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Connected Mode Parameters

ConneCted Mode ParaMeters

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Connected Mode Parameters

ConneCted Mode ParaMeters


Defining RRC Connected Mode 4
LTE IRAT Interactions 6
RRC Reconfiguration Message 8
Measurement Configuration 10
Measurement Objects 10
Reporting Configurations 12
Measurement Identities 14
Other Parameters 16
Measurement Objects E-UTRA 18
Measurement Objects IRAT (UMTS) 20
Measurement Objects IRAT (GSM) 22
Measurement Gap Settings 24
LTE Measurement Reporting Configuration 26
LTE Measurement Report Trigger Events 28
IRAT Measurement Reporting Configuration 30
IRAT Mobility Triggers 32
LTE Speed Scale Factors 34
Measurement Reports 36
Measurement Report for UMTS Cells 38
Measurement Report for GSM/GERAN 40
Measurement Report for CDMA2000 Cells 42
Inter-eNB Handover Procedure 44
IRAT Handover Procedure 46
UMTS Measurement Settings 48
UMTS Event Triggers 50
UMTS Measurement Report 52
UMTS IRAT Handover Procedure 54
Discontinuous Reception (DRX) Procedures 56
Uplink Power Control 58
Timing Advance 60

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Connected Mode Parameters
CQI Reporting 62

defining rrC Connected Mode


The LTE RRC connected state is defined in TS 36.331 as shown in the diagram. It is
similar to connected mode in other 3GPP technologies, but in LTE there is no dedicated
channel. All signalling and traffic transfer between the UE and the eNB is handled
through scheduling of the uplink and downlink shared channel resource. To avoid the
need for continuous monitoring of the PDCCH for prolonged periods of time while in
connected mode, the use of DRX, a feature normally associated with idle mode, is
introduced. Note the UE is also required to maintain awareness of system information.

Another key differentiator from idle mode is that mobility is under control of the
network. Network behaviour in this respect is driven by parameters and mode settings
broadcast in system information that are either part of manual or SON-based
optimisation activities.

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E-UTRA RRC CONNECTED

3GPP ts 36.331 defines connected mode


with the following:
• Transfer of unicast data to/from UE • At lower layers, the
UE may be configured with a UE specific DRX • Network
controlled mobility, i.e. handover and cell change order
with optional network assistance (NACC) to GERAN
• The UE:
– monitors a Paging channel to detect incoming calls,
system information change; for ETWS capable UEs,
ETWS-notification; and for CMAS-capable UEs,
CMAS notification
– monitors a Paging channel and/or System Information
Block Type 1 contents to detect system information
change, for ETWS capable UEs, ETWS notification,
and for CMAS capable UEs, CMAS notification –
monitors control channels associated with the shared
data channel to determine if data is scheduled for it –
provides channel quality and feedback information –
performs neighbouring cell measurements and

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Connected Mode Parameters
measurement reporting –
acquires system information

Fig. 1 – e-Utra rrC Connected Mode

Lte Irat Interactions


LTE standards define handovers and cell reselection between the E-UTRAN and both
UMTS and GSM/GPRS networks. Transition from LTE in idle mode is primarily through cell
reselection, with the exception of GPRS, which may employ CCO (Cell Change Orders).

In RRC_Connected mode, the E-UTRAN decides which cell a UE should hand over to in
order to maintain the radio link.

The diagram shows the state transition model for UMTS and GSM/GPRS. A UE will be
either Connected or Idle with respect to the E-UTRAN. The substates CELL_PCH,
URA_PCH and Cell FACH do not exist in LTE.

Handovers will occur between cell DCH and LTE connected. However, a UE in the UMTS
states CELL_PCH and URA_PCH would return to LTE through cell reselection.

Similarly, real-time traffic will probably handover to/from GSM, whilst non-real-time traffic
using GPRS will probably utilise CCO with NACC (Network Assisted Cell Change).

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UMTS LTE GSM/GPRS

GSM
Connected
Handover E-UTRA RRC Handover
CELL_DCH
Connected
GPRS Packet
transfer mode
CELL_FACH CCO with
optional
NACC
CELL_PCH
URA_PCH
Connection
establishment/ Connection
release establishment/
Connection Reselection release
establishment/ CCO,
release reselection

Reselection GSM_Idle/
Reselection E-UTRA
Idle GPRS
RRC Idle
CCO, Packet_Idle
reselection

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Connected Mode Parameters
Fig. 2 – Lte Irat Interactions
rrC reconfiguration Message
The RRCConnectionReconfiguration message is a multi-purpose message, using many
sub headers to control a UE’s behaviour whilst in connected mode. Only relevant
information elements will be included for mobility control, which will be investigated in detail
throughout this section.

