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Bataan Peninsula State University Social Dimension First Semester

College of Education Professor Jaime M. Forbes 2017

Lesson I: Religion as a Social Institution

Intended Learning Outcome:


a. Identify the functions of Religion
b. Explain the elements of Religion
c. Appreciate the existence of God in our midst and respect
diversity in belief

DEFINITIONS
Religion may be defined as any set of coherent answers to the dilemmas of human existence that makes
meaningful. From this point of view, religion is how human beings express their feelings about such ultimate concerns
as sickness or death. Almost all religions involved their adherents in a system of beliefs and practices that express
devotion to the supernatural and foster deep feelings of spirituality. In this sense, we say that religion functions to
meet the spiritual needs of individuals.
Religion also defined in terms of its social function. It is a system of beliefs and rituals that serves to bind
people together through shared worship, thereby creating a social group.
Religion is a set of beliefs and practices that pertain to a sacred or supernatural realm that guides human
behaviour and gives meaning to life among a community of believers. Travers and Rebore (1990) define religion as
that which involves:
1. a belief about the meaning of life
2. a commitment by the individual and the group to this belief
3. a system of moral practices resulting from a commitment to this belief, and
4. a recognition by the proponents of this belief that is supreme or absolute.

CHARACTERISTICS OF RELIGION
Most of the leading religions throughout history have shared characteristics. The chief characteristics
include:
1. belief in a deity or in a power beyond the individual
2. a doctrine (accepted teaching) of salvation
3. a code of conduct
4. the use of sacred stories, and
5. religious rituals (acts and ceremonies)
Belief in a deity. There are three main philosophical views regarding the existence of a deity. Atheists believe that
no deity exists. Theists believe in a deity or deities. Agnostics say that the existence of a deity cannot be proved or

Vision Mision

A leading university in the Philippines recognized for its proactive contribution to To develop competitive graduates and empowered community members by
sustainable development through equitable an inclusive programs and services by providing relevant innovative and transformative knowledge, research, extension
2030. enhancement of its human resource capabilities and institution mechanisms
Bataan Peninsula State University Social Dimension First Semester
College of Education Professor Jaime M. Forbes 2017

disproved. Most of the major religions are theistic. They teach that deities govern or greatly influence the action of
human beings as well as events in nature.
A doctrine of salvation. The major religions- Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism- teach a doctrine of
salvation. Thy stress that salvation is the highest goal of the faithful and one that all followers should try to achieve.
Religions differ, however, in what salvation is and how it can be gained.
A code of conduct. This is a set of moral teachings and values all religions have in some form. Such a code, or
ethic tells believers how to act toward the deity and toward one another.
Religious rituals. They include the acts and ceremonies by which believers appeal to and serve God, deities, or
other sacred powers. Some rituals are performed by individuals alone, and others by group of worshippers. Important
rituals are performed according to a schedule and are respected regularly. The performance of a ritual is often called
a service.
Religion is very important in the life of man and its roles and functions are significant and vital in order to
maintain and preserve its existence from one generation to the next.

Functions of Religion by Calderon (1998)


1. Religion serves as a means of social control.
2. It exerts as a great influence upon personality development.
3. Religion allays fear of the unknown.
4. Religion explains events or situations which are beyond the comprehension of man.
5. It gives man comfort, strength & hope in times of crisis & despair.
6. It preserves & transmits knowledge, skills, spiritual & cultural values & practices.
7. It serves as an instrument of change.
8. It promotes closeness, love, cooperation, friendliness & helpfulness.
9. Religion alleviates sufferings from major calamities.
10. It provides hope for a blissful life after death.

What are the differences among churches, sects and cults?


