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1.

SBOX
Burgos, Hector. Campos, Luis Kremer, Jeans. Puc, Jose.
Sensors & Actuators Sensors & Actuators
Facultad de Ingeniería, UADY Mérida, Yucatán, México Facultad de Ingeniería, UADY Mérida, Yucatán, México

Abstract— This report shows the methodology to develop a crack  Two motor reducers
detector from an analog sensor 2Y0A21 Sharp and the actuator,
which in this case was motor reducers. The purpose of using an
analog sensor over a digital sensor is to account for the sensor
Materials:
output signal, the emission being in a range of values that vary
over time and proportional to the effects being measured. It is of  Cinchos
paramount importance the number of data collected to elaborate  Bearings
the process of digital filter, implementing the filter, analyzing the  Cable
results and the graphs obtained from the use of the apparatus to  Threaded rod
be elaborated.
 Smooth rod
I. INTRODUCTION  L-shaped rod.
 Rivets
Sensors and actuators are two critical components of
every closed loop control system. Such a system isalso II. METHODOLOGY
called a mechatronics system. A typical mechatronics
system consists of a sensing unit, a controller, and an A. Mechanical system
actuating unit.
After having the corresponding materials and the
A sensing unit can be as simple as a single sensor or can appropriate equipment, the manufacturing of the project
consist of additional components such as filters, was carried out the structure where all the electronic part
amplifiers, modulators, and other signal conditioners. would go, for this the L-shaped rod was cut and
The controller accepts the information from the sensing temporarily joined with rivets. A similar but small
unit, makes decisions based on the control algorithm, structure was developed where the sensor will be placed.
and outputs commands to the actuating unit. The For the structure to have movement on the X and Y axis,
actuating unit consists of an actuator and optionally a the rods were used in such a way to give such
power supply and a coupling mechanism. movements through actuators that would work with the
programming of a microcontroller.
Sensor is a device that when exposed to a physical
phenomenon (temperature, displacement, force, etc.)
produces a proportional output signal (electrical, The structure has measurements exceeding 15
mechanical, magnetic, etc.). centimeters in order that the displacement of the sensor
is in accordance with the specifications provided. It
On the other hand, actuators are basically the muscle should be emphasized that the place where the sensor
behind a mechatronics system that accepts a control is noted must be parallel to the ground, so that the
command (mostly in the form of an electrical signal) and moment the sensor displaces, there are no erroneous
produces a change in the physical system by generating measurements to decrease or increase the distance
force,motion, heat, flow, etc [1]. between the sensor and the floor, without it being, this
problem a matter of manufacture.

Equipment B. Analog sensing


The equipment used during the project was: The sensor used was the Sharp 2Y0A21, according to
 Development board Arduino UNO the specifications of the datasheet it has a measurement
 2Y0A21 Sharp Sensor distance range of 10 to 80 centimeters, it is an analog
output, it is powered with a voltage voltage of 4.5 to 5.5
 H bridge v [2].
C. Digital processing
For the digital processing, the microcontroller Arduino
Uno was selected, because it is compatible with each
component used, besides being able to be connected to
MatLab in order to apply the filter to the data obtained.
D. Filtering
The Arduino was connected to the MatLab so that by
obtaining the read values of the sensor, they were
processed to a vector, transforming it into an NxM matrix.
As the elaborated system has a movement in X and Y, it
was accommodated in such a way that the filtering
throws the correct matrix to the data, relative to the
Figure 3 Grayscale data
positions of the plane to that of MatLab.

III. RESULTS C. CONCLUSION


In conclusion, it is important the knowledge of sensors
A. Mechanical system and actuators, especially when carrying out projects
where both interfere to carry out a process, in most
In this part, were placed the electronic components
systems that exist, these two instruments are important
used, in the orange box is the used circuit. The
for the tasks to be performed.
student structure measures 30 centimeters by 30
centimeters.
Thanks to the use of limit switches it was possible to
locate the initial position of the gear motors used, on the
other hand, the conversion of analog and digital data was
simple through the microcontroller used, which allows
with a simple programming, to carry out said process. On
the other hand, to make the uniformity detector work
properly, it was necessary to characterize, by making
several tests, modifying the code to adapt it to the needs
required for the project.

One of the problems presented that the infrared sensor


Figure 1 Mechanical System
emits erroneous measurements at close distances,
B. Digital processing and Filtering another was the engine torque, because each engine had
a different one, which was arranged with delays in the
The professed and digitized data were of a 70x70 matrix, programming part.
that is, 4900 data, were captured in an hour and a half,
resulting in what is shown in Figure 2 and 3, was filtered
from a convolution in 3x3 matrices: Although this project has engineering applications in the
industrial maintenance where it is used to verify fissures
in the structures, to maintain in optimal conditions the
machines to be used.

D. REFERENCES
[1] M.Anjanappa, K.Datta, and T.Song. “Introduction to
Sensors andActuators” 2002 CRC Press LCC
[2] HARP, s.f.“GP2Y0A21YK/GP2Y0A21YK–General
Purpouse Type Distance Measuring Sensors”. USA:
Figure 2. Processed data SHARP. Available at:
https://www.sparkfun.com/datasheets/Components/GP2
Y0A21YK.pdf