The main information element that controls a connected mode UE is measConfig, which is
used to set up, modify or remove measurement commands. In a similar manner to UMTS, a
UE will be instructed to start measuring, and then when certain triggers or events occur,
send measurement reports. Alternatively, measurement reports may be periodical.

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rrC Connection reconfiguration Message
• Measurement Configuration • Mobility Control Information
• Dedicated Information NAS List • Security Configuration •
Non-Critical Extensions

eNB

RRC Connection Reconfiguration


DCCH/DL-SCH

Periodical or event- RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete


based measurement
process started DCCH/UL-SCH

Trigger Measurement Report


Event DCCH/UL-SCH

Fig. 3 – rrC reconfiguration

Measurement Configuration
The measConfig IE (information element) consists of the following IE sets:

• Measurement Objects
• Reporting Configurations
• Measurement Identities
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Connected Mode Parameters
• Additional parameters

Measurement objects
Measurement objects define either LTE, UMTS, GSM or CDMA2000 neighbours to
measure. Each command is assigned a unique-per-UE measurement identity, and may
include up to 32 neighbours per RAT/frequency layer.

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rrC Connection reconfiguration Message

Measurement Configuration measConfig


Measurement objects
• Mobility Control Information measObjectToRemoveList

• Dedicated Information NAS List measObjectId List As Required


• Security Configuration
measObjectToAddModList
• Non-Critical Extensions
measObjectId List As Required 1…n (Max =32)

measObject LTE, UMTS, GSM or CDMA2000

Fig. 4 – Measurement objects

reporting Configurations
Triggers or events for reporting are contained within the Reporting Configuration IE.
Reports may be set to event based or periodical. Appropriate timers and hysteresis

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Connected Mode Parameters

values will also be conveyed to a UE. A report configuration ID is used for each defined
configuration message.

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rrC Connection reconfiguration Message

Measurement Configuration measConfig


reporting Configurations
• Mobility Control Information reportConfigTo List As Required
RemoveList
• Dedicated Information NAS List
• Security Configuration reportConfigToAddModList

• Non-Critical Extensions reportConfigId List As Required 1…n (Max =32)

reportConfig
Rat Event or Periodical and Details

Fig. 5 – reporting Configurations

Measurement Identities
Measurement Identities are used to bind together combinations of reporting
configurations and measurement objects.

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Connected Mode Parameters
measConfig
Measurement Identities

measIdTo List As Required


• Security Configuration RemoveList

measIdToAddModList
• Non-Critical Extensions
measId List As Required 1…n (Max =32)

measObjectId

measConfigid

Fig. 6 – Measurement Identities

other Parameters
Other parameters which may be used are contained here including speed scaling,
measurement gaps, measurement filter coefficients and serving cell quality thresholds.
These will be covered later in this section.

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rrC Connection reconfiguration Message

Measurement Configuration measConfig


other Parameters
• Mobility Control Information Quality configuration Meas. filter by type 0–9
and RAT 11, 13, 15, 17, 19
• Dedicated Information NAS List
Measurement Gap Gp1 0…39
• Security Configuration Configuration Gp2 0…39

• Non-Critical Extensions S-Measurements Serving Cell 0–97


Quality threshold (–140 to –44dBm)

preRegistrationInfo
HRPD – –

Speed Parameters

t-Evaluation 30, 60, 120, 240 seconds

T-HystNorm 30, 60, 120, 240 seconds

N-cellChange
Medium 1…16

N-cellChangeHigh 1…16

speedStateScale
Factors

Sf-Medium 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0

Sf-High 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0

Fig. 7 – other Parameters

Measurement objects e-Utra


The diagram shows an example of the parameters which may be used to control
measurements on LTE cells.

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Connected Mode Parameters

It is possible to instruct a UE to measure a frequency layer only (from 1.4 MHz to 20


MHz).
The inclusion of the optional cellsToAddMod list allows more precise targeting of specific
cells.

Note that if the cellsToAddMod list is not included, cells may still be barred from the
measurement command using black lists.

