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13 Mayıs, 2018, Koç Üniversitesi May 13, 2018, Koç University

Ἀδριανῷ, τῷ φιλτάτῳ διδασκάλῳ
In loving memory of
Adrian C. S. Saunders
1958 – 2017

To Adrian
from his Students
A Brasenose scholar with a lifelong passion for inspiring fellow
Classicists at Oxford, Cairo, Ephesus and Istanbul…
An intellectual, who had full command of Latin, Ancient Greek,
Coptic, Arabic, Turkish, French and Spanish coupled with an exper-
tise in the fields of numismatics, epigraphy and paleography…
An enthusiast, who did a production of Verdi’s opera ‘Attila’
and directed many other dramatic works, wrote astrology columns
for the local Egyptian newspapers, translated Orhan Veli, and
penned poems…
An instructor, who coined the motto of Koç University: “Sapi-
entia limen aetatis felicis futurae”…
A friend, who advised us not to merely burden ourselves with
courses, but instead encouraged us to travel, read novels, watch
films and enjoy life…
Above all, Adrian C. S. Saunders raised our awareness in not
confusing ambition with aspiration and said:
You have wings; fly and don’t seek instruction,
explore and always be one step ahead of those
who teach you. Read, read and chase up every
reference and you will be on the road to scholar-
ship. Don’t forget that scholarship is better than
holding a position. 3
Πλάτωνος, Ἀπολογία Σωκράτους, 40γ4-41β5
δυοῖν γὰρ θάτερόν ἐστιν τὸ τεθνάναι· ἢ γὰρ οἷον μηδὲν εἶναι
μηδὲ αἴσθησιν μηδεμίαν μηδενὸς ἔχειν τὸν τεθνεῶτα, ἢ κατὰ τὰ
λεγόμενα μεταβολή τις τυγχάνει οὖσα καὶ μετοίκησις τῇ ψυχῇ
τοῦ τόπου τοῦ ἐνθένδε εἰς ἄλλον τόπον. καὶ εἴτε δὴ μηδεμία
αἴσθησίς ἐστιν ἀλλ’ οἷον ὕπνος ἐπειδάν τις καθεύδων μηδ’ ὄναρ
μηδὲν ὁρᾷ, θαυμάσιον κέρδος ἂν εἴη ὁ θάνατος – ἐγὼ γὰρ ἂν
οἶμαι, εἴ τινα ἐκλεξάμενον δέοι ταύτην τὴν νύκτα ἐν ᾗ οὕτω
κατέδαρθεν ὥστε μηδὲ ὄναρ ἰδεῖν, καὶ τὰς ἄλλας νύκτας τε καὶ
ἡμέρας τὰς τοῦ βίου τοῦ ἑαυτοῦ ἀντιπαραθέντα ταύτῃ τῇ νυκτὶ
δέοι σκεψάμενον εἰπεῖν πόσας ἄμεινον καὶ ἥδιον ἡμέρας καὶ
νύκτας ταύτης τῆς νυκτὸς βεβίωκεν ἐν τῷ ἑαυτοῦ βίῳ, οἶμαι ἂν
μὴ ὅτι ἰδιώτην τινά, ἀλλὰ τὸν μέγαν βασιλέα εὐαριθμήτους ἂν
εὑρεῖν αὐτὸν ταύτας πρὸς τὰς ἄλλας ἡμέρας καὶ νύκτας – εἰ οὖν
τοιοῦτον ὁ θάνατός ἐστιν, κέρδος ἔγωγε λέγω· καὶ γὰρ οὐδὲν
πλείων ὁ πᾶς χρόνος φαίνεται οὕτω δὴ εἶναι ἢ μία νύξ. εἰ δ’ αὖ
οἷον ἀποδημῆσαί ἐστιν ὁ θάνατος ἐνθένδε εἰς ἄλλον τόπον, καὶ
ἀληθῆ ἐστιν τὰ λεγόμενα, ὡς ἄρα ἐκεῖ εἰσι πάντες οἱ τεθνεῶτες,
τί μεῖζον ἀγαθὸν τούτου εἴη ἄν, ὦ ἄνδρες δικασταί; εἰ γάρ τις
ἀφικόμενος εἰς Ἅιδου, ἀπαλλαγεὶς τουτωνὶ τῶν φασκόντων
δικαστῶν εἶναι, εὑρήσει τοὺς ὡς ἀληθῶς δικαστάς, οἵπερ καὶ
λέγονται ἐκεῖ δικάζειν, Μίνως τε καὶ Ῥαδάμανθυς καὶ Αἰακὸς
4 καὶ Τριπτόλεμος καὶ ἄλλοι ὅσοι τῶν ἡμιθέων δίκαιοι ἐγένοντο
ἐν τῷ ἑαυτῶν βίῳ, ἆρα φαύλη ἂν εἴη ἡ ἀποδημία;
Recitation: Alpaykut Barış, Istanbul University
Translation: Benjamin Jowett

Plato, The Apology of Socrates, 40c4-41a5

For the state of death is one of two things: either it is virtually
nothingness, so that the dead has no consciousness of anything,
or it is, as people say, a change and migration of the soul from
this to another place. And if it is unconsciousness, like a sleep in
which the sleeper does not even dream, death would be a won-
derful gain. For I think if any one were to pick out that night in
which he slept a dreamless sleep and, comparing with it the other
nights and days of his life, were to say, after due consideration,
how many days and nights in his life had passed more pleasantly
than that night, – I believe that not only any private person, but
even the great King of Persia himself would find that they were
few in comparison with the other days and nights. So if such is the
nature of death, I count it a gain; for in that case, all time seems
to be no longer than one night. But on the other hand, if death
is, as it were, a change of habitation from here to some other
place, and if what we are told is true, that all the dead are there,
what greater blessing could there be, judges? For if a man when
he reaches the other world, after leaving behind these who claim
to be judges, shall find those who are really judges who are said
to sit in judgment there, Minos and Rhadamanthus, and Aeacus
and Triptolemus, and all the other demigods who were just men 5
in their lives, would the change of habitation be undesirable?
Q. Horatii Flacci, Carmina, IV. 7
Diffugere nives, redeunt iam gramina campis
arboribusque comae;
mutat terra vices et decrescentia ripas
flumina praetereunt;
Gratia cum Nymphis geminisque sororibus audet
ducere nuda choros:
inmortalia ne speres, monet annus et almum
quae rapit hora diem.
frigora mitescunt Zephyris, ver proterit aestas
interitura, simul
pomifer autumnus fruges effuderit, et mox
bruma recurrit iners.
damna tamen celeres reparant caelestia lunae:
nos ubi decidimus
quo pius Aeneas, quo dives Tullus et Ancus,
pulvis et umbra sumus.
quis scit an adiciant hodiernae crastina summae
tempora di superi?
cuncta manus avidas fugient heredis amico
quae dederis animo.
cum semel occideris et de te, splendida, Minos
fecerit arbitria,
non, Torquate, genus, non te facundia, non te
restituet pietas;
infernis neque enim tenebris Diana pudicum
liberat Hippolytum
nec Lethaea valet Theseus abrumpere caro
vincula Pirithoo.
Recitation: Ege Arvas, Koç University
Translation: A. E. Housman

Horace, Odes, IV. 7

The snows are fled away, leaves on the shaws
And grasses in the mead renew their birth,
The river to the river-bed withdraws,
And altered is the fashion of the earth.
The Nymphs and Graces three put off their fear
And unapparelled in the woodland play.
The swift hour and the brief prime of the year
Say to the soul, Thou wast not born for aye.
Thaw follows frost; hard on the heel of spring
Treads summer sure to die, for hard on hers
Comes autumn with his apples scattering;
Then back to wintertide, when nothing stirs.
But oh, whate’er the sky-led seasons mar,
Moon upon moon rebuilds it with her beams;
Come we where Tullus and where Ancus are
And good Aeneas, we are dust and dreams.
Torquatus, if the gods in heaven shall add
The morrow to the day, what tongue has told?
Feast then thy heart, for what thy heart has had
The fingers of no heir will ever hold.
When thou descendest once the shades among,
The stern assize and equal judgment o’er,
Not thy long lineage nor thy golden tongue,
No, nor thy righteousness, shall friend thee more.
Night holds Hippolytus the pure of stain,
Diana steads him nothing, he must stay;
And Theseus leaves Pirithous in the chain 7
The love of comrades cannot take away.
Q. Horatii Flacci, Carmina, III. 25
Quo me, Bacche, rapis tui
plenum? Quae nemora aut quos agor in specus
velox mente nova? Quibus
antris egregii Caesaris audiar
aeternum meditans decus
stellis inserere et consilio Iovis?
Dicam insigne, recens, adhuc
indictum ore alio. Non secus in iugis
exsomnis stupet Euhias,
Hebrum prospiciens et niue candidam
Thracen ac pede barbaro
lustratam Rhodopen, ut mihi devio
ripas et vacuum nemus
mirari libet. O Naiadum potens
Baccharumque valentium
proceras manibus vertere fraxinos,
nil parvum aut humili modo,
nil mortale loquar. Dulce periculum est,
o Lenaee, sequi deum
cingentem viridi tempora pampino.
Recitation: Ege Arvas, Koç University
Translation: John Conington

