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6/14/2018 Ultrasonic Testing Procedure

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GENERAL 1. Scope
Site
Pre-Shipment
Inspection
1.1-This procedure describes the
Sponsors
general requirements for Ultrasonic
Third Party examination of metallic welding
Inspection according related approved weld maps
Vendor as may be required by the specification
Inspection or under .which component is being
designed and manufactured.
Commodity
Inspection
1.2- This procedure provides the
Inspection and materials, equipment, personnel
Test Plan qualification, examination process,
Factory evaluation, record and acceptance
Acceptance standards for XXX project which will be
Test fabricated in YYY Company

Industrial
1.3-Ultrasonic testing / examination shall
Inspection
be performed in accordance with the

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Quality Control procedure which shall as a minimum


contain the requirement of table T-421 in
Plant
ASME Section V.
Inspection

Coating 2. References
Inspection
2.1- ANSI, ASME Sec.VIII devision 1 & 2
Appendix 12
FIX
EQUIPMENT 2.2- ANSI, ASME Sec.V article 4 & 5

Pressure Vessel 2.3- ANSI recommended practices


Heat Exchanger No.ASNT-TC-1A for NDT personnel
qualification and certification
Piping System

Industrial Valve 3. General:

Steam Boiler
3.1-Basic Requirements and Terms
Storage Tank

Process Heater When this procedure is specified by a


referencing code section, the ultrasonic
testing method described in this
ROTARY procedure shall be used with ASME
code section V-article 1, 4 & 5 & ASME
EQUIPMENT
SEC.VIII, DIV.1. When SA, SB and SE
Centrifugal documents are referenced, they are
Pump located in article 23.

Centrifugal
3.2-Examination coverage (scan
Compressor
overlap)
Reciprocating
Compressor Each pass of the search unit shall
Gas Turbine overlap minimum 10% of the transducer
(piezo-electric element) dimension
Steam Turbine
perpendicular to the direction of the
Fan & Blower scan.

3.3- Rate of search unit movements


E&I
EQUIPMENT The rate of search unit movement for
examination shall not exceed 6
inch/sec(150 mm/s).
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Electric
Generator

Electric Motor

Power
Transformer

Control Panel

Switchgear

Power Cable

GET IN 4. Personnel Qualification:


TOUCH
The N.D.T. personnel whose performing
About Me ultrasonic testing / examination shall be
Contact qualified and meets the requirements of
level II, in Accordance to ASNT-SNT-TC-
Services
1A.
Blog
5. Surface Preparation
Privacy Policy

The surface to be subject to ultrasonic


testing shall be free from any existing
We will be updating
lubricants, dirt, residue, rust and sharp
and growing this
edges, so; to smoothly carry on the
site with more and
more of industrial procedure.
inspection related
articles. 6. Equipments

Please subscribe to 6.1- Examination shall be conducted with


my monthly a pulse echo A-Scan ultrasonic testing
newsletter so you
instrument capable of generating
don't miss a thing.
frequencies over the range of at least 1
MHZ to 5 MHZ. Ultrasonic testing
instrument shall be calibrated for the
Email
examination and shall be capable of
meeting the requirements of screen
height linearity and amplitude control
linearity in paragraph 5.3 & 5.4 of this
procedure.(Trade name of ultrasonic

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6/14/2018 Ultrasonic Testing Procedure

testing instrument is krautkramer USN-


Enter 52) Ultrasonic testing instrument shall be
Your equipped with stepped gain control in
units of 2 dB or less (according to ASME
First sec V-T-431).
Name
6.2- Search Units
(optional)
Search units may contain either single or
dual transducer element.The search unit
size shall be selected according to the
Subscribe
following table.

(1) Straight Beam. (either single or dual


crystal)

Transducer Material
Frequency(MHz)
size(mm) thickness(mm)

4 or 5 Ø10 25.4 or less

2 or 4 Ø10 or Ø20 Over 25.4

(2) Angle Beam

Search
Transducer Material
unit Frequency(MHz)
size(mm) thickness(mm)
Angle

70º 4 Ø10 12.5 or less

60º ,
4 Ø10 12.5 or 25.4
70º

45º ,
60º or
4 Ø10 Over 25.4
45º ,
70º

(3) Search units with contoured contact


wedges may be used to aid ultrasonic
coupling.

6.3-Screen Height Linearity

The ultrasonic testing instrument shall


provide linear vertical presentation within
±5% (According to ASME Sec.V, Article 5

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T-532) of the full screen height for 20%


to 80% of the calibrated screen height.