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rrC Connection reconfiguration Message

measConfig
Measurement objects

measObjectToRemoveList

measObjectId List As Required

measObjectToAddModList

measObjectId List As Required 1…n (Max =32)

measObject LTE, UMTS, GSM or CDMA2000

Measurement Configuration Measurement objects eUtra example


Carrier Frequency earFCn
• Mobility Control Information
allowedmeasBandwidth 6, 15, 25, 50, 75, 100 rbs
• Dedicated Information NAS List presenceAntennaport1 True/false (MIMO)

• Security Configuration Ncell configuration MBSFN or TDD info

• Non-Critical Extensions Offset Frequency –24…24 dB

Cells to remove list Indicies as requested

Cells to add or modify list

Cell index 1…n (Maximum 32)

Physical cell ID 0…503 (PCI)

Individual cell offset –24…24 dBm

Black cells to add list 1…32

Black cells to remove list

Cell index 1…n (32 max)

Physical cell range

Start 0…503 (PCI)

Range 1, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 48, 64,


84…504

Cell to report CGI 0…503 (PCI)

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Connected Mode Parameters

Fig. 8 – Measurement objects eUtra

Measurement objects Irat (UMts)


The measObject information element may include UMTS cells, as shown in the
diagram.

Up to 32 UMTS cells may be defined in each UMTS frequency layer. A UARFCN and cell
code, corresponding to the primary scrambling code, is defined for UMTS neighbours.

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rrC Connection reconfiguration Message

measConfig
Measurement objects

measObjectToRemoveList

measObjectId List As Required

measObjectToAddModList

measObjectId List As Required 1…n (Max =32)

measObject LTE, UMTS, GSM or CDMA2000

Measurement Configuration Measurement objects Utra example


Carrier Frequency earFCn
• Mobility Control Information
Offset frequency –15…15 dB
• Dedicated Information NAS List Cells to remove list Indicies as required

• Security Configuration Cells to add or modify list FDD or TDD

• Non-Critical Extensions Cell index 1…n (Maximum 32)

Physical cell ID FDD 0…511


TDD 0…127

Cell to report CGI As above

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Connected Mode Parameters

Fig. 9 – UMts neighbour definition

Measurement objects Irat (GsM)


The measObject information element may include GSM neighbour cells, as shown in the diagram.

Up to 32 GSM cells may be defined by listing ARFCNs. Note that no BSIC is included
for
GSM neighbours. However, the use of NCC permitted may be used restrict unwanted
PLMN measurements.

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rrC Connection reconfiguration Message

measConfig
Measurement objects

measObjectToRemoveList

measObjectId List As Required

measObjectToAddModList

measObjectId List As Required 1…n (Max =32)

measObject LTE, UMTS, GSM or CDMA2000

Measurement Configuration Measurement objects Geran example


starting arFCn arFCn
• Mobility Control Information
Band indicator 900/1800
• Dedicated Information NAS List Following ARFCNc

• Security Configuration
List of ARFCNs 1…n (Maximum 32)
• Non-Critical Extensions
ARFCN spacing 1…8

Number of following 0…31


ARFCNs
ARFCN bitmap Up tp 16 octetcs

Offset Frequency –15…15 dB (meas eval req)

NCC permitted 8 bit

Cell to report CGI BSIC

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Connected Mode Parameters

Fig. 10 – GsM/Geran neighbour definition

Measurement Gap settings


Measurement gap parameters are used to define time periods when no uplink or downlink
transmission will be scheduled for a specific UE, thus enabling a UE to take neighbour
measurements. This is similar in concept to compressed mode in UMTS or Idle frames in
GSM.

LTE monitoring gap patterns occur in multiples of 10 ms, and have a duration of 6 ms. A
single monitoring pattern is defined for both LTE neighbours and Inter-RAT.

Note that the 6 ms gap period should be sufficient to allow a UE to synchronise onto LTE
neighbours for cell identification. (PSS and SSS every 5 ms). However, careful selection of
gap repetition must be employed to allow a UE to decode a GSM synch burst to obtain
BSIC and the SFN.

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Neighbour Neighbour Neighbour
MGL
Measurement
Gap Length

MGRP
(Measurement Gap
Repetition Period)
measGapConfig
Defines start
position

Gap MGL MGRP


Pattern ID (MS) (MS)

0 6 40

1 6 80
eNB
(Serving Cell)

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Connected Mode Parameters

Fig. 11 – Measurement Gap settings


Lte Measurement reporting Configuration
The diagram shows the parameters and trigger events a UE may be instructed to perform on
neighbouring LTE cells.

Depending on measurement type, a UE may measure and report serving cell, listed cells or
any cells detected on a listed frequency. A UE can trigger a report based on either RSRP or
RSRQ. However, both may be included in any report.

The E-UTRAN can influence the UE report entry condition by setting configurable parameters
such as offsets and hysteresis. For any event to be triggered the entry condition must be met
for at least the ‘Time-to-Trigger’ value.

