A spoken English

watch a movie they know in English, first with Spanish subtitles, then with English subtitles, then without subtitles

 

B vocabulary

translate song lyrics

 

C pronunciation

read short, simplified readers and listen to the online audio at the same time

 

D reading skills

read newspaper articles on the internet

 

E writing

write letters to a penpal

 

F everything

come to class and start following other people’s suggestions

Transcript

A

I

want to improve my understanding of

spoken English, so I download films in English – ones I’ve already seen, so I know the story. I watch them with Spanish subtitles the first time, and then I watch them again with English subtitles, and then the third time I watch them with no subtitles at all!

B

I

need to increase my vocabulary, so I listen

to songs while I’m driving, and if I really like

a song, I search for the lyrics online later on, and translate them if there are bits I can’t understand. Then, when I listen again the next day, I can understand what I’m listening to!

C

I

read a lot in English – newspapers,

magazines – and I love those short, simplified readers you can get at different levels. You can get an audio track online, and so you can read and listen together or do one or the other. Listening and reading at the same time is really good for your pronunciation and that’s one of the things I want to work on.

D

Yeah, I’ve found some great websites

where you can read newspaper articles in English at different levels too. They’re really interesting and up to date, and you can test your level before you begin, from very easy to quite difficult. I have to focus on my reading skills because I need to read books and articles in English for my studies.

E

There are sites where you can find a penpal to write to in English, too. I’ve done that. My penpal’s from Ireland, and we write to each other about once a week. I tell her about things in Ankara and she tells me what’s happening in Dublin. I need to work on my writing skills, so it’s a great way to practise, and next year I’m going to Dublin to see her!

F

Um, I want to improve everything! Listening, speaking, reading, writing, pronunciation – everything! But I don’t do anything much outside the classroom. At least, I haven’t up to now – I’ve just come to class. But it isn’t enough, is it? And listening to everybody else, it sounds like it really makes a difference and is lots of fun.

I think I’m going to start!

Tip: Listening is an individual task, so encourage pairwork by asking students to check their answers with a partner after you play the recording the first time. This helps them share ideas and information and also increases learner interaction and speaking.

6 1.3 Play the recording again for students to compare their answers to 5 with the lists they wrote in 4. Which strategies were the same, which ones were new?

7 In pairs, students discuss the strategies they would like to use. They write their top five ideas, then compare with another pair.

8 Students look at the example. Elicit why be going to is used (to describe future plans) and ask students to write their own action plans. They then compare with a partner.

their own action plans. They then compare with a partner. Vocabulary plus p61 This section provides

Vocabulary plus p61

This section provides an opportunity for vocabulary enrichment. It’s flexible and can be used in several ways. It can be done as a complete lesson or alternatively, you could practise a vocabulary set when you have time to spare or give a Vocabulary plus activity to early finishers.

The alphabet review

1

Students circle only the letters where they’re sure about the pronunciation. Walk around the classroom as they do this and ask individual students to say one or two of the letters they have circled.

2

2 2.20 Students can either point to the

2.20

Students can either point to the

letter(s) they find tricky or say something like

Play the

the letter before / after / between

recording for them to repeat in chorus.

Extra idea: Ask students to say each tricky letter ten times in a row!

Tip: Having the class repeat in chorus may make it harder to monitor individual pronunciation, but it’s very motivating for weaker students, as they are happier to participate when they don’t think their mistakes will be heard.

THINK
THINK

3 This will really get students to think

laterally! Look at the example with them and ensure they understand what the letters represent (the initial letters of one, two, three, etc). They then look at the second sequence and read the clue (2 is a bit like 1.). Encourage them to think of another number sequence that begins with the letters given. They then work out the other sequences in pairs.

MA Weaker students may need extra prompting. You could give them the full sequences (ie 2 T, T, T, F, F, S, S, E, N; 3 M, T, W, T, F, S, S; 4 J, F, M, A, M, J, J, A, S, O, N, D; 5 R, O, Y, G, B, I, V) as well as asking them to read the clues and look at the picture.

Answers

Initial letters of

1 numbers 1–10

2 numbers 10–90 counting in tens

3 the days of the week

4 the months of the year

5 the colours of the rainbow

Extra idea: Challenge students to think of more ‘puzzles’ like this.

4 Students work in pairs. They shouldn’t tell or show their partner the words they’ve chosen.

Numbers and symbols review

However advanced students are, numbers are always something they find difficult – hence this review. And while some students may dislike the kind of problem-solving they’re asked to do in 7 and 8, others will welcome a fairly rare opportunity to play with numbers!

5 Go round the class asking individual students to read out each number and elicit which number has several different pronunciations.

Answers

oh / nought / zero / nil / love

a hundred

a hundred thousand

one

one thousand, one hundred ten thousand and one

a hundred and ten thousand

one million, one hundred thousand

0 is said in different ways (see 6).

ten

a thousand

ten thousand

a million

eleven

a hundred and ten

Background notes Generally speaking, you use the indefinite article before hundred, thousand, million, etc. The exception is when the number consists of more than one part, in which case one is used:

a thousand pounds one thousand and ten pounds Occasionally the number one can be used with hundred, thousand, etc for emphasis:

There are more than one hundred spots on that dog!

