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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

ФГБОУ ВПО «Алтайский государственный университет»

Л.А. Кочетова

КАК ПРАВИЛЬНО
ОФОРМИТЬ НАУЧНУЮ РАБОТУ
НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
Учебное пособие по академической письменной речи

Барнаул

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Рецензенты:

К.ф.н., доцент кафедры иностранных языков исторического


факультета АлтГУ Е.А.Воронцова
к.ф.н., доцент кафедры лингводидактики и второго
иностранного языка ЛИИН АГПА О.Н.Черем исина

Кочетова Л.А.
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов, магистрантов и аспирантов,
которые хотят овладеть основами научного стиля на английском языке. Это
пособие содержит словарь, образцы англоязычных научных текстов
различных жанров и упражнения для формирования умений академической
письменной речи на иностранном языке. Данное пособие может быть
использовано в качестве справочного материала учеными и преподавателями
при оформлении тезисов и научных статей на английском языке.

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Содержание

Стр.
1. Curriculum Vitae/Resume
Как написать профессиональную биографию на
английском языке ..... ........ ........... ........ . 3
2. Cover Letters that Open Doors
Сопроводительное письмо и как его писать . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3. Letters of Reference/Recommendation
Рекомендательные письма . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4. Conferences and Symposia. Presentation.
Как написать информационное письмо и
программу конференции. Доклад . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . … . . . . . . . . 31
5. Summary and Summary-Analysis
Аннотация и реферат. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
6. Research Paper. Abstract.
Правила оформления научной статьи. Тезисы. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
7. Thesis. Магистерская диссертация . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
8. Bibliography
Как оформить библиографию . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

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Section 1. Curriculum Vitae/Résume.
Как написать профессиональную биографию на английском языке.

Lead-in.

Curriculum Vitae или профессиональная биография пишется по


определенной схеме в англоязычной культурной традиции. Обязательными
разделами CV, кроме имени и адреса автора, являются следующие:

 Employment/Work Experience Опыт работы


 Education Образование
 Personal Skills and Competences Личные качества и
умения
 Awards and Honors Награды/поощрения
 Publications (для научных Публикации
работников)

Раздел “Work Experience” включает информацию обо всех местах работы и


должностях с указанием адресов и телефонов учреждений и фирм.
Начинается информация с настоящего (последнего) места работы.
В разделе “Education” указываются не только учебные заведения, которые
окончил автор, но и тип документа, который он/она получили. Начинать
надо также с последнего места обучения. В раздел можно включать и
краткосрочные курсы повышения квалификации (в том числе и
дистанционные), если они заканчивались выдачей документа.
В раздел “Personal Skills” автор может включить любую информацию,
которую он считает важной дл я получения работы: знание иностранных
языков, владение компьютером, спортивные разряды, и т.д.

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Раздел “Awards and Honors” включает благодарности, грамоты, награды за
победу в конкурсах любого уровня.
В CV важно, как расположена информация.

Read the Sample CV for students required in European Union. Pay attention
to the layout of the document.

Sample Curriculum Vitae


Europass Curriculum Vitae (for students)
__________________________________________________________
Personal Information

First name/names Betty Hopkins


Address(es) 32 reading rd, Birmingham, B26QJ, United Kingdom
Telephone(s) Personal: (44-1189) 12 34 56 Mobile: (44-6987) 65 43
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E-mail(s): hobbies@kotmail.com
Nationality(-ies) British
Date of birth 07.10.1978
Gender Female

Desired employment/ European Project Manager


Occupational Field
Work experience

Dates August 2005 – onwards


Occupation or position
held Independent consultant
Main activities and
responsibilities Evaluation of European Commission youth training
support measures for youth national agencies and
and young people
Name and address
оf employer British Council, 123,Bd Ney, F-75023 Paris
Type of business or
sector Independent worker

Dates March – July 2005

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Occupation or position
held Internship
Main activities and
Responsibilities - Evaluating youth training programs for SALTO UK

- Organizing and running a 2 day workshop on non-


formal education for Action 5 large scale projects

- Focusing on quality, assessment and recognition

- Contributing to the Steering Group on training and


developing action plans on training for the next 3
years.

Name and address of


employer European Commission, Youth Unit, DG Education and
Culture, 200, Rue de la Loi, B-1049, Brussels
Type of business or
sector European Institution
Dates October 2003-February 2005
Occupation or position
held Researcher/ Independent Consultant

Main activities and Working in a research team carrying in-depth


responsibilities qualitative evaluation of the 2 year Advanced
Training of Trainers in Europe using participant
observation, in-depth interviews and focus
groups.
Name and address of
employer Council of Europe, Budapest
Type of business or
sector European institutions

Education and Training


Dates 2001-2005
Title of the qualification
Awarded PhD

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Principal subjects/
occupational skills Thesis Title ‘Young People in Construction of the
covered Virtual University’, Empirical research that directly
contributes to debates on e-learning.
Name and type of Brunei University, London, UK
organization
providing education and
training
Dates 1997 -2001

Title of qualification
awarded Bachelor of Science in Sociology and Psychology
Principal subjects/ -Sociology of Risk, Sociology of Scientific
Knowledge/Information Society
occupational skills - E-learning and Psychology; Research Methods.
covered
Name and type of Brunei University, London, UK
organization
providing education and
training

Personal Skills
and Competences
Mother Tongue(s) English
Other languages
Self-assessment
European Level

Understanding Speaking Writing


Listening Reading Spoken interaction Spoken C2
French
production proficient
C1 Proficient C2 B2 Independent C1 Proficient user
user proficient user user
User
German A2 Basic user A2 Basic A2 Basic user A2 Basic user A2 Basic
user user

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Social skills - Team work: I have worked in various types of teams from
and competences research teams to national league hockey. For 2 years I
coached my university hockey team;
-Mediating skills: I work on the borders between young
people, youth trainers, youth policy and researchers, for
example running a 3 day workshop at CoE Symposium
‘Youth Actor of Social Change’, and my continued work
on youth training programs.
Organization During my PhD I organized a seminar series on research
skills and methods.
competences
Computer skills Competent with most Microsoft Office programs and some
and with HTML.
сompetences

Additional
information PUBLICATIONS
‘How to do Observations: Borrowing techniques from the
Social Sciences to help participants do observations in
simulation exercises’ Coyot EU/CoE Partnership .
Publication(2005)
PERSONAL INTERESTS
Creating pieces of art and visiting modern art galleries.
Enjoy all sports particularly hockey, football and running.
Love to travel and experience different cultures.
__________________________________________________________________

Правила передачи имен собственных на кириллице латиницей

Чтобы правильно передать русские имена и фамилии, а также названия


организаций латиницей, надо знать некоторые правила. В зарубежной
англоязычной традиции существует несколько систем передачи букв
русского алфавита латиницей, но доминирующими являются 2 системы:
1. British Standard – британская.
2. Library of Congress – американская.
Ниже приводится вариант транскрипции, базирующийся на системе
British Standard.

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A –A K–K Х – Kh
Б–B Л–L Ц – Ts
В–V М–M Ч - Ch
Г -G Н–N Ш – Sh
Д–D О–O Щ – Shch
Е – E/Ye П–P Ъ–“
Ё – E/YO Р–R Ы–Y
Ж – Zh С–S Ь–‘
З– Z Т–T Э–E
И–I У–U Ю – Yu
Й – I/Y Ф–F Я – Ya

В варианте Library of Congress для передачи букв Е, Ё, Ю, Я используются


диграфы соответственно: IE, IO, IU, IA (e.g. Beriozka)

Особые сочетания

Сочетание Примечание Передача Пример рус. Пример англ.


ие ie Георгиев Georgiev
Ий В конце слова Y Рыбачий Rybachy
Грозный Grozny
Маяковский Mayakovsky
В середине iy Новороссийск Novorossiysk
слова

Исключения Юрий Yuri


Бийск Bisk, Biysk

Вий Viy

ые ye Новые Ляды Novye Lyady


ый y Старый Оскол Stary Oskol
Я В конце слова a Юлия Yulia
после и ( без
ударения) Но Зульфия Zulfya

Vocabulary

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Remember the equivalents of Russian words and word combinations related
to academic activities you may use in your CV.
1.средняя школа secondary school (Br)/high school
(AmE)
2. музыкальная/художественная
школа music/arts secondary school
3.аттестат (о среднем certificate of secondary education/
образовании) high school diploma
4. колледж/ПТУ vocational/technical/community college
5. диплом о среднем Associate Degree
специальном образовании
диплом техникума по… Associate of… (arts –AA; science –ASc;
applied arts – AAA)
6. диплом университета Degree/Diplom
Диплом по специальности… Bachelor's Degree in ( chemistry,history)
Диплом бакалавра (естесст- Bachelor of (Science, Arts)
Ственных наук, гуманитар-
Ных наук)
7. диплом «с отличием» Degree/diplom cum laude/magna cum
laude/with distinction
8. студент/учащийся student/undergraduate
студент- второкурсник
исторического ф-та second-year history student/
undergraduate
студент-третьекурсник third-year/junior PR student/
отделения связей с общест- undergraduate
венностью
9. магистрант, аспирант post-graduate (BrE)/graduate (AmE)
Аспирант кафедры оте- Home history graduate student
чественной истории
аспирант кафедры граждан- Civil law graduate student
ского права
10. аспирантура, магистратура post - graduate/ graduate school/
Master’s degree program/doctoral
degree program
11. кафедра department/chair
кафедра органической organic chemistry department
химии
кафедра всеобщей истории и World history and international

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международных отношений relations department
12. заведующий/ая кафедрой department chair/head of the
department
13. преподаватель(и) faculty (members)/professor(s)(AmE)
teaching staff(BrE)
14. научный сотрудник research fellow
младший/старший научный junior/senior research fellow
сотрудник
15. факультет faculty (BrE)/college/school (AmE)
Юридический факультет Law School/Law Faculty
Исторический факультет History faculty/History School
Факультет естественных Сollege of Science/Faculty of
наук Science

Факультет журналистики Faculty of Journalism/School of


Journalism
16. университет university/college
17. ректор университета President
18. проректор по… vice president for…
учебной работе academic affairs
науке и инновациям innovations and research
экономике и финансам finance management
19. декан dean
Зам.декана по… assistant dean/deputy dean for…
работе со студентами student affairs
20. деканат dean’s office

Skill Building

1. Write your name, surname, address in English.


2. Write the following personal and geographical names in English.
a) Михаил Горбачев, Борис Ельцин, Петр Ильич Чайковский, Никита
Хрущев, Александр Солженицын, Эдуард Багрицкий, Михаил Зощенко,
Дмитрий Пожарский, Корней Чуковский, Петр Столыпин, Виктор
Черномырдин.
в) Алтайский край, Астраханская область, Ханты-Мансийский
автономный округ, Жигулевские горы, Саяны, Можайский район, Пущино,

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Геленджик, Махачкала, Йошкар-Ола, Щелково, село Целинное, деревня
Журчалово.
3. Write your own Curriculum Vitae following the Europass Pattern.

Section 2. Cover Letters that Open Doors


Сопроводительное письмо к резюме и как его писать
Lead-in.
Сover Letter – это письмо, которое посылается вместе с профессиональной
биографией/резюме. Иногда его называют «заявление» (letter of application).
Цель такого письма - получить приглашение на собеседование. Резюме –
документ, лишенный индивидуальности, оно пишется по жесткой схеме.
Сопроводительное письмо дает соискателю шанс раскрыть свою
индивидуальность и показать мастерство в искусстве письменного общения.
Сопроводительное письмо - это образец официального стиля. Однако, если
текст объявления о найме написан неформальным стилем, стиль письма
следует также сделать менее официальным.

Outline for a Cover Letter


_____________________________________________________________
First paragraph: State why you are writing and mention the specific position.
Second paragraph: Discuss your qualifications and experience, and link them as
directly as possible to the qualifications for the job.
Third paragraph: If appropriate, mention why you’re interested in working for
the company, including any events or people that brought you to them.

Fourth paragraph: Close on a positive, helpful note.

Sample Letters
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1. Read and translate the letters. Pay attention to the layout of the letters.

2. Point out expressions that can be used in your letter.


Sample Letter 1.