Horace, Odes, III. 25

Whither, Bacchus, tear’st thou me.
FiIl’d with thy strength? What dens, what forests these,
Thus in wildering race I see?
What cave shall hearken to my melodies,
Tuned to tell of Caesar’s praise
And throne him high the heavenly ranks among?
Sweet and strange shall be my lays,
A tale till now by poet voice unsung.
As the Evian on the height,
Roused from her sleep, looks wonderingly abroad,
Looks on Thrace with snow-drifts white,
And Rhodope by barbarous footstep trod,
So my truant eyes admire
The banks, the desolate forests. O great King
Who the Naiads dost inspire,
And Bacchants, strong from earth huge trees to wring!
Not a lowly strain is mine,
No mere man’s utterance. O, ‘tis venture sweet
Thee to follow, God of wine, 9
Making the vine-branch round thy temples meet!
Ὁμήρου, Ἰλιάς, Α´, 1-31
μῆνιν ἄειδε θεὰ Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος
οὐλομένην, ἣ μυρί᾽ Ἀχαιοῖς ἄλγε᾽ ἔθηκε,
πολλὰς δ᾽ ἰφθίμους ψυχὰς Ἄϊδι προΐαψεν
ἡρώων, αὐτοὺς δὲ ἑλώρια τεῦχε κύνεσσιν
οἰωνοῖσί τε πᾶσι, Διὸς δ᾽ ἐτελείετο βουλή,
ἐξ οὗ δὴ τὰ πρῶτα διαστήτην ἐρίσαντε
Ἀτρεΐδης τε ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν καὶ δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς.
τίς τ᾽ ἄρ σφωε θεῶν ἔριδι ξυνέηκε μάχεσθαι;
Λητοῦς καὶ Διὸς υἱός· ὃ γὰρ βασιλῆϊ χολωθεὶς
νοῦσον ἀνὰ στρατὸν ὄρσε κακήν, ὀλέκοντο δὲ λαοί,
οὕνεκα τὸν Χρύσην ἠτίμασεν ἀρητῆρα
Ἀτρεΐδης· ὃ γὰρ ἦλθε θοὰς ἐπὶ νῆας Ἀχαιῶν
λυσόμενός τε θύγατρα φέρων τ᾽ ἀπερείσι᾽ ἄποινα,
στέμματ᾽ ἔχων ἐν χερσὶν ἑκηβόλου Ἀπόλλωνος
χρυσέῳ ἀνὰ σκήπτρῳ, καὶ λίσσετο πάντας Ἀχαιούς,
Ἀτρεΐδα δὲ μάλιστα δύω, κοσμήτορε λαῶν·
Ἀτρεΐδαι τε καὶ ἄλλοι ἐϋκνήμιδες Ἀχαιοί,
ὑμῖν μὲν θεοὶ δοῖεν Ὀλύμπια δώματ᾽ ἔχοντες
ἐκπέρσαι Πριάμοιο πόλιν, εὖ δ᾽ οἴκαδ᾽ ἱκέσθαι·
παῖδα δ᾽ ἐμοὶ λύσαιτε φίλην, τὰ δ᾽ ἄποινα δέχεσθαι,
ἁζόμενοι Διὸς υἱὸν ἑκηβόλον Ἀπόλλωνα.
ἔνθ᾽ ἄλλοι μὲν πάντες ἐπευφήμησαν Ἀχαιοὶ
αἰδεῖσθαί θ᾽ ἱερῆα καὶ ἀγλαὰ δέχθαι ἄποινα·
ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ Ἀτρεΐδῃ Ἀγαμέμνονι ἥνδανε θυμῷ,
Recitation: Kübra Başpınar, Istanbul University
Translation: Α. Τ. Murray

Homer, The Iliad, I. 1-31

The wrath sing, goddess, of Peleus’ son, Achilles, that destruc-
tive wrath which brought countless woes upon the Achaeans,
and sent forth to Hades many valiant souls of heroes, and
made them themselves spoil for dogs and every bird; thus the
plan of Zeus came to fulfillment, from the time when first they
parted in strife Atreus’ son, king of men, and brilliant Achilles.
Who then of the gods was it that brought these two together
to contend? The son of Leto and Zeus; for he in anger against
the king roused throughout the host an evil pestilence, and the
people began to perish, because upon the priest Chryses the
son of Atreus had wrought dishonour. For he had come to the
swift ships of the Achaeans to free his daughter, bearing ransom
past counting; and in his hands he held the wreaths of Apollo
who strikes from afar,on a staff of gold; and he implored all
the Achaeans, but most of all the two sons of Atreus, the mar-
shallers of the people: “Sons of Atreus, and other well-greaved
Achaeans, to you may the gods who have homes upon Olympus
grant that you sack the city of Priam, and return safe to your
homes; but my dear child release to me, and accept the ransom
out of reverence for the son of Zeus, Apollo who strikes from
afar.” Then all the rest of the Achaeans shouted assent, to rev-
erence the priest and accept the glorious ransom, yet the thing
did not please the heart of Agamemnon, son of Atreus, but he 11
sent him away harshly, and laid upon him a stern command:
ἀλλὰ κακῶς ἀφίει, κρατερὸν δ᾽ ἐπὶ μῦθον ἔτελλε·
μή σε γέρον κοίλῃσιν ἐγὼ παρὰ νηυσὶ κιχείω
ἢ νῦν δηθύνοντ᾽ ἢ ὕστερον αὖτις ἰόντα,
μή νύ τοι οὐ χραίσμῃ σκῆπτρον καὶ στέμμα θεοῖο·
τὴν δ᾽ ἐγὼ οὐ λύσω· πρίν μιν καὶ γῆρας ἔπεισιν
ἡμετέρῳ ἐνὶ οἴκῳ ἐν Ἄργεϊ τηλόθι πάτρης
ἱστὸν ἐποιχομένην καὶ ἐμὸν λέχος ἀντιόωσαν·
ἀλλ᾽ ἴθι μή μ᾽ ἐρέθιζε σαώτερος ὥς κε νέηαι.

“Let me not find you, old man, by the hollow ships, either tarry-
ing now or coming back later, lest your staff and the wreath of
the god not protect you. Her I will not set free. Sooner shall old
age come upon her in our house, in Argos, far from her native
land, [30] as she walks to and fro before the loom and serves my
bed. But go, do not anger me, that you may return the safer.”

Desiderii Erasmi Rotardami, Stultitiae Laus, I. 1-3
Inter eruditos iureconsulti sibi vel primum vindicant locum, neque
quisquam alius aeque sibi placet, dum Sisyphi saxum assidue
volvunt, ac sexcentas leges eodem spiritu contexunt, nihil refert
quam ad rem pertinentes, dumque glossematis glossemata,
opiniones opinionibus cumulantes, efficiunt ut studium illud
omnium difficillimum esse videatur. Quicquid enim laboriosum,
idem protinus & praeclarum existimant.
Adiungamus his dialecticos ac sophistas, hominum genus quovis
aere Dodonaeo loquacius, ut quorum unusquivis cum vicenis
delectis muleribus garrulitate decertare possit, feliciores tamen
futuri, si tantum linguaces essent, non etiam rixosi, adeo ut de
lana caprina pertinacissime digladientur, & nimium altercando
plerunque veritatem amittant. Hos tamen sua philautia beatos
reddit, dum tribus instructi syllogismis incunctanter audent
quavis de re, cum quovis manum conserere. Ceterum pertinacia
reddit invictos, etiamsi Stentorem opponas.
Sub hos prodeunt philosophi, barba pollioque verendi, qui se solos
sapere praedicant, reliquos omnes mortales, umbras volitare.
Quam vero suaviter delirant, cum innumerabiles aedificant
mundos, dum solem, dum lunam, stellas, orbes, tamquam
pollice filove metiuntur, dum fulminum, ventorum, eclipsium ac
ceterarum inexplicabilium rerum causas reddunt, nihil usquam
haesitantes, perinde quasi naturae rerum architectrici fuerint
a secretis, quasive e deorum consilio nobis advenerint: quos
interim natura cum suis coniecturis, magnifice ridet. Nam nihil
14 apud illos esse comperti, vel illud satis magnum est argumentum,
quod singulis de rebus inexplicabilis inter ipsos est digladiatio.
Recitation: Seçil Baysal, Mimar Sinan University
Translation: John Wilson

Erasmus, In Praise of Folly, I. 1-3

And among them our advocates challenge the first place, nor is there
any sort of people that please themselves like them: for while they daily
roll Sisyphus his stone, and quote you a thousand cases, as it were, in a
breath no matter how little to the purpose, and heap glosses upon glosses,
and opinions on the neck of opinions, they bring it at last to this pass, that
that study of all other seems the most difficult.
Add to these our logicians and sophists, a generation of men more prat-
tling than an echo and the worst of them able to outchat a hundred of the
best picked gossips. And yet their condition would be much better were
they only full of words and not so given to scolding that they most obsti-
nately hack and hew one another about a matter of nothing and make
such a sputter about terms and words till they have quite lost the sense.
And yet they are so happy in the good opinion of themselves that as soon
as they are furnished with two or three syllogisms, they dare boldly enter
the lists against any man upon any point, as not doubting but to run him
down with noise, though the opponent were another Stentor.
And next these come our philosophers, so much reverenced for their
furred gowns and starched beards that they look upon themselves as the
only wise men and all others as shadows. And yet how pleasantly do they
dote while they frame in their heads innumerable worlds; measure out the
sun, the moon, the stars, nay and heaven itself, as it were, with a pair of
compasses; lay down the causes of lightning, winds, eclipses, and other
the like inexplicable matters; and all this too without the least doubting,
as if they were Nature’s secretaries, or dropped down among us from
the council of the gods; while in the meantime Nature laughs at them
and all their blind conjectures. For that they know nothing, even this is a
sufficient argument, that they don’t agree among themselves and so are
incomprehensible touching every particular. ing, and are so fortunate as 15
to meet with people that believe them.
L. Annaei Senecae, De Providentia, I. 1-3
Quaesisti a me, Lucili, quid ita, si providentia mundus ageretur, multa
bonis viris mala acciderent. Hoc commodius in contextu operis
redderetur, cum praesse universis providentiam probaremus et
interesse nobis deum; sed quoniam a toto particulam revelli placet
et unam contradictionem manente lite integra solvere, faciam rem
non difficilem, causam deorum agam.
Supervacuum est in praesentia ostendere non sine aliquo custode
tantum opus stare nec hunc siderum coetum discursumque
fortuiti impetus esse, et quae casus incitat saepe turbari et cito
arietare, hanc inoffensam velocita tem procedere aeternae
legis imperio tantum rerum terra marique gestantem, tantum
clarissimorum luminum et ex disposito relucentium; non esse
materiae errantis hunc ordinem nec quae temere coierunt tanta
arte pendere ut terrarum gravissimum pondus sedeat inmotum et
circa se properantis caeli fugam spectet, ut infusa vallibus maria
molliant terras nec ullum incrementum fluminum sentiant, ut ex
minimis seminibus nascantur ingentia.
Ne illa quidem quae videntur confusa et incerta, pluvias dico
nubesque et elisorum fulminum iactus et incendia ruptis montium
verticibus effusa, tremores labantis soli aliquae quae tumultuosa
pars rerum circa terras movet, sine ratione, quamvis subita sint,
accidunt, sed suas et illa causas habent non minus quam quae
alienis locis conspecta miraculo sunt, ut in mediis fluctibus calentes
aquae et nova insularum in vasto exilientium mari spatia.
Recitation: Abdullah Çetin, Mimar Sinan University
Translation: Aubrey Stewart