6 Write the different pronunciations of 0 on the board. Students cover their books and try to think of different contexts in which each pronunciation is used. They then open their books and match the pronunciations to the uses.

Answers

1

nil

2 zero

3 oh*

4

nought / oh / zero*

5 love

* There is some difference in usage between British and American English. For telephone numbers, British English uses oh, whereas American English tends to use zero. Nought is almost exclusively British English and is used in mathematics and the game of Noughts and Crosses (Tic Tac Toe in American English!). British English also uses zero in mathematics.

7 2.21 Play the recording for students to write the numbers.

MA Weaker students may need to hear the sequence more than once.

for students to write the numbers. MA Weaker students may need to hear the sequence more

Answers

1 They are Fibonacci numbers.

2 The next ten numbers would be: 377, 610, 987, 1,597, 2,584, 4,181, 6,765, 10,946, 17,711, 28,657.

Transcript

0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233

Background note The Fibonacci sequence is produced by starting with 0 and 1 (or 1 and 1 in some cases), then adding the last two numbers to form the next number in the sequence. It is named after the Italian mathematician Leonardo Fibonacci. He was born Leonardo Bonacci in around 1170 in Pisa, and his 1202 book Liber Abaci introduced the sequence to Western mathematics, although it had been known in Indian mathematics for some time. Fibonacci numbers are connected with the golden ratio (The ‘golden ratio’ is a special number found by dividing a line into two parts so that the longer part divided by the smaller part is also equal to the whole length divided by the longer part. It is 1.618, represented by the Greek letter phi (ɸ). Many artists, including Le Corbusier and Dalí, use the golden ratio in their works, as it is thought to be aesthetically pleasing. It also appears in biological contexts, such as branching in trees, the fruit sprouts of a pineapple, an uncurling fern and the arrangement of a pine cone’s ‘scales’. Fibonacci numbers are used in mathematics to solve a variety of problems.

Extra idea: If students are mathematically inclined, they can find out more about Fibonacci numbers and their uses. Students with an interest in art could find out more about the golden ratio.

8

THINK
THINK

Write the numbers on the board;

students guess what they might refer to. Encourage students to suggest different things for each number.

Suggested answers

007

James Bond’s agent number

5

number of Great Lakes /

12

weekdays number of months in a year /

26

Western zodiac signs / Chinese zodiac signs number of letters in the

101

English alphabet / weeks in half a year number of dalmatians (in

366

Dodie Smith’s novel and the Disney films) number of days in a leap year

1,000

number of years in a

86,400

millennium / metres in a kilometre / grams in a kilogram number of seconds in a day

31,536,000 number of seconds in a year

Culture notes

• James Bond’s code number, 007, indicates that he is the seventh agent with a licence to kill (shown by the 00

prefix). It has also been speculated that the number comes from the ISD code for Russia, where Bond went on an early assignment. In the 1995 film GoldenEye,

a former 00 agent, 006, was played by

Sean Bean.

• The Great Lakes lie on the US / Canada border and consist of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario. They form the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth, containing 21% of the

world’s surface fresh water. Lake Superior

is the second largest lake in the world,

with only the Caspian Sea being bigger.

• The Western zodiac signs are Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius and Pisces.

• The Chinese zodiac signs are Rat, Ox, Tiger, Rabbit, Dragon, Snake, Horse, Goat, Monkey, Rooster, Dog and Pig.

• Dodie Smith (1896–1990) wrote The Hundred and One Dalmatians (also known as The Great Dog Robbery) in 1956. It was made into an animated film by Disney in 1961, and a live-action version starring Glenn Close as Cruella de

Vil was produced in 1996.

• Leap years occur every four years in the Gregorian calendar and were originally introduced in Roman times to keep the calendar year synchronised with the

seasonal year, because it actually takes the Earth 365.25 days to orbit the sun. In a leap year, an extra day – the 29 th

– is added to February. In Britain and

Ireland, women can traditionally propose marriage in a leap year.

9 Students discuss the symbols in pairs; get feedback as a class.

Answers

+

plus (in mathematical equations and as

a

short form of and in notes)

minus (in mathematical equations)

=

equals (in mathematical equations)

@

at (in email addresses)

.

dot (in email addresses and websites) full stop (in British English punctuation) period (in American English punctuation) point (in decimal numbers)

,

comma (in punctuation)

?

question mark (in punctuation)

( )

brackets (in punctuation); also known as round brackets and parentheses

% per cent / percent (with figures)

˚ degree(s) (with temperatures)

10 Students work in pairs and decide how each item should be read out. Five pairs give their answers to the class; the other students should confirm or correct.

Answers

1 zero / nought degrees centigrade / Celsius

2 three point one four one five nine two

3 Does two plus two equal five?

4 lots of information at jetmail dot com

5 a / one hundred per cent

Extra idea: Ask students what items 1 and 2 in 10 represent.