The procedure for evaluating screen


height linearity is provided in appendix 1
of article 5, ASME code Sec.V and shall
be performed at the beginning of each
period of extended use (or every 3
months, which ever is less).

6.4-Amplitude Control linearity

The ultrasonic testing instrument shall


utilize an amplitude control accurate
over its useful range to ± 20% of the
nominal amplitude ratio, to allow
measurement of indications beyond the
linear range of the vertical display on the
screen, the procedure for evaluating
amplitude control linearity is given in
appendix 2 of article 5, ASME code
Sec.V and Shall be performed at the
beginning of each period of extended
use (or every 6 months, whichever is
less).

6.5- Couplant

SAE No.20 or No 30 motor oil, glycerin


and adhesive wall paper shall be used.
Couplants may not be comparable to
one another, and the same couplant
shall be used for calibration and
examination. couplant used on nickel
base alloy shall not contain more than
250 ppm of sulfur and those used on
austenitic stainless steel shall not
contain more than 250 ppm of halides
(chlorides plus flourides).

6.6-Angel & Mode of


Wave Propagation in the Material
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For angel beam probe , the mode of


wave propagation in material is shear
wave and the related applicable angel &
size & frequency is described in table
6.2.2.

For normal beam probe, the mode of


wave propagation in material is
longitudinal wave and the
related applicable angel & size &
frequency is described in table 6.2.1.

7. Calibration:

7.1- Basic Calibration Blocks

7.1.1- The basic calibration reflectors


shall be used to establish a primary
reference response of the
equipment.The basic calibration
reflectors may be located either in the
component material or in a basic
calibration block. Where the most used
blocks in this regards are block V1 & V2.
(approved calibration). Also basic
calibration blocks shall be utilized
to construct a distance amplitude
correction curve (DAC). Basic calibration
reflectors shall be according to ASME,
Sec.V, T434.2.1 (for non piping
calibration block) and T-434.3(for piping
calibration block).And certificates for U.T.
equipment, test block V1 & V2 probes
etc. shall be submitted to the purchaser.

7.1.2- Block Selection

Basic calibration blocks shall be of


similar metallurgical structure and the
same material specification or an
equivalent P-number grouping as the
finished component for the purpose of
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this, P-numbers 1,3,4 & 5 materials are


considered equivalent.The finish on the
surfaces of the block shall be
representative of the scanning surface
finishes on the components to the
examined.

7.2- System Calibration

7.2.1- Angle Beam Calibrations

As applicable the calibration shall


provide the following measurements
(refer to article 4, appendix B, ASME
code Sec.

(1) Distance Range Calibration

(2) Distance-Amplitude Correction

(3) Position Calibration

(4) Echo Amplitude Measurement from the


Surface Notch in the Basic Calibration
Block.

When an electronic distance amplitude


correction device is used, the primary
reference responses from the basic
calibration block shall be equalized at a
screen height between 40 to 80% of full
screen height over the distance range to be
employed in the examination.

7.2.2- Straight Beam Calibration

The calibration shall provide the following


measurements(Refer to article 5, ASME
code Sec. V ).

(1) Distance Range Calibration

(2) Distance-Amplitude Correction


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When an electronic distance-amplitude


correction device is used, the primary
reference response from the basic
calibration block shall be equalized on the
basic calibration block at a screen height
between 40% and 80% of full screen height
over the distance range to be employed in
the examination.

7.3- Calibration Confirmation

Calibration shall be performed prior to use


of the system in the thickness range under
examination. A calibration check shall verify
the sweep range calibration and distance-
amplitude correction.

7.3.1- Distance Range Points

If a point on the DAC curve has moved on


the sweep line more than 10% of the
sweep reading or 5% of full sweep, which
ever is greater, correct the distance range
calibration and note the correction in the
examination record. If reflectors are
recorded on the data sheets, those data
sheets shall be voided and a new
calibration shall be recorded.

All recorded indications since the last valid


calibration or calibration check shall be Re-
examined with the corrected calibration and
their values shall be changed on the data
sheets.

7.3.2- DAC correction If a point on the


distance-amplitude correction (DAC) curve
has decreased 20% or 2 db of its
amplitude, all data sheets since the last
calibration or calibration check shall be
marked void. A new calibration shall be
made and recorded and the area covered
by the voided data shall be Re-examined. If

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any point of the distance-amplitude


correction (DAC) curve has increased more
than 20% or 2 db of its amplitude, all
recorded indications since the last valid
calibration or calibration check shall be Re-
examined with the corrected calibration and
their values shall be changed on the data
sheets.