Church tends to be large, with inclusive membership, in low tension with surrounding society. Church tends toward
greater intellectual examination and interpretation of the tenants of religion.
Example: Biblical passages, what is the historical context of the passage, the meaning to the people at that
time, what interpretation application can be given to the present.
Sect has a small, exclusive membership, high tension with society. It tends toward the emotional, mystic, stress faith,
feeling, conversion experience, to be “born again”. Fundamental, literal in teaching – biblical passages are the literal
words of God – mean literally what they say, people are what to do what the passages say.
Cults (Stark and Bainbridge 1985) as the more innovative institutions and are formed when people create new
religious belief and practices.
Three Types:
Audience Cults – characterized by doctrines delivers to consumers via TV, radio or in printed materials.
Client Cults – have religious leaders who offer specific services to their followers.

Vision Mision

A leading university in the Philippines recognized for its proactive contribution to To develop competitive graduates and empowered community members by
sustainable development through equitable an inclusive programs and services by providing relevant innovative and transformative knowledge, research, extension
2030. enhancement of its human resource capabilities and institution mechanisms
Bataan Peninsula State University Social Dimension First Semester
College of Education Professor Jaime M. Forbes 2017

Cult Movements – are client cults that have been enlarge because of a closely-knit organization.

The Elements of Religion


Sacred refers to phenomena that are regarded as extraordinary, transcended, and outside the everyday course of
events that is supernatural. The sacred is represented by a wide variety of symbols, which may include a good or set
of gods, a holy person; various recovered writing such as Bible, Koran and Torah; holy objects such as the Cross;

and holy cities like Jerusalem or Mecca.


Profane – refers to all phenomena that are not sacred
Legitimation of Norms – Religious sanctions and beliefs reinforce the legitimacy of many rules and norms in the
community.
Rituals – are formal patterns of activity that express symbolically a set of shared meanings, in the case of rituals
such as baptism or communion, the shared meanings are sacred. Rituals are heavily laden with symbolism,
reinforced the beliefs of the community, cement the relationship among the community of believers.
Example: Christians, the Cross profess their religious belief.
Religious Community – Religion establishes a code of behavior for the members, who belong and who does not.
The participants are likely to think alike, to act like and therefore to be more comfortable with one another than with
those who do not share their beliefs.

Vision Mision

A leading university in the Philippines recognized for its proactive contribution to To develop competitive graduates and empowered community members by
sustainable development through equitable an inclusive programs and services by providing relevant innovative and transformative knowledge, research, extension
2030. enhancement of its human resource capabilities and institution mechanisms
Bataan Peninsula State University Social Dimension First Semester
College of Education Professor Jaime M. Forbes 2017

Lesson II: Economy and Government as a Social Institution

Intended Learning Outcome:


a. Explain the basic Economic problems.
b. Analyze the three functions of the government.

ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS
Human behavior is mainly concerned with the satisfaction of the material wants. It is centered on the task of
making the living, the most absorbing the interest of man. To that end, man in all ages and among all classes struggle
to bring about changes in the environment. The changes that have taken place and are taking place in the
Philippines are the result chiefly of the interplay of forces in our efforts to improve our material well-being. Our mode
of living centers on the acquisition in wealth in order to satisfy our wants and this aspect of man’s activity constitute
the fields of economics, Examples of economic activities are earning money, buying goods and services, putting up a
business or saving money in a bank.
We cannot isolate ourselves from economics because our physical existence depends on it. We cannot live
without production and consumption.

Microeconomics vs. Macroeconomics


Microeconomics is concerned with the specific economic units of parts that makes an economic system and the
relationship between those parts. In microeconomics, emphasis is place on understanding the behavior of individual
firms, industries, households, and ways in which such entities interact.
Macroeconomics is concerned with the economy as a whole or large segments of it. It focuses on such problems as
the role of unemployment, the changing levels of prices, the nation’s total output of goods and services, the ways in
which governments raises and spends money.

Three (3) basic economic problems:


First, what goods and services to produce and how much ? In business, a feasibility study determines
whether certain goods and services become profitable or not in a given market. Investors are only willing to produce
goods and services which will give them good profit.