Answers

1 The temperature at which water freezes.

2 Phi (ɸ) to six decimal places

Years and dates review

11 Students work in pairs or small groups to work out the pronunciation of the years and answer the questions.

Answers

2016

twenty sixteen / two thousand and sixteen

2014

twenty fourteen / two thousand and fourteen

2001

two thousand and one

2000

two thousand

1999

nineteen ninety-nine

1998

nineteen ninety-eight

1812

eighteen twelve

1600

sixteen hundred

357

three hundred and fifty-seven

1 Yes; years from 2010 onwards can be

said as either two two-digit numbers or

a four-digit number. The latter format

was used for years 2001–2009, but the

former is now becoming more prevalent for years 2010 onwards.

a)

2 2016, 2000, 1900

b)

2014, 1998

c)

2016, 2000

Background notes

• The 1900 Olympics were held in Paris, France; the 2000 Olympics were held in Sydney, Australia and the 2016

Olympics are in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (There were Winter Olympics held in

1998 in Nagano, Japan, and in 2014 in

Sochi, Russia.)

• The 1998 FIFA World Cup was played

in France; France beat Brazil 3–0. The

2014 FIFA World Cup was played in

Brazil; Germany beat Argentina 1–0.

• Students may have counted 1900 as

a leap year, but it’s not. To calculate a leap year, ask:

– Is the year divisible by 4? No: It’s not a leap year. Yes: Go to next question.

– Is the year divisible by 100? No: It’s a leap year. Yes: Go to next question.

– Is the year divisible by 400? No: It’s not a leap year. Yes: It’s a leap year.

Extra idea: Ask students if the years mean anything special to them. They can think of general responses (eg 1812 was the year of Napoleon’s attempted invasion of Russia, commemorated by Tchaikovsky’s famous overture; 2001 was in the title of a film 2001: A Space Odyssey) or personal responses, such as the year of birth of a family member.

12 Ask four students to read out the dates and ask the class if they know what happened on them. They can use the clues to help them guess.

Answers

July 21 st , 1969

The first man walked on

9 th Nov, 1989

the moon. The Berlin Wall came

down. 26 th June, 1997 The first Harry Potter book was published.

Oct 20 th , 2003

Amy Winehouse released her debut album.

Extra idea: Remind students that there are two ways to say and write dates:

28 th July July 28 th

You could also remind them that Americans tend to put the month first, so that 4/3 is the third of April in the USA, but the fourth of March in the UK. Write a few dates on the board in figures for students to read out in full.

the twenty-eighth of July July (the) twenty-eighth

Background notes

• The first men to land on the moon were the crew of the American spaceflight Apollo 11: Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins. They actually landed on the moon on July 20 th , but it was the following day when Armstrong became the first man to set foot on the moon, uttering the famous words ‘One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind’.

• The Berlin Wall was constructed in 1961 by the German Democratic Republic, splitting the city of Berlin into East Berlin, which belonged to the communist Eastern Bloc, and West Berlin. It prevented people

in East Germany going to the West, but in 1989 a series of radical political changes in the Eastern Bloc occurred, culminating in the announcement that citizens in the East could visit West Germany and West Berlin. Within days, people were chipping away at the Wall, carrying away chunks of it as souvenirs. It actually took three years to complete the demolition of the Wall, but it paved the way for German reunification, which was formally concluded on October 3 rd , 1990.

• The first Harry Potter book was Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, written by JK Rowling in an Edinburgh café after getting the inspiration for the story during a train journey. The book and its six sequels became hugely popular with children and adults alike, and spawned a series of eight films, which brought the students of Hogwarts to the big screen in one of the most successful movie franchises of all time.

• Amy Winehouse (1983–2011) was a British singer-songwriter who became known as much for her bouffant hair and dark eye make-up as for her soulful voice. She started as a jazz singer, but her style later encompassed elements of pop, soul and R&B. Her 2006 album Back to Black won five Grammy awards, and she had hit singles with Rehab, Back to Black, Love is a Losing Game and Valerie. She won many other awards for her music before her tragically premature death from accidental alcohol poisoning.

13 Students work in pairs to say the dates and then discuss other dates that are memorable for them.

and then discuss other dates that are memorable for them. Extra idea: Ask students if New

Extra idea: Ask students if New Year’s Eve is a big celebration in their country. Do they know what it’s called in Scotland? (Hogmanay)

1

Water

UNIT

FOCUS

GRAMMAR: present perfect v past simple; infinitive of purpose; modal verbs VOCABULARY: words connected with water; water sports and equipment FUNCTION: asking for more information

Introduction p7

Aim

The focus of this lesson is to introduce the topic of water by exploring vocabulary connected with water and its uses and doing a quiz.

Warm-up

Books closed. Write the word water in the middle of the board and ask students to think of as many things as they can that they associate with it. Elicit their ideas and write them on the board to make a vocabulary network.

