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TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia






Understanding of the Objectives

Genesis of the Assignment The Mongolian railway sector is mainly driven by the export and import of iron ore, copper, petroleum and cargo between Russia, People's Republic of China (PRC) and Mongolia and the domestic coal transportation. Thus there are many small and big players in this sector with their own rail-networks. The main stakeholders are i) “Ulaanbaatar Railway (UBTZ)”, a 50:50 joint venture company between Mongolian and Russian governments; ii)“Mongolian Railway (MTZ)”, a state-owned company established in 2008 and “Bold Tomor Yeroo Gol LLC”, a private mining company established in 2007. Ulaanbaatar Railway (UBTZ) is the biggest national operator with its mainline passing Ulaanbaatar city and connecting Russia and People's Republic of China at Sukhbaatar station and Zamyu-Uud station respectively. This line is part of the Trans-Siberian Railway Network and also part of the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation corridor 4. The Ministry of Road and Transport (MRT) of Mongolia (government policy-making and implementing body) As part of their Action Plan 2016- 2020; has identified development of “Bogd Khan” railways to enhance the existing railway network. This new alignment corridor is expected to produce results in line with the objectives of the Additional Financing. This proposal is being defined for the assignment TA-8935 MON:

Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program - 01 Alignment Study under the auspices of Asian Development Bank. The project is mainly based on providing an alignment bypassing Ulaanbaatar city to the southwest and crosses near the New

Airport and proposed multimodal freight terminal in Khushig valley and links Mandal station in the north to Bagakhangai station in the southeast. The freight and passenger traffic is currently passing through the congested Ulaanbaatar city. There is limited space in Ulaanbaatar to increase the carrying capacity of the Ulaanbaatar railways. For this purpose MRT has proposed to build a rail network bypassing Ulaanbaatar city which mainly caters to efficient international and domestic freight transportation.

Identification of Main Triggers

The Consultants have identified key aspects that need to be addressed through the study as follows:

Trigger 1: Regional Cooperation and Integration With objectives of capacity enhancement, Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) for enhancing trade, convenience of cross-border connectivity to passengers, environment sustainability and positive social impacts, ADB has agreed to provide Technical Assistance (TA) grant to the Government of Mongolia for improvement of the transport network and to enhance efficiency of railway operations.

improvement of the transport network and to enhance efficiency of railway operations. Index Map Technical Proposal

Index Map

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia


Trigger 2: Inefficient Railway Operations

The existing Ulaanbaatar railway line from Bagakhangai station to Mandal station has lots of sharp curves resulting in an average train speed of 42 km/hr and limitation in load carrying capacity. There has been excessive wear and tear of the rolling stock and track due to these very sharp curves and steep gradients. In order to achieve increased economic activity through movement of containers, wagons and passengers between neighbouring countries and improve railway operations, it was necessary to formulate an alignment with smooth curves and gradients connecting all the obligatory locations (i.e. New Airport, Multi-modal Logistic Terminal) and having minimum tunnels and bridges, so that trains can run at high speeds and wear and tear of track is reduced. This should result in substantial reduction in unit cost of operation.


Trigger 3: Container Freight Traffic Growth

The export and import between Russia, China and Mongolia is gradually increasing and the existing UBTZ network cannot cater to this freight traffic growth. The main logistic hub i.e. Ulaanbaatar city is facing road traffic congestion problems due to the numerous railway level crossing and the pollution hazards due to various loading and unloading areas for petroleum based and hazardous chemical along the railway line. Thus there is a prevalent objection from civil authorities and general public for further expanding the railway network within the city.

In order to resolve these problems and to cater to increased freight traffic a new alignment bypassing the congested Ulaanbaatar city is required. Connectivity with the New Airport and Multi-modal Logistic Terminal will be a very significant contributor to this trigger. Connectivity with private sector sidings will need to be urgently enhanced to be able to meet economic and financial forecast along with competitive yet financially viable tariffs.