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event Id measConfig
event a1 Measurement Identities

reportConfigTo List As Required


a1 threshold Choice RemoveList

reportConfigToAddModList
Threshold – RSRP 0…97 (maps to –140…–44
dBm)
reportConfigId List As Required 1…n (Max =32)
Threshold RSRQ 0…34 (maps to –19.5…–3 dB)

reportConfig Event or Periodical and Details


event a2
Rat

a2 threshold Choice

measConfig
Threshold – RSRP 0…97 (maps to –140…–44
dBm) trigger type Choice
Threshold RSRQ 0…34 (maps to –19.5…–3 dB)
Event Event trigger list

event a3
event Id a1, a2, a3, a4, a5

a3 offset –30…30
Hysteresis 0…30 in 0.5bd steps

Report on leave True/false


Time to trigger 0, 40, 64, 80, 100…2560, 5120
ms
event a4
Periodical

a4 threshold Choice
Purpose Report strongest cells/ Report
CGI
Threshold – RSRP 0…97 (maps to –140…–44d
Bm) Trigger quantity RSRP/RSRQ
Threshold RSRQ 0…34 (maps to –19.5…–3 dB)
Report quantity RSRP/RSRQ

event a2 Max cells to report 1 to 8

Report interval 120, 240, 480…102402ms


a5 threshold 1 Choice
1, 2, 4, 60 minutes

Threshold – RSRP Report


0…97 (maps to amount
–140…–44d 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, infinte
Bm)
Threshold RSRQ 0…34 (maps to –19.5…–3 dB)

a5 threshold 2 Choice

Threshold – RSRP 0…97 (maps to –140…–44


dBm)
Threshold RSRQ 0…34 (maps to –19.5…–3 dB)

Fig. 12 – Measurement reporting Configuration


Lte Measurement report trigger events
The diagram shows the event triggers defined for LTE.

• event a1 Serving cell becomes better than an absolute threshold.


• event a2 Serving cell becomes worse than an absolute threshold.
• event a3 Neighbour becomes better than an offset relative to serving cell.
• event a4 Neighbour cell becomes better than an absolute threshold.

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Connected Mode Parameters

• event a5 Serving cell becomes worse than an absolute threshold and neighbour cell
becomes better than a second absolute threshold.

Remember that each event will have associated hysteresis and time-to-trigger values.

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Serving Cell

Absolute
Threshold Absolute
Threshold

Serving
Cell
Event A1 Event
A2
Event A3 Neighbour
cell

Offset

Serving
Cell

Neighbour cell cell

Absolute Absolute
Threshold Threshold 1
Absolute
Threshold 2

Event Serving
Cell
Neighbour
A4 Event A5

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Connected Mode Parameters

Fig. 13 – Lte event triggers

Irat Measurement reporting Configuration


The parameters relevant for IRAT reports are shown in the diagram. Note that
monitoring of IRAT neighbours will be performed during available monitoring gaps.

The three UMTS physical channels required for identification and measurement are P-SCH,
S-SCH and CPICH. GSM requires RSSI and BSIC decode. Events may be periodical or
event based, and as with LTE reports, appropriate hysteresis values and time-to-trigger will
be set by the E-UTRAN.

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event Id measConfig
event B1 Measurement Identities

reportConfigTo List As Required


B1 threshold Utra Choice RemoveList

reportConfigToAddModList
UTRA RSCP –5 to 91 (maps to –120…-25
dBm)
reportConfigId List As Required 1…n (Max =32)
UTRA Ec/No 0…49 (maps to –24…0 dB)

reportConfig Event or Periodical and Details


B1 Threshold GERAN 0…63 (maps to –110…–44
Rat
dBm)
Threshold RSRQ 0…63

measConfig
event B2
trigger type Choice
B2 threshold 1 Choice
Event Event trigger list

Threshold – RSRP 0…97 (maps to –140…–44


dBm) event Id B1, B2

Threshold RSRQ 0…34 (maps to –19.5…–3 dB)


Hysteresis 0…30 in 0.5 bd steps

B2 threshold 2 Choice
Time to trigger 0, 40, 64, 80, 100…2560, 5120
ms
B2 Threshold UTRAN Choice
Periodical

UTRA RSCP –5 to 91 (maps to –120…-25


dBm) Purpose Report strongest cells/
Report strongest cells FOR SON/
UTRA Ec/No 0…49 (maps to –24…0 dB) Report CGI

B1 Threshold GERAN 0…63 Max cells


(maps to to report
–110…–44 1 to 8
dBm)
Report interval 120, 240, 480…102402ms
B1 Threshold CDMA2000 0…63 1, 2, 4, 60 minutes

Report amount 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, infinte

Fig. 14 – Irat reporting Configuration


Irat Mobility triggers
The diagram shows the two trigger events associated with IRAT mobility.

• event B1 Neighbour cell becomes better than an absolute threshold


• event B2 Neighbour cell becomes better than an absolute threshold and serving cell
becomes worse than an absolute threshold.