1 Students work in pairs to add words to the word fountain. They can use the network they produced in the Warm-up as a starting point. You could also ask them to suggest a heading for each group of words. Get feedback from the class and add any new ideas to the board.

feedback from the class and add any new ideas to the board. 2 In pairs, students

2 In pairs, students mime things they can do with water. Their partner tries to guess the correct answer. Give an example, such as watering plants, to model the activity.

THINK
THINK

3 Before students do the quiz, you

could pre-teach words such as filter, iodine and splash. Filter and iodine are similar in lots of languages, so they should be easy to understand. Try to demonstrate splash. Elicit the meaning of words like seatbelt and sink (eg by looking at the elements of the compound word or from context).

30 Unit 1

Students do the quiz together. Get feedback and find out which answers they knew and which ones were surprising.

out which answers they knew and which ones were surprising. Extra idea: Use the quiz to

Extra idea: Use the quiz to review zero and first conditional sentences. Write the following on the board:

1 If you drink salt water, it makes you thirstier.

2 If you don’t make water safe to drink, you’ll get stomach problems. Ask these questions:

• How many parts to each sentence are there? (two)

• How do we know? (They’re separated by a comma.)

• What has to happen first? (the action in the if clause)

• What is the other part of the sentence? (the result)

• Are these things possible? (yes)

• Which one is more likely? (sentence 1)

• Will salt water definitely make you thirstier? (yes)

• How do you know? (It’s a fact.)

• Will you always get stomach problems if you don’t boil water? (not always)

• Is it likely? (yes, very likely)

Tip: Let students think about the quiz questions on their own for a few moments, then, to encourage interaction, they can ask each other the questions and circle their partner’s responses.

4

the questions and circle their partner’s responses. 4 1.4 Students listen to and read the rhyme.

1.4 Students listen to and read the

rhyme. They then guess what happened to the technician (He drank or bathed in what he thought was water (H 2 O) but was really sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ), which killed him.).

Extra idea: Ask one or two students to read the rhyme aloud, copying the rhythm and intonation of the recording.

5

FINISH IT

Write the sentences starters The

most disgusting thing I’ve ever drunk is most delicious thing I’ve ever drunk is

the board. Students complete the sentences with their own experiences, compare with a partner and then walk around the room asking each other What’s the most disgusting / delicious thing you’ve ever drunk?. Get class feedback. Were any students able to find two other people with the same answers?

The

on

Lesson 1 A very long way!

pp8–9

Aims

The focus of this lesson is to compare the use of the present perfect and past simple, and to practise using the infinitive of purpose.

You first!

There are You first! boxes at the beginning of many lessons in the Student’s Book. They have three goals: firstly, to engage students and get them saying something immediately; secondly, to allow students to use what they already know and boost their confidence; and thirdly, to give you an idea of what they already know so that you can target your teaching much more effectively. Students can say as much or as little as they want. For this one, students look at the background photo and discuss the question with a partner. Ask if they would swim a river like this and elicit their reasons and ideas about possible delights, difficulties and dangers. Ask them which river they think it is (the Amazon).

Reading

1 Students look at the photos, describe what they see and guess the connections. Get feedback and check their ideas.

guess the connections. Get feedback and check their ideas. 2 PREDICT When you see PREDICT in

2 PREDICT

When you see

PREDICT

in front

of an instruction, it means students should make predictions about what they are about to read or listen to based on information on

the page. For more information about these exercises, see the Introduction, page 13. Write the title of the text on the board (He did it first) and ask students to guess what the man did. You could also write sentence starters on the board to help them make predictions (Maybe

he

Give students a very short time (eg 30 seconds) to scan the text and find the answer to the question (He was the first person to swim the length of the Amazon.). They then read it again more slowly to get the detail.

, Perhaps he

).

3 This symbol shows that this is a memory game – the first of many in the book. Memory

is an important part of learning anything, and

the more we exercise our memory by playing these kinds of game the better it will be. Put students in pairs to try to remember the answers to the questions without looking at the text. They then read it again to check their answers.

at the text. They then read it again to check their answers. Answers 1 To draw

Answers

1 To draw people’s attention to water problems around the globe

2 Five rivers are mentioned in the text:

the Mississippi, the Paraná, the Yangtze, the Colorado and the Amazon.

3 The Amazon is the longest river, at

5,430km.

4 The Mississippi

5 It starts in Peru and reaches the sea in Brazil.

Extra idea: Show the trailer of the film documentary about Martin Strel, which won the Sundance Film Festival in 2009 (https://www.youtube.com/

watch?v=ce432_JmdB8).

Put students in pairs and give each pair

a set of sentence fragments (see below).

Students try to put the sentence fragments

in the correct order (the fragments are shown in the correct order below). They then watch the trailer again and check. Show the trailer a third time if necessary and check together as a class.

There is a man

 

who has swum the world’s deadliest rivers,

who laughs in the face of crocodiles,

   

piranhas,

 

and giant anacondas;

 

a man who drinks two bottles of wine a day,

 

a man who has braved the Yangtze,

 

the Mississippi,

 

the Danube,

 

and who will now do battle with

the mighty Amazon.

