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# OBSERVATION

Graphs----------------------
CALCULATIONS
a) Single phase half wave controller.
Sample calculation for first observation;

##  Calculating the delay angle (∝);

∝ = 2tan-1 [ 𝐸𝐸 ]
𝑅
𝐶

## When, ER = 24V and EC =9V

∝ = 2tan-1 [ 249 ]
∝ = 138.880
 Calculating the theoretical values of VL ;

𝑉𝑚
VL = (1+cos∝)
2𝜋
When, Vin = 102V

102√2
VL = (1+cos138.880 )
2𝜋
VL =5.66V
Like that,
Calculated Delay angle (∝) and theoretical values of VL are given below;

138.880 5.66V
135.970 6.45V
133.000 7.3V
125.850 9.51V
120.790 11.20V
111.330 14.60V
98.280 19.65V
83.260 25.65V
55.860 35.84V
21.230 44.35V
0.00 45.91V

## b) Single phase full wave controller.

Sample calculation for first observation;

##  Calculating the delay angle (∝);

∝ = 2tan-1 [ 𝐸𝐸 ]𝑅
𝐶

## When, ER = 23V and EC =12V

∝ = 2tan-1 [ 23
12
]
∝ = 124.890
 Calculating the theoretical values of VL ;

𝑉𝑚
VL = (1+cos∝)
𝜋
When, Vin = 102V

102√2
VL = (1+cos124.890 )
𝜋
VL =19.65V
Like that,
Calculated Delay angle (∝) and theoretical values of VL are given below;

## Delay angle (∝) VL Theoretical

124.890 19.65V
123.850 20.33V
117.680 24.58V
112.610 28.26V
106.260 33.05V
98.280 39.30V
900 45.91V
72.760 59.52V
50.920 74.86V
24.520 87.69V
0.00 91.83V

c) AC Voltage controller
Sample calculation for first observation;

##  Calculating the delay angle (∝);

∝ = 2tan-1 [ 𝐸𝐸 ] 𝑅
𝐶

## When, ER = 23V and EC =12V

∝ = 2tan-1 [ 23
12
]
∝ = 124.890
𝜋
∝ = 124.890 ×
180
 Calculating the theoretical values of VL ;

1 ∝ 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝛼
VL =Vm√ − +
2 2𝜋 4𝜋

## When, Vin = 102V

1 2.179 sin(2×124.89)
VL = 102√2√ − +
2 2𝜋 4𝜋

VL =40.42V
Like that,
Calculated Delay angle (∝) and theoretical values of VL are given below;

## Delay angle (∝) VL Theoretical

124.890 40.42V
123.850 41.41V
118.840 46.21V
112.610 52.16V
110.010 54.59V
99.790 63.90V
900 72.14V
0
74.69 83.26V
53.130 94.46V
0
16.59 101.74V
0.00 102V
Theoretical and Practical output voltage VL verses Delay angle for Single phase half wave
controller;

## Delay angle (∝) VL Theoretical VL Practical

138.880 5.66V 3
135.970 6.45V 4
133.000 7.3V 4.5
125.850 9.51V 6
120.790 11.20V 7.5
111.330 14.60V 10
98.280 19.65V 13.5
83.260 25.65V 21
55.860 35.84V 31
21.230 44.35V 41
0.00 45.91V 44

Theoretical and Practical output voltage VL vs Delay angle for Single phase full wave controller;

## Delay angle (∝) VL Theoretical VL Practical

124.890 19.65V 12
123.850 20.33V 13
117.680 24.58V 15
112.610 28.26V 17
106.260 33.05V 20
98.280 39.30V 24
900 45.91V 32
72.760 59.52V 44
50.920 74.86V 62
24.520 87.69V 78
0.00 91.83V 86

Theoretical and Practical output voltage VL vs Delay angle for Single phase AC controller;

## Delay angle (∝) VL Theoretical VL Practical

124.890 40.42V 30
123.850 41.41V 32
118.840 46.21V 38
112.610 52.16V 40
110.010 54.59V 44
99.790 63.90V 50
900 72.14V 60
74.690 83.26V 72
53.130 94.46V 86
16.590 101.74V 98
0.00 102V 98
DISCUSSION
According to the above plotted graphs, we can observe the output voltage across the load is
decreasing when the increasing the delay firing angle of the thyristor. It is clear that the practical
values are slightly less than theoretical values. It is because we assume that the power electronics
devices which we used for this practical are behave like ideal devices during the theoretical
calculations. But in practices those devices are not ideal devices. And also the voltage across the
diodes which was there in the practical circuit was not considered during the theoretical derivation.
Apart from these errors, the errors in the measuring instruments and human errors are reasons for
the deviation of theoretical and practical values.
Short discussion on the applications of the voltage controllers in practice.
There are many controller applications of thyristors due to their flexibility of operation and
compact design. Half wave and full wave conversation is use to get controlled dc output over the
conventional uncontrolled diode conversion. These types of controllers inject large harmonic in to
the system particularly small output value. Furthermore these types of converters produce notches
in the line voltage waveform. In the past this thyristor controlling mechanism is used in many
applications for controlling the flow of electric power. But with the development of power
electronic field better devices came to the industry which can mitigate above pit holes of the
thyristors. Followings are some of practical application of thyristor voltage controllers.
Light dimmers-
A light dimmer works by essentially chopping parts out of the AC voltage. This allows only part
of the voltage waveform to pass to the lamp. The brightness of the lamp is determined by the power
transferred to it, so the more the waveform is chopped the more it dims. A thyristor is a uni-
directional device and hence two of them are needed to AC power to flow in both direction. An
electronics circuit determines the point in time at which they turn ON and that state continuous
until the next zero crossing point, at which they turn OFF.
Induction Heating-
The energy which passes to the heater in an induction heater is controlled by a voltage regulator.
In this induction heating, Low frequency AC power is convert to high frequency with the use of
an inverter by changing AC to DC and then again DC to AC by using thyristors.
Variable speed Air compressor-
The most common form of VSD technology in the air compressor industry is a variable frequency
device. It converts the incoming AC power to DC and then back to a quasi-sinusoidal AC power
using an inverter switching circuit which is consist with thyristors.
DC motor control-
For motors up to a few kilowatts the armature converter can be supplied from either single phase
or three phase mains. A separate thyristor or diode rectifier is used to supply the field of the motor
which the power is less than the armature power.
Transformer tap changing-
In these type of tap changers, thyristors use to hold the load while the main contacts change over
from one tap to the next. This prevents arcing on the main contacts and can lead to a longer service
life between maintenance activities. These tap changers have very complex design and need low
voltage power supply, that can be more costly.

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