Trigger 4: Noise and Air Pollution

There is an inherent impact on the public health as the UBTZ railways is being used to transport chemicals and other hazardous goods to Russia and China. The wagons carrying these materials are sorted at the main railway yard and then shunted to private container yards within the city limits where they are unloaded. The railway movements for placement of wagons at various freight terminals and sidings located across the city are causing noise and air pollution.

The demand for relocation of these private container yards and re-routeing hazardous material away from the population centres has triggered the requirement of an alignment bypassing Ulaanbaatar city. The new alignment will promote the development of new freight terminals and industries away from the city centre.


Requirements of the Assignment

In identifying all the possible alignments the following factors shall be considered:


Purpose of the New Railway Line

The alignment of a new railway line should serve the basic purpose to connect Mandal Station and Bagakhangai Station while bypassing Ulaanbaatar to the southwest and crosses near the New Ulaanbaatar International Airport and multimodal freight terminal in Khushig valley. The main purpose is to remove the Operational bottle necks, connect New International Airport, formation of Freight Complex, connecting to potential areas of destination and Mining Industries and through backward areas for promoting social and economic development in the region.

Integrated Development

The new railway alignment shall fit in with the Strategic Development and Technical Modernization Plan of UBTZ and form a part of the integrated development of the country.


Economic Considerations

To make the Alignment as economical as possible for construction of the railway line, the following aspects shall be kept in mind:


Shortest Route

As far as possible the shortest and most direct route between the connecting points shall be kept in mind based on the constraints and design parameters to keep the cost of construction, maintenance and operation to minimum. There can, however, be other practical considerations that can lead to deviation from the shortest route.

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia


Construction and Maintenance Cost


The alignment of the line shall be so chosen that the construction cost is minimum, by achieving a balanced cut and fill of earthwork, minimizing rock cutting, avoiding Tunnels, steep gradients, sharp curves and drainage crossings.


Minimum Operational Expenses


The alignment shall be such that the operational and maintenance expenses are minimum by maximizing the haulage of goods, selecting easy gradients, avoiding sharp curves and adopting a direct route.


Maximum Safety and Comfort


In order to achieve maximum safety and comfort to the travelling public, all the curves shall be designed with proper transition lengths and providing vertical curves for change of gradients,


Aesthetic Considerations

While deciding the alignment, aesthetic aspects shall also be given due weightage to visually pleasing rail journey by avoiding views of borrow pits and passing the alignment through natural and beautiful surroundings with scenic beauty.


The Consultants’ Team

In order to achieve the goal set by the tender the Lead Firm Intercontinental Consultants & Technocrats Pvt. Ltd. has tied up with other international Consultants besides one reputed Consultants from Mongolia as follows:


Firm’s Country

Firm Status

Firm Name




Lead Firm

Intercontinental Consultants & Technocrats Pvt. Ltd. (ICT)


JV Member

Gauff Rail Engineering GmbH & Co.KG (GRE Gauf)


JV Member

Etude Services. (ETUDE)



ICT-Sain Consulting LLC (ISC LLC)



Site Visit and Site Appreciation Report


The Consultants has visited the entire project corridor to assess condition and capacities of the existing infrastructure.



Presently Mongolian Railway network is not electrified and diesel-locomotives are being used. Commencement of Bogdkhan Mountain Railway Construction is considered as one of the priority program in Action plan for 2016 2020 of Ministry of Road and Transport (MRT). The 80% of the terrain for the proposed “Bogdkhan Railway” is mountainous area with quite steep gradient. The mountains and passes are 1300-1775 m elevated above the sea level and thus relative height is 100- 300 m.

The project region has extreme continental climate experiences absolute maximum temperature +39°C in summer and absolute minimum temperature of -46°C in winter. The total annual precipitation is 300 mm, soil freezing depth is 2.5-3.5m, north west wind with average velocity of 1.5-2.0 m/sec dominates. Magnitude of earthquake is 7.0 Richter scale. The alignment crosses mountains, valleys, flats that fall into forest-steppe and steppe zone. The dominant soil type is black cotton brown, and black soils, and fauna and flora of the region are rich.



