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2-Pole Turbine Generators

Stator Construction

WEG Group
Generator stator frame construction isolates normal core generated
double frequency vibration from the foundation and distributes
airflow to provide uniform temperatures in the core.

Flexible Stator Core Mounting


(Model series 2800 and larger)

For each complete revolution of the rotor,


every portion of the stator is twice
subjected to the strong magnetic attraction
of a rotor field pole. At 3,600 rpm this
causes 120 vibrations per second,
producing a characteristic low frequency
hum. To absorb this vibration, and to
minimize audible low frequency hum, the
stator core is flexibly mounted. The flexible
core mounting design is based on the thin
cylinder principle, which recognizes that
cylinders can provide flexibility in the radial
direction and still support heavy loads in
a tangential direction. The cylindrical
mountings are sectioned to provide support
at each end of the stator and in the center
of the core. The core supports are fastened
to the ends of the cylinders with steel
plates. Fame plates connect the opposite
end of each cylinder to the foot plate. The
Stator frame center fabrication. pulsation of the core is absorbed by the
cylinders rather than being transmitted to
Frame-TEWAC or Room Air
the foundation.
Cooled
The stator frame is designed to provide
either a totally enclosed water-air-cooled
Circular Studs
Large diameter circular studs are welded
(TEWAC) or a room air cooled (RAC)
to the machined stator bore to give added
housing for the generator. Air is recirculated
support and act as keys for core lamination
in the TEWAC machine through air to
stacking. Steel wrapper plates enclose the
water heat exchangers. Air is circulated in
frame and provide additional support.
the RAC machine with intake air drawing
in the ends and air discharged out the top
center. The frame is fabricated from thick
steel plates with all weldments specially
controlled to assure integrity of structure.
The cross section plates are cut on a
numerically controlled machine to assure
uniformity from section to section.
Stacked stator frame ready for winding of stator coils.

End Stacks
End Stacks
The end sections of the stator core are
The end sections of the stator core are
stepped back from the air gap to minimize
stepped back from the air gap to minimize
fringing flux and to reduce end iron
fringing flux and to reduce end iron
heating when the machine is operated
heating when the machine is operated
outside of the normal power factor range.
outside of the normal power factor range.
Installation of stator core clamping plates on lamination stack.

Stator Core Accurate clamping pressure is applied to


The stator core consists of high silicon both ends of the stator core through
electrical steel laminations that are blanked non-magnetic pressure plates. These plates
and notched simultaneously for special and the tooth support fingers have a
high quality core plated sheet steel. After special concave design. When properly
the punching operation, each lamination is pressurized, they will exert a uniform
precision edge ground to remove burrs. pressure on the face of the stator core
The burr grinding process is controlled so teeth as well as the back of the stator core.
accurately that the burr is removed without
destroying the core plated insulation film.
The lamination segments are stacked on
circular studs, which extend lengthwise
within the stator frame. As the stator core
laminations are stacked, vent duct spacers
are inserted at specific intervals to provide
cooling passages in the stator core for
uniform cooling. Special care is taken to
assure accurate slot alignment over the WEG Group
length of the core.
Electric Machinery
800 Central Avenue NE
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55413
United States
Tel: +1 612 378 8000
Fax: +1 612 378 8051
www.electricmachinery.com

© Electric Machinery 2011. Publication NA.10004.gb.11-09.01. Electric Machinery, the Electric Machinery logo and any version thereof are trademarks and service marks of Electric Machinery.
The other names mentioned, registered or not, are the property of their respective companies.
2-Pole Turbine Generators
Rotor Construction

WEG Group
The rotor is designed to withstand cyclic duty and rapid loading.
Radial ventilation provides even cooling. Low vibration levels are
achieved by dynamic balancing and machine design.