As for the other event reports, hysteresis and time-to-trigger values may be employed.

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Connected Mode Parameters

Event B1 Neighbour cellInter-RAT Event B2 Neighbour


cellInter-RAT

Absolute Absolute
Threshold Threshold 2
Absolute
Threshold 1

LTE Serving
Cell

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Fig. 15 – Inter rat Mobility triggers
Lte speed scale Factors
In idle mode, it was seen that it is possible to apply hysteresis and scaling factors to a UE
based on a number of cell reselections in a given time.

The assessment of speed state whilst in connected mode is performed in a similar fashion.
However, a UE will now count consecutive handovers. Based on a number of consecutive
handovers a UE will apply a speed scaling factor to the time-to-trigger value, thus enabling
better mobility management, especially in a hierarchical cell structure.

© Informa Telecoms & Media 31


Connected Mode Parameters

Connected Mode Value range Idle Mode Parameter


Parameter
t-Evaluation 30, 60, 120, 240 secs TCRmax
t-HystNormal 30, 60, 120, 240 secs TCRmaxHyst
n-CellChangeMedium 1…16 NCR_M
n-CellChangeHigh 1…16 NCR_H

Normal Mobility No Action

Medium Mobility Time-to-trigger x sf-Medium

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High Mobility Time-to-trigger x sf-Medium

Fig. 16 – speed scale Factors

Measurement reports
A periodical or event-based trigger will cause the UE to generate a measurement report. The
specific contents of the report will vary dependent on the measurement command provided
by the E-UTRAN. Only information elements specifically asked for in the measurement
command will be reported by the UE. For example, Cell Global Identity may or may not be
included. Usually the physical cell identity will suffice.

The diagram shows an example report for LTE (E-UTRA).

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Connected Mode Parameters

Measurement report e-Utra results


trigger type Choice Physical cell ID 0…503
measID 1…n (max =cgi
32)info

measResultServingCell
Cell Global ID MCC + MNC + CID
rsrp Result 0…97 (maps to –110…–44
dBm) LAC 16 bit
rsrp Result 0…34 (maps to –19.5…–3 dB)
plmn ID List Max = 5
measResultN-Cell Choice
Measurement Results
Result List E-UTRA List as required
rsrp Result 0…97
Result UTRA List as required
rsrp Result 0…34
Result GERAN List as required
CSG information
Result CDMA2000

Fig. 17 – Measurement report e-Utra


Measurement report for UMts Cells
The diagram shows an example report for UMTS (UTRA) cells. Note that on receipt of the
MobilityFromEUTRACommand message the UE will start timer T304 and attempt to connect
to the new node. Expiry of this timer before a handover complete message will result in
handover failure.

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Measurement report Utra results
trigger type Choice Physical cell ID FDD 0…511
TDD 0…127
measID 1…n (max = 32)
cgi info
measResultServingCell

Cell Global ID MCC + MNC + CID


rsrp Result 0…97 (maps to –110…–44
dBm)
LAC 16 bit
rsrp Result 0…34 (maps to –19.5…–3 dB)

RAC 8 bit
measResultN-Cell Choice

Result List E-UTRA List as required plmn ID List Max = 5

Result UTRA List as required


Measurement Results

Result GERAN List as required UTRA RSCP –5…91 (maps to –120…–25


dBm)
Result CDMA2000 UTRA Ec/No 0…49 (maps to –24…0 dB)

CSG information

Fig. 18 – Irat Measurement report UMts


Measurement report for GsM/Geran
The diagram shows an example report for GSM/GERAN cells. Note that the
MobilityFromEUTRACommand message will contain either a L3 signalling message from
the destination BSS/GERAN or, in the case of CCO, a target cell and frequency.

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Connected Mode Parameters

Measurement report
trigger type Choice

measID 1…n (max = 32)

measResultServingCell

rsrp Result 0…97 Geran


(maps results
to –110…–44
dBm)
Carrier Frequency ARFCN
rsrp Result 0…34 (maps to –19.5…–3 dB)
Physical Identity BSIC
measResultN-Cell Choice
cgi info
Result List E-UTRA List as required
Cell Global ID MCC + MNC + CID
Result UTRA List as required
RAC 8 bit
Result GERAN List as required
Measurement Results
Result CDMA2000
RSSI 0…63 (maps to –110…–47
dBm)

Fig. 19 – Irat Measurement report Geran


Measurement report for CdMa2000 Cells
The diagram shows an example report for CDMA2000. For CDMA2000, additional
procedures have been defined, using SRB1, to register a UE’s presence in the destination
core prior to any handover procedure.