John Carlton
444 Fedilis Street
Westport, CT 09999

Ms. Jane Harris

Director of Recruiting

Hot Shop Advertising

555 Medison Avenue

New York, NY 10000

Dear Ms. Harris:


I enclose my resume in response to your advertisement in the New York Sunday
Times for a senior copywriter with a specialty in consumer packaged goods.
As my resume shows, I offer five years of experience writing compelling copy for
nationally known brands. These best-selling brands include Happy Nut peanut
butter, Just Ducky children’s products, and Zip Zippity toothpaste and mouthwash.
I have worked in all phases of campaign development, from initial concept to final
production, and in both print and broadcast media.
You can reach me at my office during business hours or at home during evenings
and weekends. Thank you for your consideration.
Sincerely,
John Carlton

Sample Letter 2.
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Mr. Lyle Emerson
Director of Human Resources
Everclear Spring Water Co.
888 Glen Ellen Road
Portland, ME 99999
Dear Mr. Emerson:
I am writing in response to your advertisement in the Sun for a sales
representative.
My interest in Everclear has grown out of a desire to sell for a company that is a
leader in its industry. My research tells me that Everclear is such a company and
that your sales force is among the best in the industry.
As my resume shows, my background includes experience in marketing, market
research, and key-account analysis. At Mason Building Products, I worked closely
with our sales reps to resolve customer problems while staying focused on the
successful volunteer fund-raising experience..
I would appreciate having an opportunity to meet with you to discuss the
contribution I could make to Everclear. Thank you for your consideration.
Sincerely,
Lorraine Fernal

Sample Letter 3

Dear Sir/Madam,
I am writing to apply for a place on the Archeology MA course which
commences this September at Macbriney University.
I am 25 years old and I have completed a Bachelor’s degree in Archeology at
Drakeham University, where I received first class honors. Prior to this I was a
pupil at Berkeley Comprehensive, where I obtained 9 GCSE (general certificate of
secondary education) and three A levels in History, Geography and Latin.

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Since the completion of my BA I have spent two years working as assistant
archeologist on a site in Egypt. During this expedition I have assisted in the
discovery of several interesting artifacts. This work was extremely enjoyable and I
am anxious to specialize by gaining further qualifications before embarking on my
chosen career in this field.
I enclose a detailed curriculum vitae in the hope that you will consider my
application for entry. I look forward to receiving your response in the near future.
Yours faithfully,
Jill Holland

Vocabulary to be used in cover letters

Remember words and word combinations you may use in your letters.

1. As my resume/CV shows … - Как видно из моего резюме…

2. I am writing in response to your

advertisement in … - Я пишу в ответ на ваше рекламное

объявление в …

3. I am writing to apply for the post - Я пишу, чтобы подать заявление на дол

/job/position of/ which I жность/вакансию/ …, объявление о

saw advertised in … которой я прочитал в…

4. ….for the last/ past year I have been - в последний год/последние годы
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working as … я работала…

5. My background includes experience in … - В прошлом я имел/а опыт

Работы в ….

6. I offer … years of experience … - Я имею опыт работы в течение

… лет.

7. I offer solid/considerable - У меня большой/значительный/

international/teaching, etc. experience in …международный/преподава-

тельский опыт…

8. I posses the relevant experience …- У меня есть опыт соответствую

Щей работы….

9. (I think/feel) I am qualified for - (Я считаю), что я подхожу для этой

the position, having both a Bachelor’s должности, т.к. у меня диплом бака-

and a Master’s degree in relevant лавра и магистра в соответствующих

subjects. Областях.

10. I feel well suited to this position… - Я чувствую, что хорошо подхожу

Для данной должности.

11. You can reach me at the above - Вы можете связаться со мной по адре-

address or at (telephone number/e-mail) су, указанному выше или по ( телефо-

ну/электронной почте)/позвонив по

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by calling (telephone number) … телефону ( указать номер).

12. I would appreciate a reply - Я был бы благодарен, если Вы отве-

at your earliest convenience тили, как можно быстрее.

13. I look forward to hearing - С нетерпением жду Вашего ответа

from you in due course … в ближайшее время…

14. Thank you for your consideration – Спасибо за внимательное отношение

К моему заявлению.

Skill Building

1. Complete the sentences with the correct form (-ing form) of the words in
the box.

Be complete deal with have pass spend

1) I have considerable experience in this line of work, ________________ over


20 years in the field.

2) I feel well suited to this particular position, _______________a highly


qualified practitioner with a range of previous experience.

3) I feel confident of my English abilities, _______________ recently


_____________TOEFL.

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4) I feel confident of my computing skills, ______________ recently
__________- a six-month IT course.

5) I am sure I would be able to meet tight deadlines, __________________


similar pressures in my previous job.

6) I think I possess the appropriate qualifications for this post, _______________a


degree in modern languages and a Master’s in translation.

2. Complete the following sentences using should and the words in brackets.

1) Please do not hesitate to contact me should _______________ (require, further


information).

2) You can reach me at the above address or by calling 999-535-90-75


______________________ (wish, discuss, my qualifications).

3) Please contact me at the earliest possible opportunity _______________

(vacancies, available).

3. Complete the following letter using the proper word combinations.

_______________________________________________________________
Dear Sir/Madam,
I am writing _________________of Senior Tour Guide which ______________

in Monday’s edition of The Evening News.


I graduated from _________________ in ____________with a degree in
___________________.

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I have been working as_________________________________________
since____________ for_______________ which is based
in_________________. Prior to this, I worked as a_________________
for ____________________during the summer season. I hold certificates in
_________________________. I speak fluent ___________________________ .
I am friendly, _____________________________ and work well under pressure.
As my references show, I ________________________________ clients, who
___________________________.
I have enclosed ______________________________ I would be glad to
________________________________________.
Yours faithfully,
Miranda Breeton

3. Translate into English using the words of the active vocabulary.


1) Я пишу в ответ на объявление в «Вечерних Новостях».

2) Как следует из моего резюме, я имею пятилетний опыт педагогической


работы.

3) Я имею большой опыт организации международных конференций.

4) Я думаю, что я имею соответствующее образование для данной работы.

5) Я чувствую, что хорошо подхожу для этой должности, так как имею
большой опыт управленческой работы в области финансов.

6) Я уверена, что имею подходящее образование для этой должности, так как
у меня степень магистра по управлению бизнесом.

7) Спасибо за внимание.

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8) Если вам нужна более подробная информация, свяжитесь со мной по
телефону… или по электронной почте … .

4. Read the job advertisement carefully. Write a draft of the cover letter.
Discuss the draft with your group mates.

Summer camp 20… applications are now open. Start your camp in
America application today! Registration is free.

Sports Instructor
- have skills or experience level within one or two areas, strong enough to allow you to teach

- coaching qualifcations

Camp Counsellor
- extensive experience with children
- love the children

- keep an open mind

Support Staff Jobs


These positions come in a variety of jobs: Food preparation, General Maintenance, Laundry,
House Keeping, Office, Secretarial, etc. No special training is needed. The support staff do not
live with children in the bunks.

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Remember that you will be trained extensively on camp, before the children arrive, irrelevant
to your summer title. Summer camp is an immensely supportive environment and a very safe
place to test yourself and develop your skill set

For more information contact us on


e-mail: info@wildpacks.com
Wild Packs Ltd.
Liberty Business Center
16 Cromaty Campus
Rosyth, Fife
KY11 2WX, Scotland

Remember to include precise information about your skills. If you think your are
good for the Sports Instructor position, specify how good you are at a particular
sport, how often you play, what kind of team, if you have any awards, etc.

For the Camp Counsellor position give particular detailed account of your
experience in working with children. How old were the children? What were the
group sizes? Did you supervise the children’s activities?

5. Read the advertisements in an English-language magazine. Choose a job


you would like to apply for. Write a cover letter to your CV/letter of
application which responds to one of the advertisements.

Need a Summer job?

Do you enjoy meeting new people?


We are looking for lively young waiters and waitresses to work at our sea-front

Café. Drop in or drop us a line if you’d like to earn some extra cash this summer.

Contact: Barry Murphy


Bright’n’Bubbly Bistro
3, Apple Street

21
Brighton
Tel: 8432712

________________ _________
We are looking for staff for international rock festival, taking place over a three-day period
in the west of England during this summer. We are looking for people with a good
command of English who could work in the following areas:

o Catering (food and drink stalls and tents)


o Security (in the performance area, at entrances and around the site)
o First aid (for minor medical problems)

To apply, explain why you would like to work at the festival, give details of the roles you
would prefer and why, and give reasons why you would be suitable.

6. Clarke Hooper is advertising for graduates. Read the advertisement


carefully, then prepare the CV and a cover letter.

DON’T PASS
Not your degree, this ad. Got your attention though, didn’t it? And that’s our
business. Promotional marketing involves everything from sales promotion to
product launches, direct marketing to design. All of it involves grabbing people’s
attention. If you’re interested in becoming an account handler, and you think
you’re capable of the kind of ideas that stand out in an increasingly media literate
society, send your CV to Michelle Hocking at the address below.

22
Check out our work and who we do it for at WWW.CHC.CO.UK

Clark Hooper, St. Laurence Way, Berkshire, SL1 2BW, E-mail: michellea@chc.co.uk

7. You want to go to Winston University to do a degree in History. Write a


letter applying for a place on the course.

Section 3. Letters of Recommendation/ Reference


Рекомендательные письма
Lead- in
Рекомендательные письма называются по-английски либо «letters of
reference», либо «letters of recommendation».
Единственная разница между ними в том, что слово «reference» обычно
используется в деловом мире, в таких словосочетаниях, как, например, «job
reference», «credit reference», в то время как слово «recommendation» больше
принято в академических кругах. При подаче документов в высшее учебное
заведение требуется «letter of recommendation».

Outline for a Letter of Recommendation

First paragraph: State in what capacity you know the person recommended

Second paragraph: State how long you have known the person.

Third paragraph: Describe the strongest skills and competences the person
possesses.

Fourth paragraph: Provide facts supporting your opinion.

Fifth paragraph: State the position/program you recommend the person for.

Sample Letters of Recommendation/Reference

1. Read and translate Samples 1, 2, 3.

23
2. Point out expressions that can be used in your letter of recommendation.

Sample Letter 1.

Re: Mary Wares


To: Whom It May Concern:
Mary Wares joined Amalgamated Industries in the finance group in 1989. She
reported to me, in my capacity as Director of Financial Services, from then until
she was promoted to Controller in 1993. In the first five years Mary worked for
me, first as Assistant Treasurer and then as Treasurer, she was an absolutely first-
rate professional in every way.
Mary’s key strengths include highly developed analytical and problem-solving
skills. She repeatedly displayed an ability to cut to the heart of the issue, clarify
our opinions, and implement the best one. Our treasure function is large and
complex, and Mary thrived on both the size and the complexity. She brought the
same energy to resolving the most minute operational problems as she did the
major policy questions.
Mary is an excellent manager of people. That is why I fully supported her
promotion to Controller, a position in which she managed 18 senior accountants,
and managed them well. (at that point she reported to our then Vice President of
Finance, as I did.) Before that, as treasurer reporting to me, Mary managed four
assistant treasurers excellently.
Finally, Mary brings a sharp, but never unkind, sense of humor to the job. She
works as long as it takes to get the job done, and displays the team spirit, maturity
of mind, and scrupulous honesty so necessary in the finance function of a major
company.
I enthusiastically recommend Mary Wares for any position or endeavor for which
you may consider her.
Very truly,
Frank Squire
Vice President, Finance

24
Sample Letter 2.

To Whom It May Concern:


I have known Ted Marks for the three years he worked for me as a salesperson at
Amalgamated Industries. I am the Southeastern District sales manager and I hired
Ted.
Ted did a fine job during his time at Amalgamated. He was hardworking and
diligent in executing his duties and represented the company well. Customers also
liked Ted.
He also performed well in terms of his level of sales, typically making, and
occasionally breaking, his quota. His knowledge of our products and how to apply
them to solve customers’ problems was very good. Ted was good at resolving any
difficulties that came up internally at our company, such as late deliveries.
I recommend Ted Mark for any sales position for which you may be considering
him.
Very truly yours,
Marcia LaPine

Sample Letter 3. Recommendation for Admission to a University Course.