Field Coils
s coils are made of silver-bearing
s Rotor
strap copper for greater creep
resistance. The coil is accurately formed
to precisely fit in the rotor slot with
minimum distortion. Ventilating slots
are punched in the straight portion of
the coils to allow for radial discharge
s of cooling air.

s The rotor body coil slot is lined with a


s
Nomex insulating cell formed to the
exact shape of the slot. The slot cell
ground insulation level is checked
before the coils are installed.
s

Rotor Forging and Machining Rotor Slots s Each field coil is suspended over a pole
and inserted, turn-by-turn, into the slots.
The rotor forging is a special alloy steel Slots for field windings are step milled over s
Individual turns are insulated with
containing nickel, chromium, molybdenum, the entire length of the rotor body. They
Nomex which is coated with a B-state
and vanadium. It has the physical are milled in a pattern to give the 2-pole
resin. The coils are pressed to a specified
properties required to withstand the configuration and also to provide liberal
size, then heated to cure the resin and
stresses encountered over a wide range area for field copper. Step milling
bond the turns. Aluminum alloy slot
of temperature and load conditions. The minimizes stress level at the roots of the
wedges are inserted to hold the winding
forging material is produced from an teeth, one of the most critical parts of the
firmly in place.
electric furnace vacuum degassed ingot. rotor. Grooves for slot wedges are
All forgings are heat treated after the accurately machined into the slot walls.
forging operation and stress relieved after Slots for rotor ventilation are positioned s s A teflon coated strip is placed on top of
rough machining. To control quality, a directly under the rotor coil slots and are the coils to help in providing a controlled
chemical analysis is made of each heat reduced width extensions of the regular slip plane for coil expansion and
cycle, and radial test samples are taken milled coil slots. s
contraction that occurs during start/stop
from the rotor body to indicate the physical and loading cycles.
properties. Longitudinal tensile and impact
test specimens are taken from the extra
material at the end of the forging. The
holes from which the radial samples were
taken are tapped and plugged with steel,
and are positioned to be at the centers of
the poles. The forging manufacturer
performs an impact test to determine the
low temperature ductility of the steel. In
addition, ultrasonic tests and magnetic
particle tests are made to assure that the
forging is sound.

Machining radial slots in rotor forging. Rotor slots for field winding.
Rotor retaining rings. Rotor winding process. Rotor end turn area.

Retaining Rings Rotor Fans Brushless Excitation


Retaining rings support the rotor coil end Steel axial flow fans are fabricated, tested An axial hole is drilled in to the shaft at the
turns against the centrifugal forces and balanced. The fans are keyed and exciter end and is used to carry DC power
encountered during high-speed operation. shrunk on the rotor body outboard of the from the exciter, under the bearing journal,
They are made from forgings that meet retainer rings. to the main field winding.
rigid specifications and are resistant to
stress corrosion cracking. Compliance with Balance And Vibration
these specifications is assured by tests for Precautions are taken throughout the
physical properties made on prolongations design and manufacturing operations to
allowed at the end of the forging. ensure precise balance and minimize
Ultrasonic tests are conducted to assure vibration. For example, account is taken
soundness of the forging. Any forging of the fact that the stiffness of the usual
found to be defective is rejected. Circular 2-pole rotor varies as the rotor turns.
steel plates are shrunk into the outer end When the poles are positioned vertically,
of the retaining ring to add section and to the rotor is more resistant to bending
reduce distortion. The retaining rings are and deflection than when the poles are
shrunk on a machined fit on the rotor horizontal. As the rotor turns, the position
body. This fit is calculated to provide firm of these planes of stiffness changes twice
centering of the ring on the rotor body each revolution, tending to cause 7,200
even under overspeed conditions. vibrations per minute at 3,600 rpm (120
per second). On larger ratings, to reduce
Circumferential keys at the rotor body lock the magnitude of the double frequency
the rings in place. In effect, the retaining vibrations, transverse slots are milled into
rings nest the end turns inside a shelf or each pole face at intervals along the rotor
extension of the rotor body and prevent body to equalize the rigidity of the rotor in
displacement and consequential these two planes.
unbalance. Since the retainers do not
depend on the shaft for support, shaft Similarly, the critical speed of the rotor
deflections cannot transmit forces that is controlled to avoid possible excitation WEG Group
cause such displacements and unbalance. of bearing oil whip and consequential
The field coil end turns are cooled by vibration. This is accomplished by gradually Electric Machinery
air passing circumferentially and axially stepping down the shaft diameter from 800 Central Avenue NE
between the coils and discharging the rotor body so as to provide optimum Minneapolis, Minnesota 55413
through radial slots in the rotor windings shaft stiffness. United States
and wedges. Tel: +1 612 378 8000
The rotor is balanced in three places in a Fax: +1 612 378 8051
high speed balancing facility. An overspeed www.electricmachinery.com
run is made with the rotor assembled in
the generator.

