Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 21

Frame Analysis

Software Full-frame Analysis

Frame Analysis of RC Structures


Prepared and delivered by: Ir. Dr. Lau Teck Leong

Manual Sub-frame Analysis


Frame Analysis

Consider a braced building frame (supporting vertical loads only) ….

Subject to characteristic permanent loads (including self-weight) Gk = 25 kN/m and


variable loads Qk = 10 kN/m on the beams. The frame is made of beams (300mm x
600mm) and columns (300mm x 350mm).

Analyse bending moments in the continuous beam EFGH.

N M O P

3.5 m
J K L M

300
3.5 m
E 1 F G H
600
1
Section 1-1

2 2
4.0 m
350
A B C D
300

Section 2-2
6.0 m 4.0 m 6.0 m
Frame Analysis

Possible sub-frame for manual analysis…type (i).

J K L M

3.5 m

E F G H

4.0 m

A B C D

6m 4m 6m
Frame Analysis

Possible sub-frame for manual analysis…type (ii).

K L
Half stiffness Half stiffness 3.5 m

E F G H

4.0 m

B C

6m 4m 6m

Note:
Assumption of fixed supports at far ends over-estimates the stiffness
can be generated from the joints, thus, the stiffness of connecting
beams are halved to allow for the flexibility resulting from continuity.
Frame Analysis

Critical load case (1) ….

J K L M

3.5 m
1.35 Gk + 1.5 Qk 1.35 Gk + 1.5 Qk
1.35 Gk
E F G H

4.0 m

A B C D

6m 4m 6m

Note: Load arrangements for maximum moment in end spans.


Frame Analysis

Critical load case (2) ….

J K L M

3.5 m
1.35 Gk + 1.5 Qk
1.35 Gk 1.35 Gk
E F G H

4.0 m

A B C D

6m 4m 6m

Note: Load arrangements for maximum moment in centre span.


Frame Analysis

Critical load case (3) ….

J K L M

3.5 m
1.35 Gk + 1.5 Qk 1.35 Gk + 1.5 Qk
1.35 Gk
E G H
F
4.0 m

A B C D

6m 4m 6m

Note: Load arrangements for maximum moment at “ F ”.


Frame Analysis

Critical load case (4) ….

J K L M

3.5 m
1.35 Gk + 1.5 Qk 1.35 Gk + 1.5 Qk
1.35 Gk
E F H
G
4.0 m

A B C D

6m 4m 6m

Note: Load arrangements for maximum moment at “ G ”.


Frame Analysis

Lets consider critical load case (1) for manual analysis.

J K L M

3.5 m
1.35 Gk + 1.5 Qk 1.35 Gk + 1.5 Qk
= 48.75 kN /m 1.35 Gk = 33.75 kN/m = 48.75 kN /m
E F G H

4.0 m

A B C D

6m 4m 6m

And, their fixed ends moment for analysis. 𝑤𝐿2


𝐹𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 𝐸𝑛𝑑 𝑀𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡: 𝑀 = −
12
- 146 kNm -146 kNm -146 kNm -146 kNm
-45 kNm -45 kNm

E F G H
Frame Analysis

Members stiffness – “k”.

300 J K L M

600 𝑘𝑈 𝑘𝑈 𝑘𝑈 𝑘𝑈
3.5 m

Beam Section
E
𝑘𝐸𝐹 F
𝑘𝐹𝐺 G
𝑘𝐺𝐻 H

350 𝑘𝐿 𝑘𝐿 𝑘𝐿 𝑘𝐿 4.0 m
300

Column Section A B C D

6m 4m 6m

𝐸I I
𝑆𝑡𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠: 𝑘 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙, ∴ 𝑘 =
𝐿 𝐿 𝐶𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑛𝑠 𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠:

𝐸𝑛𝑑 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑛𝑠 "𝐸𝐹" 𝑎𝑛𝑑 "𝐺𝐻": 𝑈𝑝𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑛:


0.3 × 0.63 0.3 × 0.353
𝑘𝐸𝐹 = 𝑘𝐺𝐻 = 12 = 0.9 × 10−3 12
𝑘𝑈 = = 0.31 × 10−3
6 3.5

𝐶𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑒 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑛 "𝐹𝐺": 𝐿𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑛:


0.3 × 0.63 0.3 × 0.353
𝑘𝐹𝐺 = 12 = 1.35 × 10−3 12
𝑘𝐿 = = 0.27 × 10−3
4 4.0
Frame Analysis

Moment Distribution Factors – “DF”.

