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The European Union’s ENPI Programme for Georgia

Project Contract No.: 304 521


EU-Georgia E-Governance Facility

Methodology and Parameters


for Datum Transformation between
the New and Old Reference Systems

Project managed by the Delegation of the European Union to Georgia

Project Partner: Ministry of Justice, Georgia

This project is funded by A project implemented by Consortium led


the European Union by Diadikasia Business Consultants S.A.
Methodology and Parameters for Datum Transformation between the New and Old Reference Systems
November 14 / 2013, Tbilisi, Georgia

Contents
Abbreviations ............................................................................................................. 4
Executive Summary ................................................................................................... 5
Introduction ................................................................................................................ 5
Transformation Parameters .................................................................................... 5
Transformation Models ........................................................................................... 5
Bursa-Wolf Model ................................................................................................ 6
Molodensky-Badekas Model ................................................................................ 6
Accuracy Assessment ............................................................................................. 6
Transformation Data Sets .......................................................................................... 7
Pulkovo 1942 Coordinates ...................................................................................... 8
WGS84 Coordinates ............................................................................................... 8
ITRF2008/IGS08 Coordinates................................................................................. 8
Transformation Parameters between GGD and WGS84.......................................... 13
Application ............................................................................................................ 15
Transformation Parameters between GGD and Pulkovo 1942 ................................ 15
Application ............................................................................................................ 18
Improvement of Transformation Parameters......................................................... 18
Accuracy Testing .................................................................................................. 18
Local Transformations .......................................................................................... 20
Transformation Approach ......................................................................................... 20
Conversion of Pulkovo 1942 Gauss-Krüger to GGD Lambert Coordinates .......... 20
Conversion of WGS84 UTM to GGD Lambert Coordinates .................................. 20
Transformation Software .......................................................................................... 20
References ............................................................................................................... 23

Figures
Figure 1. 3D Bursa-Wolf model. ................................................................................ 6
Figure 2. 3D Molodensky-Badekas model................................................................. 6
Figure 3. GPS data processing.. ............................................................................... 9
Figure 4. Transformation points between GGD and WGS84. ................................. 14
Figure 5. Transformation points between GGD and Pulkovo 1942. ........................ 15
Figure 6. Recommended location of transformation points. .................................... 19
Figure 7. Conversion of Pulkovo 1942 to GGD grid coordinates. ............................ 21
Figure 8. Conversion of UTM to GGD grid coordinates. .......................................... 22

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Methodology and Parameters for Datum Transformation between the New and Old Reference Systems
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Tables
Table 1. Observation data for computation of the ITRF2008/IGS08 positions.......................... 8
Table 2. Measured coordinates in GGD. ...................................................................................10
Table 3. Transformation coordinates in GGD. ...........................................................................10
Table 4. Catalogue coordinates in Pulkovo 1942......................................................................11
Table 5. Transformation coordinates in Pulkovo 1942..............................................................11
Table 6. Coordinates in WGS84 datum. ....................................................................................12
Table 7. Parameters of Molodensky-Badekas transformation between GGD and WGS84. 13
Table 8. Parameters of Bursa-Wolf transformation between GGD and WGS84. ..................14
Table 9. Transformation residuals from GGD to WGS84.........................................................15
Table 10. Parameters of Molodensky-Badekas transformation between GGD and Pulkovo 1942. .16
Table 11. Parameters of Bursa-Wolf transformation between GGD and Pulkovo 1942........17
Table 12. Transformation residuals from GGD to Pulkovo 1942. ............................................17

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Methodology and Parameters for Datum Transformation between the New and Old Reference Systems
November 14 / 2013, Tbilisi, Georgia

Abbreviations
2D Two Dimensional
3D Three Dimensional
GGD Georgia Geodetic Datum
IGS International GNSS Service
ITRF International Terrestrial Reference Frame
ITRS International Terrestrial Reference System
RTK Real Time Kinematic
RMS Root Mean Square
UTM Universal Transverse Mercator
WGS84 World Geodetic System 1984

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Methodology and Parameters for Datum Transformation between the New and Old Reference Systems
November 14 / 2013, Tbilisi, Georgia

Executive Summary
Purpose. The purpose of this report is to present methodology and make
recommendations for computation of transformation parameters between the old and
new reference systems.
Overview. Parameters and methodology for transformation from Pulkovo and
WGS84 datums to the new Georgia Geodetic Datum (GGD) are developed.
Instructions for data conversion and recommendations for relevant software are
made.

Introduction
To address the changing requirements for positional accuracy State government
agencies responsible for maintaining the geodetic datum and reference frame
continually assess their suitability and when necessary renovate and redefine
outdated components. That was done in Georgia with the definition and realization
of the new Georgia Geodetic Datum (GGD) which is based and aligned with the
International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS). The relationship between the
new datum and the ITRS is realized through the ITRF2008/IGS08 coordinates for 12
zero-order CORS stations.
In datum redefinition process, the need of many users to work in various datums and
reference frames should be recognized. These users should be provided with
transformation tools between historic and current datums and reference frames.
Transformation Parameters
Transformation parameters are usually computed via common (or identical) points
with known coordinates in both systems. These common points are then used to
determine a transformation model for the other points in the survey network and the
many derived spatial data sets that depend on the local datum but are not directly
connected to the survey network.
The known coordinates are obtained from a large number of observations that are
adjusted together using a lot of assumptions. The observations in the old system are
usually of lower quality and the assumptions are only approximately correct. The
coordinates in the new system are also subject to error. Therefore only approximate
models can ever exist to transform (convert) coordinates from one coordinate system
to another. If the accuracy requirements are low then transforming is simple and
easy. If the accuracy requirements are higher, a more involved transformation
process will be required.
The chosen common points should be a good sample of the true relationship
between the datums. These sites should be chosen to represent the characteristics
of the network, so where the survey network is consistent only a few would be
required, but where it is inconsistent, many more would be required.
Transformation Models
Various 2D and 3D transformation models are available. More advantages are
offered by the 3D models.