© Electric Machinery 2011. Publication NA.10005.gb.11-09.01. Electric Machinery, the Electric Machinery logo and any version thereof are trademarks and service marks of Electric Machinery.
The other names mentioned, registered or not, are the property of their respective companies.
2-Pole Turbine Generators
Bearings and Seals

WEG Group
Bearing housings are bracket (and shield) mounted and provide
easy access. Pressurized seals prevent ingress of dirt. Pressurized
oil seals prevent the lose of oil or oil vapor.

Lubrication
The amount of oil entering the bearing
is metered so that just the right quantity
comes in contact with the journal. The
oil flows over the bearing surface in a
fan-shaped pattern. Oil flows outward
toward each end of the bearing where it is
collected in drain grooves and discharged
into the bearing housing. If any oil passes
the shaft seals which are located outside
the drain groove, it is thrown into a
secondary drainage area by a shaft slinger.
Metal labyrinth seals pressurized by rotor
fans prevent leakage of oil and vapor from
the housing.

Bearing Sealing
The bearing housings are part of the
bearing bracket structure and are
completely external to internal air passages
of the machine. Each bearing housing has
three labyrinth type seals that are
pressurized with high pressure air from the
shaft mounted blower. Along with slingers
machined in the shaft, an oil seal is
provided at the end of each journal to
prevent oil from escaping along the shaft.
The inner chambers of the oil seals are
vented to the atmosphere. An air seal is
provided at the entrance to the machine
to prevent foreign material or oil from
 entering the machine.
Bearing House Seal Diagram.

Bearing Sleeves
Precision machined split type bearings are The bearings incorporate a generous load
designed with a spherical seat for supporting area in the lower sleeve.
alignment. After removing surface silicon Carefully designed clearances insure proper
and graphite, the ductile iron bearing lubrication and cooling. Adequate drains
shells are electrolytically etched by the are provided for end leakage. The bore is
Kolene process. The shells are then tinned elliptical to prevent oil whip. A bearing
and babbitted by centrifugal casting which temperature detector is inserted in the
insures a strong metallurgical bond lower half of each bearing in the load
between the ductile iron and the babbitt. carrying area. These detectors monitor
Only tin based babbit with high resistance bearing temperatures and may be used to
to corrosion is used. actuate alarms or shut-down circuitry.
WEG Group

Electric Machinery
800 Central Avenue NE
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55413
United States
Tel: +1 612 378 8000
Fax: +1 612 378 8051
www.electricmachinery.com

© Electric Machinery 2011. Publication NA.10006.gb.11-09.01. Electric Machinery, the Electric Machinery logo and any version thereof are trademarks and service marks of Electric Machinery.
The other names mentioned, registered or not, are the property of their respective companies.
2-Pole Turbine Generators
Stator Winding Construction

WEG Group
Class F stator insulation and Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI)
is provided.

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the stator winding process.

Strand Insulation
The strand insulation consists of polyester/
glass fibers.

Transpositions
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
individual turn in the end turn area.
Half coil strands are assembled using a
Roebel transposition.