It is a main railway station of the country having three platforms and facility of parking and there are two major visitors‟ hall, shops for local and foreign tourists, pharmacy, waiting rooms, Duty free, information desk and ATMs in this station. There are customer service facilities such as ticket offices for domestic and international trips, international post office, lockers, enquiry, exchange office, ATM, pay booths, police station and VIP lounge. The railway divides Ulaanbaatar, at its mid-section, into north and east, and 15-17 double train travels from north to south and 17-19 double trains from east to west.

There are 102 nos. of branch railways in Ulaanbaatar for purpose of loading and unloading goods.

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

The railway, its junctions, branches occupy a quite big areas and it is somehow difficult to widen the railway further. Instead it is possible to reduce, to some extent, the railway traffic by dissolving some branches, junctions and shifting sections passing the city centre away to create more lands that would enable better development of Ulaanbaatar city. As on date the main railway, with its branches, crosses the roads at same grade at 7 points and as does the transit Railway at 3 points. Such crossings create significant traffic jam. The study shows that traffic flow suspends at junctions without grade separator for 120-160 minutes a day due to railway traffic.

separator for 120-160 minutes a day due to railway traffic. Photo 1: View of passing train

Photo 1: View of passing train used in Mongolia

traffic. Photo 1: View of passing train used in Mongolia Photo 2: The Railway divides Ulaanbaatar,

Photo 2: The Railway divides Ulaanbaatar, in its midsection

Hundreds of non-standard terminals, storages for goods and fuels created along the railway occupy huge area. Numbers of vehicles traveling to and from these areas create substantial traffic jam every day. There are 11 large railway terminals, 12 branch rails loading and unloading goods and with relocation, there will be about thousands of hectare land would be available in the A zone, where residential buildings, schools, kindergartens, commercial facilities can be developed.

kindergartens, commercial facilities can be developed. Photo 3 : Ulaanbaatar Railway Station Photo 4 : Platform

Photo 3 : Ulaanbaatar Railway Station

can be developed. Photo 3 : Ulaanbaatar Railway Station Photo 4 : Platform 2 & 3

Photo 4 : Platform 2 & 3 Ulaanbaatar Station

There are number of incidents where vehicles collide with railway trucks and wagons resulting in to fatalities. Just as many as 36 accidents occurred in January 2017 alone and two students were killed. As the central train station is located in the city centre, a great deal of traffic jam is created around the station, significantly increasing the risk of accidents. The study conducted, in 2011, by the Millennium Challenge Account and the Ministry of Health marked that road near the Train Car Depot and Train Station is the 2nd most unsafe road among the top ten dangerous roads of Ulaanbaatar. Besides, as discussed earlier the trains and wagons create lot of air and noise pollution leading into environmental hazards and disturbing quality of residents‟ life in addition to those created by explosives, chemical and poisonous elements There are hundreds of fuel reservoirs, tankers along the railway at the city centre.

3.5.3 Mandal Station The rail from Mandal Station upto Rashaant was constructed in 1949. Intermittent repairs have been carried out since then, however this section has steep upward gradient from Ulaanbaatar side than the standard, for which double locomotives are used to pull trains loaded with heavy goods. Every year this causes significant extra expenses. This section, besides, reduces speed of loaded trains to the great extent. Ulaanbaatar Railway Authority has not taken appropriate actions to remedy the situation; however the alignment has neither been altered, nor gradients rectified to the full extent due the paucity of the funds. As Mandal Station is, as per TOR, the start point of the railway, it might be perceived that the Client desires that this section of the alignment be altered to ensure that the gradients meet the requirements as per standards. The assumption of Mandal Station as the start point might increase both the length of the bypass railway by about 48-55 km as well as cost of the work. However it has great importance of solving few of the several problems related to Ulaanbaatar-Altanbulag route. There is so far no existing residential settlement along the Mandal Rashaant Rail route, however significant piece of the lands have been granted to people already. The alteration in the alignment may reduce the extent of pasture land and raise uproar of the local people and therefore the alignment shall be wholly shifted away from the original alignment will affect the project cost.