J K L M

3.5 m
𝐷𝐹𝑈 𝐷𝐹𝑈 𝐷𝐹𝑈 𝐷𝐹𝑈
𝐷𝐹𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑠 E 𝐷𝐹𝐸𝐹 𝐷𝐹𝐹𝐸 F 𝐷𝐹𝐹𝐺 𝐷𝐹𝐺𝐹 𝐷𝐹𝐺𝐻 𝐷𝐹𝐻𝐺 H
G

𝐷𝐹𝐿 𝐷𝐹𝐿 𝐷𝐹𝐿 𝐷𝐹𝐿


4.0 m

A B C D

6m 4m 6m

𝐴𝑡 𝐽𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 "𝐸" 𝑎𝑛𝑑 "𝐻": 𝐴𝑡 𝐽𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 "𝐹" 𝑎𝑛𝑑 "𝐺":


𝑘 = 𝑘𝐸𝐹 𝑜𝑟 𝐺𝐻 + 𝑘𝑈 + 𝑘𝐿 = 0.9 + 0.58 = 1.48 𝑘 = 𝑘𝐸𝐹 + 𝑘𝐹𝐺 + 𝑘𝑈 + 𝑘𝐿 = 0.9 + 1.35 + 0.58 = 2.83
0.9 0.9
𝐵𝑒𝑎𝑚𝑠: 𝐷𝐹𝐸𝐹 = 𝐷𝐹𝐻𝐺 = = 0.61 𝐸𝑑𝑔𝑒 𝐵𝑒𝑎𝑚𝑠: 𝐷𝐹𝐹𝐸 = 𝐷𝐹𝐺𝐻 = = 0.32
1.48 2.83
0.58 1.35
𝐶𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑛𝑠: ∗ 𝐷𝐹𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑠 = = 0.39 𝐶𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑒 𝐵𝑒𝑎𝑚: 𝐷𝐹𝐹𝐺 = 𝐷𝐹𝐺𝐹 = = 0.48
1.48 2.83
0.58
∗ 𝑁𝑜𝑡𝑒: 𝐷𝐹𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑠 = 𝐷𝐹𝑈 + 𝐷𝐹𝐿 𝐶𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑛𝑠: 𝐷𝐹𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑠 = = 0.20
2.83
Frame Analysis

Moment Distribution Factors, “DF”.

J K L M
0.20 0.20 3.5 m
𝐷𝐹𝑈 𝐷𝐹𝑈 𝐷𝐹𝑈 𝐷𝐹𝑈

0.39 E 0.61 0.32 F 0.48 0.48 G


0.32 0.61 H 0.39

𝐷𝐹𝐿 𝐷𝐹𝐿 𝐷𝐹𝐿 𝐷𝐹𝐿


4.0 m

A B C D

6m 4m 6m

𝐴𝑡 𝐽𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 "𝐸" 𝑎𝑛𝑑 "𝐻": 𝐴𝑡 𝐽𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 "𝐹" 𝑎𝑛𝑑 "𝐺":


𝑘 = 𝑘𝐸𝐹 𝑜𝑟 𝐺𝐻 + 𝑘𝑈 + 𝑘𝐿 = 0.9 + 0.58 = 1.48 𝑘 = 𝑘𝐸𝐹 + 𝑘𝐹𝐺 + 𝑘𝑈 + 𝑘𝐿 = 0.9 + 1.35 + 0.58 = 2.83
0.9 0.9
𝐵𝑒𝑎𝑚𝑠: 𝐷𝐹𝐸𝐹 = 𝐷𝐹𝐻𝐺 = = 0.61 𝐸𝑑𝑔𝑒 𝐵𝑒𝑎𝑚𝑠: 𝐷𝐹𝐹𝐸 = 𝐷𝐹𝐺𝐻 = = 0.32
1.48 2.83
0.58 1.35
𝐶𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑛𝑠: ∗ 𝐷𝐹𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑠 = = 0.39 𝐶𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑒 𝐵𝑒𝑎𝑚: 𝐷𝐹𝐹𝐺 = 𝐷𝐹𝐺𝐹 = = 0.48
1.48 2.83
0.58
∗ 𝑁𝑜𝑡𝑒: 𝐷𝐹𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑠 = 𝐷𝐹𝑈 + 𝐷𝐹𝐿 𝐶𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑛𝑠: 𝐷𝐹𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑠 = = 0.20
2.83
Frame Analysis

Moment distributions method - critical load case (1).


0.39 0.20 0.20 0.39
Distribution Factors;
“DF s” 0.61 0.32 0.48 0.48 0.32 0.61
E H
F G

E F G H

EF FE FG GF GH HG
Frame Analysis

Moment distributions method - critical load case (1).