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Methodology and Parameters for Datum Transformation between the New and Old Reference Systems
November 14 / 2013, Tbilisi, Georgia

Figure 1. 3D Bursa-Wolf model. Figure 2. 3D Molodensky-Badekas model.

Bursa-Wolf Model
The Bursa-Wolf model (Figure 1) assumes a similarity relationship between the
datums. The identical points are used in a least squares process to solve for 7
parameters which represent the relationship between the two datums:
• origin shifts at the Earth's center of mass (ΔX, ΔY and ΔZ);
• rotations about each of the axes (a, b, q) at the origin of the Cartesian
coordinate system of the destination system;
• scale change between the two systems (s).

Molodensky-Badekas Model
The Molodensky-Badekas model (Figure 2) is based on the same definition of
translation and scale parameters, but assumes the rotation origin is the barycenter of
the common points of the destination system which adds 3 additional parameters.
The advantages of the Bursa-Wolf and Molodensky-Badekas models are that they
maintain the accuracy of the original measurements and may be used over virtually
any area as long as the local coordinates are accurate.

Accuracy Assessment
The degree of error in a geodetic transformation depends on the patterns of errors
present in the transformed terrestrial reference frames. Those patterns are
characteristic of the methods used to establish the terrestrial reference frames, and
also on how carefully the transformation has been designed to take account of those
errors. For example, terrestrial reference frames established by triangulation
generally contain significant errors in the overall size of the network and often, this

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Methodology and Parameters for Datum Transformation between the New and Old Reference Systems
November 14 / 2013, Tbilisi, Georgia

scale error varies in different parts of the network. Therefore, a real transformation is
likely to represent not only the difference between geodetic datums, but also the
difference between the terrestrial reference frames that realize those datums due to
errors in the original observations.
The achievable accuracy of the datum transformation with common points is
determined by the number, distribution and accuracy of these common points and
the transformation technique adopted. It is necessary to obtain far more than the
minimum number of common points. The redundant points will give an idea of the
consistency of the survey network and the derived transformation parameters. A
number of the redundant common points ("check points") should be reserved from
the initial transformation modeling and later should be used as an independent check
of the quality of the transformation process, by comparing actual and transformed
positions. If the difference between the actual and transformed positions (residuals)
is not acceptable, then:
• the derivation of the transformation process should be repeated using a
different selection of common points, or
• more common points should be obtained, or
• a different transformation method should be used, or
• If the residuals show variable pattern in different regions then the transformed
network should be subdivided into homogeneous regions and regional
transformation models should be developed.
The RMS error is most often used as overall indicator for the suitability of the
transformation method. That error may not be an ideal criterion because a
transformation model with a large number of parameters will normally yield a smaller
RMS error. Due to the high correlation between parameters, such models are highly
sensitive to outliers and may incorrectly distort, stretch, or alter the system. High
correlations are related to near singularity in matrix inversion, or to “ill-conditioned”
problem in least squares adjustments. When an adjustment is ill conditioned, small
changes in the data set can produce very different results.
There may be a high correlation between the parameters of the Bursa-Wolf
transformation when applied to areas which are not large enough. The reason is
that the rotations and scale in that transformation are applied at the geocenter. Most
correlations can be reduced if we use instead Molodensky-Badekas where the
rotations and scale are applied at the barycenter (centroid) of the common points.
A decision for selection of any particular transformation model should be taken on
the basis of comparative analysis of the results with different models or set of
parameters. The chosen model should produce minimal transformation errors and
low correlations between the parameters.

Transformation Data Sets


Three sets of coordinates have been provided for computation of transformation
parameters.

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Methodology and Parameters for Datum Transformation between the New and Old Reference Systems
November 14 / 2013, Tbilisi, Georgia

Pulkovo 1942 Coordinates


The Pulkovo 1942 coordinates (Table 1) were obtained from different volumes of the
Catalogue of Coordinates of Geodetic Stations (see References K1-K4). The
relative horizontal positional accuracy is estimated to be 0.2 m.

WGS84 Coordinates
The WGS84 coordinates were computed at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology in the frame of a geodynamic project for studying plate kinematics and
dynamics in the eastern Mediterranean and Caucasus [Прилепин et al., 1997]. The
coordinates are taken from an additional table to the cited paper.
The accepted name of the datum “WGS84” is misleading because the reference
frame in the MIT solutions for the eastern Mediterranean and Caucasus was defined
by estimation of transformation parameters to a set of IGS core stations in the ITRF.
By that reason the datum is rather ITRF93 than WGS84.
The geocentric accuracy of the WGS84 coordinates is estimated at 3-5 mm.
The coordinates for station INGU were received from the Head of the Topo-Geodetic
Administration at the Department of Geodesy and Cartography of Georgia.

ITRF2008/IGS08 Coordinates
The coordinates of stations ARMU, CHAC, FUND, ILMA, KIZI, NORI were computed
through static baseline processing from the closest stations of the CORS network.
Used observation data are summarized in Table 1. The coordinates of the new
stations were obtained from a constrained least squares adjustment in which the
coordinates of the CORS stations were fixed to their ITRF2008/IGS08 values.
The coordinates for stations GLDA, KODA are obtained by RTK measurements.