Vision Mision

A leading university in the Philippines recognized for its proactive contribution to To develop competitive graduates and empowered community members by
sustainable development through equitable an inclusive programs and services by providing relevant innovative and transformative knowledge, research, extension
2030. enhancement of its human resource capabilities and institution mechanisms
Bataan Peninsula State University Social Dimension First Semester
College of Education Professor Jaime M. Forbes 2017

Second, how to produce goods and services? This is a problem of production technology or methods of
production. As a general rule, goods and services must be produced in the most efficient manner. This means
minimum input without sacrificing quality.
The application of modern technology has increased output and decreased cost of production. Such
production efficiency has greatly contributed to the high standard of living of the industrialized countries.
Third, for whom are the goods and services? This is the problem of the distribution, Who gets the
goods like rice clothes, shoes, books and the services such as education, health services and other social services.
In most countries, those who have more money acquire more goods and services than the poor.
In the Philippines, the children of rich families acquire better education in exclusive schools while the poor
students enroll in the public schools where facilities are not sufficient and adequate.

GOVERNMENT AS A SOCIAL INSTITUTION


Government is the institution which resolves conflicts that are public in nature and involve more than a few
people. Government can be city, provincial, national, or even international.
The Supreme Court of the Philippines defines government as “that institution by which an
independent society makes and carries out those rules of action which are necessary to enable men to live in a
social state , or which are imposed upon the people for that society by those who possess or authority of prescribing
them”

Three Branches of the Government:


The Executive Branch – proposes and enforces rules and laws
The Legislative Branch – which makes rules and laws
The Judicial Branch – which adjudicates rules and laws

There is general agreement among social scientists that politics is the pattern of human interaction that
serves to resolves conflicts between peoples, institutions, and nations.

Administration refers to the aggregate of persons in whose hands the reigns of government are for the
time being. The government is aimed at maintaining a good social order where the people enjoy the political and
economic blessings of life in an atmosphere of justice, freedom and equality.

Functions of Government

The Constituent Function – contribute to the very bonds of society and are therefore compulsory. Among the
constituent functions are as follows:

a. The keeping of order and providing for the protection of persons and property from violence and
robbery.

b. The fixing of the legal relations between husband and wife, and between parents and children.

Vision Mision

A leading university in the Philippines recognized for its proactive contribution to To develop competitive graduates and empowered community members by
sustainable development through equitable an inclusive programs and services by providing relevant innovative and transformative knowledge, research, extension
2030. enhancement of its human resource capabilities and institution mechanisms
Bataan Peninsula State University Social Dimension First Semester
College of Education Professor Jaime M. Forbes 2017

c. The regulation of the holding, transmission, and interchange of property, and determination of its
reliabilities for the debt or for crime.

d. The determination of contractual rights between the individuals.

e. The definition and punishment for crimes.

f. The administration of justice in civil cases.

g. The administration of the political duties, privileges, and relations of citizens.

h. The dealings of the State with foreign growers, the preservation of the state from external danger
or encroachment and the advancement of its international affairs and interests.

2. The Ministrant Function - are those undertaken to advance the general interest of the society, such as public
works, public charity and regulation of trade and industry. These functions are merely optional.

Vision Mision

A leading university in the Philippines recognized for its proactive contribution to To develop competitive graduates and empowered community members by
sustainable development through equitable an inclusive programs and services by providing relevant innovative and transformative knowledge, research, extension
2030. enhancement of its human resource capabilities and institution mechanisms
Bataan Peninsula State University Social Dimension First Semester
College of Education Professor Jaime M. Forbes 2017

References:
1. Angell, P. Business Communication Design. New York: Mc-Graw-Hill, 2004
2. Kelly, M.S.N. Communication at Work. USA: Pearson/education, Inc, 2006

Vision Mision

A leading university in the Philippines recognized for its proactive contribution to To develop competitive graduates and empowered community members by
sustainable development through equitable an inclusive programs and services by providing relevant innovative and transformative knowledge, research, extension
2030. enhancement of its human resource capabilities and institution mechanisms