36 © Informa Telecoms & Media


Measurement report
trigger type Choice

measID 1…n (max = 32)

measResultServingCell

rsrp Result 0…97 (maps to –110…–44


dBm)
CdMa2000 results
rsrp Result 0…34 (maps to –19.5…–3 dB)
Physical Identity 0…511 (Pilot PN-Offset)
measResultN-Cell Choice
cgi info
Result List E-UTRA List as required
Cell Global ID SID/NID = CID POSS. Sector
Result UTRA List as required ID
Measurement Results
Result GERAN List as required
Pilot PN hase 0…32767
Result CDMA2000
Pilot strength 0…63

Fig. 20 – Irat Measurement report CdMa2000


Inter-enB Handover Procedure
The diagram shows the air interface signalling flow for an Inter-eNB handover. The stages for
handover are as follows:

1. T he UE sends a measurement report.

2. T he source eNB requests that the target cell prepares for handover. Note that in the case
of X2-based handover either lossless or seamless handovers are defined.

3. If no X2 interface is available, an S1-based handover may be triggered by the source


eNB.

4. The source eNB sends a RRCConnectionReconfiguration message to the UE, including


mobility control IEs (new C-RNTI, Cell identity and, optionally, target cell frequency).

5. The UE will initiate the random access procedure and start timer T304.

6. A fter the successful random access procedure the UE stops timer T304.

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Connected Mode Parameters

• • •• • •

- • • • •
-

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Fig. 21 – Lte Handover Procedure (Inter-enB)
Irat Handover Procedure
The major difference between an Inter E-UTRA handover and IRAT handover is that the E-
UTRA has no direct connection to the target radio network. These interactions have to be
handled by the MME.

Once the MME has relayed the appropriate inter-RAT cell information to the source eNB it
can instruct the UE to hand over using the MobilityFromEUTRACommand message.

On receipt of this message the UE will change to the appropriate radio technology and
implement the handover procedure. RRC or RR handover complete messages will then be
used for UMTS and GSM respectively.

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Connected Mode Parameters

Target Target
MME
CN RAN

eNB
Measurement report

Handover Prep Handover Prep Handover Prep

RRCConnectionReconfiguration

Mobility from
E-UTRA Command
Handover Complete

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Fig. 22 – Lte Irat Handover Procedure
UMts Measurement settings
The information elements contained in the diagram are passed to a UE in connected
mode using RRC measurement control. For the purpose of LTE handover, the most
relevant parameters will be the EARFCN and bandwidth information element. LTE itself is
specified as a measurement object and no specific cell identities are defined.

Note that a UE that is RRC connected and in the state Cell-DCH will be given compressed
mode gap configuration information to enable inter-frequency measurements.

Reporting criteria may be either event based or periodical and multiple events can be specified.
The trigger points for events can be modified with time-to-trigger values and hysteresis.

© Informa Telecoms & Media 41


Connected Mode Parameters

Measurement Control new Frequency List (8 maximum)


Measurement ID 1…n (max =E-UTRA
16) Carrier EARFCN

Measurement Command Setup/modify/release


Bandwidth to measure 6, 15, 25, 50, 75, 100 rbs

Blacklisted cells List as needed


Report Mode AM/UM and Event/Periodical
Physical Cell ID OCI (0…503)
Measurement type Choice

Intra-Frequency
Measurement report Criteria (8
Inter RAT maximum)
Inter RAT Event ID EARFCN
Etc…
Own System Threshold 6, 15, 25, 50, 75, 100 rbs

W 0 to 2 in 0.1 steps (3a only)


Lte Inter rat Other System Threshold –115…0 dBm (3a, b, c only)
Measurement objects Value - IE-25

Hysteresis 0…7.5 in 0.5 steps


Inter RAT Cell Info N/A
Time to Trigger 0, 10, 20, 40…640, 1280, 2560,
5000ms
E-UTRA Hz List
Max. num. of cells to report 1…12
Removal

New Frequencies List as Required


Periodical report Criteria
Measurement Quantity Amount or reports 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, Infinite

Measurement quantity RSRP/RSRQReport interval 250, 500, 1000, 2000…32000,


64000 millisecs
Filter coefficiant 1, 2, 9, 11, 13, 19

Report quality One or both (RSRP/Q)

Number of cells to report 1…12

report Criteria

Measurement report criteria

Periodical report criteria

No report

Fig. 23 – UMts Measurement settings


UMts event triggers
The diagram shows the inter-RAT events and can be defined as follows:

• event 3a UMTS active set quality becomes worse than an absolute threshold and an
LTE neighbour becomes better than an absolute threshold.
• event 3b An LTE neighbour becomes worse than an absolute threshold.
• event 3c An LTE neighbour becomes better than an absolute threshold.