Dear Admissions Committee:


It is with great pleasure that I write to you in support of Clara Goodleaf’s
application to your Graduate School of Business.
I have known Ms.Goodleaf for all five years that she has worked at Amalgamated
Industries. I interviewed her when she applied to the company after she graduated
from Smith, and I supported her hire as an entry-level market researcher. Two
years later, she was promoted to manager of product development division at
Amalgamated Industries.
Ms.Goodleaf is certainly one of the brightest and most insightful people I have
had the pleasure to work with in a 27-year career. Her ability to grasp the abstract
issues in a business situation while staying focused on concrete practicalities is
unmatched in my experience. Most people can do either one or the other. These

25
twin intellectual abilities are the main reason she moved from an analytical
position (at which she excelled) into product development (where she also
excelled).
Ms.Goodleaf quickly gains the respect and the cooperation of everyone she works
with. This is partly because she herself respects and cooperates with others, and
partly because people are attracted by her ability to focus on what is important and
then act.
I have known for some time that Ms. Goodleaf would be leaving the company to
pursue a graduate business degree. While as a manager I hate to lose such a
qualified staff member, I enthusiastically recommend Clare Goodleaf for ad-
mission to Harvard University’s Graduate School of Business.
Sincerely,
Perry Merrin
Vice President

Vocabulary
Remember the words and word combinations you may use in writing letters
of recommendation
1. To Whom it May Concern
2. I have known N. for/since ……..
3. N. has been working in our university/department/company for….
4. N’s key strengths are/include …
5. N. displayed an ability to ….
6. to manage smth. well/perfectly/successfully … .
7. to be a first-rate professional in every way …
8. to make a valuable contribution into ….
9. I am glad to write in support of ….
10. I highly/enthusiastically recommend N. for the position/admission/taking part
in …
Skill Building

26
1. a) read and translate the adjectives that can be used in characterizing a
person.
Alert, approachable, dedicated, calm, creative, confident, conscientious,
imaginative, kind, knowledgeable, logical, open-minded, organized, patient,
polite, skilful, tolerant, understanding, able to cope in a crisis, able to work under
pressure, able to work in a team.
b) use the words above to complete the sentences.
1. A good student has to be …. .
2. A good teacher has to be … .
3. A good reporter has to be … .
4. A good accountant has to be… .
5. A good researcher has to be… .
6. A good manager has to be … .
7. A good doctor has to be … .
8. A good designer has to be … .
9. A good policeman has to be … .
10. A good CEO has to be … .
c) use the words above to describe your group mates.
2.Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Сара работает в нашей компании с момента окончания университета в
2009 году.
2. Мисс Блэк всегда отличалась трудолюбием и добросовестностью. Кроме
того, она обладает данными руководителя.
3. Тед имеет хорошее чувство юмора и открытый характер.
4. Мисс Твиг работает под моим руководством три года, и, следовательно, я
хорошо ее знаю.

27
5. Я с удовольствием рекомендую студентку Ильиных для продолжения
образования в магистратуре Центрального Европейского университета.
6. С радостью поддерживаю рекомендацию господина Мишина на
должность начальника отдела кадров.

Section 4. Conferences. Call for Papers. Conference Program.


Presentation.
Научная конференция. Как написать информационное письмо
и программу конференции. Доклад на конференции.
Lead-in
Информационное сообщение о научном мероприятии называется «Call for
Papers».Оно обязательно содержит информацию о времени и месте
проведения мероприятия, тематике, организаторах, сроках подачи тезисов и
полного текста доклада, оплаты регистрационного взноса. Участникам, чьи
доклады приняты для выступления на конференции, высылаются
официальные приглашения. Форма участия может быть очной(in-person
presentation) или заочной: в электронной форме (virtual presentation) и форме
стендового доклада (poster presentation).
Выступление с докладом на конференции называется «(paper)
presentation». Как правило, устный текст сопровождается демонстрацией
слайдов, выполненной в Power Point. На первых слайдах необходимо
представить название доклада (title), имя автора, его должность и звание,
место работы, краткий план доклада (outline), задачи исследования
(objectives), методы исследования (methodology), последние слайды должны
содержать результаты исследования и заключение (conclusion). И не забудьте
поблагодарить аудиторию на последнем слайде (Thank you).

28
Vocabulary
Remember the words and word combinations you may use in writing
Call for Papers and Conference Program.
1.abstract аннотация, тезисы
abstract submission предоставление текста
тезисов
2. abstract book сборник тезисов
3. application form форма заявки
4. alignment выравнивание (текста)
5. call for papers информационное сообщение (о
конференции)
6.conference конференция
аnnual ежегодная
international международная
world всемирная
to hold a conference проводить конференцию
7. deadline (for …) последний срок ( подачи докумен-
тов, заявок и т.д.)
8. debate дискуссия
9. indent абзацный отступ
10.italics курсив
11. line spacing межстрочный интервал
12. margin поля
12. paper научный доклад
to present/read a paper выступить с докладом (на
конференции)
29
to publish a paper опубликовать доклад/статью
to submit a paper послать доклад на конференцию
paper guidelines правила оформления статьи
14. presentation выступление на конференции
in-person presentation непосредственное участие
paper presentation выступление с научным докладом
poster presentation стендовый доклад
virtual presentation виртуальный доклад/выступление в
режиме видеоконференции
15. proceedings научные труды/ученые записки
16. quotes цитаты
17. to register (for…) регистрироваться для участия в
конференции
18.registration регистрация для участия
registration form регистрационная форма/форма
заявки
registration fee взнос за участие в конференции
to pay a registration fee оплачивать взнос за участие в
конференции
19. round table круглый стол, дискуссия
«на равных»

20. session/meeting заседание


plenary session пленарное заседание
section/panel session секционное заседание
21. speaker докладчик
main/keynote speaker основной докладчик
30
22. social program(me) (of the conference) общественно-культурная
программа (конференции)
23. to arrange a social program)me) организовывать общественно-
культурную программу
24. submission подача, представление (заявки,
доклада и т.д.)
25. workshop мастер-класс

1. Read Call for Papers to several conferences below.


2. Sum up the information and tell it to your friends.
Sample 1.

POLITSCI ‘13
Political Science 18-20 SEP 2013

Conference Istanbul Turkey

___________________________________________________________

Call for Papers


Agenda
Deadline for submission of abstracts: 31.05.2013
Final date for registration: 26.07.2013
Deadline for full paper submission: 16.08.2013

Participation Categories

In-person participation: Regular conference presentation, the


participants attend personally. One of the authors will present their
work in a 15-20 minutes time.
Virtual presentation: A virtual presentation is also available if you

31
are unable to attend the conference in-person. You will submit a
PowerPoint presentation with voice-over (optional) or a video before
the conference. Your work will be included in the conference
program and proceedings in a special format.
Poster presentation: A poster presentation is also available if you
unable to attend the conference in person. Your poster will be
exhibited in the exhibition hall of the conference venue during
the conference. Your work will be included in the conference
proceedings.
THEMES
 Citizenship, Nation-State and Globalization
 Theory, Action and Social Protests
 Politics and Ideology in Post-modern Era
 Gender and Politics
 Nationalism and Cosmopolitanism
 New Debates on Methodology in Politics
 Identity and Multicultural Politics
 Teaching and earning Politics
 Cultural heritage and Memory Spaces
 Politics and Social Change
 Experiences and Theories of “Being European”

REGISTRATION
In- person participation: 250 Euro, up to 12 pages, as Word
document
Virtual presentation: 225 Euro, max, size of 2 GB and length of 15
minutes sharp; as video or PowerPoint presentation.
Poster presentation: 200 Euro in vertical A1 size.
Student Discount: 10% (valid for undergraduate and graduate
Students).
Several presentation discount: 10%(only for presentation with
same first author).
It covers the entrance of all sessions, lunches, coffee breaks,
symposium materials, opening and closing cocktails.
Please register as soon as you know that your attendance is definite.

32
All proposals, presentations and papers must be in English.
PAPER GUIDELINES

Abstract
In-person presentation: Text upload: max.600 words, plus images.
Virtual presentation: Text upload: max. 400 words, plus images.
Poster presentation: Image upload: jpg file.
Full paper
Please send us full paper and related documents via e-mail.
- Length: Up to 12 pages including title, name, main text, references.
CV and contact details will be submitted separately.
- The text must be in English.
- Fond: Calibri, size10 pt.
- Margins: Top: 2cm; Bottom: 2.5 cm; Right, left: 2.5cm.
- Paper size:24x16.5 cm.
- Line spacing: Single.
- Alignment: Left.
Virtual presentation: Max. size of 2GB and length of 15 minutes
sharp, in Video format. PowerPoint presentations without voice over
speech will not be accepted.
In addition to it you will need to submit a full paper up to 8 pages
according to the same guidelines as in in-person presentation.
Poster presentation. A 1 format; vertical; only jpg file.
___________________________________________________

Sample 2.

European Symposium on

L S P 19th European Symposium on Languages

Languages for Special Purposes for Special Purposes

Vienna, Austria| 8-10 July 20…

33
__________________________________________________________

Call for Papers


Dear colleagues,
You are cordially invited to participate in the 19 th LSP Symposium to
be held from 8-10 July 20… at the Centre for Translation Studies of
the University of Vienna.
You are invited to submit abstracts for papers to be presented at the
conference on the following topics.
Domain-specific languages (in domains such as law, medicine,
business, engineering, etc)
Languages for Special Purposes in specific languages, countries,
regions of the world
Professional communication
LSP teaching and training
Multilingualism, language policies, and socio-cultural issues of
LSPs
Terminologies in theory and practice
Technical/specialized translation
Dates and deadlines
First call Fall 20…
Abstract submission deadline 5 March 20..
Early-bird registration deadline 30 April 20 …
Registration deadline 30 June 20…

Abstract submission guidelines


Abstracts for oral presentation must be submitted using the online
submission form. The abstract should not be longer than 300 words
and should be submitted in English. The preferred language for oral
presentation is English. You can also present in German, French and
Spanish or other languages upon request.
Registration fees
Early- bird registration fee: 215 euro (valid until 30 April 20…)
Regular registration fee: 265 euros
Student registration fee: 165 euros

34
All registration fees include:
- All academic activities at the Symposium;
- Welcome package and symposium related materials;
- Book of abstracts
- Coffee breaks and lunch breaks;
- Evening get-together event on Monday, 8 July 20…;
- Certificate of attendance;
- Wlan connection at the premises.
A discount for the participants is available for traveling with AUA and special
rates are available for selected hotels.
Looking forward to welcoming you in Vienna for LSP 20…!
Gerhard Budin, Conference Chair
Vesna Lusinsky, Local Organising Committee
______________________________________________________

Sample 3.

3rd International Conference on


New Horizons in Education
INTE 20…
June 5 – 7 20…..
Prague, CHECK REPUBLIC
First Call for Papers

“The International Conference of New Horizons in


Education” (INTE -20…) is an international educational
activity for academics, teachers and educators. It promotes
the development and dissemination of theoretical
knowledge, conceptual research, and professional
knowledge through conference activities, the conference
proceedings book. Last year INTE-20… received almost 450
applications. The conference advisory board accepted 244
applications.

35
INTE – 20… conference is supported by Governors State
University – USA, Cleveland State University – USA, Ohio
University, YSA, Cyprus International University – TRNC,
Near East University – TRNC, National Pingtung University of
Science and Technology – Taiwan, Instituto Politecnico da
Guarda – Portugal, Suleyman Sah University – Turkey and
will take place on 5 – 7 June, 20… at the Dorint Hotel Don
Giovanni, Prague, Check Republic.
All full paper presentations will be published in an online
proceedings book of INTE 20… and the selected papers will
be published in:
 The Online Journal of New Horizons in Education –
TOJNED (www.tojned.net)
 The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology
TOJET (www.tojet.net) (SSCI)
We would like to invite you to share your experience and
your
papers with academicians, teachers and professionals.
Conference Language
Papers can be sent in English, Turkish, Check, German,
Italian, French, Russian and Spanish but brief English
abstract is required and all submission process will be in
English.
Deadlines
Abstract submission: 29th May, 20…
Full paper submission : 30 May, 20…
Registration: 30th May, 20…
Registration fee
Early-bird registration (valid before April 5 th): - 250 euros
Regular registration (valid from 6 April until 30 May): –300
euros
Student registration fee: - 165
euros
__________________________________________________________________

36
Skill Building
1. Translate the following phrases and sentences into Russian.
1) The 24th Annual Biology Research conference was held in Gatlinburg,
Tennessee, April 5 -8, 2006.
2) The conference on security opened on 3 July, 2012.
3) The symposium will be held under the auspices of the Colombian University.
4) Every learned society, whatever its size, must call its members together once a
year for an annual general meeting.
5) The Chairman presented the main speakers and invited observers.
6) The registration fee will be $350 for full participants.
7) Registration fee can be paid at the place of registration.
8) In the event of cancellation of the registration before April 30, 50% of the
registration fee will be refunded.
9) The plenary applauded professor D.’s statement.
10) Fifteen members attended the panel session.
11) Contributed papers will be presented in poster session format only.
12) The poster session will be held at the hotel.
13) More than 400 papers are scheduled for presentation during the symposium.
14) Some papers were presented during the open meeting.
15) Papers must be submitted by 15 August.
16) Papers should be presented in English, French and German.
2. Insert the verbs in brackets in the proper form.
1) Papers received after the deadline may not (приниматься).
2) The abstracts (будут опубликованы) in the conference proceedings.
3) The session (продолжалась) without a break from 9:00a.m. to 12:00.