Seneca, On Providence, I. 1-3

You have asked me, Lucilius, why, if the world be ruled by prov-
idence, so many evils befall good men? The answer to this would be
more conveniently given in the course of this work, after we have
proved that providence governs the universe, and that God is amongst
us: but, since you wish me to deal with one point apart from the whole,
and to answer one replication before the main action has been decid-
ed, I will do what is not difficult, and plead the cause of the gods.
At the present time it is superfluous to point out that it is not with-
out some guardian that so great a work maintains its position, that the
assemblage and movements of the stars do not depend upon accidental
impulses, or that objects whose motion is regulated by chance often fall
into confusion and soon stumble, whereas this swift and safe movement
goes on, governed by eternal law, bearing with it so many things both on
sea and land, so many most brilliant lights shining in order in the skies;
that this regularity does not belong to matter moving at random, and
that particles brought together by chance could not arrange themselves
with such art as to make the heaviest weight, that of the earth, remain
unmoved, and behold the flight of the heavens as they hasten round it,
to make the seas pour into the valleys and so temper the climate of the
land, without any sensible increase from the rivers which flow into them,
or to cause huge growths to proceed from minute seeds.
Even those phenomena which appear to be confused and irregu-
lar, I mean showers of rain and clouds, the rush of lightning from the
heavens, fire that pours from the riven peaks of mountains, quakings
of the trembling earth, and everything else which is produced on earth
by the unquiet element in the universe, do not come to pass without
reason, though they do so suddenly: but they also have their causes, as
also have those things which excite our wonder by the strangeness of
their position, such as warm springs amidst the waves of the sea, and 17
new islands that spring up in the wide ocean.
Εὐρυπίδου, Μήδεια, 215-250
Κορίνθιαι γυναῖκες, ἐξῆλθον δόμων
μή μοί τι μέμψησθ᾽· οἶδα γὰρ πολλοὺς βροτῶν
σεμνοὺς γεγῶτας, τοὺς μὲν ὀμμάτων ἄπο,
τοὺς δ᾽ ἐν θυραίοις· οἱ δ᾽ ἀφ᾽ ἡσύχου ποδὸς
δύσκλειαν ἐκτήσαντο καὶ ῥᾳθυμίαν.
δίκη γὰρ οὐκ ἔνεστ᾽ ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς βροτῶν,
ὅστις πρὶν ἀνδρὸς σπλάγχνον ἐκμαθεῖν σαφῶς
στυγεῖ δεδορκώς, οὐδὲν ἠδικημένος.
χρὴ δὲ ξένον μὲν κάρτα προσχωρεῖν πόλει·
οὐδ᾽ ἀστὸν ᾔνεσ᾽ ὅστις αὐθάδης γεγὼς
πικρὸς πολίταις ἐστὶν ἀμαθίας ὕπο.
ἐμοὶ δ᾽ ἄελπτον πρᾶγμα προσπεσὸν τόδε
ψυχὴν διέφθαρκ᾽· οἴχομαι δὲ καὶ βίου
χάριν μεθεῖσα κατθανεῖν χρῄζω, φίλαι.
ἐν ᾧ γὰρ ἦν μοι πάντα, γιγνώσκω καλῶς,
κάκιστος ἀνδρῶν ἐκβέβηχ᾽ οὑμὸς πόσις.
πάντων δ᾽ ὅσ᾽ ἔστ᾽ ἔμψυχα καὶ γνώμην ἔχει
γυναῖκές ἐσμεν ἀθλιώτατον φυτόν·
18 ἃς πρῶτα μὲν δεῖ χρημάτων ὑπερβολῇ
πόσιν πρίασθαι, δεσπότην τε σώματος
Recitation: Doğa Çorlu, Koç University
Translation: David Kovacs

Euripides, Medea, 215-250

Women of Corinth, I have come out of the house
lest you find some fault with me. For I know that though many mortals
are haughty both in private and in public, others get a reputation
for indifference to their neighbors from their retiring manner of life.
There is no justice in mortals’ eyes
since before they get sure knowledge of a man’s true character
they hate him on sight, although he has done them no harm.
Now a foreigner must be quite compliant with the city,
nor do I have any words of praise for the citizen who is stubborn
and causes his fellow-citizens pain by his lack of breeding.
In my case, however, this sudden blow that has struck me
has destroyed my life. I am undone,
I have resigned all joy in life, and I want to die, oh my friends!
For the man in whom all I had was bound up, as I well know
– my husband – has proved the basest of men.
Of all creatures that have breath and sensation,
we women are the most unfortunate.
First at an exorbitant price we must buy 19
a husband and master of our bodies,
[λαβεῖν· κακοῦ γὰρ τοῦτ᾽ ἔτ᾽ ἄλγιον κακόν].
κἀν τῷδ᾽ ἀγὼν μέγιστος, ἢ κακὸν λαβεῖν
ἢ χρηστόν· οὐ γὰρ εὐκλεεῖς ἀπαλλαγαὶ
γυναιξὶν οὐδ᾽ οἷόν τ᾽ ἀνήνασθαι πόσιν.
ἐς καινὰ δ᾽ ἤθη καὶ νόμους ἀφιγμένην
δεῖ μάντιν εἶναι, μὴ μαθοῦσαν οἴκοθεν,
ὅπως ἄριστα χρήσεται ξυνευνέτῃ.
κἂν μὲν τάδ᾽ ἡμῖν ἐκπονουμέναισιν εὖ
πόσις ξυνοικῇ μὴ βίᾳ φέρων ζυγόν,
ζηλωτὸς αἰών· εἰ δὲ μή, θανεῖν χρεών.
ἀνὴρ δ᾽, ὅταν τοῖς ἔνδον ἄχθηται ξυνών,
ἔξω μολὼν ἔπαυσε καρδίαν ἄσης
[ἢ πρὸς φίλον τιν᾽ ἢ πρὸς ἥλικα τραπείς]·
ἡμῖν δ᾽ ἀνάγκη πρὸς μίαν ψυχὴν βλέπειν.
λέγουσι δ᾽ ἡμᾶς ὡς ἀκίνδυνον βίον
ζῶμεν κατ᾽ οἴκους, οἱ δὲ μάρνανται δορί,
κακῶς φρονοῦντες· ὡς τρὶς ἂν παρ᾽ ἀσπίδα
στῆναι θέλοιμ᾽ ἂν μᾶλλον ἢ τεκεῖν ἅπαξ.

[This misfortune is more painful than misfortune.]
And the outcome of our life’s striving hangs on this,
whether we take a bad or a good husband.
For divorce is discreditable for women
and it is not possible to refuse wedlock.
And when a woman comes into the new customs
and practices in her husband’s house,
she must somehow divine, since she has not learned it at home,
how she shall best deal with her husband.
If after we have spent great efforts on these tasks
our husbands live with us without resenting the marriage-yoke,
our life is enviable. Otherwise, death is preferable.
A man, whenever he is annoyed with the company of those in the
house, goes elsewhere and thus rids his soul of its boredom
[turning to some male friend or age-mate].
But we must fix our gaze on one person only.
Men say that we live a life free from danger
at home, while they fight with the spear.
How wrong they are! I would rather stand three times
with a shield in battle, than give birth once.

Ἀριστοτέλους, Τέχνη Ῥητορική, Α´. 1-7
ἡ ῥητορική ἐστιν ἀντίστροφος τῇ διαλεκτικῇ· ἀμφότεραι
γὰρ περὶ τοιούτων τινῶν εἰσιν ἃ κοινὰ τρόπον τινὰ ἁπάντων ἐστὶ
γνωρίζειν καὶ οὐδεμιᾶς ἐπιστήμης ἀφωρισμένης· διὸ καὶ πάντες
τρόπον τινὰ μετέχουσιν ἀμφοῖν· πάντες γὰρ μέχρι τινὸς καὶ
ἐξετάζειν καὶ ὑπέχειν λόγον καὶ ἀπολογεῖσθαι καὶ κατηγορεῖν
ἐγχειροῦσιν. τῶν μὲν οὖν πολλῶν οἱ μὲν εἰκῇ ταῦτα δρῶσιν, οἱ
δὲ διὰ συνήθειαν ἀπὸ ἕξεως· ἐπεὶ δ᾽ ἀμφοτέρως ἐνδέχεται, δῆλον
ὅτι εἴη ἂν αὐτὰ καὶ ὁδῷ ποιεῖν· δι᾽ ὃ γὰρ ἐπιτυγχάνουσιν οἵ τε
διὰ συνήθειαν καὶ οἱ ἀπὸ τοῦ αὐτομάτου τὴν αἰτίαν θεωρεῖν
ἐνδέχεται, τὸ δὲ τοιοῦτον ἤδη πάντες ἂν ὁμολογήσαιεν τέχνης
ἔργον εἶναι.
νῦν μὲν οὖν οἱ τὰς τέχνας τῶν λόγων συντιθέντες οὐδὲν
ὡς εἰπεῖν πεπορίκασιν αὐτῆς μόριον· αἱ γὰρ πίστεις ἔντεχνόν
εἰσι μόνον, τὰ δ᾽ ἄλλα προσθῆκαι, οἱ δὲ περὶ μὲν ἐνθυμημάτων
οὐδὲν λέγουσιν, ὅπερ ἐστὶ σῶμα τῆς πίστεως, περὶ δὲ τῶν ἔξω
τοῦ πράγματος τὰ πλεῖστα πραγματεύονται· διαβολὴ γὰρ
καὶ ἔλεος καὶ ὀργὴ καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα πάθη τῆς ψυχῆς οὐ περὶ
τοῦ πράγματός ἐστιν, ἀλλὰ πρὸς τὸν δικαστήν· ὥστ᾽ εἰ περὶ
πάσας ἦν τὰς κρίσεις καθάπερ ἐν ἐνίαις γε νῦν ἐστι τῶν πόλεων
καὶ μάλιστα ταῖς εὐνομουμέναις, οὐδὲν ἂν εἶχον ὅ τι λέγωσιν·
22 ἅπαντες γὰρ οἱ μὲν οἴονται δεῖν οὕτω τοὺς νόμους ἀγορεύειν,
οἱ δὲ καὶ χρῶνται καὶ κωλύουσιν ἔξω τοῦ πράγματος λέγειν,
Recitation: Deniz Daştan, Dokuz Eylül University
Translation: J. H. Freese