His mission –

to save the world

to save the world before it is destroyed.
before it is destroyed.

before it is destroyed.

His name is Martin Strel,

but you can call him

but you can call him

Big River Man.

but you can call him Big River Man.

4

THINK
THINK

Students discuss the questions in

pairs. Check ideas with the whole class.

Answers

1 The USA (the Mississippi, the Colorado), Argentina (the Paraná), Paraguay (the Paraná), China (the Yangtze), Peru (the Amazon), Brazil (the Paraná, the Amazon), Colombia (the Amazon)

2 The Amazon is very polluted and is home to many dangerous animals:

piranha, crocodiles, snakes, candirú, insects, etc. He also had to contend with sunburn and bandits.

3 A crew in a boat which provided food, water and a place to sleep; a cameraman.

Extra ideas: Encourage students to look online for more information or create a web quest. Give the class links to two or three websites for them to answer comprehension questions about Martin. Slovenian completes Amazon swim

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/

americas/6536283.stm#amazon

Martin Strel: Swimming the Amazon http://content.time.com/time/arts/

article/0,8599,1920907,00.html

Piranhas, Sunburn Can’t Stop 3,272- Mile Swim http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/ESPNSports/

story?id=3021041

Students read the text again and find words or phrases that mean:

1 having strong feelings and emotions

2 get people to notice

3 the world

4 something very good and difficult that you succeed in

5 knowledge or understanding of something

6 damage caused to the environment

7 a film that gives facts and information about a subject

Answers: 1 passionate, 2 draw attention to, 3 the globe, 4 achievement, 5 awareness, 6 pollution, 7 documentary

Grammar 1

Present perfect v past simple

5 Students work in pairs and discuss the differences between the present perfect and the past simple. You could also ask questions to make sure they notice the difference:

When did he swim the Colorado? (in 2011)

Is it still happening, or is it a completed action? (a completed action)

What tense do we use to describe completed actions in the past? (past simple)

Could he swim other long rivers in the future? (yes)

What tense do we use to refer to repeated actions in the past that could continue in the future? (present perfect)

6 Students complete the sentences with has or did and the correct verb, and compare with a partner. Check as a class and ask students which tense is used in each sentence and why.

ask students which tense is used in each sentence and why. 7 Students ask and answer

7 Students ask and answer the questions in pairs.

and why. 7 Students ask and answer the questions in pairs. Tip: Repeat the answers to

Tip: Repeat the answers to the questions together and encourage students to notice natural features of pronunciation such as contractions and weak forms. You could highlight them in phonemic script on the board:

He has been passionate /hiː hæz biːn ˈpæʃənət/ – /hɪzbɪnˈpæʃənət/ He has swum /hiː hæz swʌm/ – /hɪz swʌm/

Grammar 2

Infinitive of purpose

8 Students complete the grammar table. They can look back at the text to help them if necessary. Ask the following questions and highlight the different sections of the sentence to check students’ understanding.

What did Strel do? (He swam the Amazon.)

Why did he do it? (in order to raise awareness of water pollution)

What kind of word is ‘to raise’? (infinitive)

What does it tell us? (the reason why we do things)

Where does ‘not’ go in the negative form? (between order and to) You could also explain that we can just use the infinitive instead (He swam the Amazon in order to raise awareness). This structure is more common and less formal than in order to.

Answers

a) Strel swam the Amazon in order to raise awareness of water pollution.

b) In order not to get sunburnt, he often wore a mask over his face.

1 The infinitive

2 By adding not after order

Speaking

9 Students discuss the questions in pairs. Get feedback to check their ideas and predictions, and that they’re using the infinitive of purpose to express their answers in question 2.

of purpose to express their answers in question 2. 10 Quickly check that students know the

10 Quickly check that students know the meaning of words in the text such as viral, degenerative and afflicts. Students then read the text and find out why people did the Ice Bucket Challenge and if it was successful.

. Students then read the text and find out why people did the Ice Bucket Challenge

Background information To do the Ice Bucket Challenge, people had to record a video of themselves pouring icy water over their heads. Then the participant could nominate three other people to do the challenge, often within a set period of time. Pop stars like Justin Bieber, sports personalities like Roger Federer, and former US Presidents George W. Bush and Bill Clinton did the challenge! The Ice Bucket Challenge was very successful, and people shared more than 2.4 million videos on Facebook and tweeted more than 2.2 million times on Twitter. In the United States, people did the challenge for the ALS Association and raised over $100 million. In the UK, people participated for the Motor Neurone Disease Association, the UK equivalent of the ALS Association, and raised over £7 million.

11

YOUR STORY

When you see in front of an instruction, it

YOUR STORY

indicates that students have an opportunity to personalise the language by talking about a situation that they’ve been in that is similar to the one they’ve just read about or listened to. For more information about these exercises, see the Introduction, page 16.