37
4) The XIV Pacific Science Congress (состоялся) in Khabarovsk from 20 August
to 5 September.
5) Registration (включает) participation in all sessions, book of abstracts,
welcome package, coffee breaks and lunches.
6) Abstracts (не должны превышать) 300 words.
7) You (любезно приглашаетесь) to take part in V International Geological
Conference.
8) Papers submitted (рецензируются) by the Conference Advisory Committee.
9) The presentation time (будет ограничено) to 15 minutes.
10) Papers (могут быть представлены) in English, German, French and Russian,
but they (должны быть прочитаны) in English.
3. Translate into English.
1) Мы рады приветствовать участников конгресса в нашей стране.
2) Последний срок подачи тезисов – 25 мая.
3) Максимальный объем тезисов – 350 слов.
4) Регистрационный взнос не покрывает расходы на проживание и проезд.
5) Установлены различные виды регистрационного взноса для разных
категорий участников.
6) Можно прочитать доклад лично, представить в виртуальной форме или в
виде стендового доклада.
7) Полный текст доклада не должен превышать 8 страниц, включая
заголовок, сам текст и список литературы.
8) Каждый участник должен заполнить регистрационную форму и выслать
ее вместе с текстом тезисов по электронной почте в адрес организационного
комитета.
9) Ректор открыл пленарное заседание приветствием, обращенным ко всем
присутствующим.
38
10) Секционные заседания будут проходить в отеле «Ритц» после обеда.

Conference Program
Программа конференции может быть предварительная и окончательная.
Окончательная программа конференции печатается за несколько дней до
начала конференции, когда уже ясно, сколько участников оплатили
регистрационный взнос, и сколько человек будет участвовать в конференции.
В программе указываются имена всех участников и время их выступления.
Предварительная программа (preliminary program(me) предлагает
расписание работы конференции и проведения культурно-социальных
мероприятий. Она составляется задолго до начала работы конференции.
Ниже приводится образец подобной программы.

Conference Program
The 20 .. National Tourism and Events Excellence Conference will be held in
Melbourne on Monday 16 and Tuesday 17 July.

Day 1 – Monday 16 July 20…


08:30 –08:40 WELCOME TO COUNTRY
08:40 – 08:50 OPENING CEREMONY
08:50 – 09:00 CO-CONVENORS MESSAGE
09:00 – 09:20 WORLD TOURISM OVERVIEW
Taleb Rifai, Secretary General, United Nations World Tourism
Organization (UNWTO)
09:20 – 09:40 NATIONAL TOURISM OUTLOOK
09:40 – 10:00 ECONOMIC OUTLOOK
10:00 – 10:30 HEADLINE SPEAKER (TBC)
10:30 – 11:00 MORNING TEA
11:00 – 11:20 MAJOR EVENTS
Mark Peters, Chief Executive, Gold coast 2018 Commonwealth Games Bid
11:20 – 11:40 NATIONAL EVENTS

39
Gillian Minervini, Creative Director/Producer – Events, City of Sydney
11:40 – 12:30 FUTURE OUTLOOK PANEL
12:30 – 13:30 LUNCH
13:30 - 15:00 KEYNOTE SPEAKERS
15:00 – 15:30 AFTERNOON TEA
15:30 – 17:00 CONCURRENT SESSIONS Applied Operators Workshop
17:00 – 18:00 WELCOME RECEPTION
19:00 – 23:00 EXCELLENCE DINNER
__________________________________________________________________

Day 2 – Tuesday 17 July 20…

PLENARY SESSION
09:00 – 09:20 ONLINE TRENDS
Darren Keppie, Industry Manager Travel & Tourism, Google
Australia
09:20 – 09:40 SOCIAL MEDIA
Kim Mckay, Director, Klick Communications
09:40 – 10:00 INNOVATIVE MARKETING
10:00 – 10:30 PANEL SESSIONS
10:30 – 11:00 MORNING TEA
11:00 – 15:00 CONCURRENT SESSIONS
15:00 – 15:30 AFTERNOON TEA
PLENARY SESSION
15:30 – 16:00 AVIATION
16:00 – 17:00 DEBATE AND CLOSE
17:00 – 21:00 NETWORKING DINNER

1. Write a locally-based international conference program(me).

Invitation Letter to the Conference


1. Study the contents and composition of personal invitations to conferences.
Point out word combinations you may use in writing letters of invitation.

40
Sample 1.

Ku Kahakalau
Executive Director
Indigenous Center for Higher Learning
Hawaii
USA
Our Ref. LIT2012/1080087
Dear Dr. Kahakalau,
I would like to inform you that the selection committee has decided to accept your
submission entitled:
Value-based Indigenous/Foreign Language Learning
for an oral presentation of 15-20 minutes, including discussion, at the 5th Annual
International Conference on Literature, Languages and Linguistics to be held in
Athens, Greece on 9 – 12 July 20.. . Your presentation is scheduled on 10 July,
from 11:30 to 11:50. You will receive further instructions about presentations 1-2
weeks before the conference, i.e. venue, details, time, etc. We will also upload the
information to the conference website: http://www.atiner.gr/literature.htm. Please
confirm your participation by completing and sending the registration form
enclosed in this letter before 27 February 20 … by fax, regular mail or email.

For your convenience, a special conference rate has been arranged with the
conference hotel, a luxury hotel. Please complete the registration form below for
the nights you want accommodation for. Reservations should be made as soon as
possible as the offer only stands as long as rooms are available. The conference
social program includes official dinners and educational trips to the Acropolis Hill
(Parthenon), Delphi and the historical islands of Aigina, Hydra and Poros. These
events give the opportunity to our conference participants to further discuss the
issues developed during the formal sessions and establish academic collaborations
with other scholars from many different countries.

If you want your paper to be considered (peer reviewed) for publication, please
submit your manuscript by 11 June 20… following the paper guidelines. Papers
cannot exceed 5000 words (everything included) and must be sent by email only.

41
I look forward to meeting you in Athens.
Sincerely,
Gregory T. Papanikos
President
Athens Institute for Education and Research

Sample 2.

TEXTESOL III
Texas Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages
1103 West 24th Street, Austin, Texas 78705
February 11, 20…

Dear Mr. Black,


We are pleased to inform you that your presentation at the 20 .. TEXTESOL III
Spring Conference has been scheduled as follows:
Date: February 19 (Saturday)
Time: 11:10 - 11:40
Room: Padre Island

The conference site is the Hyatt Regency Hotel on Town Lake between Congress
Ave. and South 1st St. Our registration and exhibits area is on the entrance level.
You will probably want to arrive around 8 a.m. in order to pick up your
conference program book and badge before the first session begins at 8:30.
At the plenary session Mary Ann Brewer will speak on “The Power of Story as a
Teaching Tool”.
Also, you won’t want to miss our luncheon speaker, David Fleming, author and
school teacher, who will talk about teaching experiences and tell a story that
demonstrates the arbitraries of barriers between people.
The final sessions are scheduled to end at 4:40 and the drawing for $100
scholarships for travel to TESOL in Baltimore will be held in the registration area
at that time.

42
We would like to remind you to preregister for the conference if you have not
already done so.
If you have any questions about the program schedule, please contact Patricia
Jobe at PatJobe@edu.com.
Sincerely yours,
The Program Committee
2.Translate into English.
1)Рады сообщить Вам, что Ваш доклад включен в программу ХХ
международной конференции «Современные методы лечения
сердечнососудистых заболеваний», которая состоится в Милане 24-27 июня
20.. г.
2) Ваше выступление назначено на 12 июля с 9:30 до 9:50.
3 ) Пленарное заседание начнется в 9:30 утра докладом д-ра Мерлинга из
Массачусетского технологического института.
4) Продолжительность доклада на секционных заседаниях – 15 минут, на
обсуждение докладов отводится 5 минут.
5) Культурная программа конференции включает обед в тайском ресторане и
экскурсию по городу.
6) Хотим напомнить Вам о необходимости зарегистрироваться для участия в
конференции, если Вы еще этого не сделали.

3. Write a letter of invitation to a participant of an international conference.


Use the samples above.

Section 5. Summary and Summary-Analysis Writing.

Аннотация. Реферат.
43
Lead-in
Аннотация или реферат (summary) представляет собой объективное и
краткое изложение основных идей одного или нескольких текстов: книги
(нескольких книг), статьи (статей), научного отчета, очерка, диссертации и
т.д. Для того, чтобы написать реферат (summary), необходимо:

1) Быстро просмотреть текст, отметить основные идеи.

2) Прочитать текст во второй раз, стараясь выделить основную информацию.

3) Найти главные предложения в каждом абзаце текста, подчеркнуть их.

4) Перефразировать предложения, чтобы они содержали только факты


объективной информации, а не мнения и оценки.

5) Изложить основные идеи и факты текста в логической


последовательности, чтобы они насколько возможно полно отражали
содержание.

6) Начинать изложение следует с предложения, которое информирует


читателей о названии и авторе текста. Например:

In the article “The Making of the Dutch Landscape,” Audrey Lambert states

that …

“Assignments in Exposition”, a book by Louise E. Rorabacher, discusses …

Summary имеет следующие характеристики:

1) Объективность. Оценочные суждения в реферате не нужны. Исключаются


все оценочные и эмоционально окрашенные слова. Следует также избегать
эмфатических конструкций.

44
2) Полнота изложения. Следует включать не только основные идеи, но и
факты, их подтверждающие.

Подобное краткое изложение используется для передачи содержания


научных статей.

Часто реферат содержит не только краткое изложение основных идей


статьи, диссертации, книги и т.д., но и оценку этих идей, выражение
согласия или несогласия с мнением автора. Такой реферат называется
summary-analysis. Главное в таком реферате – определенно дать понять
читателю, где мысли и мнения автора статьи (книги или диссертации), а где
собственно автора реферата. Но недостаточно только выразить согласие/
несогласие с автором статьи (книги), необходимо:

- объяснить, почему вы согласны/не согласны с автором;

- привести веские аргументы в поддержку своей точки зрения.

Важно показать, что вы не только понимаете главные идеи, заложенные


автором в произведение, но и объяснить, почему вы оцениваете эти идеи
именно таким образом. Старайтесь поддержать свое мнение своими
собственными примерами, фактами и личным опытом. Не приводите в
качестве доказательства своей правоты примеры из реферируемого
произведения.

Outline for Summary-Analysis of Written Material


 Introduction
Name of the author, title of the article
Major points to be analyzed (short summary)
Opinion about the main points of article.
 Body

45
Each body paragraph should contain:

Major point to be analyzed in that paragraph.


Direct quotes from the article, demonstrating the point being made
(optional)
Your topic sentence which states agreement or disagreement with the main
point.
Your proof of the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of that major point:
facts, examples, personal experience
Perhaps a suggestion for the improvement of the author’s major point.
 Conclusion
Perhaps only one sentence
Probably an opinion which you have proved within your summary-
analysis.