Aristotle, The Art of Rhetoric, 1.1-1.7

Rhetoric is a counterpart of Dialectic; for both have to do with
matters that are in a manner within the cognizance of all men and
not confined to any special science. Hence all men in a manner have a
share of both; for all, up to a certain point, endeavor to criticize or up-
hold an argument, to defend themselves or to accuse. Now, the majority
of people do this either at random or with a familiarity arising from
habit. But since both these ways are possible, it is clear that matters
can be reduced to a system, for it is possible to examine the reason why
some attain their end by familiarity and others by chance; and such an
examination all would at once admit to be the function of an art.
Now, previous compilers of “Arts”of Rhetoric have provided us
with only a small portion of this art, for proofs are the only things in
it that come within the province of art; everything else is merely an
accessory. And yet they say nothing about enthymemes which are the
body of proof, but chiefly devote their attention to matters outside the
subject; for the arousing of prejudice, compassion, anger, and similar
emotions has no connection with the matter in hand, but is directed
only to the dicast. The result would be that, if all trials were now car-
ried on as they are in some States, especially those that are well admin-
istered, there would be nothing left for the rhetorician to say. For all
men either think that all the laws ought so to prescribe, or in fact carry 23
out the principle and forbid speaking outside the subject, as in the court
καθάπερ καὶ ἐν Ἀρείῳ πάγῳ, ὀρθῶς τοῦτο νομίζοντες· οὐ γὰρ
δεῖ τὸν δικαστὴν διαστρέφειν εἰς ὀργὴν προάγοντας ἢ φθόνον ἢ
ἔλεον· ὅμοιον γὰρ κἂν εἴ τις ᾧ μέλλει χρῆσθαι κανόνι, τοῦτον
ποιήσειε στρεβλόν. ἔτι δὲ φανερὸν ὅτι τοῦ μὲν ἀμφισβητοῦντος
οὐδέν ἐστιν ἔξω τοῦ δεῖξαι τὸ πρᾶγμα ὅτι ἔστιν ἢ οὐκ ἔστιν, ἢ
γέγονεν ἢ οὐ γέγονεν· εἰ δὲ μέγα ἢ μικρόν, ἢ δίκαιον ἢ ἄδικον,
ὅσα μὴ ὁ νομοθέτης διώρικεν, αὐτὸν δή που τὸν δικαστὴν δεῖ
γιγνώσκειν καὶ οὐ μανθάνειν παρὰ τῶν ἀμφισβητούντων.
μάλιστα μὲν οὖν προσήκει τοὺς ὀρθῶς κειμένους νόμους, ὅσα
ἐνδέχεται, πάντα διορίζειν αὐτούς, καὶ ὅτι ἐλάχιστα καταλείπειν
ἐπὶ τοῖς κρίνουσι, πρῶτον μὲν ὅτι ἕνα λαβεῖν καὶ ὀλίγους
ῥᾷον ἢ πολλοὺς εὖ φρονοῦντας καὶ δυναμένους νομοθετεῖν καὶ
δικάζειν· ἔπειθ᾽ αἱ μὲν νομοθεσίαι ἐκ πολλοῦ χρόνου σκεψαμένων
γίνονται, αἱ δὲ κρίσεις ἐξ ὑπογυίου, ὥστε χαλεπὸν ἀποδιδόναι τὸ
δίκαιον καὶ τὸ συμφέρον καλῶς τοὺς κρίνοντας. τὸ δὲ πάντων
μέγιστον, ὅτι ἡ μὲν τοῦ νομοθέτου κρίσις οὐ κατὰ μέρος, ἀλλὰ
περὶ μελλόντων τε καὶ καθόλου ἐστίν, ὁ δ᾽ ἐκκλησιαστὴς καὶ
δικαστὴς ἤδη περὶ παρόντων καὶ ἀφωρισμένων κρίνουσιν·
πρὸς οὓς καὶ τὸ φιλεῖν ἤδη καὶ τὸ μισεῖν καὶ τὸ ἴδιον συμφέρον
συνήρτηται πολλάκις, ὥστε μηκέτι δύνασθαι θεωρεῖν ἱκανῶς τὸ
ἀληθές, ἀλλ᾽ ἐπισκοτεῖν τῇ κρίσει τὸ ἴδιον ἡδὺ ἢ λυπηρόν;

of Areopagus, and in this they are right. For it is wrong to warp the
dicast’s feelings, to arouse him to anger, jealousy or compassion, which
would be like making the rule crooked which one intended to use. Fur-
ther, it is evident that the only business of the litigant is to prove that
the fact in question is or is not so, that it has happened or not; whether
it is important or unimportant, just or unjust, in all cases in which the
legislator has not laid down a ruling, is a matter for the dicast himself to
decide; it is not the business of the litigants to instruct him. First of all,
therefore, it is proper that laws, properly enacted, should themselves de-
fine the issue of all cases as far as possible, and leave as little as possible
to the discretion of the judges; in the first place, because it is easier to
find one or a few men of good sense, capable of framing laws and pro-
nouncing judgements, than a large number; secondly, legislation is the
result of long consideration, whereas judgements are delivered on the
spur of the moment, so that it is difficult for the judges properly to de-
cide questions of justice or expediency. But what is most important of
all is that the judgement of the legislator does not apply to a particular
case, but is universal and applies to the future, whereas the member of
the public assembly and the dicast have to decide present and definite
issues, and in their case love, hate, or personal interest is often involved,
so that they are no longer capable of discerning the truth adequately,
their judgement being obscured by their own pleasure or pain.

Ἡροδότου, Ἱστορίαι, Α´, 1.1-1.4
Ἡροδότου Ἁλικαρνησσέος ἱστορίης ἀπόδεξις ἥδε, ὡς
μήτε τὰ γενόμενα ἐξ ἀνθρώπων τῷ χρόνῳ ἐξίτηλα γένηται,
μήτε ἔργα μεγάλα τε καὶ θωμαστά, τὰ μὲν Ἕλλησι, τὰ δὲ
βαρβάροισι ἀποδεχθέντα, ἀκλεᾶ γένηται, τά τε ἄλλα καὶ δι’
ἣν αἰτίην ἐπολέμησαν ἀλλήλοισι. Περσέων μέν νυν οἱ λόγιοι
Φοίνικας αἰτίους φασὶ γενέσθαι τῆς διαφορῆς. τούτους γὰρ
ἀπὸ τῆς Ἐρυθρῆς καλεομένης θαλάσσης ἀπικομένους ἐπὶ τήνδε
τὴν θάλασσαν, καὶ οἰκήσαντας τοῦτον τὸν χῶρον τὸν καὶ νῦν
οἰκέουσι, αὐτίκα ναυτιλίῃσι μακρῇσι ἐπιθέσθαι, ἀπαγινέοντας
δὲ φορτία Αἰγύπτιά τε καὶ Ἀσσύρια τῇ τε ἄλλῃ ἐσαπικνέεσθαι
καὶ δὴ καὶ ἐς Ἄργος. τὸ δὲ Ἄργος τοῦτον τὸν χρόνον προεῖχε
ἅπασι τῶν ἐν τῇ νῦν Ἑλλάδι καλεομένῃ χώρῃ. ἀπικομένους δὲ
τοὺς Φοίνικας ἐς δὴ τὸ Ἄργος τοῦτο διατίθεσθαι τὸν φόρτον.
πέμπτῃ δὲ ἢ ἕκτῃ ἡμέρῃ ἀπ’ ἧς ἀπίκοντο, ἐξεμπολημένων σφι
σχεδὸν πάντων, ἐλθεῖν ἐπὶ τὴν θάλασσαν γυναῖκας ἄλλας τε
πολλὰς καὶ δὴ καὶ τοῦ βασιλέος θυγατέρα· τὸ δέ οἱ οὔνομα εἶναι,
κατὰ τὠυτὸ τὸ καὶ Ἕλληνες λέγουσι, Ἰοῦν τὴν Ἰνάχου· ταύτας
στάσας κατὰ πρύμνην τῆς νεὸς ὠνέεσθαι τῶν φορτίων τῶν σφι
ἦν θυμὸς μάλιστα· καὶ τοὺς Φοίνικας διακελευσαμένους ὁρμῆσαι
ἐπ’ αὐτάς. τὰς μὲν δὴ πλεῦνας τῶν γυναικῶν ἀποφυγεῖν, τὴν
26 δὲ Ἰοῦν σὺν ἄλλῃσι ἁρπασθῆναι. ἐσβαλομένους δὲ ἐς τὴν νέα
οἴχεσθαι ἀποπλέοντας ἐπ’ Αἰγύπτου.
Recitation: Baran Can Demirkol, Istanbul University
Translation: A. D. Godley