𝐹𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑 𝐸𝑛𝑑 𝑀𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠: -146 kNm -146-135
kNm -146
-135kNm -146 kNm
-95 -95
𝑤𝐿2 -69 -45 kNm -45 kNm -69
𝑀=−
12 E H
F G

E F G H

EF FE FG GF GH HG

-101 +101

-68.8 +68.8

-21.5 +21.5

-8.6 +8.6
Frame Analysis

Now, consider span “EF” – “theoretical derivations for shear force”

MF 135
a1
95 95

Load case (1). ME F 69


E H
Mmax G

VE VF
a3 a2
L

𝑀𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑏𝑟𝑖𝑢𝑚 𝑎𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 "𝐹" 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑛 "𝐸𝐹":


𝑤 𝐿2
𝑉𝐸 𝐿 − + 𝑀𝐸 − 𝑀𝐹 = 0 (1.1)
2
𝑤𝐿 𝑀𝐸 − 𝑀𝐹 48.75 × 6 −68.8 + 135
𝑇ℎ𝑢𝑠: 𝑉𝐸 = − = − = 135 𝑘𝑁
2 𝐿 2 6
𝐴𝑛𝑑: 𝑉𝐹 = 𝑤 𝐿 − 𝑉𝐸 = 48.75 × 6 − 135 = 157 𝑘𝑁

157
135
67.5
F H
E G

67.5
135
157
SFD
Frame Analysis

Consider span “EF” – “theoretical derivations for span moment”

MF 135
a1
95 95

Load case (1). ME F 69


E H
Mmax G

VE VF
a3 a2
L 𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡:
𝑤 𝑎3 2
𝑀𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑉𝐸 𝑎3 − + 𝑀𝐸
2
𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑠
𝑎𝑡 𝑧𝑒𝑟𝑜 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑟: 𝑉𝐸 2
𝑉𝐸 = + 𝑀𝐸 (1.3)
2𝑤
𝑎3 = (1.2)
𝑤 1352
135 = + −68.8
= 2 × 48.75
48.75
𝑀𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 118 𝑘𝑁𝑚
𝑎3 = 2.8 𝑚

-135
-135
-95 -95

-68.8 -28 -68.8

E F G H

118 BMD 118


Frame Analysis

Consider column at “E” and “F” – “theoretical derivations for column”

J K L M

𝑘𝑈 𝑘𝑈 𝑘𝑈 𝑘𝑈
3.5 m
Load case (1).
32 19
𝑘𝐸𝐹 𝑘𝐹𝐺 G
𝑘𝐺𝐻 H
E 37 21 F

𝑘𝐿 𝑘𝐿 𝑘𝐿 𝑘𝐿 4.0 m

A B C D

6m 4m 6m

𝐶𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑎𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 "𝐸": 𝐶𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑎𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 "𝐹":


𝑘𝐿 𝑘𝐿
𝑀𝐸𝐴 = 𝑀𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑠 𝑀𝐹𝐵 = 𝑀𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑠
𝑘𝑈 + 𝑘𝐿 𝑘𝑈 + 𝑘𝐿
0.27 0.27
= 68.8 × = 40 ×
0.27 + 0.31 0.27 + 0.31
𝑀𝐸𝐴 = 32 𝑘𝑁𝑚 𝑀𝐹𝐵 = 18.6 𝑘𝑁𝑚 (𝑠𝑎𝑦 19 𝑘𝑁𝑚)

𝑀𝐸𝐽 = 36.8 𝑘𝑁𝑚 (𝑠𝑎𝑦 37 𝑘𝑁𝑚) 𝑀𝐹𝐾 = 21.4 𝑘𝑁𝑚 (𝑠𝑎𝑦 21 𝑘𝑁𝑚)
Frame Analysis

Summaries of BMDs.
-135 -135
-69 -95 -95 -69
Load case (1). -28

E F G H
118 118

-107 -107
-45 -88 -88 -45
Load case (2).
E F 10 G H
77 77

-147
-67 -115
-80 -102 -46
Load case (3).
E F 1 G H
114 79

-147
-102 -80 -115 -67
-46
Load case (4).
E F G H
79 1
114
-147 -147
-115 -115
-69 -69
-28
BMD Envelop.

E F G H
10
118 118
Frame Analysis

Summaries of SFDs. 157


135 67.5
Load case (1). G H
E F
67.5
135
157
111
91 97.5
Load case (2). G H
E F
97.5 91
111

133 106 111

Load case (3). G H


E F
89 92

160 160

92 89
G H
Load case (4). E F
106 133
111

160
135 106
G H
SFD Envelop. E F
106 135
160
Frame Analysis

Exercise.

Using the same sub-frame (1), analyze the building frame in the example for critical load
case (3).

(a) Show that the distributed bending moments and shear forces are as indicated below.
(b) Derive column moments at points E, F, G, and H.

-147
-67 -115
-80 -102 -46

E F 1 G H
114 79

BMD

133 106 111

G H
E F
89 92

160
SFD
Frame Analysis

So far,
Moment distributions for frame analysis built
on fundamentals learnt in Year 2 and
equilibrium equations based on
understandings from Year 1.

Any Question?