Skill Building

1.Read the samples of Introduction, Body and Conclusion of summary-


analysis.
Introduction
Example:
________________________________________________________________
introduction
A recent article in the Journal of Political Inequality “Underground Revolution”
concerns the underground leftist organizations in Iran.
summary
Authors Swenta Bolt, Geri Johnson, and Daniel Mroz discuss such information as
the political beliefs, the demonstrations, the revolution in Iran.
thesis

46
Probably because their news sources were incorrect or biased, most of the
information in this article is biased or simply wrong.
__________________________________________________________________

Body
Example:

summary
According to the authors Bolt, Johnson, and Mroz, at least one of the
major organizations is pro-Communist.
quotation
”Perhaps the most dangerous guerilla force – the one, apparently, that led
the attack against the U.S. Embassy – the pro-Moscow Fadalyeen-Kalq, or
People’s Self-Sacrifice guerilla. “What is the meaning of “dangerous” here?
topic sentence
This organization is not dangerous for Iranians or for Iran, but it is
dangerous for Iran’s enemy, for world imperialism; in fact, that was the
reason for the organization: to revolt against the corrupt rule in Iran and
against the imperialist force of the U.S. Second, the Fedayeen denied the
responsibility of the attack on the U.S. Embassy.

support
And in fact, an official report from the government showed that a rightist
group of Khomenini’s supporters was responsible for attacking the embassy.

47
After the attack, the leftist group called the Fedayeen protected the embassy.
Third and most important, the Fedayeen are not pro-Moscow. In their
political brochures it has been written many times that “We do not support
any country and we are not supported by any country.” As far as their policy
has been shown to Iranians, what they say is true: they are not going to make
Iran an independent country.

Conclusion.
A. Statement of your conclusion after reading and thinking about the written
material.
B. What points can you make?

Example:

Why did an important magazine like the Journal of Political


Inequality have these mistakes? Surely a worldwide magazine would have
better and more reliable news sources. A cynic might conclude that this
magazine is trying to influence people’s minds about the situation in Iran.
Perhaps the Journal of Political Inequality wants to frighten their readers away
from communism. If it is true that the news Americans get about Iran is
controlled and biased, several questions arise; is other news particularly about
Communist countries and revolutions in countries, also slanted? Is news
generally controlled in the U.S.? If so, who is responsible for this control?

2. Below is an essay about a controversial subject. Read it and then study the
samples in which some American students responded to it.

48
THE DANGERS OF TELEVISION
When television was first introduced into American society fifty years ago,
writers and social scientists thought that this new invention would better American
life.”Television is going to bring American families closer together,” predicted
psychologist Joel Gold in 1949. Pictures which advertised television in the 1950s
invariably showed a happy family gathered in the living room, shareing the TV
viewing experience. Who could have guessed that a quarter of a century later
Mother would be in the kitchen watching a daytime drama, dad would be in the
living room watching a ball game, and the children would be watching cartoons in
their bedroom?
Television has certainly changed American life, but not the way the first critics
predicted. The first televisions were enormously expensive, so most families
owned only one. By 1975, however, 60% of American families owned two
televisions or more; some middle class families had as many as five television sets
under one roof. Such multi-set families may keep family members in the same
house, but that hardly brings them “together”/ in fact, family outings – hiking,
going to the movies, going out to dinner – are often limited by TV because one or
more members don’t want to go: “I’ll miss my program,” is the common
complaint.
Perhaps more important than the lack of family outings is the destruction of
family time together at home. Social scientists in the 1950s could not have
realized how much television Americans would watch in the 1980s; the average
American watches 6 hours of TV a day. That leaves little time for the special
family characteristics and traditions that used to be formed during ling evenings
together. The tome devoted to games, songs, and hobbies – all shared activities –
in the years before TV is now dominated by “the tube.” And especially damaging

49
to family relationships is the elimination of the opportunities for talking, chatting,
arguing, discussing. Without such communication, family life disintegrates.
Domination is the key word. Families in American today schedule their lives
around television. Children rush home from school to watch their programs while
they do their homework. Mother shops between her special programs. The ski
slopes are nearly empty on Superbowl Sunday; football on TV takes precedence.
The family may even eat meals in front of the television. Moreover, television is
used as a baby-sitter; small children nationwide spend countless hours in front of a
TV, passively ingesting whatever flashes before their eyes.. Addition of some sort
inevitably follows; TV becomes a necessary part , and receiving a YV for his/her
own room becomes the wish of every child. Moreover, parents use the television
as a source of reward and punishment:”If you mow the lawn, you can watch TV
an extra hour tonight,” or “No TV for you. You didn’t do your homework.”
Ultimately, life-styles revolve around a regular schedule of eating, sleeping, and
watching television.
Isn’t there a better family life than this dismal, mechanized arrangement?
According to social scientist Mary Helen Thuente, “The quality of life is
diminished as family ties grow weaker, as children’s lives grow more and more
separate from their parents, as the opportunities for living and sharing within a
family are eliminated.” Indeed, if the family does not accumulate shared
experiences, it is not likely to survive. Consequently, if parents and children alike
do not change their priorities, television will continue to exert its influence on
American family life as baby-sitter, pacifier, teacher, role model, and supplier of
mores and morals, thus supplanting the place of the family in society.
Harriet B.Fidler
(U.S.)

50
Below are paragraphs selected from several student responses to this article.
Answer the following questions.
1. Do the introductions follow the correct format? How could each of the
introductions be improved?
2. Read the body paragraphs. Does each follow the format? How could you
improve each of the paragraphs?
3. Do the conclusions follow the format? Is one more effective than the other?
How could each be improved?

__________________________________________________________________
Introduction #1
Introduces “The Dangers of Television”, an essay by Harriet B.Fidler, discusses
article the role television has played in changing American values.
summary In the 1940s, television was predicted to bring families closer together .
Its influence, however, has splinted family relations. The author
Indicates that children watch TV for hours; it has become a pacifier and
a baby-sitter. Parents’ roles as educators have been replaced by TV,
preventing necessary interactions between family members.
thesis I agree with Harriet Fidler’s idea that television weakens a family’s
(agreement) ability to survive by taking away from the time they otherwise would
Spend relating to one another.

Introduction #2

introduces In the essay “The Dangers of Television”, Harriet Fidler states that
article while a television in the home at one time served a purpose in bringing
families together,
summary it has recently become more and more detrimental to that very special
relationship that exists between members of a family. She states that
“if a family does not accumulate shared experiences, it is not likely to
survive.” I can speak only form personal experiences,
thesis but I agree with Ms. Fidler’s basic assumption about the role of

51
(agreement television in the American home. However, I believe that there are
and solutions to the problems she states.
disagreement)

***
Body Paragraph #1
summary and Ms. Fidler thinks that while television initially had a good effect
small quote on family life, it now ‘dominates” the family.
topic sentence I have seen the effects of television on my own family and I
agree with the author of this article.
support: As a child, I can remember watching very little television. The
detail majority of my time was spent outdoors with my family,
personal gardening, playing, caring for livestock. Once a week my
experience grandparents would come to visit and we’d all ride horses. How-
ever, I did have a younger brother who preferred watching tele-
vision to joining our family activities. At first we all wondered
what was wrong with him. But as the years went by we began
to join him in front of the TV; no longer were ‘Wild Kingdom”
or “The World of Disney” the only program I watched. Soon I
too was watching situation comedies, game shows, sport events,
and, eventually, anything that was on the tube.

Body Paragraph #2

summary Ms. Fidler states in her essay that instead of brining families
together, television separates them by giving no time for con-
versation or airing personal viewpoints.
direct quote “Especially damaging to family relationships is the elimination
of opportunities to talk.”
topic sentence I disagree with this position. Maybe some families like the one
disagreement mentioned in the article have problems communicating, but my
family uses their leisure time more wisely.
support: We play games, talk – often about television programs we have
watched together – go camping and hiking as a family, and enjoy
example, each other’s company. We watch TV frequently, but only

52
personal programs we really want to see. Probably my brother’s and my
experience TV habits were formed by my mother, who controlled our TV
watching when we were too young to know what was good or
bad. For the American family used in the article, I think their
TV viewing time should be organizes more wisely so the parents
are able to spend more time with their children.

Body Paragraph #3

summary The author makes a powerful point about family togetherness


when she mentions the effect TV viewing has on simple family
routine:
direct “Life-styles revolved around a regular schedule of eating, sleeping,
quotation and watching TV.” Practically, as well as traditionally,
more dinner is the single time when the family can finally come together.
summary The opportunity is there for discussion, exchanging ideas, solving
problems, and expressing concern and love.
topic Sadly, however, TV has taken priority
sentence Even in my family, although we are all required to sit
at dinner table together, there are times when the colorful screen
holds
(agreement) more interest than how our dog ate the room deodorizer or how Dad
support: was run off the road on his moped. The points is that no matter how
detail, animated or boring the table discussion is, it should be a time
personal cherished and not discarded for any TV program.
experience

***
Conclusion #1
summary In summary, the philosophy stated in Harriet Fidler’s “The
Dangers of Television” and my personal benefits about television
viewing are almost alike. The senseless watching of countless hours
response of TV has left many families void of love and companionship. And,
to top it off, we’re perfecting the garbage to feed future generations.

53
Conclusion #2
Overall Most people take television for granted and accept it as a necessary
personal part of their everyday routine. Television has been used for so many
response years as a source of entertainment in America that most people
wouldn’t know what to do without it. Television, along with many
other factors in our modern lives, is truly weakening family ties.
prediction If Harriet Fidler’s predictions are true, there will probably be a day
when a family that does anything besides watch TV will be looked
upon as strange and old-fashioned.

3.Реферат отличает логичность изложения. Чтобы добиться логичности


изложения надо обеспечивать плавный переход от предложения к
предложению, от одной мысли к другой в составе одного предложения.
Этого можно добиться с помощью слов-связок (linking words/phrases).

Значение Слова-связки
To introduce points One major/another /one other
advantage/disadvantage, a further /the
greatest advantage of, one point of
view in favor of/against
To express cause Because, owing to the fact…, due to
the fact that, on the grounds that, since,
as, in view of …, because of…, owing
to …, for this reason, seeing that…,
now that…
To list points First of all…, then…, also…, in the
first place…, to start with…, secondly,
thirdly…, finally…, last but not least,
furthermore…, in addition, what is
more, besides, not to mention the fact
that …, in addition to this/that…
To introduce examples For example, for instance, in particular,
like, especially, such as.

54
To make comparison Similarly, comparable, in the same
way, likewise, equally, just as…so too,
as well
To make contrasting points On the other hand, however, in spite of,
but, while, nevertheless, despite, even
though, although, it can be argued
that…, on the contrary, even so,
alternatively, in contrast, whereas
To show result Because of this, as a result,
consequently, accordingly, hence,
therefore, thus, thereupon, so

To conclude In short, on the whole, in other words,


to sum up, all in all, in conclusion, to
be sure, taking everything into
account, as it was previously stated,
consequently, thus, in brief

4. Complete the following sentences.

1) Public transport is often more convenient than taking one’s car, and is also
________________________________________________________________ .
2) Being able to speak a foreign language is very useful when abroad.
Furthermore, ____________________________________________________.
3) Although living abroad can be an interesting experience, ________________
_________________________________________________________________.
4) Being self-employed means that you are your own boss. However, _________
_________________________________________________________________.
5) Exercise can help you to lose weight. What is more, ____________________
_________________________________________________________________.

55
6) Experimenting on animals is cruel, not to mention the fact that
__________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________ .
7) Package holidays are cheap. On the other hand, _______________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________.
8) While living alone can be lonely, it __________________________________.
9) Keeping up with fashion takes a lot of effort. In addition, _________________
_________________________________________________________________ .
10) Watching television can be educational. Nevertheless, __________________
__________________________________________________________________
_____________________ .
11) The scheme is likely to fail; for this reason__________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________.
12) The government decided not to fund the project owing to the fact that_____
_________________________________________________________________.
13) American universities produce most of the world’s Nobel laureates and
scientific papers. Moreover___________________________________________
________________________________________________________________ .
14) As online education spreads, universities ___________________________
________________________________________________________________ .
5. Complete the sentences below with linking words/phrases.
1) Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have demonstrated that a dieter
should drink a cup of hot soup before s meal; _________________________
his eating pace will be slower.