Herodotus, Histories, Ι.1.1-4

This is the display of the inquiry of Herodotus of Halicar-
nassus, so that things done by man not be forgotten in time, and
that great and marvelous deeds, some displayed by the Hellenes,
some by the barbarians, not lose their glory, including among
others what was the cause of their waging war on each other.
The Persian learned men say that the Phoenicians were the cause
of the dispute. These (they say) came to our seas from the sea
which is called Red, and having settled in the country which they
still occupy, at once began to make long voyages. Among other
places to which they carried Egyptian and Assyrian merchan-
dise, they came to Argos, which was at that time preeminent in
every way among the people of what is now called Hellas. The
Phoenicians came to Argos, and set out their cargo. On the fifth
or sixth day after their arrival, when their wares were almost all
sold, many women came to the shore and among them especially
the daughter of the king, whose name was Io (according to Per-
sians and Greeks alike), the daughter of Inachus. As these stood
about the stern of the ship bargaining for the wares they liked,
the Phoenicians incited one another to set upon them. Most of
the women escaped: Io and others were seized and thrown into
the ship, which then sailed away for Egypt. 27
Τ. Lucretii Cari, De Rerum Natura, V. 1-35
Quis potis est dignum pollenti pectore carmen
condere pro rerum maiestate hisque repertis?
quisve valet verbis tantum, qui fingere laudes
pro meritis eius possit, qui talia nobis
pectore parta suo quaesitaque praemia liquit?
nemo, ut opinor, erit mortali corpore cretus.
nam si, ut ipsa petit maiestas cognita rerum,
dicendum est, deus ille fuit, deus, inclyte Memmi,
qui princeps vitae rationem invenit eam quae
nunc appellatur sapientia, quique per artem
fluctibus et tantis vitam tantisque tenebris
in tam tranquillo et tam clara luce locavit.
confer enim divina aliorum antiqua reperta.
namque Ceres fertur fruges Liberque liquoris
vitigeni laticem mortalibus instituisse;
cum tamen his posset sine rebus vita manere,
ut fama est aliquas etiam nunc vivere gentis.
at bene non poterat sine puro pectore vivi;
28 quo magis hic merito nobis deus esse videtur,
ex quo nunc etiam per magnas didita gentis
Recitation: Halime Durmaz, Mimar Sinan University
Translation: William Ellery Leonard

Lucretius, On the Nature of Things, V. 1-35

O who can build with puissant breast a song
Worthy the majesty of these great finds?
Or who in words so strong that he can frame
the fit laudations for deserts of him
Who left us heritors of such vast prizes,
By his own breast discovered and sought out?-
There shall be none, methinks, of mortal stock.
For if must needs be named for him the name
Demanded by the now known majesty
Of these high matters, then a god was he,-
Hear me, illustrious Memmius- a god;
Who first and chief found out that plan of life
Which now is called philosophy, and who
By cunning craft, out of such mighty waves,
Out of such mighty darkness, moored life
In havens so serene, in light so clear.
Compare those old discoveries divine
Of others: lo, according to the tale,
Ceres established for mortality the grain, 29
and Bacchus juice of vine-born grape,
dulcia permulcent animos solacia vitae.
Herculis antistare autem si facta putabis,
longius a vera multo ratione ferere.
quid Nemeaeus enim nobis nunc magnus hiatus
ille leonis obesset et horrens Arcadius sus,
tanto opere officerent nobis Stymphala colentes?
denique quid Cretae taurus Lernaeaque pestis
hydra venenatis posset vallata colubris?
quidve tripectora tergemini vis Geryonai
et Diomedis equi spirantes naribus ignem
Thracia Bistoniasque plagas atque Ismara propter
aureaque Hesperidum servans fulgentia mala,
asper, acerba tuens, immani corpore serpens
arboris amplexus stirpes?

Though life might yet without these things abide,
Even as report saith now some peoples live.
But man’s well-being was impossible without a breast all free.
Wherefore the more that man doth justly seem to us a god,
From whom sweet solaces of life, afar distributed o’er populous domains,
Now soothe the minds of men. But if thou thinkest
Labours of Hercules excel the same,
Much farther from true reasoning thou farest.
For what could hurt us now that mighty maw
Of Nemeaean Lion, or what the Boar who bristled in Arcadia?
Or, again, O what could Cretan Bull,
or Hydra, pest Of Lerna, fenced with vipers venomous?
Or what the triple-breasted power of her
The three-fold Geryon...
The sojourners in the Stymphalian fens
So dreadfully offend us, or the Steeds
Of Thracian Diomedes breathing fire
From out their nostrils off along the zones
Bistonian and Ismarian? And the Snake,
The dread fierce gazer, guardian of the golden
And gleaming apples of the Hesperides,
Coiled round the tree-trunk with tremendous bulk?

P. Ovidii Nasonis, Metamorphoses, I.452-482
Primus amor Phoebi Daphne Peneia, quem non
fors ignara dedit, sed saeva Cupidinis ira,
Delius hunc nuper, victa serpente superbus,
viderat adducto flectentem cornua nervo
‘quid’ que ‘tibi, lascive puer, cum fortibus armis?’
dixerat: ‘ista decent umeros gestamina nostros,
qui dare certa ferae, dare vulnera possumus hosti,
qui modo pestifero tot iugera ventre prementem
stravimus innumeris tumidum Pythona sagittis.
tu face nescio quos esto contentus amores
inritare tua, nec laudes adsere nostras!’
filius huic Veneris ‘figat tuus omnia, Phoebe,
te meus arcus’ ait; ‘quantoque animalia cedunt
cuncta deo, tanto minor est tua gloria nostra.’
dixit et eliso percussis aere pennis
inpiger umbrosa Parnasi constitit arce
eque sagittifera prompsit duo tela pharetra
diversorum operum: fugat hoc, facit illud amorem;
32 quod facit, auratum est et cuspide fulget acuta,
quod fugat, obtusum est et habet sub harundine plumbum.
Recitation: Tutku Ergül, Mimar Sinan University
Translation: Brookes More

Ovid, Metamorphoses, I.452-482

Daphne, the daughter of a River God
was first beloved by Phoebus, the great God
of glorious light. ‘Twas not a cause of chance
but out of Cupid’s vengeful spite that she
was fated to torment the lord of light.
For Phoebus, proud of Python’s death, beheld
that impish god of Love upon a time
when he was bending his diminished bow,
and voicing his contempt in anger said;
“What, wanton boy, are mighty arms to thee,
great weapons suited to the needs of war?
The bow is only for the use of those
large deities of heaven whose strength may deal
wounds, mortal, to the savage beasts of prey;
and who courageous overcome their foes.—
it is a proper weapon to the use
of such as slew with arrows Python, huge,
whose pestilential carcase vast extent
covered. Content thee with the flames thy torch 33
enkindles (fires too subtle for my thought)
hoc deus in nympha Peneide fixit, at illo
laesit Apollineas traiecta per ossa medullas;
protinus alter amat, fugit altera nomen amantis
silvarum latebris captivarumque ferarum
exuviis gaudens innuptaeque aemula Phoebes:
vitta coercebat positos sine lege capillos.
multi illam petiere, illa aversata petentes
inpatiens expersque viri nemora avia lustrat
nec, quid Hymen, quid Amor, quid sint conubia curat.
saepe pater dixit: ‘generum mihi, filia, debes,’
saepe pater dixit: ‘debes mihi, nata, nepotes’.

and leave to me the glory that is mine.”
to him, undaunted, Venus, son replied;
“O Phoebus, thou canst conquer all the world
with thy strong bow and arrows, but with this
small arrow I shall pierce thy vaunting breast!
And by the measure that thy might exceeds
the broken powers of thy defeated foes,
so is thy glory less than mine.” No more
he said, but with his wings expanded thence
flew lightly to Parnassus, lofty peak.
There, from his quiver he plucked arrows twain,
most curiously wrought of different art;
one love exciting, one repelling love.
The dart of love was glittering, gold and sharp,
the other had a blunted tip of lead;
and with that dull lead dart he shot the Nymph,
but with the keen point of the golden dart
he pierced the bone and marrow of the God.
Immediately the one with love was filled,
the other, scouting at the thought of love,
rejoiced in the deep shadow of the woods,
and as the virgin Phoebe (who denies
the joys of love and loves the joys of chase)
a maiden’s fillet bound her flowing hair,—
and her pure mind denied the love of man.
Beloved and wooed she wandered silent paths,
for never could her modesty endure
the glance of man or listen to his love.
Her grieving father spoke to her, “Alas,
my daughter, I have wished a son in law,
and now you owe a grandchild to the joy of my old age.”

Ἀνακρέων καὶ Ἀνακρεόντεια
α´, Ἀνακρέων Frag. 396 (Page)
φέρ᾽ ὕδωρ φέρ᾽ οἶνον ὦ παῖ φέρε ‹δ᾽› ἀνθεμόεντας ἡμὶν
στεφάνους ἔνεικον, ὡς δὴ πρὸς Ἔρωτα πυκταλίζω.
β´, Ἀνακρεόντεια 7
λέγουσιν αἱ γυναῖκες·
«Ἀνάκρεον, γέρων εἶ·
λαβὼν ἔσοπτρον ἄθρει
κόμας μὲν οὐκέτ᾽ οὔσας,
ψιλὸν δέ σευ μέτωπον.»
ἐγὼ δὲ τὰς κόμας μέν,
εἴτ᾽ εἰσὶν εἴτ᾽ ἀπῆλθον,
οὐκ οἶδα· τοῦτο δ᾽ οἶδα,
ὡς τῷ γέροντι μᾶλλον
πρέπει τὸ τερπνὰ παίζειν,
ὅσῷ πέλας τὰ Μοίρης.
γ´, Ἀνακρεόντεια 21
ἡ γῆ μέλαινα πίνει,
πίνει δένδρεα δ᾽ αὖ γῆν
πίνει θάλασσ᾽ ἀναύρους,
ὁ δ᾽ ἥλιος θάλασσαν,
τὸν δ᾽ ἥλιον σελήνη·
τί μοι μάχεσθ᾽, ἑταῖροι,
καὐτῶι θέλοντι πίνειν;
Recitation: Ramazan Fidan, Koç University
Translation: Ramazan Fidan