1
Table 1. Observation data for computation of the ITRF2008/IGS08 positions.

Station Start Date and Time End Date and Time Duration

CHAC 03/30/2012 09:51:50 03/30/2012 14:04:59 4h 13m 09s


FUND 06/05/2012 17:05:35 06/05/2012 21:17:45 4h 12m 10s

ILMA 10/17/2013 11:56:24 10/17/2013 15:56:52 4h 00m 28s

NORI 10/24/2013 11:08:54 10/24/2013 15:11:59 4h 03m 05s


KIZI 10/29/2013 12:27:16 10/29/2013 16:27:47 4h 00m 31s

ARMU 10/31/2013 08:02:24 10/31/2013 12:05:21 4h 02m 57s


CORS Station Start Date and Time End Date and Time Duration

ALGT 03/30/2012 01:59:45 03/31/2012 01:59:15 23h 59m 30s

DEDO 03/30/2012 01:59:45 03/31/2012 01:59:15 23h 59m 30s

1
Hereafter “GGD”.

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Methodology and Parameters for Datum Transformation between the New and Old Reference Systems
November 14 / 2013, Tbilisi, Georgia

IORM 03/30/2012 01:59:45 03/31/2012 01:59:15 23h 59m 30s

TELV 03/30/2012 01:59:45 03/31/2012 01:59:15 23h 59m 30s

AKHA 06/05/2012 01:59:45 06/06/2012 01:59:15 23h 59m 30s

BATU 06/05/2012 01:59:45 06/06/2012 01:59:15 23h 59m 30s

GUDA 06/05/2012 01:59:45 06/06/2012 01:59:15 23h 59m 30s

TELV 10/17/2013 06:59:44 10/18/2013 00:59:14 17h 59m 30s

ALGT 10/17/2013 09:54:44 10/17/2013 18:24:14 8h 29m 30s

IORM 10/17/2013 09:54:44 10/17/2013 18:24:14 8h 29m 30s

TBIL 10/17/2013 09:54:44 10/17/2013 18:24:14 8h 29m 30s

KASP 10/24/2013 08:59:44 10/24/2013 16:59:14 7h 59m 30s

TBIL 10/24/2013 08:59:44 10/24/2013 16:59:14 7h 59m 30s

TELV 10/24/2013 08:59:44 10/24/2013 16:59:14 7h 59m 30s

TIAN 10/24/2013 08:59:44 10/24/2013 16:59:14 7h 59m 30s

AKHA 10/29/2013 07:59:44 10/29/2013 17:59:14 9h 59m 30s


KASP 10/29/2013 07:59:44 10/29/2013 17:59:14 9h 59m 30s

KAZR 10/29/2013 07:59:44 10/29/2013 17:59:14 9h 59m 30s

KAZR 10/31/2013 03:59:44 10/31/2013 13:59:14 9h 59m 30s


KASP 10/31/2013 03:59:44 10/31/2013 13:59:14 9h 59m 30s

AKHA 10/31/2013 03:59:44 10/31/2013 13:59:14 9h 59m 30s

ALGT 10/31/2013 03:59:44 10/31/2013 13:59:14 9h 59m 30s

Figure 3. GPS data processing..

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Methodology and Parameters for Datum Transformation between the New and Old Reference Systems
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Table 2. Measured coordinates in GGD.

Measured Coordinates Map Sheet


Station Name Class Year Source
X [m] Y [m] Z [m] 1:200 000

ARMU 3446418.4640 3339983.5498 4189323.0807 К-38-XXVII Армудлу 2 1959 [K6, 1084]


CHAC 3338791.9192 3453933.8266 4182047.5730 К-38-XXVII Чачуна 3 1978 [K7, 1982]
FUND 3490673.3338 3238264.9206 4232981.2575 К-38-XIX Фундук IV 1953 [K2, 1987]
GLDA 3377509.2890 3358357.8188 4228622.6271 К-38-XXI 347 3 1997 [O1, 1997]
ILMA 3385818.9286 3387473.2953 4198495.7483 К-38-XXII Илмазло 2 1959 [K5, 1984]
INGU 3484481.0943 3144325.1033 4305103.1740 К-38-VII Лекарде 4 1971 [K1, 1982]
KIZI 3443543.6706 3306899.5357 4217821.9946 К-38-XX Кизилкилиса 2 1958 [K3, 1987]
KODA 3391128.8952 3365339.2510 4212360.1736 К-38-XXI Кода 3 1959 [K4, 1988]
NORI 3372134.2888 3362261.8507 4230593.2821 К-38-XXI I-7098 3 1997 [O1, 1997]

Table 3. Transformation coordinates in GGD.