56
2) One goal of the agricultural experiment is to determine the best fertilizer for
wheat; the _____________________ is to decide the amount of water necessary
for proper growth.
3) __________Turkish coffeehouses are very simply decorated, they have a
special atmosphere.
4) The best time to have a garage sale is on the weekends, ______________
people are at home more and have more time to spend at garage sales.
5) A sentence ought not to have any words that are not entirely necessary, and
________________, there should be no unnecessary sentences contained within a
paragraph.
6) It is impossible to learn statistical analysis, _____________ you have never
learned how to add or subtract numbers.
7) ________________ inventing “dry plates”, George Eastman, the founder of
Eastman Kodak, made photography a portable pastime. _______________he
created flexible film that could be rolled into a special camera.
8) The use of a good dictionary and a thesaurus ( a dictionary of synonyms) is
essential for expanding your vocabulary. _______________other word problems
such as incorrect spelling or a limited vocabulary will also hinder your writing.
9)A turtle differs from other reptiles _______________ its body is encased in a
shell.
10) Infection can cause both fever and pain __________________________take
his temperature to be sure of the problem.
11)Mankind must limit population growth ________________ overpopulation
will result in famine.
12) Conditions in the small country have grown severe _________________
refugees have risked death to escape.

57
6. Combine some of the sentences to increase the unity and coherence of the
paragraph. Use the linking words/phrases.
Nicaragua is a country. It is one of the countries of Central America. Central
America is located on the isthmus. There are five countries in Central America.
Nicaragua is in the middle of the isthmus. It is the largest of the countries in
Central America. It is about 81,249 square miles. It is not as big as the United
States. In comparison it is much smaller. But size is not so important. Nicaragua is
beautiful.

7. Read the article and summarize it in no more than fifty words.

Wages for Housewives?


As working women continue to receive better and better wages, housewives
still work at home without receiving paychecks. Should a woman who works at
home, doing the housework and caring for children, be paid for her services? In a
1986 study at Cornell University, sociologists found that the value of the services
of a housewife averaged $ 11,600 a year. This rate was based on a family
composed of a husband, wife, and three young children. The $ 11,600 is what the
husband would have to pay if he hired others to take over his wife’s household
chores. The researchers concluded that it would be fair for husbands to pay wives
according to federal guidelines for minimum wages
Another plan for rewarding women who work at home has been suggested by a
former Secretary of Health and Human Services. He says that full-time
housewives should be allowed to pay social security taxes, with their employers
(that is, their husbands) contributing part of the payment. He feels that the present
system is unfair. He said, “If you work as a clerk in a store you can qualify for
Social Security, but if you stay at home and raise a family, nobody will give you
credit for it.”

6. Read the two short articles below. Then summarize each article in
approximately one hundred words.

58
Transferring Western Technology to Developing Nations
During the 1980s, unemployment and underemployment in some countries has
been as high as 90%. Some countries do not produce enough food; basic needs in
housing and clothing are unmet. Many of these countries look to the industrial
processes of the developed nations for solutions to these problems.
But the problems are not always solved this way. The industry of the developed
nations is highly automated and very expensive. It provides fewer jobs than non-
automated industrial processes, and highly skilled workers are needed to maintain
and repair the equipment. These workers must be trained, but many nations do not
have the necessary training institutions. Thus, the cost of importing industry
becomes higher. Students must be sent abroad to receive vocational and
professional training. Often, just to begin training, the students must first learn
English, French, German, or Japanese. The students then spend many years
abroad and some do not return home.
All nations agree that science and technology should be shared. However,
countries adopting the industrial processes of the developed nations need to look
carefully at the costs. Many of these costs are hidden. Students from these nations
should study the problems of the industrializes countries closely. With care, they
will take home not the problems of science and technology, but the benefits.

__________________________________________________________________
Foreign Students and the U.S. Student Shortage
In recent years, college and university administrators have faced a new
challenge: a shortage of traditional, eighteen- to twenty-two-year-old full-time
students. Trying to solve the problem, the 3,200 postsecondary institutions in the
U.S. are offsetting the declining enrollment of traditional students by increasing
the number of “nontraditional” students (those aged twenty-five and over).
Fortunately, while the American supply of full-time students is slipping, the
worldwide supply is ever increasing. Bringing in more foreign students could help
avert serious damage in U.S. postsecondary education while helping to educate
young people of the developing world. Right now there are a record 342,000
foreign students in the United States, but they constitute only 3 percent of the total
U.S. student population of 12 million.
Increasing that number would accomplish a number of desirable goals
simultaneously: increasing the number of full-time students on U.S. campuses,

59
internationalizing what has become a much too parochial American education
system, and developing the potential of poor countries by educating and training
their best and brightest students. It would also make friends for America
throughout the world. Finally, and perhaps most important, it builds the
foundation of a more peaceful world through improved mutual understanding
across borders. Recruiting more international students, especially from developing
countries, offers the U.S. an opportunity to address long-term problems at
American campuses while spreading the bounty of higher education throughout a
world thirsting for knowledge. That, after all, is the kind of positive force in world
affairs that America can and should aspire to be.

7. Find a research paper and write a summary of it. Your summary should
contain the following information:
1.Title of the article and appropriate bibliographic information:
volume number, page numbers, etc.
2. A description of the problem area studied
3. A statement of the question that the author attempted to
Summary answer
4. The major findings and conclusions of the study
5. The adequacy of the conclusions in studying the question
Asked
6. The practical significance of the study
Analysis 7. Additional research needed on the problem
8. The value of the article in significantly advancing our
Understanding and solving of the problem studied

Section6. Research Paper. Abstract.


Научная статья. Тезисы.
Lead-in
Любая научная работа (статья, доклад, курсовая) в англоязычной
традиции пишется по определенной схеме. Обычно научная статья для

60
публикации в журнале ограничивается 10-12 страницами, в сборнике статей
– несколько большим количеством ( 15-18 страницами).
Научная статья (Research Paper)обязательно включает:
a) название (title),
b) имя автора (author's name)
с) название организации или страны, которую представляет автор (the
author’s affiliation)
d) краткую аннотацию/ тезисы (abstract)
e) введение (introduction)
f) методы исследования (methods)
g) результаты исследования (results)
i) обсуждение результатов и/или выводы ( discussion and/or conclusion)
h) список литературы/библиографию ( references/bibliography).
Обратите внимание, что все знаменательные слова в названии
(существительные, глаголы и т.д.) пишутся с заглавной буквы.
Тезисы (abstract) обязательно сопровождают заявку на любую
международную конференцию. Тезисы также являются частью
научной статьи. Тезисы – это краткое изложение доклада (или научной
статьи). Как правило, объем тезисов не превышает 300-500 слов, включая
заголовок. Тезисы обязательно должны содержать:

а) указание на предмет исследования;


в) методы исследования;
с) полученные результаты исследования.
Чтобы из текста статьи или доклада получить короткий текст тезисов,
приходится прибегать к процедуре реферирования (summarizing).

61
Vocabulary

Remember the words and word combinations you may use in writing
summaries, abstracts and research papers.
1. according to this/universal view согласно данному/общему
мнению…
2. to address (the question) разрешить, найти решение
3. to cite smth (various reasons for) указывать, приводить, ссылаться
на…( редко «цитировать»)
4. conclusion заключение
5. to emerge появляться, выявляться
( usu. In the Passive)
e.g. The five results that emerge В качестве результатов
from the study are … исследования можно привести
следующие пять …
6. to employ применять, использовать
7. to examine/study/research изучать, рассматривать,
исследовать
8. data collection сбор данных, материала
9. to describe описывать, излагать, давать
определение
10. to identify определять, выделять
(причины, пути …)
11. issue вопрос, проблема
e.g. On the issue of … К вопросу о …

62
12. method метод
13. methodology методы, набор методов,
методология
14. purpose цель ( исследования)
e.g. The purpose of the study Исследование преследует
is twofold . двойную цель.
15. research исследование
16. research article/paper научная статья/работа/рефе-
рат/доклад
17. research design содержание, план исследо-
вания ( краткое описание
работы)
18. research objectives/questions задачи исследования
19. to show/indicate показывать, указывать,
утверждать
e.g. The data indicate … Данные/результаты
указывают на то, что …
20. The paper/article deals with … В докладе/статье говориться о

21.The article/paper is concerned with … Статья/доклад посвящен …
22. The relationship between … Были выявлены зависимости
was/has been established между…
23. The interaction between … Было установлено взаимодей-
Was/has been determined ствие ……
24. Some information concerning … Были получены данные,
was/has been obtained касающиеся …..
25. It was/has been found that … Было выявлено, что …
63
26. It was/has been shown that… Было продемонстрировано,
что…
27. It was/has been postulated that… Было заявлено, что…
28. It was/has been established that … Было установлено, что…
29. It was/has been suggested that … Было высказано предполо-
жение о том, что…
30. It was/has been concluded that… Был сделан вывод о том, что .

31. The problem here to be studied is … Рассматриваемая проблема

заключается в том, что …


32. The problem (raised, studied, discussed, Рассматриваемая (поставленная,
Considered) … изучаемая, обсуждаемая)
проблема …
33. The current interest in this problem Интерес к данной проблеме
lies in… в настоящий момент
обусловлен
тем, что …
34. Thus the core of the problem is … Таким образом, суть проблемы
заключается в …
35. The problem under discussion is … Рассматриваемая проблема
является ….
36. Before proceeding to the subject of Прежде, чем перейти к теме
The discussion … обсуждения …
-

64
37. We/the article shall examine the Мы/статья рассмотрим(ит)
relations between … взаимосвязь между …
38.. The object of our exploration is … Объектом исследования
является …
39. The objective of the research is to … Задачей исследования является
40. It is beyond our present purpose to … В задачи исследования не входит.
41. We must acknowledge that … Следует признать, что …
42. We cannot set aside the fact that … Мы не можем игнорировать
тот факт, что…
43.The conventional approach to this problem Традиционный подход к
is based on … данной проблеме основан
на …
46. It may be assumed that … Можно предположить, что
47. By this we imply … Под этим мы подразумеваем
48. There is some opposition to the Эта мысль/точка зрения под-
idea that … держивается не всеми…
49. Many researchers have disagreed Многие исследователи не
that … cоглашаются с тем, что…
50. Smb. argues that… Имярек возражает по поводу
того, что …
51. Although the findings of this research Хотя результаты данного ис-
are far from conclusive … следования не претендуют
на завершенность/ не могут
считаться окончательными…
52. It is questionable from the point of view Это спорно с точки зрения…
of …
53.The question still remains open … Вопрос все еще остается
65
открытым.
54. Our knowledge of… is not yet Наше знание о … является
comprehensive to … недостаточным, чтобы…
55. Within the framework of the paper В рамках настоящей работы
it is impossible to… невозможно…
56. Current literature has provided Современная литература
содержит
contradictory findings. противоречивые данные/
результаты
57. There is a number of trends in the Существует ряд направлений
study of … в изучении…
58. This is illustrated by the following Это можно проиллюстриро-
example… вать на следующем примере.
59. It enables us to draw a conclusion Это позволяет сделать
that… вывод о том, что …
60. We, thus, arrive at the following Таким образом, мы приходим
observation … к следующему выводу…

Skill Building

1. Read the following sample abstracts. Pay attention to the structure and
wording of the topic sentences.

Sample Abstract 1.

PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN AND PLAY


66
Abstract
Play is the most important task for early childhood education and development.
This research article is concerned with the areas of pre-school children’s play. It
analyzes in depth the meaning, the characteristics, and the value of play during
children’s growth. It also introduces the types and courses of play based on
different age and development periods in the lives of pre-school children, and it
stresses the importance of indoor and outdoor environments that affect children’s
play. Finally, successful ways to direct the play of pre-school children are
suggested.

Sample Abstract 2.
THE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM IN BOLIVIA
Abstract
This paper deals with the recent system of Vocational Education implemented in
Bolivia during the past five years. The experimental project, based on a similar
foreign program, was a failure due to the fact that it was not adapted to the
Bolivians’ needs. This paper will show that the idea itself was good and may lead
to a fine Vocational Education System once a few major adaptations are realized.
2. Read the following abstracts. Identify the topic sentences.