Anacreon and Ancreontea (Selection)

a. Anacreon Frag. 396 (Page)
Bring me water, bring me wine, my boy,
bring me flowery garlands too,
for I am about to wrestle with Love.
b. Anacreontea 7
Women keep telling me: “Anacreon, You are old!
Look for yourself at the mirror,
you’ ll see your long-gone hair,
and your flimsly forehead.”
I don not know about my hair,
if they are in place or if they have fallen,
but this I know well:
that having fun is even more fitting
for the old man, as the end of his life draws near.
c. Anacreontea 21
The black earth drinks,
trees drink from the earth in turn,
the sea drinks the rivers,
and the sun drinks from the sea,
while the moon drinks the sun.·
So why do you reproach me friends, 37
for wanting to drink too?,
δ´, Ἀνακρεόντεια 23
θέλω λέγειν Ἀτρείδας,
θέλω δὲ Κάδμον ἄιδειν,
ὁ βάρβιτος δὲ χορδαῖς
ἔρωτα μοῦνον ἠχεῖ.
ἤμειψα νεῦρα πρώην
καὶ τὴν λύρην ἅπασαν·
κἀγὼ μὲν ἦιδον ἄθλους
Ἡρακλέους, λύρη δέ
ἔρωτας ἀντεφώνει.
χαίροιτε λοιπὸν ἡμῖν,
ἥρωες· ἡ λύρη γάρ
μόνους ἔρωτας ἄιδει.
ε´, Ἀνακρεόντεια 34
μακαρίζομέν σε, τέττιξ,
ὅτε δενδρέων ἐπ᾽ ἄκρων
ὀλίγην δρόσον πεπωκώς
βασιλεὺς ὅπως ἀείδεις.
σὰ γάρ ἐστι κεῖνα πάντα,
ὁπόσα βλέπεις ἐν ἀγροῖς
ὁπόσα φέρουσιν ὗλαι.
σὺ δὲ φείδεαι γεωργῶν,
ἀπὸ μηδενός τι βλάπτων·
σὺ δὲ τίμιος βροτοῖσι
θέρεος γλυκὺς προφήτης.
φιλέουσι μέν σε Μοῦσαι,
φιλέει δὲ Φοῖβος αὐτός,
λιγυρὴν δ᾽ ἔδωκεν οἴμην·
τὸ δὲ γῆρας οὔ σε τείρει.
σοφέ, γηγενής, φίλυμνε,
ἀπαθής, ἀναιμόσαρκε·
38 σχεδὸν εἶ θεοῖς ὅμοιος.
d. Anacreontea 23
I wish to speak of the Atreids,
I wish to sing of Cadmus,
but my lyre with its strings
echoes only love.
I changed the old strings
and the entire lyre.
But as I was about to sing
of Heracles’ labours the lyre
resounded with love.
Farewlell henceforth,
you heroes; for my lyre
sings only of love.

e. Anacreontea 34
We deem you blessed, oh cicada,
since atop the trees
having drunk a little dew
you sing like a king.
For all these things that one sees in the fields,
and abound in the forests are your domain.
Your are the farmers’ darling
since you cause no harm to them.
You are honoured by mortal men
as the sweet prophet of summer.
The Muses love you
and so does Phoebus himself,
who gave you a shril voice;
you are untouched by old-age.
Oh wise, earth-born, lover of hymns,
free of care, possesor of bloodless flesh:
you are almost equal to the gods.
C. Iulii Phaedri, Fabulae, I.1 & I.14
Aesopus auctor quam materiam repperit,
hanc ego polivi versibus senariis.
duplex libelli dos est: quod risum movet,
et quod prudenti vitam consilio monet.
calumniari si quis autem voluerit,
quod arbores loquantur, non tantum ferae,
fictis iocari nos meminerit fabulis.
1. Lupus et agnus
Ad rivum eundem lupus et agnus venerant,
siti compulsi. superior stabat lupus,
longeque inferior agnus. tunc fauce improba
latro incitatus iurgii causam intulit:
“Cur” inquit “turbulent am fecisti mihi
aquam bibenti?” laniger contra timens:
“Qui possum, quaeso, facere quod quereris, lupe?
a te decurrit ad meos haustus liquor.”
repulsus ille veritatis viribus
“Ante hos sex menses male” ait “dixisti mihi.”
respondit agnus “Equidem natus non eram.”
“Pater hercle tuus” ille inquit “male dixit mihi.”
atque ita correptum lacerat iniusta nece.
Haec propter illos scripta est homines fabula
qui fictis causis innocentes opprimunt.
Recitation: Fidan Hüseyinzade, Istanbul University
Translation: Christopher Smart

Phaedrus, Fables, I.1 & I.14

What from the founder Esop fell,
In neat familiar verse I tell:
Twofold’s the genius of the page,
To make you smile and make you sage.
But if the critics we displease,
By wrangling brutes and talking trees,
Let them remember, ere they blame,
We’re working neither sin nor shame;
‘Tis but a play to form the youth
By fiction, in the cause of truth.

1. The Wolf and the Lamb

By thirst incited; to the brook
The Wolf and Lamb themselves betook.
The Wolf high up the current drank,
The Lamb far lower down the bank.
Then, bent his ravenous maw to cram,
The Wolf took umbrage at the Lamb.
“How dare you trouble all the flood,
And mingle my good drink with mud?”
“Sir,” says the Lambkin, sore afraid,
“How should I act, as you upbraid?
The thing you mention cannot be,
The stream descends from you to me.”
Abash’d by facts, says he, “ I know
‘Tis now exact six months ago
You strove my honest fame to blot”-
“Six months ago, sir, I was not.”
“Then ‘twas th’ old ram thy sire,” he cried, 41
And so he tore him, till he died.
14. Ex sutore medicus
Malus cum sutor inopia deperditus
medicinam ignoto facere coepisset loco
et venditaret falso antidotum nomine,
verbosis adquisivit sibi famam strophis.
hic cum iaceret morbo confectus gravi . . .
rex urbis, eius experiendi gratia
scyphum poposcit: fusa dein simulans aqua
illius se miscere antidoto toxicum,
combibere iussit ipsum, posito praemio.
timore mortis ille tum confessus est
non artis ulla medicum se prudentia,
verum stupore vulgi factum nobilem.
rex advocata contione haec edidit:
“Quantae putatis esse vos dementiae,
qui capita vestra non dubitatis credere
cui calceandos nemo commisit pedes?”
Hoc pertinere vere ad illos dixerim,
quorum stultitia quaestus impudentiae est.

To those this fable I address
Who are determined to oppress,
And trump up any false pretence,
But they will injure innocence.

14. The Cobbler Turned Doctor

A bankrupt Cobbler, poor and lean,
(No bungler e’er was half so mean)
Went to a foreign place, and there
Began his med’cines to prepare;
But one of more especial note
He call’d his sovereign antidote;
And by his technical bombast
Contrived to raise a name at last.
It happen’d that the king was sick,
Who, willing to detect the trick,
Call’d for some water in an ewer,
Poison in which he feign’d to pour
The antidote was likewise mix’d;
He then upon th’ empiric fix’d
To take the medicated cup,
And, for a premium, drink it up
The quack, through dread of death, confessed
That he was of no skill possessed;
But all this great and glorious job
Was made of nonsense and the mob.
Then did the king his peers convoke,
And thus unto th’ assembly spoke:
“ My lords and gentlemen, I rate
Your folly as inordinate,
Who trust your heads into his hand,
Where no one had his heels japann’d.”--
This story their attention craves
Whose weakness is the prey of knaves.

Ὁμήρου, Ὀδύσσεια, Θ´, 267-299
ἀμφ᾽ Ἄρεος φιλότητος εὐστεφάνου τ᾽ Ἀφροδίτης,
ὡς τὰ πρῶτα μίγησαν ἐν Ἡφαίστοιο δόμοισι
λάθρῃ, πολλὰ δ᾽ ἔδωκε, λέχος δ᾽ ᾔσχυνε καὶ εὐνὴν
Ἡφαίστοιο ἄνακτος. ἄφαρ δέ οἱ ἄγγελος ἦλθεν
Ἥλιος, ὅ σφ᾽ ἐνόησε μιγαζομένους φιλότητι.
Ἥφαιστος δ᾽ ὡς οὖν θυμαλγέα μῦθον ἄκουσε,
βῆ ῥ᾽ ἴμεν ἐς χαλκεῶνα κακὰ φρεσὶ βυσσοδομεύων,
ἐν δ᾽ ἔθετ᾽ ἀκμοθέτῳ μέγαν ἄκμονα, κόπτε δὲ δεσμοὺς
ἀρρήκτους ἀλύτους, ὄφρ᾽ ἔμπεδον αὖθι μένοιεν.
αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δὴ τεῦξε δόλον κεχολωμένος Ἄρει,
βῆ ῥ᾽ ἴμεν ἐς θάλαμον, ὅθι οἱ φίλα δέμνι᾽ ἔκειτο,
ἀμφὶ δ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἑρμῖσιν χέε δέσματα κύκλῳ ἁπάντῃ·
πολλὰ δὲ καὶ καθύπερθε μελαθρόφιν ἐξεκέχυντο,
ἠύτ᾽ ἀράχνια λεπτά, τά γ᾽ οὔ κέ τις οὐδὲ ἴδοιτο,
οὐδὲ θεῶν μακάρων· πέρι γὰρ δολόεντα τέτυκτο.
αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δὴ πάντα δόλον περὶ δέμνια χεῦεν,
εἴσατ᾽ ἴμεν ἐς Λῆμνον, ἐυκτίμενον πτολίεθρον,
ἥ οἱ γαιάων πολὺ φιλτάτη ἐστὶν ἁπασέων.
οὐδ᾽ ἀλαοσκοπιὴν εἶχε χρυσήνιος Ἄρης,
ὡς ἴδεν Ἥφαιστον κλυτοτέχνην νόσφι κιόντα·
βῆ δ᾽ ἰέναι πρὸς δῶμα περικλυτοῦ Ἡφαίστοιο
ἰσχανόων φιλότητος ἐυστεφάνου Κυθερείης.
ἡ δὲ νέον παρὰ πατρὸς ἐρισθενέος Κρονίωνος
ἐρχομένη κατ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἕζεθ᾽· ὁ δ᾽ εἴσω δώματος ᾔει,
Recitation: Mert İnan, Istanbul University
Translation: Α. Τ. Murray