Students discuss the questions in pairs, then report their experiences in feedback. You could also ask extra questions:

Can you suggest any problems with doing the Ice Bucket Challenge? (Some people said it was a waste of water, that it was bad for your health.) What could you do in order to avoid these problems? (Pour the same bucket of ice and water over more than one person at the same time, use water that has already been used for something else, eg bathing.)

12

TAKEAWAY LANGUAGE

Ask students if

they can remember other things that went viral (eg men putting nail polish on one fingernail). Which things did they like best? Have any of them done the Ice Bucket Challenge, or liked / commented on a related online post?

Extra idea: Students read the information again and make a list of social networking language (post a video, go viral, upload, comment, like, a post).

13

video , go viral, upload , comment , like , a post ). 13 1.5 Students

1.5 Students listen to the conversation and

answer the questions. Play the recording again if necessary, then ask for feedback and find out students’ opinions about the solutions. Ask

them if they know how many people around the world don’t have clean water (nearly 800 million people).

Answer

1 People used seawater and toilet water instead.

Transcript

man

Did you see all those people doing the

woman

Ice Bucket Challenge last summer? Yes, I read about it. Amazing, wasn’t

man

it? Yes, it was, but I wouldn’t ever do

woman

anything like that. Why not?

man

Such a waste of water. Do you have

woman

any idea how many people in the world don’t have good, clean water? And these people were throwing it over their head! I don’t think everyone wasted clean

man

water. A friend of mine used sea water in order not to use fresh water, and I know several other people who did the same. Oh, that’s clever.

woman

Yes, and the American actor, Matt

man

Damon, filmed himself using toilet water. Really? Because he didn’t want to

woman

waste water? Yes, exactly – because he’s a co- founder of a water charity, Water.org, and he wanted to make the point that the water in toilets in the West is actually cleaner than the water that most people in the developing world have for cooking and drinking.

EXPLORE ONLINE The Explore online exercises give students the opportunity to go beyond the page and find out more about some aspect of the topic for themselves, on their computer, smartphone or other mobile device. The online research can be done individually, or in pairs or groups, either in the classroom or at home. If it’s done at home,

you can set it up in the classroom beforehand by suggesting possible websites or by eliciting suggestions for words and phrases to type into the search engine.

Tip: Students often enjoy using their smartphones to search for things online, so encourage them to find out information on the internet. It gives them extra reading practice in English, but it’s OK if they read in their mother tongue, as it gets them to translate!

14

VIDEO OPTION

When you see in front of an instruction,

VIDEO OPTION

it gives students the chance to make a short film on their smartphones using the language and topic they’ve been studying. For more information about these exercises, see the Introduction, page 14.

Encourage students to think of other challenge ideas for their video presentations. They then walk around the room and share their ideas with each other. Get feedback and have them vote on the best / most difficult / silliest / funniest challenges.

Lesson 2 Tap or bottled?

pp10–11

Aims

The focus of this lesson is to review the function and meaning of modal verbs for making suggestions and for expressing ability, obligation and prohibition. The vocabulary is related to the environment, and students also discuss ways of conserving water.

You first!

Ask students how far they have to go to get water, and if they know anyone who has to travel far to get water (to make the point that we’re really lucky to have it ‘on tap’, while many people have to walk miles). You could also ask extra questions (Do you prefer tap water or bottled water? How much water do you drink each day?).

Reading

1 Give students five minutes to read the article and find the writer’s opinion on bottled water.

article and find the writer’s opinion on bottled water. Tip: Setting a short time limit encourages

Tip: Setting a short time limit encourages students to read quickly for gist and not to worry too much about unknown vocabulary or look up words in dictionaries. Explain that they don’t need to know the meaning of every word to understand the general meaning and complete the task. It also makes the

reading more focused

and fun!

2 Students work with a partner and write down reasons for the writer’s opinion. There are more than five reasons in the article, so it shouldn’t be difficult for them to complete this task.

it shouldn’t be difficult for them to complete this task. 3 When you see this icon
it shouldn’t be difficult for them to complete this task. 3 When you see this icon

3 When you see this icon with a vocabulary exercise, it means that you should ask students which words are the same as or similar to words in their own language – and also which are very different. For more information about these exercises, see the Introduction, page 15.

Students work in pairs and match the words and phrases in green in the article with their correct meaning. Do the first one with the class as an example. Ask students which words are very similar in their own language and which are very different.

similar in their own language and which are very different. 4 Students discuss the overall message

4 Students discuss the overall message of the article. They should give reasons for their choice.

5 Students decide if the statements are true or false and correct the false statements.

5 Students decide if the statements are true or false and correct the false statements.

Answers

1 False (Bottled water is much more expensive than tap water.)

2 True

3 False (It is not mentioned in the article.)

4 True

5 True

6 True

Tip: Asking students to choose four out of the six statements is a useful tool for helping students to feel more in control of their learning. They still have to read all six statements in order to make their choice.

Grammar

Modal verbs

6 Students complete the sentence and check the meaning with a partner. Get feedback and check students understand the function and form:

When we say ‘ought to’, do we have to do it? (No, it’s advice, even though it’s quite bossy!)