8. Examination

8.1- General Requirements:

The scanning shall be performed at a gain


setting at least two times the primary
reference level evaluation shall be
performed with respect to the primary
reference level.

The volumes shall be scanned by straight


and angle beam techniques as a described
in detail in paragraph 8 angle beams,
having nominal angles as recommended in
table 6.2.1 & 6.2.2 with respect to
a perpendicular to the examination surface,
shall generally be used.Other pairs of angle
beams are permitted provided the
measured difference between the angle is
at least 10º.

8.1.1- Angle beam method scanning shall


be made basically from outside of the
vessel by the direct contact method. The
angle beam shall be directed
at approximately right angle to the weld
axis from two direction where possible to
detect the reflectors oriented angular to the
weld .In addition, the angle beam shall be
directed essentially parallel to the weld axis
to detect the reflectors oriented transverse
to the weld. The search unit shall be
manipulated so that the ultrasonic energy
passes through the whole volumes of weld

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and heat affected zone (20mm) of base


metal.The refraction angle of the angle
beam transducer & exit point shall be
measured using IIW standard calibration
block. The tolerance of the refraction angle
shall not be more than ±2º

8.1.2- Straight Beam Method

(1) The heat affected zone and weld where


practicable shall be scanned with the
straight beam search unit, before scanning
with angle beam.

(2) The scanning of the adjacent base


metal of at least 2t tana (where t=base
metal thickness & a=1/2 groove angle)
shall be performed to detect reflectors that
affect interpretation of angle beam results,
and is not to be used as an acceptance
rejection examination. Locations and areas
of such reflectors shall be recorded.

8.2- Surface Preparation

The base metal on each side of the weld


shall be free of weld spatter, surface
irregularities, or foreign matter that might
interfere with the examination.

8.3- Scanning Sensitivity

The scanning shall be performed at a gain


setting at least two times the primary
reference level and evaluation shall be
performed with respect to the primary
reference level.

8.4- Detection of Defects Parallel to the


Weld

The angle beam shall be directed at


approximately right angle to the weld axix

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from two directions where possible.

The search unit shall be manipulated so


that the ultrasonic beam passes through
the required volumes of weld and adjacent
base metal.

8.5- Detection of Traverse Defects

The angle beam shall be directed angular


to the weld axis. The search unit shall be
manipulated so that the ultrasonic beam
passes through the all of the volume be
examined.

8.6-Method of Sizing Indications

For normal & angel beam ultrasonic testing


inspection , method of sizing indication is
half value method measurement (6 dB
drop) as follow:

The size of reflectors which are large is


comparison to the sound beam diameter
can be determines by edge scanning probe
is moved from a position witch provides the
optimum flaw echo to the edge of the
flaw.the point at which the echo height is
half the optimum value,i.e.where the beam
axis is incident on the edge of the flow,is
marked on the testing surface.a series of
such point outline the reflector surface.

The half value length (HVL) is the distance


measured on the test object between edge
point in a longitudinal direction,the half
value width (HVW) in a normal direction.

The 6 dB technique involves obtaining an


echo from a position where the reflector
extends across the full width of ultrasonic
beam and then moving the beam along the
reflector until the echo has fallen by half (i.e

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by 6 dB).it is then assumed that only one


half of the beam is impinging on the
reflector whose edge,therefore,lies along
the beam axis.the technique is applicable
to both normal & angel probes,and is most
frequently used for the potting of lamination
in plate ,and for measuring the length of
linear imperfection in welds.

8.7-Direction & Extend of Scanning

Direction of scanning in ultrasonic testing


inspection of weld line angle beam probe
shall be perpendicular to weld line axis &
extended of related scanning shall be cover
the full skip area & 100 % of weld line .for
detection of defects parallel to the weld line
axis shall meet the requirement 8.4.for
detection of transfer defects to the weld line
axis shall meet the requirement 8.5.

8.8-Method for discriminating geometric


from flow indication

Linear indication such as cracks


(transfer & longitudinal), lack of
penetration,lack of fusion and slag
line produce single very sharp and
height flow indication that when
search unit swing around the defect’s
location cause immediate drop of
related echo in ultrasonic testing
display device.
Rounded indication such as
isolated porosity & slag produce
single low gain flow indication that
when search unit swing around the
defect’s location ,related echo in
ultrasonic testing display device not
eliminate immediately.
Rounded indication such as
cluster porosity produce multi-flow
indication like a grass & noise.