Bonding
To prevent wire movement and provide a
uniform solid base for ground insulation,
the coil strands are bonded together under
heat and pressure with a thermosetting
adhesive.
Stator winding in progress.
Duraguard VPI Insulation Coil Forming
Duraguard VPI Insulation
System The coils are precisely formed using steel
System
The Duraguard insulation system is a forming cradles.
MICA Tape Ground vacuum pressure impregnated epoxy-mica
The Duraguard
insulation system thatinsulation system is a
offers the following Coil Insulation
Wall Insulation
vacuum
benefits: pressure impregnated epoxy-mica ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀insulation
฀ ฀ ฀ system฀ that ฀offers the following turn insulation of multi turn coils is applied
DDGL Magnet Wire to each turn using mica glass tape.
benefits:
฀ ฀ ฀ The main ground insulation is mica glass
Bonding Material s Full Class F (155°C) Thermal Capability ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ materials are applied to the outside of
s Outstanding Dielectric Properties
Resistance the coils.

Conductive Tape for ฀s Superior


฀ ฀ Moisture
฀ and ฀Chemical

Corona Suppression ฀ ฀
Resistance
s TheWinding
Stator Superb Mechanical Integrity of an

Epoxy฀ Resin
฀ System
฀ ฀ ฀
loop multi-turn stator coils whereas for
Stator Coil Cross Section.
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
Stator Winding
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ series
Model ฀ ฀2400 ฀ and ฀ 2800
฀ utilize full
winding process.
loop multi-turn stator coils whereas for
reasons of larger size Model series 3100
utilizes half loop multi or single turn stator
coils. The stator is VPI’d after the stator
Fabrication of a half loop stator coil with Roebel Wound stator entering the VPI tank for impregnation.
transpositions.

Winding and VPI Tests


฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ Extensive in process testing is performed
the coils are carefully wound in to the during coil manufacturing, stator winding
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ and on the complete stator. Tests include
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ turn insulation testing and high potential.
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ Temperature Detectors
to the stator. During the stator winding process
resistance type temperature detectors
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ lower coil sections in the slot area to
braced to prevent movement due to provide stator coil temperature detection.
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ Detectors are positioned in each phase to
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ detect the hottest portions of the windings.
separated by pads that conform and bond
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ Main High Voltage Terminals
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ The line and neutral leads are brought out
half of each coil are connected using through the sides or bottom of the stator
฀ ฀ ฀ through insulating support plates. The
is then applied. leads project in to a larger terminal box
that can be arranged for a bus duct flange
VPI (Vacuum Pressure ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
Impregnation) potential transformers, surge capacitors
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ and lightning arrestors can be provided
resin are all components of a specially as required.
designed split component system which
is designed to assure process uniformity
and maximum retention of resin in the
insulating materials.
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ WEG Group
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
are fully cured in fixtures prior to winding ฀
into the stator. ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀

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www.electricmachinery.com

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The other names mentioned, registered or not, are the property of their respective companies.
2-Pole Turbine Generators
Ventilation and Enclosures

WEG Group
The cooling circuit provides uniform ventilation and effective
cooling throughout the machine.

Stator Ventilation
Stator winding end turns are cooled by air
discharging radially for the rotor fans, and
passing through the spaces between the
end turns. The stator core is uniformly
cooled by air that flows from several
inter-connected center chambers that
receive air directly from the fans. From
these center chambers the air first flows
radially down to the air gap via one group
of stator core ducts. These ducts are
equipped with directional spacers to direct
the air flow in the direction the rotor is
moving. The air in this pressurized portion
of the air gap also flows axially in both
directions to other groups of ducts
equipped with directional spacers designed
to scoop air from the air gap and direct it
radially through the stator core ducts. The
stepped ends of the stator core facilitate
easy entry of air for gap cooling that
portion of the stator core.