Sample Abstract 1.
__________________________________________________________________
A CASE STUDY OF THE STUDY ABROAD DECISION: ACADEMIC AND
INCOME PERSPECTIVES
Robert N. Horn; Robert T Jerome; Marion M White

In this case study we examine some of the contentions that are inferred onto
study abroad programs, namely the additional monetary outlays, required to study
abroad and the additional time needed to complete the degree. Using data
collected by the Studies Abroad Office at an undergraduate teaching university
together with data collected from continuing surveys at the same university, we
find that students who spend a semester abroad tend to be from slightly more
affluent families than students who do not participate in these programs.
Furthermore, students who study abroad do not, on average, take longer to
complete their degrees than students who do not study abroad.
67
__________________________________________________________________

Sample Abstract 2. (Abstract for Research Conference)

VALUES-BASED INDIGENOUS/FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING


Ku Kuhakalau
Executive Director, Halau Wanana, Indigenous Center for Higher Learning,
Hawaii
This presentation explicates an innovative indigenous language study
approach, which brings together a focus on cultural values, strong oral
communication techniques, and modern technology to develop language
proficiency in students of all ability levels. This approach to indigenous/foreign
language acquisition was developed over a decade of action research by team of
Hawaiian researchers and language experts and has been successfully tested with
hundreds of K-12 students learning the Hawaiian language.
Value-based language learning allows students to enter the indigenous/foreign
language acquisition process at any stage of their language growth and assists
them to advance until they attain proficiency in the target language. In addition to
learning how to speak, read and write the language, students also focus on
studying the target culture with a specific emphasis on learning basic cultural
beliefs through traditional proverbs that constitute the foundational values of the
culture. This pioneering method integrates a highly interactive immersion in the
language environment with the use of the latest in multimedia technology,
allowing students to become creators of information in the target language. Value-
based language learning is designed to allow learners of all ages and ability levels,
ranging from elementary students to adults, to move at their own pace as they are
immersed in an environment that makes learning fun and exciting.
While this approach can be successfully used to teach and learn all languages,
it is especially appropriate for individuals and groups focusing on indigenous
language learning, since in general these languages have only limited access to
commercially developed language materials. To address the lack of educational
materials, this paper will also present a novel method of how teachers and students
can produce indigenous/foreign language learning materials together, using
learner-friendly multimedia technology.
3. Write the abstract of your research paper to be submitted to a conference.
68
4. Read the list of research paper titles. What field does each research paper
belong to?
1) Classroom Activities that Increase Creativity in the Preschool Child.
2) Professional Communication in a World of Diversity.
3) Aero Flotation to Remove Grease and Oil from Water.
4) Problems of Undergraduate Foreign Students in the United States.
5) Recent Developments and Applications of Microextraction Techniques in Drug
Analysis.
6) Decoding Technical Codes in Professional Translation.
7) The Current Kurdish Iraqi Government Relations: An Assessment
8) Profit and its Impact on the Development of Foreign Trade on the Example of a
Small Business.
9) International Criminal Justice and the American System of Criminal Procedure.
10) Museum and Exhibition Design in the Digital Age.
11) Global Positioning Systems as it is Related to Trisecting Angels.
12) Did the Euro Harm the Greek Economy?
13) Quantitative Analyses of Street Network Density in Diverse Urban Contexts.
14) Discussing Demographic Transitions in Southern Mediterranean Countries.
15) Application of Reliability Analysis in Structural Engineering.
16) Peer- Reviewed Journals and the Challenges of Open Publishing: A
Portuguese Case Study.
17) Development of Self-Immunity Scale.
18) Interactive Linea Models in Survey Sampling.
19) Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision: New Concepts and
Challenges.
20) How to Support Students’ First Year Experience at University with ICT.

69
21) Effects of Different Growing Mediums on Nutrient Concentration of Eggplant
in Soilless Culture.
5. 1 Study general characteristics of the Research Paper.

General Format of the Research Paper.

INTRODUCTION
1. Gives necessary background material
2. States the purpose of the paper
A. thesis statement of opinion and/or
B. thesis statement of intent
BODY: Each section of the research paper contains body paragraphs;
Each paragraph
1. contains a topic sentence and/or a heading that is directly related to
the thesis statements.
2. contains supporting sentences and detail that explain, define, clarify, and
Illustrate the topic sentence of the paragraph.
3. shows complete thought development.
4. contains coherence devices; coherence between paragraphs consists of
Paragraphs hooks and transitions.
CONCLUSION
1. Must be integrally related to the thesis statement
2. Should contain a summary of the main points
3. Contains a solution, a prediction, or a recommendation.

5.2 Objectives of the research paper may be expressed in the form of


questions.
70
Read the research questions.
- What creative and linguistic strategies are employed by marketing specialists
to promote their services by e-mail?
- What implication does this have for the teaching of this genre?
- Are the non-codified variants known to experts?
- Are there alternative fuels for internal combustion engines?
- What are the psychological effects of noise?
- What is the role of chromium in human nutrition?
5.3. Write the objectives of your research paper in the form of questions.
6. Read what methods can be used in a research paper:
- context analysis
- content analysis
- quantitative analysis
- analysis of study programs and vocational profiles/job advertisement/ etc.
- interviews with …

7. Read the information about the paragraph and topic sentence.


Каждый абзац содержит главное предложение, так или иначе, отражающее
основную мысль научной работы. Другие предложения должны уточнять,
объяснять, иллюстрировать мысль, содержащуюся в главном предложении.
Все предложения должны быть связаны с помощью linking words, что
обеспечивает логичность изложения.
Предложение, кратко выражающее главную мысль абзаца, называется
TOPIC SENTENCE.Мысль, выраженная в этом предложении, развивается и
поддерживается в тексте абзаца или тезисов. В каждом абзаце научной
работы и в тезисах, даже самых коротких, должно содержаться topic
sentence. Оно может находиться в начале или в середине абзаца. Topic
71
sentence должно:1) быть полным; 2)быть конкретным; 3)ясно выражать
главную мысль.
7.1. Read the fragments of the topical sentences and complete them in one or
more ways.
1) Through the class activities, the teacher can develop creativity in the preschool
child __________________________________________________________ .
2) Tourism can help poor women break the poverty cycle __________________
_________________________________________________________________ .
3) To learn to write a paragraph ________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________ .
4) One of the most important steps in increasing GDP ______________________
_________________________________________________________________ .
5) The ability to use eye tracking to control a computer has obvious advantages
________________________________________________________________ .
7.2 Read the topic sentence that fail to be clear and the possible ways to
improve it.
1) Street and highway construction in California is a debatable subject.
Possible corrections:
Many people in San Francisco argue that the Embarcadero Freeway is ugly
and obscures the view.
All three-lane highways in California should be abolished.
Highway construction in California may diminish or even stop because of the
increased cost of gasoline.
2) House painting should be approached with caution.
Possible corrections:
House painting can be an interesting family project if carefully planned.

72
House painting is an expensive but necessary part of home maintenance that
must be carefully budgeted and planned for by home-owners.
House painting is a career that more people should think about going into.
7.3 Read the following topic sentences. They suggest many topics rather than
one, or they are vague or mysterious. Correct them.
1) The proper rearing of children is a debatable subject.
2) Newspapers play a major role in shaping American values.
3) The feminist movement is controversial.
4) Television can become a bad habit.
5) Censorship is a debatable topic.
6) English is not the favorite subject of some students.
7) Civil rights now are more important because of the sixties.
7.4 Read the examples of the topic sentences that fail to be sufficiently
specific. Consider the possible ways to improve them.
1) Following the Ten Commandments is difficult.
Possible corrections:
Many young people fail to keep the commandment to honor their parents.
The commandment to work six days a week is out- of-date.
The commandment to rest on the seventh day should not be interpreted as
meaning only the seventh day.
2) A college student should know how to write a good composition.
Possible corrections:
Writing an outline is an aid to organizing a composition.
Sentence length and structure should be varied in a composition.
The thesis sentence of a composition is comparable to the topic sentence of a
paragraph.
The paragraphs of a composition must be related to each other.
73
7.5 The following sentences are too broad or too general. Try and correct
them in one or more ways.
1) Nursing is a worthwhile career.
2) It is difficult for a person of European descent to understand the Oriental mind.
3) Going to college is a serious business.
4) Most students have difficulty mastering mathematics.
5) Radicals have nothing in common with conservatives.
6) Compact cars are more practical than standard size cars.

8. Fill in the following blanks with appropriate prepositions and


conjunctions.

Natural selection can favor certain mutations and provide them with an
advantage _________________survival. A trait __________ humans called sickle
cell anemia offers an excellent example _______________ how natural selection
operates ____________ favor a genetic mutant. Sickle cell anemia is a condition
caused ________________ sickle-shaped red blood cells that _________normal
individuals are round. The outward manifestation _______________ this
anomalous condition is reduced ability___________ carry oxygen
_____________ the muscles ____________the body. __________oxygen is
essential ___________ the proper functioning ________ muscles, individuals
___________ sickle cell anemia become easily exhausted and sometimes delirious
___________ exercise. _____________, one who is born _______ the sickle cell
anemia trait is immune _____________ malaria. __________regions
________Africa where malaria seriously threatens survival, up _______ forty
percent______________ the population exhibits the sickle cell trait. What
ordinarily would be an undesirable mutation becomes a selective
74
advantage_________ areas where malaria jeopardize the viability_______ normal
individuals.
9. Classify the phrases given below into 2 groups: a) those introducing the
subject of the study; b) those considering the results obtained.

1. The mechanism of … has been fully confirmed.


2. Research into … has been done.
3. These data favor the assumption that … l
4. The results obtained suggest an alternative mechanism of … .
5. The values of … were estimated.
6. The components of … are examined.
7. The consistency of the assumption of … was tested.
8. The idea of … has been considered.
9. Evidence for … was provided.
10. The function of … has been considered.
11. The phenomenon of … has been discussed.
12. A series of experiments on … were performed.

9. Translate into English.


1.Доклад посвящен современному положению во внешней торговле стран
Центральной Америки.
2. Была продемонстрирована зависимость курса национальной валюты от
ситуации на рынке ценных бумаг.
3. Существует ряд подходов в изучении причин повторяющихся засух в
центральной Африке.
4. Задачами работы являются: 1) выяснить, какие существуют формы
взаимодействия региональных органов законодательной и исполнительной
75
власти со СМИ; 2) как влияет это взаимодействие на формирование образа
власти у населения регионов.
5. Существует ряд направлений в изучении посттравматического синдрома.
6. Настоящий интерес к данной проблеме обусловлен значительным
увеличением аллергических заболеваний у детей дошкольного возраста.
7. Точка зрения автора представляется спорной в свете последних
достижений исторической демографии.
8. Автор ссылается на недавно обнаруженные архивные материалы.
9. Сначала автор рассматривает существующий опыт психологической
подготовки спортсменов.
10. В результате исследования были получены данные, подтверждающие
вирусную природу заболевания.
11. Был сделан вывод о том, что магнитные полюса нашей планеты время от
времени меняются местами.
12. В результате серии наблюдений был сделан вывод о наличии тревожных
признаков ускорения климатических изменений.
13. Объектом исследования являются высотные разряды в атмосфере Земли.
14. Следует признать, что существует большой разброс мнений в отношении
перспектив экономического роста в последующее десятилетие.

Section 7. Master’s Thesis.

Lead-in.

Прежде, чем приступать к написанию магистерской диссертации,


необходимо определить предмет исследования (subject), цель
76
исследования (objective), тему (topic), те вопросы, на которые
исследователь постарается найти ответы в диссертации и методы,
которые он будет использовать.

Магистерская диссертация (Thesis), включает:

a) титульный лист (title page )


b) план работы (outline of the paper)
c) аннотацию (abstract)
d)введение (introduction)
e) основной текст работы, разбитый на главы (body of the paper)
f) заключение (conclusion)
f) список литературы (footnotes / references/ bibliography ).

1. Study the Sample Title Page.

77
THE HISTORY OF ZAIRE’S INDEPENDENCE

by

Iam A. Student

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of


the requirements for the degree of

Master of Arts
(Political Science)

at the

UNIVERSITY OF WISCOBSIN-MADISON

2012

__________________________________________________________________

2. Format your Master’s Thesis Title page according to the sample above.

Skill Building

1.Read the sample outlines. Pay attention to the chapter titles/ sections.

Sample Outline 1.