Transformation Coordinates Geodetic Coordinates UTM Zone 38 Coordinates


Station
X [m] Y [m] Z [m] Latitude Longitude Ell Height Northing [m] Easting [m]
ARMU 3445516.3359 3339109.2819 4188219.1028 41°18'30.57397"N 44°06'05.29962"E 1672.4076 4573392.9358 424785.4614
CHAC 3338630.2566 3453766.5889 4181843.7161 41°13'55.61716"N 45°58'16.01174"E 309.2911 4564979.2640 581385.5317
FUND 3489415.6435 3237098.1730 4231445.8386 41°49'43.34214"N 42°51'06.45090"E 2302.3024 4632988.7881 321609.4846
GLDA 3377208.6545 3358058.8889 4228243.6979 41°47'24.09779"N 44°50'13.54786"E 568.6190 4626476.4320 486464.4670
ILMA 3385641.3672 3387295.6472 4198274.0842 41°25'44.87237"N 45°00'50.37988"E 334.9953 4586396.5723 501169.2847
INGU 3484200.1998 3144071.6294 4304753.7877 42°43'14.32363"N 42°03'44.83447"E 514.9967 4733978.6827 259475.0859
KIZI 3442579.2331 3305973.3683 4216632.7450 41°38'59.89293"N 43°50'25.30709"E 1789.4805 4611563.4847 403436.3295
KODA 3390788.3632 3365001.3088 4211934.3244 41°35'36.17227"N 44°46'52.68479"E 641.4940 4604654.5000 481773.0430
NORI 3371555.6946 3361684.9504 4229862.5015 41°48'34.48070"N 44°54'57.62173"E 1096.1868 4628637.6461 493023.1189

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Methodology and Parameters for Datum Transformation between the New and Old Reference Systems
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Table 4. Catalogue coordinates in Pulkovo 1942.

Pulkovo 1942 Zone 8 Coordinates Map Sheet


Station Map Sheet Class Year Source
Northing [m] Northing [m] 1:200 000
ARMU 4575309.060 8424856.090 К-38-XXVII К-38-XXVII Армудлу 2 1959
CHAC 4566892.470 8581519.310 К-38-XXVII К-38-XXVII Чачуна 3 1978
FUND 4634928.800 8321638.200 К-38-XIX К-38-XIX Фундук IV 1953
GLDA 4628414.090 8486559.660 К-38-XXI К-38-XXI 347 3 1997
ILMA 4588318.040 8501270.470 К-38-XXII К-38-XXII Илмазло 2 1959
INGU 4735959.680 8259478.370 К-38-VII К-38-VII Лекарде 4 1971
KIZI 4613494.950 8403498.390 К-38-XX К-38-XX Кизилкилиса 2 1958
KODA 4606583.240 8481866.370 К-38-XXI К-38-XXI Кода 3 1959
NORI 4630676.050 8493121.150 К-38-XXI К-38-XXI I-7098 3 1997

Table 5. Transformation coordinates in Pulkovo 1942.

Transformation Coordinates Geodetic Coordinates


Station
X [m] Y [m] Z [m] Latitude Longitude
ARMU 3445500.0727 3339235.4474 4188297.8676 41°18'30.77603"N 44°06'09.68096"E
CHAC 3338612.1316 3453891.5748 4181921.1900 41°13'55.76809"N 45°58'20.30128"E
FUND 3489400.6882 3237224.6679 4231525.7074 41°49'43.56137"N 42°51'10.91035"E
GLDA 3377191.7843 3358184.3013 4228322.0087 41°47'24.25156"N 44°50'17.91455"E
ILMA 3385624.3854 3387421.1013 4198352.1471 41°25'45.03695"N 45°00'54.71678"E
INGU 3484185.8789 3144197.8636 4304834.7429 42°43'14.53811"N 42°03'49.37507"E
KIZI 3442563.1242 3306099.6398 4216711.7723 41°39'00.08615"N 43°50'29.72512"E
KODA 3390771.6206 3365126.8642 4212012.5558 41°35'36.33434"N 44°46'57.04192"E
NORI 3371538.6740 3361810.5148 4229940.6537 41°48'34.62641"N 44°55'01.99444"E

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Methodology and Parameters for Datum Transformation between the New and Old Reference Systems
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Table 6. Coordinates in WGS84 datum.

Cartesian Coordinates Geodetic Coordinates UTM Zone 38 Coordinates


Station
X [m] Y [m] Z [m] Latitude Longitude Ell Height Northing [m] Easting [m]

INGU 2 3484481.4163 3144324.9149 4305102.9848 42°43'14.31665"N 42°03'44.81885"E 514.9511 4733978.4796 259474.7229


khur 3419280.2574 3231380.5860 4293881.1802 42°34'41.80616"N 43°22'53.99520"E 1122.3982 4715254.3813 367192.1640
kudi 3312527.8978 3405762.7931 4241833.9146 41°57'02.30051"N 45°47'42.31187"E 457.8522 4644601.4215 565898.2766
nich 3393716.0853 3337967.4767 4232160.8065 41°49'50.36929"N 44°31'31.85181"E 829.7982 4631083.4755 460600.1661
sach 3430573.2323 3244133.8610 4274829.0300 42°20'55.18842"N 43°24'00.06421"E 777.0156 4689728.7839 368217.4751
shua 3539915.6401 3202260.0118 4216732.9870 41°38'51.80565"N 42°07'58.65321"E 431.3932 4614636.1543 261241.6069

2
See the map sheet 1:200 000 number in Table 4.

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Methodology and Parameters for Datum Transformation between the New and Old Reference Systems
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Transformation Parameters between GGD and


WGS84
Transformation parameters between GGD and WGS84 using Molodensky-Badekas
model were first computed model by the Geodesy and Cartography Division in 2011.
That computation is repeated here to check the transformation accuracy.
Additionally an equivalent Bursa-Wolf transformation is computed to provide users
with alternative parameters if the Molodensky-Badekas model is not supported by
the application software.

Table 7. Parameters of Molodensky-Badekas transformation between GGD and WGS84.