  Rotor Ventilation
Air flow in generator with TEWAC enclosure and water air heat exchangers. Rotor ventilation slots are positioned
directly under the rotor coils. Holes are
pierced at regular intervals along the
length of the rotor conductors. Holes in the
Machine Ventilation copper are matched with the holes in the
Air is brought to the fan inlet at (A). The aluminum wedge to allow radial discharge
air passes through the fan (B), with some of warm air from the ventilation slot.
passing over the stator coil end turns (C),
During operation cool air is introduced
then through the air gap and stator under the retaining ring at each end of the
ventilating ducts (D) into the annular space rotor. Part of this air passes through the
(E) behind the core. The air that passes space between the rotor coil end turns and
through the stator coil end turns flows is discharged through ventilation holes in
the retaining rings. The remaining part of
through tubes (F) to the annular portion (G) the air enters the rotor ventilation slot.
surrounding the central part of the core. This
air then passes to the air gap through the Some of the air is radially discharged near
core ventilating ducts (I) and is discharged the end of the rotor. However, because the
slot below the conductors is much larger
through a duct on top of the frame. than the exit holes, it carries much more
air than can discharge at one point. As a
result, some of the air is discharged over
the entire length of the rotor.
Enclosures
TEWAC (Totally Enclosed Water Air
Cooled) generators are typically applied in
dirty conditions or on machines in base
load service. They are provided with a top
mounted air enclosure containing two
water to air heat exchangers (J), each
rated for 66% (100% optional) of rated
generator capacity with one cooler out of
service. The hot air discharging from the
duct at the top of the frame is cooled as
it passes through the coolers and then
returns at (A) for recirculation.

Open air cooled generators are typically


provided without a top enclosure and
arranged for connection to a customer
provided discharge duct (K), and screened
protection is provided for the air inlets (A)
at each end of the machine. The ventilating
air flows through the machine only one time.

WEG Group

Electric Machinery
800 Central Avenue NE
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55413
United States
Tel: +1 612 378 8000
Fax: +1 612 378 8051
www.electricmachinery.com

© Electric Machinery 2011. Publication NA.10008.gb.11-09.01. Electric Machinery, the Electric Machinery logo and any version thereof are trademarks and service marks of Electric Machinery.
The other names mentioned, registered or not, are the property of their respective companies.
2-Pole Turbine Generators
Factory Testing

WEG Group
A comprehensive factory testing schedule is carried out on all
generators to ensure further enhanced reliability. Full load current
and voltage testing is included.

All generators are fully assembled with


their own bearings and vibration probes.
Testing is performed at rated speed and
voltage as required using a shop driver
and lube oil system. Vibration probes are
monitored continuously using a data
acquisition system. Temperatures and
pressures are monitored as well, including
lube oil, bearing metal, and cooling air/
water. Tests are specified in IEEE C50.13
and Electric Machinery standards and
performed by methods in IEEE 115.

Test All Machines Optional


Resistance of armature and field windings X
Dielectric test of armature and field windings X
Voltage balance X
Phase sequence X
Mechanical balance (vibration) X
Open circuit saturation curve X
Overspeed X
Rotor impedance X
Measurement of insulation resistance of armature and field windings X
Shorted field turns check X
Accessories/detectors test X
Polarization index X
Bearing inspection X
Exciter operation X
Measurement of bearing insulation resistance X
Short circuit saturation curve X
Harmonic analysis and measurement of TIF X
Heat runs X
Short circuit tests at reduced voltage to determine reactances and time constants X
Measurement of segregated losses X
Noise test X
WEG Group

Electric Machinery
800 Central Avenue NE
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55413
United States
Tel: +1 612 378 8000
Fax: +1 612 378 8051
www.electricmachinery.com

© Electric Machinery 2011. Publication NA.10010.gb.11-09.01. Electric Machinery, the Electric Machinery logo and any version thereof are trademarks and service marks of Electric Machinery.
The other names mentioned, registered or not, are the property of their respective companies.