42 © Informa Telecoms & Media


• event 3d Best LTE neighbour cell change.

As UMTS is a CDMA system, a UE will potentially be involved in a soft handover and thus
serving cell quality may be derived across an active set as follows:

QUTRAN = 10•LogMUTRAN =W •10•Log • • + (1-w)•10•logMbest

Where:

Mi Quality of ith cell in active set


MBEST Quality measure of best cell in active set
Na Number of cells in active set
W Weighting factor to manipulate sum of Mi and MBEST

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Connected Mode Parameters

Event 3a Neighbour cell


Absolute
Threshold Absolute
Other Threshold
Absolute Inter RAT LTE
Threshold Neighbour cell
Own
Inter-RAT
LTE Event 3b
UMTS Active set (QUTRAN)

Absolute
Threshold Change of
best n-cell Inter RAT LTE
Neighbour
cell 2

Event 3cNeighbour cellInter-RAT LTE Event 3d Neighbour cell 1Inter-


RAT LTE

44 © Informa Telecoms & Media


Fig. 24 – UMts event triggers
UMts Measurement report
When the appropriate trigger conditions or period is met the UE will compose and
send a measurement report.

Note that prior to release 8, GSM CDMA2000 and intra-UMTS measurements could be
reported. New information elements have been included in release 8 and a software
upgrade in an existing UTRAN will be required to support LTE measurement reports.

© Informa Telecoms & Media 45


Connected Mode Parameters

Measurement report e-Utra Measured results


Measurement Identity 1…n (maximum 16) results list
Measured Maximum 4

4x field entities non applicable N/A E-UTRA Carrier Hz EARFCN


for LTE
Measured cell list Maximum 4
Additional measured results Up to 4
Physical Cell ID PCI (0…503)
E-UTRA measured results
RSRP 0…97 (maps to -–40…–144
E-UTRA event results dBm)
RSRQ 0…33 (maps to –19.5…–3dB)
UTRA CSG frequency info

e-Utra event results


IRAT event identity E3a, E3b, E3c, E3d

Event result list Maximum 4

Carrier Hz EARFCN

Reported cells list Maximum 4

Physical cell ID PCI (0…503)

Fig. 25 – UMts Measurement report


UMts Irat Handover Procedure
A UE that is RRC connected to the UTRAN may not necessarily be in compressed mode.
It would be usual for a UE to send a measurement report (1) based on an event trigger
such as e6a or e1f (Serving cell RSCP reduction or UE Tx Power respectively). This
would allow an RNC to send a Measurement Command and physical channel
reconfiguration information (2) to the UE with gap parameters for compressed mode and
new measurement commands for LTE Neighbours.

Once in compressed mode (3), if the appropriate trigger event is met (Event 3a to 3d) a UE
will send a measurement report (4) to the RNC. The source UTRAN may then retrieve
appropriate LTE cell information for the target eNB (via core network) and issue a Handover
from UTRAN (5) command to the UE.

The UE will then attempt to reconnect (6) via LTE using the LTE random access
procedure.

46 © Informa Telecoms & Media


UE Moving away
from Node B

Node B UE eNB

1. Measurement report

2. Measurement command

3. UE in
compressed mode
4. Measurement report

5. Handover command

6. Handover to LTE

7. Handover complete

A B C

© Informa Telecoms & Media 47


Connected Mode Parameters

Fig. 26 – UMts Irat Handover Procedure


discontinuous reception (drX) Procedures
DRX will be configured for a UE in connected mode so that a UE does not need to
permanently monitor the PDCCH, thus saving battery life. The parameters for DRX have a
trade-off between latency and battery life and are configurable for LTE.

The onDurationTimer (Multiples of 1 ms) defines the amount of time the UE monitors
downlink control channels whilst DRX is active.

A short and long DRX cycle can be defined for LTE. If we take, for example, a UE involved
in an active web browsing session, the long DRX cycle could be employed whilst a UE is
RRC connected but no data is being received, and the UE will switch to the short DRX cycle
when a web page has been downloaded to ensure no further data is immediately
forthcoming.

When a UE receives a scheduling message for its c-RNTI, it will start its DRX inactivity timer
and begin to decode data. If instructed by a MAC control element, or if this timer expires, the
UE will enter the short DRX cycle. If no data is received and the drxShortCycleTimer expires,
then the UE may revert to the long DRX cycle.

48 © Informa Telecoms & Media


On Scheduling Inactivity timer Short
duration message or MAC DRX cycle
reception CE reception Timer expiry

Continuous
reception

Long DRX cycle Short Long DRX cycle


DRX cycle

RRC sends DRX parameters

MAC CE activates DRX

© Informa Telecoms & Media 49


Connected Mode Parameters

eNB

Fig. 27 – two stage drX Procedure


Uplink Power Control
Uplink power control is needed in any mobile system, primarily to achieve a required Eb/No
value at the eNB, but also to reduce overall system interference and preserve battery life.