Molodensky-Badeks:

 XR   1 -q b   X S − X P   X P  ΔX 
Y  = (1 + s)  q 1 -a   YS − YP  +  YP  +  ΔY 
 R       
 Z R  -b a 1   Z S − Z P   Z P   ΔZ 
where:
n n n
X P = ∑ X Si ,YP = ∑YSi , Z P = ∑ Z Si .
i=1 i=1 i=1

From GGD to WGS84 From WGS84 to GGD

ΔX [m] 0.3452 ±0.0152 -0.3452 ±0.0152

ΔY [m] -0.1805 ±0.0152 0.1805 0±.0152

ΔZ [m] -0.2060 ±0.0152 0.2060 ±0.0152

a [" ] 0.05465 ±0.05465 -0.05465 ±0.06158

b [" ] -0.06718 ±0.06362 0.06718 ±0.06362

q [" ] 0.06143 ±0.02982 -0.06143 ±0.02982

s [ ppm ] 0.0181 ±0.1393 -0.0181 ±0.1393

X P [m] 3419202.2774 3419202.6226

YP [m] 3284301.1262 3284300.9457

Z P [m] 4251887.7897 4251887.5837

Points 5 5

Post Fit [m] 0.0340 0.0340

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Methodology and Parameters for Datum Transformation between the New and Old Reference Systems
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Table 8. Parameters of Bursa-Wolf transformation between GGD and WGS84.

Bursa-Wolf:

 XR   1 -q b   X S  ΔX 
 Y = (1 + s)  q 1 -a   Y  +  ΔY  .
 R   S   
 Z R  -b a 1   Z S   ΔZ 

From GGD to WGS84 From WGS84 to GGD

ΔX [m] -2.0796 ±1.4858 2.0796 ±1.4858

ΔY [m] -0.3484 ±1.4431 0.3484 ±1.4431

ΔZ [m] 1.7009 ±2.0078 -1.7009 ±2.0078

a [" ] 0.05465 ±0.06158 -0.05465 ±0.06158

b [" ] -0.06718 ±0.06362 0.06718 ±0.06362

q [" ] 0.06143 ±0.02982 -0.06143 ±0.02982

s [ ppm ] 0.0181 ±0.1393 -0.0181 ±0.1393

Points 5 5

Post Fit [m] 0.0340 0.0340

Figure 4. Transformation points between GGD and WGS84.

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Methodology and Parameters for Datum Transformation between the New and Old Reference Systems
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Table 9. Transformation residuals from GGD to WGS84.

Station ΔX [m] ΔY [m] ΔZ [m] ΔN [m] ΔE [m]


khur 0.0395 0.0122 -0.0294 -0.0468 -0.0183
kudi 0.0002 -0.0005 -0.0341 -0.0252 -0.0005
nich -0.0062 0.0041 0.0548 0.0419 0.0073
sach -0.0389 -0.0062 0.0236 0.0393 0.0223
shua 0.0054 -0.0097 -0.0150 -0.0095 -0.0108

Application
The computed transformation parameters can be applied countrywide.

Transformation Parameters between GGD and


Pulkovo 1942
The transformation between GGD and Pulkovo 1942 is performed on the ellipsoid
using both Molodensky-Badekas and Bursa-Wolf models. That was done to account
for the existence in the past of two separate classical datums in Georgia: a horizontal
datum (Pulkovo 1942) which forms the basis for the computations of horizontal
control surveys, and a vertical datum (Baltic Height System 1977) to which
elevations are referred. That is, a survey monument that provided accurate
horizontal coordinates was not normally connected to the vertical network, nor were
vertical points related to the horizontal reference network. The Baltic heights of the
horizontal monuments are often determined by trigonometric leveling to a sub-meter
accuracy. That may introduce large post transformation residuals. To avoid that
problem the ellipsoidal heights of the identical points in both GGD and Pulkovo 1942
are set to zero. The computed Molodensky-Badekas and Bursa-Wolf
transformations are equivalent and can be used alternatively.

Figure 5. Transformation points between GGD and Pulkovo 1942.

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Methodology and Parameters for Datum Transformation between the New and Old Reference Systems
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Table 10. Parameters of Molodensky-Badekas transformation between GGD and Pulkovo 1942.

Molodensky-Badeks:

 XR   1 -q b   X S − X P   X P  ΔX 
Y  = (1 + s)  q 1 -a   YS − YP  +  YP  +  ΔY 
 R       
 Z R  -b a 1   Z S − Z P   Z P   ΔZ 

where:
n n n
X P = ∑ X Si ,YP = ∑YSi , Z P = ∑ Z Si .
i=1 i=1 i=1

From GGD to Pulkovo 1942 From Pulkovo 1942 to GGD

ΔX [m] -16.3765 ±0.0449 16.3765 ±0.0449

ΔY [m] 125.7931 ±0.0449 -125.7931 ±0.0449

ΔZ [m] 78.7608 ±0.0449 -78.7608 ±0.0449

a [" ] 1.30639 ±0.17501 -1.30637 ±0.17500

b [" ] 1.43939 ±0.29061 -1.43940 ±0.29059

q [" ] -2.64801 ±0.12960 2.64803 ±0.12959

s [ ppm ] 4.2753 ±0.4293 -4.2754 ±0.4292

X P [m] 3413948.4165 3413932.0400

YP [m] 3328006.6485 3328132.4417

Z P [m] 4221245.5331 4221324.2939

Points 9 9

Post Fit [m] 0.1347 0.1347

16
Methodology and Parameters for Datum Transformation between the New and Old Reference Systems
November 14 / 2013, Tbilisi, Georgia

Table 11. Parameters of Bursa-Wolf transformation between GGD and Pulkovo 1942.