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Location(depth & distance) of all


above indication shall be investigate
& interpretate by estimation of
maximum sound path of related
indication .
False and Non relevant indication
shall be separate by relevant
indication with interpretation of the
depth , location , height of related
echo , ….by expert ultrasonic testing
operator.

8.9-Weld configuration to be
examined(including thickness dimension &
base material product form)

The applicable thickness dimension for


ultrasonic testing inspection in this project
is above 10 mm.

Base material product form for this project if


plate & pipe form.

8.10-Scaning method

The scaning method for this procedure is


manual with A-scan method

9. Evaluation:

Any imperfection which causes an


indication in excess of 20% DAC shall be
investigated to the extent that it can be
evaluated in terms of the acceptance
standards of the referencing code section
(refer to T 480 ASME code Sec V Article 4).

10. Acceptance standard

10.1-ASME Section VIII division I, Appendix


12

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All imperfections that produce an amplitude


greater than 20% of the reference level
shall be investigated to the extent that the
operator can determine the shape, identity
and location of all such imperfections and
evaluate them in terms of the following
acceptance standards.

10.1.1- Imperfections that are interpreted to


be cracks, lack of fusion or incomplete
penetration are unacceptable regardless of
length.

10.1.2- All other linear type imperfections


are unacceptable, if the amplitude exceeds
the reference level and the length of the
imperfection exceeds the following:

(1) ¼ in. for T up to ¾ in.

(2) 1/3 T for T from ¾in. to 2 ¼ in.

(3) ¾ in. for T over 2 ¼ in.

Where T is the thickness of the weld


excluding any allowable reinforcement.

For a butt weld joining two members having


different thicknesses at the weld, T is the
thinnest of these two thickness.

If a full penetration weld includes a fillet


weld, the thickness of the throat of the fillet
shall be included in T.

11. Reports:

A report of the examinations shall be made.


The report shall include a record indicating
the welds or volume examined (this maybe
marked-up sketched) the location of each
recorded reflector, and the identification of
the operator whom carries out each

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examination or part there of as detailed in


T-493, ASME Sec.V article 4.

A record of all reflections from uncorrected


areas having responses that exceed 50%
of the reference level shall be maintained.
This record shall locate each area, the
response level, the dimension, the depth
below the surface, and the classification.

Related Articles:

Magnetic Particle Inspection, Radiography


Testing, Dye Penetrant Inspection, Vendor Inspection
Services, Third Party Inspection Services, Industrial
Quality Control

Return from Ultrasonic Testing to Industrial


Inspection

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Sachin Kamboj ·
Mgr. QC at The King Sugar and General Engineering Company
as per sec IX it is awesm.
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6/14/2018 Ultrasonic Testing Procedure

Like · Reply · 4y

Willykate Kairu ·
NDT Supervisor at Quality Inspectors Limited
great
Like · Reply · 1 · 4y

Philemon Akinola ·
Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-ife,Nigeria.
this is good. it is a good guide to review UT process/procedure
Like · Reply · 4y

Muhammad Haqi Priyono ·


Welding Technology
standard to work
Like · Reply · 4y

Phan Hoang Diep ·


Vung Tau
good!, phan hoang diep UT Inspector
Like · Reply · 1 · 3y

Phan Hoang Diep ·


Vung Tau
But, if project only working for piping that have 1" up to 20",
How many calibraion block is recommened follow as thickness
either Dia.? Can any body help me??? ( Note: With me it's so
many blocks, about 16 for piping calibraion blocks
)
Like · Reply · 1 · 3y

Umor Alali ·
Staff at NIW
IOW&IIW and notch block cut from the pipe is to be
used.
Like · Reply · 2y

Rinju Antony ·
Quality inspection of Rig and Drilling Tools at Saudi Aramco. at OCTG Inspector
awsm
Like · Reply · 3y

Abere John ·
Port Harcourt
very good
Like · Reply · 1 · 3y

Kenneth Nnanta ·
University of Port Harcourt
knowledgeable, reputable for standard and technical evaluation
Like · Reply · 1 · 3y
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6/14/2018 Ultrasonic Testing Procedure

Antonius Wira ·
Quality Inspector at Smk Teknik Pal Surabaya
nice
Like · Reply · 3y

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