78
COUNTERTRADE:
THE NEW ALTERNATIVE IN LATIN AMERICA’S
FOREIGN TRADE

OUTLINE

I. INTRODUCTION
A. General description of Latin America’s problem of
International Trade
B. Countertrade as alternative
II.BALANCE OF PAYMENT DIFFICULTIES IN LATIN AMERICA
A. Concept of Balance of Payment
B. Deficits
C. Situation in Latin America
D. External debt
III. EXPORTS AS THE PRINCIPAL INCOME IN LATIN AMERICAN
ECONOMIES
A. Few Commodities
B. Export Instability
C. Effects of World Market Price
D. Payment Difficulties, Scarcity of Foreign Exchange
IY.ADOPTION OF NEW POLICIES AND STRATEGIES
A. Bilateral Trade
B. Countertrade
V.COUNTERTRADE
A. Why Latin Americans are using countertrade
B. Definition
C. U.S. Companies’ Interest in Countertrade with Latin America
D. Countertrade Variables
E. Forms of Countertrade
1. Counter purchase
2. Compensation
VI. CONCLUSION
__________________________________________________________________
79
Sample Outline 2.
__________________________________________________________________
HOW TO IMPROVE OLIVE HARVESTING IN LIBYA

Outline

I. Introduction
A. General information about olive trees
B. Thesis statement of intent
II. Traditional Methods of Olive Harvesting
A. Hand picking
B. Natural drop
C. Beating
D. Hand shaking
III. Mechanical Harvesting
A. Combing
B. Beating
C. Mechanical shaking
1.Stem shaking
2. Main branches shaking
IY. Chemicals for helping in Mechanical Olive Harvesting
A. Maleic hyrazide
B. Ethylene releasing compounds
1. Cyclohexamid
2. Ethephon
3. CGA 13586
V. Conclusion
__________________________________________________________________
2. Write the outline of your Master’s Thesis.

3. The Introduction of the Master’s Thesis. Read the Sample introductions of


Master’s Thesis. Pay attention to the information included in the
introduction.
_
80
Sample Introduction 1.
_________________________________________________________________

THE APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING IN


ESTIMATING EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
Introduction
Definition Remote sensing is the science and art of obtaining information about
of term an object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired
by a device that is not in contact with the object, area, or phenomenon
reference under investigation (Lillesand and Kiefer, 1989). It offers us an
excellent device to use in various fields: geology, forestry, water
resources, engineering, and land use. Evapotranspiration is water lost
from this earth’s surface that man tries to study to control in order
that we can use it. It is quite difficult to study and estimate the quan-
tity of evapotranspiration from the very large earth’s surface, but now
thesis we have found a new tool: remote sensing. This paper will discuss the
statement advantages of remote sensing and will propose the use of remote sens-
of intent sing by the Ministry of Forestry in Thailand.
and opinion

Sample Introduction 2.

THE CAUSES, EFFECTS, AND PREVENTION


OF AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS
IN THE UNITED STATES

Nowadays in the United States, accidents are in an important cause


Information of death, injury, and property damage. An accident is “something
About that happens without a cause that can be seen at once, usually some-
general thing unfortunate and undesirable.” 1 There are many kinds of
topic accidents, such as work accidents, home accidents, and public accid-
ents. The statistics of the National Safety Council estimate that at
least $87.4 billion was the cost of all accidents in the U.S. in 1985
background and $ 40.6billion was the cost of motor vehicle accidents. Moreover,

81
statistics the death total – 99,000 people died accidentally in 1985 – includes
narrows about 50,800 who died in motor vehicle accidents. From the number
discussion of deaths and the cost of damage, motor vehicles are a cause of more
deaths, injuries, and paoperty damage than all other types of accidents.
Thesis This paper deals with motor vehicle accidents, which are a major
statement problem in the United States. It discusses the categories of such acci-
of intent dents, and the ways to prevent alcohol-related traffic accidents.

_________________
Footnote 1 A.S. Hornby, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current
(bottom of English (Great Britain: Oxford University Press, 1978), p.5
page)
__________________________________________________________________

4. Write the introduction of your Master’s Thesis

Section8. Citations and Bibliography.


Как оформить ссылки и библиографию

Lead-in

Существует несколько систем оформления ссылок и библиографического


списка. В этом разделе рассматриваются две наиболее распространенные
системы, предлагаемые Modern Language Association (MLA) и American
Psychological Association (APA).
Правила оформления ссылок в MLA:
 Ссылки в скобках следует помещать сразу после предложения, в
котором содержится ссылка.
 Если текст содержит прямое цитирование, то ссылка в скобках следует
сразу за кавычками.
 Если прямая цитата стоит в середине предложения, то любые знаки
препинания ставятся после скобок с ссылками.
 В случае прямого цитирования в скобках, кроме имени автора,
необходимо указать страницу.
Рассмотрим конкретные случаи оформления ссылок:

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1. Автор работы, упоминаемой в тексте, не называется в тексте. Прямое
цитирование отсутствует. В скобках после логического завершения ссылки
на работу, упоминается фамилия автора и ссылка на страницу. Например:

Hawthorne‘s son Julian recalled that his father read novels for relaxation, but
that he seriously studied popular newspapers and magazines (Reynolds 114).

2.Если имя автора упоминается в тексте, в скобках указывается только


страница, к которой относится ссылка. Например:

Herzog notes that there are more protests against experiments on domestic
animals like dogs and cats than against research involving animals like snakes
(394).
3. Если ссылка дается на всю работу (статью или книгу) целиком, а не на
какой-то конкретный отрывок, то эта ссылка не оформляется отдельно в
скобках. Например:

Bennet and Ames survey the use and abuse of alcohol in various cultures.

4. Если у работы несколько авторов, то их фамилии либо упоминаются в


тексте, либо даются в ссылке в скобках. Например:

Lichtenstein an Danker have noted that beginning in 1974, the New Orleans
Center for Creative Arts (NOCCA) has produced successful performers such as
Wynton Masalis and Harry Connick, Jr. (284).

Classroom research can be done most effectively when one becomes a


“participant observer” (Cohn, Kottkamp, and Provenzo 89-91).

5.Если работа имеет четыре или более автора, то либо указываются фамилии
всех авторов. либо первого автора, стоящая на титульном листе. Следом
ставится сокращение el at. (что значит «и другие»). Например:

A pregnant adolescent “experiences social relationships and less positive


interactions with both friends and family” and so is the subject to severe
emotional stress (Passino et al 118).

6. Многотомное издание. Указывается фамилия автора, номер тома и


страница(ы). Если автор упомянут в тексте, можно обойтись только
указанием на том и страницу. Номер тома и страницы отделяются
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двоеточием. Чтобы сделать ссылку на весь том, укажите фамилию автора, а
после запятой сокращение “vol.” и номер соответствующего тома (Hamilton,
vol.3). Например:
Alexander Hamilton may have foreseen the fatal results of his duel with Aaron
Burr because on 4 July 1804 he wrote to his wife: “Fly to the bosom of your God
and be comforted” (26:293).

7. Если в тексте имеется ссылка на произведения, изданные организациями и


ведомствами, то эти организации надо указать в тексте, а в скобках дать
номера страниц. Например:
A1998 report by the State Board of Education of New York urges curricular
revisions that emphasize multiculturalism (2-4).
8. Если цитата заимствована не напрямую, а из другого источника, т.е.автор
передает чье-либо мнение о предмете обсуждения, необходимо указать
автора цитируемого отрывка, а в скобках – имя автора. Который упоминает
этот отрывок, предварив его сокращением “qtd” (quated in =”процитировано
в”). Например:

Robert Coughlan wrote that Faulkner “acts like a farmer who had studied Plato
and looks like a river gambler” (qtd. in Blotner 2:1468)

9. При цитировании литературных произведений указывается номер


страницы в том издании, по которому производится цитирование. Можно
после точки с запятой указать главу или акт пьесы (210;ch.15) или(5;act 1).
Для пьес, написанных в стихах. Номер страницы не указывается. Укажите
акт, сцену и номер строки , отделив их точками. Например:

Hamlet’s last words are ”the rest is silence”(5.2.247).


10. Если в тексте встречаются ссылки на авторов с одинаковой фамилией,
например, Лэрри Кинг и Мартин Лютер Кинг, то в тексте или в ссылке в
скобках необходимо указывать их инициалы. Например:

In his essay “American Redneck” Larry L.King describes his early manhood.

“American Redneck” (L.King) describes a young writer’s experiences.

Правила оформления библиографии по стандарту MLA.


Книги.
Каждый пункт библиографии состоит из трех элементов: имени автора
(author), названия (title and subtitle) и выходных данных (publication
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information). Каждый элемент отделяется от другого точкой и двумя
пробелами. Название книги выделяется подчеркиванием. Рассмотрим
конкретные случаи подробнее.
1. Книга, имеющая одного автора.
Benton, Janetta Rebold. The Medieval Menagerie: Animals in the Art of the
Middle Ages. New York: Abbeville, 1992.

2. Книга, имеющая двух или трех авторов. Имя первого автора указывается
после фамилии, имена всех остальных – перед фамилиями. Имена и
фамилии авторов отделяются запятыми.
Lichtenstein, Grace, and Laura Danker. Musical Gumbo: The Music of New
Orleans. New York: Norton, 1994.
McCrum, William, William Cran, and Robert McNeil. The Story of English. New
York: Viking, 1986.
3. Книга, имеющая более трех авторов. Указывается только фамилия и имя
первого автора, а затем после запятой, сокращение 'et al' (and others).

Bendure, Glenda, et al. Scandinavian and Baltic Europe on a Shoestring.


Berkeley: Lonely Planet, 1993.
4. Книга, имеющая автора и редактора. Сначала указывается имя автора,
потом, после названия книги – имя редактора, которое вводится
сокращением “Ed.” Если в текстовых ссылках чаще указывается редактор,
то сначала идет имя редактора.

Orwell, George. Orwell: The War Commentaries. Ed. W.J. West. New York:
Pantheon, 1986
West, W.J. ed. Orwell: The War Commentaries. By George Orwell. New York:
Pantheon, 1986.
5. Книга, имеющая редактора.
Bennet, Linda A., and Genevieve M. Ames, eds. The American Experience with
Alcohol: Contrasting Cultural Perspectives. New York: Plenum, 1985.

6. Переводное издание. Имя автора, заголовок, потом – имя переводчика,


перед которым ставится сокращение “Trans.”(translated by).

Wilhelm, Richard. Confucius and Confucianism. Trans. George H. Danton and


Annina Periam Danton. New York: Harcourt, 1931.

Периодические издания.
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Как и в случае с книгами, библиография статьи включает: имя автора,
название статьи, название периодического издания, его выходные данные.В
системе MLA название статьи заключается в кавычки, название
периодического издания подчеркивается. Как правило, перед номерами
страниц ставится двоеточие.

1.Статья в научном журнале, со сквозной нумерацией страниц от тома к


тому. Если в журнале принята сквозная нумерация от тома к тому, номер
выпуска не указывается, указывается только номер тома. .

Williams, Adelia. “Jean Tardieu: The Paintery Poem.” Foreign Language Studies
18 (1991): 114-25.

2.Статья в научном журнале, издающимся отдельными номерами


(каждый номер начинается со страницы 1). Номер журнала ставится сразу
после номера тома.
Bender, Daniel. “Diversi ty Revised, or Composition’s Alien History.” Rhetoric
Review 12.1 (1987): 108-24.
3. Статья в общественно-политическом или популярном журнале.
Выходные данные указываются сразу после названия издания.
Howard, Bill. “Portable Computing Power without the Pounds.” PC Magazine
Aug.1993:125-269.

4. Статья в газете. В названии газеты опускаются артикли. Место издания


указывается только тогда, когда газета имеет статус местного издания и из
названия не ясно, в каком городе она издается. В выходные данные
включается не только дата выхода газеты, но и обозначение раздела
газеты (как правило, буквой), и номера страниц. Если статья начинается
на одной странице, а продолжается не на следующей, а через 3-4 страницы,
то это обозначается знаком «+» после номера страницы.

Claiborne, William. “Boxes Full of Conspiracy? Researchers Dig into JFK


Assassination Papers.”Washimgton Post 24 Aug.1993: A1+.

5.Передовая статья. Оформляется как обычная статья , только без имени


автора. После название статьи ставится слово “Editorial”.

“Another Tug-of-War over a Child.” Editorial. Chicago Tribune 7Sept.1993:20.

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