Bursa-Wolf:

 XR   1 -q b   X S  ΔX 
 Y = (1 + s)  q 1 -a   Y  +  ΔY  .
 R   S   
 Z R  -b a 1   Z S   ΔZ 

From GGD to Pulkovo 1942 From Pulkovo 1942 to GGD

ΔX [m] 41.2107 ±7.6797 -41.2116 ±7.6793

ΔY [m] 41.0016 ±3.1915 -40.9999 ±3.1912

ΔZ [m] 57.9681 ±7.5187 -57.9676 ±7.5182

a [" ] 1.30639 ±0.17501 -1.30637 ±0.17500

b [" ] 1.43939 ±0.29061 -1.43940 ±0.29059

q [" ] -2.64801 ±0.12960 2.64803 ±0.12959

s [ ppm ] 4.2753 ±0.4293 -4.2754 ±0.4292

Points 9 9

Post Fit [m] 0.1347 0.1347

Table 12. Transformation residuals from GGD to Pulkovo 1942.

Station ΔX [m] ΔY [m] ΔZ [m] ΔN [m] ΔE [m]


ARMU 0.1097 -0.1288 0.0047 0.0125 -0.1687
CHAC 0.0869 0.1283 -0.2037 -0.2535 0.0295
FUND -0.0027 -0.0571 0.0381 0.0566 -0.0386
GLDA -0.0980 0.0820 0.0332 0.0323 0.1273
ILMA -0.1166 0.0837 0.0267 0.0354 0.1416
INGU 0.0234 0.2034 -0.1822 -0.2428 0.1271
KIZI 0.1699 -0.2342 0.0531 0.0699 -0.2857
KODA -0.1429 0.0396 0.0937 0.1185 0.1291
NORI -0.0297 -0.1170 0.1363 0.1708 -0.0617

17
Methodology and Parameters for Datum Transformation between the New and Old Reference Systems
November 14 / 2013, Tbilisi, Georgia

Application
The computed transformation parameters can be applied countrywide.
The transformations should be applied to Cartesian coordinates ( X ,Y , Z ) computed
from geodetic coordinates ( φ, λ ) and ellipsoidal height is set to zero ( h = 0 ). When
necessary, heights should be set to their real values after the transformation.

Improvement of Transformation Parameters


The degree of error in a geodetic transformation depends on the patterns of errors
present in the transformed terrestrial reference frames. As most terrestrial reference
frames established by triangulation, Pulkovo 1942 in Georgia contains significant
errors in the overall size of the network and this scale error varies in different parts of
the network. Therefore, a real transformation is likely to represent not only the
difference between geodetic datums, but also the difference between the terrestrial
reference frames that realize those datums due to errors in the original observations.
Computed transformation is based on identical points in southern Georgia and might
not valid for the rest of the territory. To compute better transformation parameters
more historical triangulation points should be measured with GPS. To achieve good
results, the points should be equally distributed at a density at least 1 point per 25-50
km2. The recommended location of the points is shown on Figure 6.

Accuracy Testing
The transformation accuracy for any specific project should be tested by comparing
actual and transformed positions of check points (see above). The actual positions
should come from an independent source of higher accuracy e.g. GNSS
measurements. The aerial extent of the check points should approximate that of the
transformed dataset. The test should involve only horizontal accuracy.
Once the coordinate values have been determined, the residual-distance for each
check point should be computed using the formula:
ΔR = ΔE + ΔN ,
where ΔE and ΔN are the residuals (actual minus transformed) in easting and
northing.
Then three values should be computed: (1) the sum of squared residual-distances,
(2) the average of the sum by dividing the sum by the number of check points, and
(3) the root mean square (RMS) error which is the square root of the average.
The transformation is accepted if the root mean square error is less than 0.1 meters
for WGS84 data and 0.5 m for Pulkovo 1942 data. These threshold values are
based on the estimated transformation post-fit (Table 11 and Table 14). The data
used for calculation of the root mean square error should be clean of outliers.
It the accuracy test is not passed the transformation model should be refined using
transformation points within the region.

18
Methodology and Parameters for Datum Transformation between the New and Old Reference Systems
November 14 / 2013, Tbilisi, Georgia

Figure 6. Recommended location of transformation points.

19
Technical Specifications for Establishment of a New Geodetic Reference System,
November 14 / 2013, Tbilisi, Georgia

Local Transformations
If a large number of common points are available in a small area and a more
accurate approximation between GGD and Pulkovo 1942 is required, affine
transformation can be applied. The affine model relates two 2D Cartesian
coordinate systems through a rotation, a scale change in easting and northing
direction, followed by translation. That method can compromise the accuracy of the
GNSS coordinates because it squeezes or stretches them to fit the Pulkovo 1942
grid. The affine transformation should not be applied for regions larger than 15x15
km.

Transformation Approach
The conversion of coordinates from one map projection to another when the source
projection is based upon a different horizontal datum than the target projection
should be combined with a datum transformation.

Conversion of Pulkovo 1942 Gauss-Krüger to GGD Lambert Coordinates


The conversion should include Molodensky-Badekas (or Bursha-Wolf) datum
transformation and re-projection of the 3D coordinates according to the flowchart in
Figure 7.

Conversion of WGS84 UTM to GGD Lambert Coordinates


The conversion should include Molodensky-Badekas (or Bursha-Wolf) datum
transformation and re-projection of the 3D coordinates according to the flowchart in
Figure 7.