Homer, The Odyssey, 8. 267-299

But the minstrel struck the chords in prelude to his sweet lay
and sang of the love of Ares and Aphrodite of the fair crown,
how first they lay together in the house of Hephaestus secretly;
and Ares gave her many gifts, and shamed the bed
of the lord Hephaestus. But straightway one came to him
with tidings, even Helius, who had marked them as they lay
together in love. And when Hephaestus heard the grievous tale,
he went his way to his smithy, pondering evil in the deep of his
heart, and set on the anvil block the great anvil
and forged bonds which might not be broken or loosed,
that the lovers1 might bide fast where they were.
But when he had fashioned the snare in his wrath against Ares,
he went to his chamber where lay his bed,
and everywhere round about the bed-posts he spread the bonds,
and many too were hung from above, from the roof-beams,
fine as spiders’ webs, so that no one even of the blessed gods
could see them, so exceeding craftily were they fashioned.
But when he had spread all his snare about the couch,
he made as though he would go to Lemnos,
that well-built citadel, which is in his eyes far the dearest of all lands.
And no blind watch did Ares of the golden rein keep,
when he saw Hephaestus, famed for his handicraft, departing, but
he went his way to the house of famous Hephaestus,
eager for the love of Cytherea of the fair crown.
Now she had but newly come from the presence of her father, the
mighty son of Cronos, and had sat her down. 45
And Ares came into the house and clasped her hand
ἔν τ᾽ ἄρα οἱ φῦ χειρί, ἔπος τ᾽ ἔφατ᾽ ἔκ τ᾽ ὀνόμαζε·
δεῦρο, φίλη, λέκτρονδε τραπείομεν εὐνηθέντες·
οὐ γὰρ ἔθ᾽ Ἥφαιστος μεταδήμιος, ἀλλά πουἤδη
οἴχεται ἐς Λῆμνον μετὰ Σίντιας ἀγριοφώνους.
ὣς φάτο, τῇ δ᾽ ἀσπαστὸν ἐείσατο κοιμηθῆναι.
τὼ δ᾽ ἐς δέμνια βάντε κατέδραθον· ἀμφὶ δὲ δεσμοὶ
τεχνήεντες ἔχυντο πολύφρονος Ἡφαίστοιο,
οὐδέ τι κινῆσαι μελέων ἦν οὐδ᾽ ἀναεῖραι.
καὶ τότε δὴ γίγνωσκον, ὅ τ᾽ οὐκέτι φυκτὰ πέλοντο.

and spoke and addressed her: “Come, love, let us to bed
and take our joy, couched together. For Hephaestus is no longer
here in the land, but has now gone, I ween,
to Lemnos, to visit the Sintians of savage speech.”
So he spoke, and a welcome thing it seemed to her to lie with him.
So they two went to the couch, and lay them down to sleep,
and about them clung the cunning bonds of the wise Hephaestus,
nor could they in any wise stir their limbs or raise them up.
Then at length they learned that there was no more escaping.

P. Vergilii Maronis, Bucolica, I.1-39
Tityre, tu patulae recubans sub tegmine fagi
siluestrem tenui Musam meditaris auena.
nos patriae finis et dulcia linquimus arua:
nos patriam fugimus; tu, Tityre, lentus in umbra
formosam resonare doces Amaryllida siluas.
O Meliboee, deus nobis haec otia fecit:
namque erit ille mihi semper deus, illius aram
saepe tener nostris ab ouilibus imbuet agnus.
ille meas errare boues, ut cernis, et ipsum
ludere quae uellem calamo permisit agresti.
Non equidem inuideo, miror magis: undique totis
usque adeo turbatur agris. En ipse capellas
protinus aeger ago! hanc etiam uix, Tityre, duco:
48 hic inter densas corylos modo namque gemellos,
spem gregis, a! silice in nuda conixa reliquit.
Recitation: Alperen Karahan, Istanbul University
Translation: Brookes More

Vergil, Bucolics, I.1-39

You, Tityrus, ‘neath a broad beech-canopy
reclining, on the slender oat rehearse
your silvan ditties: I from my sweet fields,
and home’s familiar bounds, even now depart.
Exiled from home am I; while, Tityrus, you
sit careless in the shade, and, at your call,
“Fair Amaryllis” bid the woods resound.
O Meliboeus, ‘twas a god vouchsafed
this ease to us, for him a god will I
deem ever, and from my folds a tender lamb
oft with its life-blood shall his altar stain.
His gift it is that, as your eyes may see,
my kine may roam at large, and I myself
play on my shepherd’s pipe what songs I will.
I grudge you not the boon, but marvel more,
such wide confusion fills the country-side.
See, sick at heart I drive my she-goats on,
and this one, O my Tityrus, scarce can lead:
for ‘mid the hazel-thicket here but now
she dropped her new-yeaned twins on the bare flint,
hope of the flock—an ill, I mind me well,
which many a time, but for my blinded sense,
the thunder-stricken oak foretold, oft too 49
from hollow trunk the raven’s ominous cry.
saepe malum hoc nobis, si mens non laeua fuisset,
de caelo tactas memini praedicere quercus.
sed tamen iste deus qui sit, da, Tityre, nobis.
Urbem quam dicunt Romam, Meliboee, putaui
stultus ego huic nostrae similem, quo saepe solemus
pastores ouium teneros depellere fetus.
sic canibus catulos similes, sic matribus haedos
noram, sic paruis componere magna solebam.
uerum haec tantum alias inter caput extulit urbes
quantum lenta solent inter uiburna cupressi.
Et quae tanta fuit Romam tibi causa uidendi?
Libertas, quae sera tamen respexit inertem,
candidior postquam tondenti barba cadebat,
respexit tamen et longo post tempore uenit,
postquam nos Amaryllis habet, Galatea reliquit.
namque (fatebor enim) dum me Galatea tenebat,
nec spes libertatis erat nec cura peculi.
quamuis multa meis exiret uictima saeptis,
pinguis et ingratae premeretur caseus urbi,
non umquam grauis aere domum mihi dextra redibat.
Mirabar quid maesta deos, Amarylli, uocares,
cui pendere sua patereris in arbore poma:
Tityrus hinc aberat. ipsae te, Tityre, pinus,
ipsi te fontes, ipsa haec arbusta uocabant.

But who this god of yours? Come, Tityrus, tell.
The city, Meliboeus, they call Rome,
I, simpleton, deemed like this town of ours,
whereto we shepherds oft are wont to drive
the younglings of the flock: so too I knew
whelps to resemble dogs, and kids their dams,
comparing small with great; but this as far
above all other cities rears her head
as cypress above pliant osier towers.
And what so potent cause took you to Rome?
Freedom, which, though belated, cast at length
her eyes upon the sluggard, when my beard
‘gan whiter fall beneath the barber’s blade—
cast eyes, I say, and, though long tarrying, came,
now when, from Galatea’s yoke released,
I serve but Amaryllis: for I will own,
while Galatea reigned over me, I had
no hope of freedom, and no thought to save.
Though many a victim from my folds went forth,
or rich cheese pressed for the unthankful town,
never with laden hands returned I home.
I used to wonder, Amaryllis, why
you cried to heaven so sadly, and for whom
you left the apples hanging on the trees;
‘twas Tityrus was away. Why, Tityrus,
the very pines, the very water-springs,
the very vineyards, cried aloud for you. 51
P. Ovidii Nasonis, Metamorphoses, I.1-35
In nova fert animus mutatas dicere formas
corpora; di, coeptis (nam vos mutastis et illas)
adspirate meis primaque ab origine mundi
ad mea perpetuum deducite tempora carmen!
Ante mare et terras et quod tegit omnia caelum
unus erat toto naturae vultus in orbe,
quem dixere chaos: rudis indigestaque moles
nec quicquam nisi pondus iners congestaque eodem
non bene iunctarum discordia semina rerum.
nullus adhuc mundo praebebat lumina Titan,
nec nova crescendo reparabat cornua Phoebe,
nec circumfuso pendebat in aere tellus
ponderibus librata suis, nec bracchia longo
margine terrarum porrexerat Amphitrite;
utque erat et tellus illic et pontus et aer,
sic erat instabilis tellus, innabilis unda,
lucis egens aer; nulli sua forma manebat,
obstabatque aliis aliud, quia corpore in uno
frigida pugnabant calidis, umentia siccis,
mollia cum duris, sine pondere, habentia pondus.
Hanc deus et melior litem natura diremit.
52 nam caelo terras et terris abscidit undas
et liquidum spisso secrevit ab aere caelum.
Recitation: Serdar Miraç Kurtuldu, Istanbul University
Translation: Brookes More

Ovid, Metamorphoses, I.1-35

My soul is wrought to sing of forms transformed
to bodies new and strange! Immortal Gods
inspire my heart, for ye have changed yourselves
and all things you have changed! Oh lead my song
in smooth and measured strains, from olden days
when earth began to this completed time!
Before the ocean and the earth appeared—
before the skies had overspread them all—
the face of Nature in a vast expanse
was naught but Chaos uniformly waste.
It was a rude and undeveloped mass,
that nothing made except a ponderous weight;
and all discordant elements confused,
were there congested in a shapeless heap.
As yet the sun afforded earth no light,
nor did the moon renew her crescent horns;
the earth was not suspended in the air
exactly balanced by her heavy weight.
Not far along the margin of the shores
had Amphitrite stretched her lengthened arms,—
for all the land was mixed with sea and air.
The land was soft, the sea unfit to sail,
the atmosphere opaque, to naught was given 53
a proper form, in everything was strife,
quae postquam evolvit caecoque exemit acervo,
dissociata locis concordi pace ligavit:
ignea convexi vis et sine pondere caeli
emicuit summaque locum sibi fecit in arce;
proximus est aer illi levitate locoque;
densior his tellus elementaque grandia traxit
et pressa est gravitate sua; circumfluus umor
ultima possedit solidumque coercuit orbem.
Sic ubi dispositam quisquis fuit ille deorum
congeriem secuit sectamque in membra coegit,
principio terram, ne non aequalis ab omni
parte foret, magni speciem glomeravit in orbis.

and all was mingled in a seething mass—
with hot the cold parts strove, and wet with dry
and soft with hard, and weight with empty void.
But God, or kindly Nature, ended strife—
he cut the land from skies, the sea from land,
the heavens ethereal from material air;
and when were all evolved from that dark mass
he bound the fractious parts in tranquil peace.
The fiery element of convex heaven
leaped from the mass devoid of dragging weight,
and chose the summit arch to which the air
as next in quality was next in place.
The earth more dense attracted grosser parts
and moved by gravity sank underneath;
and last of all the wide surrounding waves
in deeper channels rolled around the globe.