Detailed power control formulae are defined for LTE for the PUSCH, PUCCH and sounding
reference signals. The formula for each channel follows the same basic principle and
consists of a basic open-loop operating point (derived from static or semi-static parameters
issued by an eNB) and dynamic offsets derived on a sub-frame basis. Note that a UE will
never exceed maximum Tx power (23 dBm).

The bandwidth element is derived from the number of scheduled radio blocks.

The static/semi-static control point is derived from both the Po-PUSCH(j) (defined cell by cell
from –126 dBm to +23 dBm) and Pl (an estimation of path loss made by the UE).

TPC (Transmit Power Control) commands are transmitted on the PDCCH to individual UEs
via a specific TPC_RNTI to control the dynamic closed loop offset.

Note that a UE (for example capable of transmitting 23 dBm) must report power control
headroom to the eNB. The eNB can then use this information to schedule uplink bandwidth
to a UE. Power control headroom has a range +40 dBm to –23 dBm. The negative value

50 © Informa Telecoms & Media


would enable a UE to indicate that it has been allocated more radio blocks than it has power
available to transmit in, thus enabling the eNB to reduce allocated uplink bandwidth.

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Connected Mode Parameters

UE TX Power = min{PCMAX, 10log10(MPUSCH(i)) + PO_PUSCH(j) + α(j).PL +∆TF(i) +f(i)}


dBm

Power class Bandwith factor, Basic open Dynamic


offset 23 dBm no. of RBs loop operating
point

Individual or Group
TPC commands sent In PDCCH

Power Headroom report sent in


Uplink grant (–23....+40 dB)

52 © Informa Telecoms & Media


eNB

Fig. 28 – Uplink Power Control

timing advance
Like GSM, timing advance must be employed by LTE to ensure uplink transmission from
multiple UEs arrives at the eNB orthogonally.

Uplink timing advance utilises MAC control elements to update UE transmission time based
on distance from the base station to counteract different propagation delays.

Initial timing advance is set during the random access procedure, allowing an initial setting
with granularity from 0.52 µs to 0.67 ms.

Granularity of subsequent timing advance commands is again 0.52 µs (or 16 Ts). The
command utilises a 6-bit MAC CE with a range of 0–63. Values 0–31 reduce timing advance,
31–63 increase timing advance.

© Informa Telecoms & Media 53


Connected Mode Parameters

eNB eNB

Tp1 Tp1

2Tp1

Timing Advance
UL transmitted = 2Tp1

Tp1
2Tp1

DL symbol Txd
at eNB

DL symbol RXd at UE,


propagation delay TP1

symbol timing

UL symbol arrives
at eNB. delay
2Tp1

54 © Informa Telecoms & Media


Fig. 29 – timing advance
CQI reporting
Link adaptation, or the process by which a transmitter should try to match the appropriate
data rate for each user’s variable air interface characteristics, is utilised within LTE.

The AMC process will define both the modulation scheme (from QPSK to 64QAM) and
amount of error protection required for both uplink and downlink transmission.

Uplink adaptation should be calculated by the source eNB based on measurements of uplink
UE transmission, or, alternatively, an eNB may request a UE to transmit sounding reference
signals.

A UE can be configured to report CQI values in order to allow the eNB to determine an
appropriate downlink Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) as seen in the diagram. Note
that the CQI value is NOT a direct indication of SINR, but an indication of the highest MCS
that it can decode with a transport block error rate probability not exceeding 10%.

© Informa Telecoms & Media 55


Connected Mode Parameters

CQI Index Modulation Code rate approx symbol efficiency


0 No Tx – –
1 QPSK 0.076 0.15
2 QPSK 0.12 0.23
3 QPSK 0.19 0.37
4 QPSK 0.3 0.60
5 QPSK 0.44 0.87
6 QPSK 0.59 1.17
7 16QAM 0.37 1.47
8 16QAM 0.48 1.91
9 16QAM 0.6 2.40
10 64QAM 0.45 2.73
11 64QAM 0.55 3.32
12 64QAM 0.65 3.90
13 64QAM 0.75 4.52
14 64QAM 0.85 5.11
15 64QAM 0.93 5.55

Downlink Adaptation based On UE CQI


reporting

16QAM 16QAM
64QAM
QPSK
QPSK

CQI 8 CQI 12 CQI 7 CQI 4 CQI …

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eNB

Fig. 30 – CQI reporting

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