Transformation Software
Recommended software for computation of transformation parameters and data
conversion is TransLT (http://www.topolt.com/en/products/translt.html) with the
following capabilities:
• calculation of transformation parameters and conversion of coordinates using
various 2D and 3D models;
• conversion between geodetic and Cartesian coordinates;
• conversion between geodetic and grid coordinates;
• support of a large number of map projections;
• transformations using own formula;
• user defined step by step transformations.
The per-user cost of this software is approximately USD100.
User manual and numerical examples for conversion of coordinates between the
new and old reference system using TransLT are given in [Kotzev, 2013].

20
Technical Specifications for Establishment of a New Geodetic Reference System,
November 14 / 2013, Tbilisi, Georgia

Figure 7. Conversion of Pulkovo 1942 to GGD grid coordinates.

21
Technical Specifications for Establishment of a New Geodetic Reference System,
November 14 / 2013, Tbilisi, Georgia

Figure 8. Conversion of UTM to GGD grid coordinates.

22
Technical Specifications for Establishment of a New Geodetic Reference System,
November 14 / 2013, Tbilisi, Georgia

References
IGN (2011): Georgia Continuously Operating Reference Stations Coordinates
Computation Report Version 1.0, Institut Géographique National, May 25,
2011.
K1 (1982): Каталог координат геодезических пунктов на лист карты масштаба
1:200 000 К-38-VII (Местиа), Военно-топографическое управление
Генерального штаба, Москва.
K2 (1987): Каталог координат геодезических пунктов на лист карты масштаба
1:200 000 К-38-XIX (Ахалцихе), Военно-топографическое управление
Генерального штаба, Москва.
K3 (1987): Каталог координат геодезических пунктов на лист карты масштаба
1:200 000 К-38-XX (Хашури), Военно-топографическое управление
Генерального штаба, Москва.
K4 (1988): Каталог координат геодезических пунктов на лист карты масштаба
1:200 000 К-38-XXI (Тбилиси), Военно-топографическое управление
Генерального штаба, Москва.
K5 (1984) Каталог координат геодезических пунктов на лист карты масштаба
1:200 000 К-38-XXII (Рустави), Военно-топографическое управление
Генерального штаба, Москва.
K6 (1984) Каталог координат геодезических пунктов на лист карты масштаба
1:200 000 К-38-XXVII (Кировакан), Военно-топографическое управление
Генерального штаба, Москва.
K7 (1982): Каталог координат геодезических пунктов на лист карты масштаба
1:200 000 К-38-XXVIII (Казах), Военно-топографическое управление
Генерального штаба, Москва.
Kotzev, V. (2013): Manual for Datum transformation between the New and Old
Reference Systems, EU-Georgia E-Governance Facility project document.
O1 (1997): Объeкт 04.01.04.1393 Астромомо-геодезический полигон, Грузинское
аэрогеодезическое предприятие.
O2 (1989): Объeкт 04.03.0959 линия Гореловка-Квемо Орзомани, Грузинское
аэрогеодезическое предприятие.
O3 (1980): Объект „Иорский“ 04.03.0040, Грузинское аэрогеодезическое
предприятие.
S1 (1982): Сводный каталог высот пунктов нивелирования на лист карты
масштаба 1:200 000 К-38-VII (Местиа), Предприятие № 4 Главного
управления геодезии и картографии при Совете министров СССР,
Тбилиси.
S2 (1987): Сводный каталог высот пунктов нивелирования на лист карты
масштаба 1:200 000 К-38-XIX (Ахалцихе), Предприятие № 4 Главного
управления геодезии и картографии при Совете министров СССР,
Тбилиси.
S3 (1987): Сводный каталог высот пунктов нивелирования на лист карты
масштаба 1:200 000 К-38-XX (Хашури), Предприятие № 4 Главного

23
Technical Specifications for Establishment of a New Geodetic Reference System,
November 14 / 2013, Tbilisi, Georgia

управления геодезии и картографии при Совете министров СССР,


Тбилиси.
S4 (1988): Сводный каталог высот пунктов нивелирования на лист карты
масштаба 1:200 000 К-38-XXI (Тбилиси), Предприятие № 4 Главного
управления геодезии и картографии при Совете министров СССР,
Тбилиси.
S5 (1984): Сводный каталог высот пунктов нивелирования на лист карты
масштаба 1:200 000 К-38-XXII (Рустави), Предприятие № 4 Главного
управления геодезии и картографии при Совете министров СССР,
Тбилиси.
S6 (1984): Сводный каталог высот пунктов нивелирования на лист карты
масштаба 1:200 000 К-38-XXVII (Кировакан), Предприятие № 4 Главного
управления геодезии и картографии при Совете министров СССР,
Тбилиси.
S7 (1982): Сводный каталог высот пунктов нивелирования на лист карты
масштаба 1:200 000 К-38-XXVIII (Казах), Предприятие № 4 Главного
управления геодезии и картографии при Совете министров СССР,
Тбилиси.
Прилепин, М.Т., С. Баласанян, С.М. Баранова, Т.В. Гусева, А.В. Мишин, М.
Надария, Е.А. Рогожин, Н.К. Розенберг, Ю.П. Сковородкин, М.
Хамбургер, Р. Кинг, Р. Рейлингер (1997): Изучение кинематики
Кавказского региона с использованием GPS технологии, Физика Земли 6,
68–75.