L. Annaei Senecae,
Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales, LXIII. 1-4
Moleste fero decessisse Flaccum, amicum tuum, plus tamen aequo
dolere te nolo. Illud, ut non doleas, vix audebo exigere; et esse
melius scio. Sed cui ista firmitas animi continget nisi iam multum
supra fortunam elato? illum quoque ista res vellicabit, sed tantum
vellicabit. Nobis autem ignosci potest prolapsis ad lacrimas, si
non nimiae decucurrerunt, si ipsi illas repressimus. Nec sicci sint
oculi amisso amico nec fluant; lacrimandum est, non plorandum.
Duram tibi legem videor ponere, cum poetarum Graecorum
maximus ius flendi dederit in unum dumtaxat diem, cum
dixerit etiam Niobam de cibo cogitasse? Quaeris unde sint
lamentationes, unde immodici fletus? per lacrimas argumenta
desiderii quaerimus et dolorem non sequimur sed ostendimus;
nemo tristis sibi est. O infelicem stultitiam! est aliqua et doloris
‘Quid ergo?’ inquis ‘obliviscar amici?’ Brevem illi apud te memoriam
promittis, si cum dolore mansura est: iam istam frontem ad risum
quaelibet fortuita res transferet. Non differo in longius tempus
quo desiderium omne mulcetur, quo etiam acerrimi luctus
residunt: cum primum te observare desieris, imago ista tristitiae
discedet. Nunc ipse custodis dolorem tuum; sed custodienti
quoque elabitur, eoque citius quo est acrior desinit.
Id agamus ut iucunda nobis amissorum fiat recordatio. Nemo
libenter ad id redit quod non sine tormento cogitaturus est, sicut
illud fieri necesse est, ut cum aliquo nobis morsu amissorum quos
56 amavimus nomen occurrat; sed hic quoque morsus habet suam
Recitation: Sinem Tosun, Mimar Sinan University
Translation: Richard Mott Gummere

Seneca, Moral Letters to Lucilius, 63.1-4

Seneca to his friend Lucilius: Greetings.I am grieved to hear that your
friend Flaccus is dead, but I would not have you sorrow more than is fitting.
That you should not mourn at all I shall hardly dare to insist; and yet I know
that it is the better way. But what man will ever be so blessed with that ideal
steadfastness of soul, unless he has already risen far above the reach of For-
tune? Even such a man will be stung by an event like this, but it will be only
a sting. We, however, may be forgiven for bursting into tears, if only our tears
have not flowed to excess, and if we have checked them by our own efforts.
Let not the eyes be dry when we have lost a friend, nor let them overflow. We
may weep, but we must not wail. Do you think that the law which I lay down
for you is harsh, when the greatest of Greek poets has extended the privilege
of weeping to one day only, in the lines where he tells us that even Niobe
took thought of food? Do you wish to know the reason for lamentations and
excessive weeping? It is because we seek the proofs of our bereavement in
our tears, and do not give way to sorrow, but merely parade it. No man goes
into mourning for his own sake. Shame on our ill-timed folly! There is an
element of self-seeking even in our sorrow. “What,” you say, “am I to forget
my friend?” It is surely a short-lived memory that you vouchsafe to him, if
it is to endure only as long as your grief; presently that brow of yours will
be smoothed out in laughter by some circumstance, however casual. It is to
a time no more distant than this that I put off the soothing of every regret,
the quieting of even the bitterest grief. As soon as you cease to observe your-
self, the picture of sorrow which you have contemplated will fade away; at
present you are keeping watch over your own suffering. But even while you
keep watch it slips away from you, and the sharper it is, the more speedily
it comes to an end. Let us see to it that the recollection of those whom we
have lost becomes a pleasant memory to us. No man reverts with pleasure to
any subject which he will not be able to reflect upon without pain. So too it
cannot but be that the names of those whom we have loved and lost come 57
back to us with a sort of sting; but there is a pleasure even in this sting.
Σοφοκλέους, Ἀντιγόνη, 891-928
ὦ τύμβος, ὦ νυμφεῖον, ὦ κατασκαφὴς
οἴκησις ἀείφρουρος, οἷ πορεύομαι
πρὸς τοὺς ἐμαυτῆς, ὧν ἀριθμὸν ἐν νεκροῖς
πλεῖστον δέδεκται Φερσέφασσ᾽ ὀλωλότων·
ὧν λοισθία ’γὼ καὶ κάκιστα δὴ μακρῷ
κάτειμι, πρίν μοι μοῖραν ἐξήκειν βίου.
ἐλθοῦσα μέντοι κάρτ᾽ ἐν ἐλπίσιν τρέφω
φίλη μὲν ἥξειν πατρί, προσφιλὴς δὲ σοί,
μῆτερ, φίλη δὲ σοί, κασίγνητον κάρα·
ἐπεὶ θανόντας αὐτόχειρ ὑμᾶς ἐγὼ
ἔλουσα κἀκόσμησα κἀπιτυμβίους
χοὰς ἔδωκα. νῦν δέ Πολύνεικες, τὸ σὸν
δέμας περιστέλλουσα τοιάδ᾽ ἄρνυμαι.
καίτοι σ᾽ ἐγὼ ’τίμησα τοῖς φρονοῦσιν εὖ.
οὐ γάρ ποτ᾽ οὔτ᾽ ἄν, εἰ τέκνων μήτηρ ἔφυν,
οὔτ᾽ εἰ πόσις μοι κατθανὼν ἐτήκετο,
βίᾳ πολιτῶν τόνδ᾽ ἂν ᾐρόμην πόνον.
τίνος νόμου δὴ ταῦτα πρὸς χάριν λέγω;
πόσις μὲν ἄν μοι κατθανόντος ἄλλος ἦν,
Recitation: İpek Tuncel, Koç University
Translation: Sir Richard Jebb

Sophocles, Antigone, 891-928

Tomb, bridal-chamber, deep-dug eternal prison where I go to find
my own, whom in the greatest numbers destruction has seized and
Persephone has welcomed among the dead! Last of them all and in
by far the most shameful circumstances, I will descend, even before
the fated term of my life is spent. But I cherish strong hopes that I
will arrive welcome to my father, and pleasant to you, Mother, and
welcome, dear brother, to you. For, when each of you died, with my
own hands I washed and dressed you and poured drink-offerings at
your graves. But now, Polyneices, it is for tending your corpse that I
win such reward as this. [And yet I honored you rightly, as the wise un-
derstand. Never, if I had been a mother of children, or if a husband
had been rotting after death, would I have taken that burden upon
myself in violation of the citizens’ will. For the sake of what law, you
ask, do I say that? A husband lost, another might have been found,
and if bereft of a child, there could be a second from some other
man. But when father and mother are hidden in Hades, no brother
could ever bloom for me again. Such was the law whereby I held you
first in honor, but for that Creon judged me guilty of wrongdoing and 59
of dreadful outrage, dear brother! And now he leads me thus in his
καὶ παῖς ἀπ᾽ ἄλλου φωτός, εἰ τοῦδ᾽ ἤμπλακον,
μητρὸς δ᾽ ἐν Ἅιδου καὶ πατρὸς κεκευθότοιν
οὐκ ἔστ᾽ ἀδελφὸς ὅστις ἂν βλάστοι ποτέ.
τοιῷδε μέντοι σ᾽ ἐκπροτιμήσασ᾽ ἐγὼ
νόμῳ Κρέοντι ταῦτ᾽ ἔδοξ᾽ ἁμαρτάνειν
καὶ δεινὰ τολμᾶν, ὦ κασίγνητον κάρα.
καὶ νῦν ἄγει με διὰ χερῶν οὕτω λαβὼν
ἄλεκτρον, ἀνυμέναιον, οὔτε του γάμου
μέρος λαχοῦσαν οὔτε παιδείου τροφῆς,
ἀλλ᾽ ὧδ᾽ ἔρημος πρὸς φίλων ἡ δύσμορος
ζῶσ᾽ εἰς θανόντων ἔρχομαι κατασκαφάς.
ποίαν παρεξελθοῦσα δαιμόνων δίκην;
τί χρή με τὴν δύστηνον ἐς θεοὺς ἔτι
βλέπειν; τίν᾽ αὐδᾶν ξυμμάχων; ἐπεί γε δὴ
τὴν δυσσέβειαν εὐσεβοῦσ᾽, ἐκτησάμην.
ἀλλ᾽ εἰ μὲν οὖν τάδ᾽ ἐστὶν ἐν θεοῖς καλά,
παθόντες ἂν ξυγγνοῖμεν ἡμαρτηκότες·
εἰ δ᾽ οἵδ᾽ ἁμαρτάνουσι, μὴ πλείω κακὰ
πάθοιεν ἢ καὶ δρῶσιν ἐκδίκως ἐμέ.

hands’ strong grasp, when I have enjoyed no marriage bed or bridal
song and have not received any portion of marriage or the nurture of
children. But deserted by friends, in misery I go living to the hollow
graves of the dead.] What law of the gods have I transgressed? Why
should I look to the gods anymore? What ally should I call out to,
when by my reverence I have earned a name for irreverence? Well,
then, if these events please the gods, once I have suffered my doom
I will come to know my guilt. But if the guilt lies with my judges, I
could wish for them no greater evils than they inflict unjustly on me.