Which modal verb has the same meaning? (should)

Answer

We ought to / should drink around two litres a day.

Tip: Students often have difficulties with modal verbs, so look out for typical mistakes, such as using an infinitive after the modal verb (We should to drink around two litres a day) and use of mustn’t to show lack of obligation (It’s Saturday, so I mustn’t don’t have to go to school).

7 Students work in pairs to discuss and then match the modals with their meanings. As a follow-up, students think of sentences using the modal verbs in context.

Answers

It is

 

It isn’t

 

possible

can

possible

can’t

It is

ought to,

It isn’t

oughtn’t to,

advisable

should

advisable

shouldn’t

It is

have to,

It isn’t

don’t have

necessary

must

necessary

to

 

It is

 

prohibited

mustn’t

Extra idea: Write (or project) words scattered across the board (example below). Students work in pairs to quickly arrange the words to make a sentence (eg Jane is a flight attendant so she has to wear a uniform). The first team to shout out a correct answer wins a point. The team with the most points at the end wins the game. Try to include as many different modal verbs in context as possible.

uniform

flight attendant

 

has to

 

Jane

a

is

wear

so

a

she

8

SEARCH AND THINK

When you see in front of an

SEARCH AND THINK

instruction in a grammar or vocabulary exercise, it indicates that students need to go back through a reading text or transcript to find particular examples of language. For more information about these exercises, see the Introduction, page 11. Students search for the missing modals in pairs. To make the activity quick and enjoyable, tell them it’s a race. The first team to finish with the correct answers wins the game.

 

Answers

Modals not in article: shouldn’t, oughtn’t to, don’t have to, mustn’t.

9

Students complete the sentences with an appropriate modal verb. Go over the example with them first to check that they understand that both sentences should mean the same. Check answers in feedback and correct if necessary.

Tip: Do some repetition drilling and help students notice how the pronunciation of modal verbs

Tip: Do some repetition drilling and help students notice how the pronunciation of modal verbs changes in connected speech because of weak forms and elision (sounds we drop when we speak quickly).

We can drink – /kæn/ – /kən/ We have to walk – /hæv tuː/ – /hæf tə/ We must go – /mʌst / – /mʌs/

Speaking and writing

10

THINK
THINK

Write the following on the board:

You should / could take a shower instead of a bath. Elicit which modal is ‘softer’ and more polite (could). Explain that should is a bit bossy and is more likely to be rejected.

Students make a list of things we can do to save water. You might need to teach words like flush and load, but they’ll probably ask for these in the course of the activity. Feed back as a class and make a composite list on the board.

MA Weaker students can work in pairs to write their lists.

MA Weaker students can work in pairs to write their lists. 11 Students complete the email

11 Students complete the email giving advice and helpful suggestions for saving water. They can refer to the composite list from 10, but encourage them to be creative and funny. When they’ve finished, ask a few students to read their emails to the class and vote for the most creative / funniest / silliest ideas!

EXPLORE ONLINE Students could find out about waste in general, not just water waste. As a follow-up, students work in pairs to think of ways to prevent unnecessary waste and help the environment.

Lesson 3 Water activities

pp12–13

Aims

In this lesson, students learn vocabulary related to water sports and equipment and discuss their own favourite hobbies and activities. This provides a nice context for practising the present perfect and past simple. The listening section includes plenty of modal verbs for giving advice and suggestions, and the Song Link focuses on words and phrases connected with the passing of time.

You first!

Students work in pairs to choose one of the photos in the lesson that they like and say why. Write extra questions on the board to encourage more speaking:

Have you ever done this activity before? Where were you? Did you enjoy it? Would you like to do the activity in future?

Tip: Walking around the room, listening and noting any good sentences and mistakes you hear, is a good way of gaining an insight into things you might need to practise and review. It also offers ideas for future lessons and enables you to highlight good language to the rest of the class in feedback.

Extra idea: Write the names of different water sports on the board in phonemic script. Put students in pairs to guess the words. The first team to shout out the correct answer wins a point. The team with the most points at the end wins.

/ˈækwə ˌwɔːkɪŋ/ (aqua walking) /kəˈnuːɪŋ/ (canoeing) /ˈdaɪvɪŋ/ (diving) /ˈkaɪækɪŋ/ (kayaking) /ˈkaɪt ˌsɜːfɪŋ/ (kite surfing) /ˈpædl ˈbɔːdɪŋ/ (paddle boarding) /ˈseɪlɪŋ/ (sailing) /ˈskuːbə ˌdaɪvɪŋ/ (scuba diving) /ˈsnɔːkəlɪŋ/ (snorkelling) /ˈswɪmɪŋ/ (swimming) /ˈwɪndˌsɜːfɪŋ/ (windsurfing)

Vocabulary

Water sports and equipment

/ (windsurfing) Vocabulary Water sports and equipment 1 Students match the words with the photos and

1 Students match the words with the photos and identify any words that don’t belong in the list. If they can think of any other water sports, write them on the board too (eg jet skiing, water skiing, water polo, synchronised swimming). Ask students which words are very similar in their own language and which are very different.