24
The European Union’s ENPI Programme for Georgia

Project Contract No.: 304 521


EU-Georgia E-Governance Facility

Addendum to Methodology and Parameters


for Datum Transformation between
the New and Old Reference Systems

Project managed by the Delegation of the European Union to Georgia

Project Partner: Ministry of Justice, Georgia

This project is funded by A project implemented by Consortium led


the European Union by Diadikasia Business Consultants S.A.
Addendum to Methodology and Parameters for Datum Transformation between the New and Old
Reference Systems – April 04 / 2014, Tbilisi, Georgia

Contents
Abbreviations ............................................................................................................. 3
Executive Summary ................................................................................................... 4
Updated Transformation Parameters between GGD and Pulkovo 1942 .................... 4

Tables
Table 1. Updated Parameters of Molodensky-Badekas transformation between
GGD and Pulkovo 1942. ............................................................................................ 4
Table 2. Updated Parameters of Bursa-Wolf transformation between GGD and
Pulkovo 1942. ............................................................................................................ 5
Table 3. Transformation residuals from GGD to Pulkovo 1942. ................................ 5

2
Addendum to Methodology and Parameters for Datum Transformation between the New and Old
Reference Systems – April 04 / 2014, Tbilisi, Georgia

Abbreviations
GGD Georgia Geodetic Datum

3
Addendum to Methodology and Parameters for Datum Transformation between the New and Old
Reference Systems – April 04 / 2014, Tbilisi, Georgia

Executive Summary
Purpose. The document contains updated parameters for transformation between
GGD and Pulkovo 1942 computed from additional identical points measured since
submission of the original report.
Overview. The new parameters show insignificant differences with the original
computed ones, better accuracy and slightly improved post transformation fit.

Updated Transformation Parameters between GGD


and Pulkovo 1942
The new and originally computed Molodensky-Badekas and Bursa-Wolf
transformations parameters are shown in Table 1 and Table 2. The residuals of the
new solution аre given in Table 3.

Table 1. Parameters of Molodensky-Badekas transformation from GGD to Pulkovo 1942.

Molodensky-Badeks:
 XR   1 -q b   X S − X P   X P  ΔX 
Y  = (1 + s)  q 1 -a   YS − YP  +  YP  +  ΔY 
 R       
 Z R  -b a 1   Z S − Z P   Z P   ΔZ 
where:
n n n
X P = ∑ X Si ,YP = ∑YSi , Z P = ∑ Z Si .
i=1 i=1 i=1

Originally Computed New Computed

ΔX [m] -16.3765 ±0.0449 -15.6260 ±0.0272

ΔY [m] 125.7931 ±0.0449 126.0343 ±0.0272

ΔZ [m] 78.7608 ±0.0449 79.3775 ±0.0272

a [" ] 1.30639 ±0.17501 1.27530 ±0.13360

b [" ] 1.43939 ±0.29061 1.42112 ±0.21582

q [" ] -2.64801 ±0.12960 -2.69445 ±0.07631

s [ ppm ] 4.2753 ±0.4293 4.5284 ±0.2185

X P [m] 3413948.4165 3445619.6689

YP [m] 3328006.6485 3275369.7555

Z P [m] 4221245.5331 4236015.9558

Points 9 16
Post Fit [m] 0.1347 0.1089

4
Addendum to Methodology and Parameters for Datum Transformation between the New and Old
Reference Systems – April 04 / 2014, Tbilisi, Georgia

Table 2. Parameters of Bursa-Wolf transformation between GGD and Pulkovo 1942.

Bursa-Wolf:
 XR   1 -q b   X S  ΔX 
 Y = (1 + s)  q 1 -a   Y  +  ΔY  .
 R   S   
 Z R  -b a 1   Z S   ΔZ 
Originally Computed New Computed

ΔX [m] 41.2107 ±7.6797 40.7436 ±5.4889

ΔY [m] 41.0016 ±3.1915 40.0018 ±2.0974

ΔZ [m] 57.9681 ±7.5187 56.7070 ±5.6937

a [" ] 1.30639 ±0.17501 1.27530 ±

b [" ] 1.43939 ±0.29061 1.42112 ±

q [" ] -2.64801 ±0.12960 -2.69445 ±

s [ ppm ] 4.2753 ±0.4293 4.5284 ±

Points 9 16
Post Fit [m] 0.1347 0.1089

Table 3. Transformation residuals from GGD to Pulkovo 1942.

Station ΔX [m] ΔY [m] ΔZ [m] ΔN [m] ΔE [m]


AKHL -0.0197 -0.0019 0.0101 0.0124 0.0178
ARMU 0.1330 -0.1388 0.0014 -0.1922 0.0038
CHAC 0.0572 0.1239 -0.1820 0.0475 -0.2213
CKHE 0.1254 -0.0853 -0.0345 -0.1490 -0.0446
FUND 0.0583 -0.0891 0.0263 -0.1042 0.0341
GLDA -0.0922 0.0547 0.0489 0.1039 0.0541
ILMA -0.1169 0.0699 0.0380 0.1321 0.0505
INGU 0.1110 0.1348 -0.1888 0.0168 -0.2568
KHET -0.0683 0.0136 0.0378 0.0578 0.0541
KHUN -0.0333 0.0159 0.0153 0.0348 0.0196
KIZI 0.2021 -0.2573 0.0523 -0.3247 0.0650
KODA -0.1366 0.0197 0.1051 0.1105 0.1335
MUKH -0.1515 0.1434 0.0050 0.2084 0.0076
NORI -0.0260 -0.1447 0.1535 -0.0839 0.1948
RION -0.0198 0.0160 -0.0040 0.0252 -0.0011
TAUR -0.0226 0.1251 -0.0844 0.1044 -0.1113