Answers

1

canoeing

2 aqua walking

3

kitesurfing

4 diving / scuba diving

5

sailing

6 paddle boarding

 

7

snorkelling

8 kayaking

9 windsurfing

Students will probably say that ironing does

not belong in the list because it’s not a water sport. However, underwater ironing is possible, although it is not pictured!

2 Students discuss the questions in pairs. After a while, change pairs so they can compare their ideas with someone else.

3 To model the activity, tell students about a water sport or activity you’ve done. They then discuss the questions with a partner. You may need to supply vocabulary for the equipment required. Conduct whole-class feedback to find out the most popular water sports and get extra information about activities students have done.

4 Students can also find additional water sports and activities online. It’s actually quite hard to find anything that isn’t done underwater! An internet search will reveal people play ping-pong, tennis, chess, hockey, rugby, football, volleyball, golf, ice hockey and bingo underwater, not to mention cycling and ice skating!

Extra idea: Have a competition to see who can find the most unusual underwater activity.

Listening 1

5

Students identify the sports in photos 2 and 6 (aqua walking and paddle boarding). Ask them

if

they’ve come across these sports before, and

if

anyone has tried them. Students should use

guesswork and the photos to select and order the instructions for each sport.

MA Tell weaker students that there are four instructions for each sport.

 

Answers

 

Paddle boarding: h, a, c, e Aqua walking: f, g, b, d Sentence f assumes the aqua walking is taking place in the sea (as in photo 2) and therefore requires a wetsuit, though many people do it in a swimming pool and don’t need a wetsuit!

6

1.6

1.6

Play the recording for students to check

their answers to 5. They then compare with

a partner. To review, students note down the

modal verbs in the recording (should, will, can’t, must, mustn’t, can).

MA With weaker classes, play the first extract and check answers before continuing with the second.

Answer

Lesson 1: aqua walking Lesson 2: paddle boarding

Transcript

1

instructor

group

instructor

OK, good morning, everyone! Morning! And welcome to your first aqua walking class! I’d just like to check that you all have everything you need. You should wear a wetsuit, boots, gloves and even a hat if the water’s very cold. And it is! Very cold! So does everyone have everything they need? We have some spare hats and gloves if anybody needs them.

it is! Very cold! So does everyone have everything they need? We have some spare hats
it is! Very cold! So does everyone have everything they need? We have some spare hats

group

instructor

woman

instructor

instructor

group

instructor

I don’t have gloves! / I’d like a hat! / No, I’m fine. Wearing a floatation belt around your waist will help keep your chest above water. Would anybody like one? Yes, please! I can’t swim. Here you are. OK, off you go and change. See you down on the beach. *** OK. Everybody here? Let’s all walk into the sea. It’s nice and calm today, luckily. We’re going to start in shallow, waist-high water and gradually move to deeper, shoulder- high water. Move forwards naturally: place your heel, then your toe. Don’t walk on tiptoe! That’s right. Now, are you ready to do some exercises? Yes! / No! OK. Let’s do some running on the spot!

on tiptoe! That’s right. Now, are you ready to do some exercises? Yes! / No! OK.
on tiptoe! That’s right. Now, are you ready to do some exercises? Yes! / No! OK.
on tiptoe! That’s right. Now, are you ready to do some exercises? Yes! / No! OK.
on tiptoe! That’s right. Now, are you ready to do some exercises? Yes! / No! OK.
on tiptoe! That’s right. Now, are you ready to do some exercises? Yes! / No! OK.
on tiptoe! That’s right. Now, are you ready to do some exercises? Yes! / No! OK.

2

instructor

First of all, you must put on this life

woman

jacket. A life jacket? Really? Why?

instructor

Because paddle boards are

woman

classified as boats, so you have to wear a life jacket. As boats?! Oh, OK.

instructor

OK. To get on, first kneel just

woman

behind the centre of the board, then stand up. If it’s too difficult to stand up, you can kneel and learn to paddle-board on your knees at the beginning. No, I want to stand up.

instructor

You’re up. Great. So your feet

woman

should be parallel, your knees bent and your back straight. That’s right. Use your hips to balance. The front of the board should be in the water, not up in the air. Good. You mustn’t look down. Always look straight ahead at the horizon. What do I do with the paddle?

instructor

Hold the paddle with both hands:

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one at the top, one lower down. Excellent. Well done. The water’s nice and calm. Off you go! Byee!

Tip: Try a TPR (total physical response) game to check students know words such as knees bent, back straight, on tiptoe, kneel, etc. This is fun, gets students moving around and active after a long time seated, and checks their understanding in a really visual way.

7

Close books. Play the recording again for students to write down what the instructor says for each thing. They then compare with a partner.

 

Answers

a life jacket: Paddle boards are classified as boats, so you have to wear a life jacket. standing up: If it’s too difficult to stand up, you can kneel and learn to paddle- board on your knees at the beginning. your hips: Use your hips to balance. the front of the board: The front of the board should be in the water, not up in the air.