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

Program – 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia Photo 5 : Mandal station – Start point 3.5.4
Program – 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia Photo 5 : Mandal station – Start point 3.5.4

Photo 5 : Mandal station Start point

3.5.4 Emeelt Station The station is located at flat area with no settlement. However; there is a dedicated area for Naadam, traditional festival on the right hand side of this junction. Some recreational facilities are under development for “Mongol Naadam Complex”.

are under development for “Mongol Naadam Complex”. Photo 6 : Emeelt Railway Junction The detailed study
are under development for “Mongol Naadam Complex”. Photo 6 : Emeelt Railway Junction The detailed study

Photo 6 : Emeelt Railway Junction

The detailed study shall be required, as the available space for railway alignment may be restricted due to facilities mentioned above. In addition, route may have steep slope and sharp curves on first 10 km which may require construction of long tunnel. Emeelt station is located at Section 3 in the territory of Khoroo 32 of Songino-Khairkhan district. This station was initially developed as railway station and is home to 2700 residents with total land of 235000 hectare at present. In recent years, livestock market has developed in this area, thus land is given to various entities for processing animal stock materials such as meat, wool, etc. Also development of an agricultural park is also under process. On the west boundary of Emeelt, “Mongol Naadam Complex” for celebrating public holiday of Naadam is under construction. These facilities restrain land for railway alignment, thus proposed alignment shall be constructed within the boundaries of right-of-way of the existing railroad, when passing through settlement area of Emeelt, the

alignment need to be set appropriately to ensure

minimum disturbance to surrounding buildings and lands.

3.5.5 Bagakhangai Station Terms of Reference states that Bagakhangai station shall be the end point. It is one of the potential locations where project railroad can be merged with the existing railroad. The alignment length shall be approximate 170 km from Mandal. By retaining already existing Infrastructure at this station, some cost saving may be achieved. However, it is the longest alignment compared to others. The station at Bagakhangai district is the most potential place to be identified as the end point of railroad alignment. Economic parameters of Bagakhangai district is shown in Table below.

parameters of Bagakhangai district is shown in Table below. Photo 7 : Bagakhangai Station   Description

Photo 7 : Bagakhangai Station




Total land /hectare/





State owned factories


State budgeted organization


Factories and

Limited liability companies



Entities belonged to Railway agency


Non-Government Organizations


Head of livestock


TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

Railroads of Ulaanbaatar Zamiin Uud, UlaanbaatarBaganuur and AH-3 auto road, which is a part of the Asian road network traverse through this district. Major buildings and facilities used by the Russian army are located here. Besides that area has potential source of gold, coal, yellow clay for brick, lime stone as well as pure water recourse adequate for supplying to 40 thousand people. The district has significant values such as pleasant climate, infrastructure development and administrative locality etc. The land is state owned, thus no complication related to land acquisition shall arise. Based on our understanding of the objectives and the detailed ToR for the services, an appropriate methodology that addresses the specific requirements has been proposed. Since the scope of services covers some independent and interdependent activities, it is proposed to follow a Task Approach to carry out the entire work comprehensively and completely to the satisfaction of MRT, by carrying out the activities corresponding to each of the tasks. The whole work has been divided into the following Task Groups given in Table 3.1 below. Table 3.1: Tasks List

Task No.


Task Description


Reference in ToR


Task 1.1




Task 1.2

Project Management



Task 1.3

Quality Control and Quality Assurance



Task 1.4

Document Standards




Task 2.1

Collection of Railway Alignment and Track Plan Detail

A.2.1,6(i), (viii) A.2.2,


Task 2.2

Collection of 2016-2020 Strategic Development and Technical Modernization Plan of UBTZ


Task 2.3

Collection of Rail Operation and Maintenance Data

A.2.1, 6(iii)

Task 2.4

Collection of Railway Bridge Details


A.2.4.9(ii), (vi); (vii)

Task 2.5

Collection of Projected Future Railway Traffic


A.2.1, 6 (iv)

Task 2.6

Collection of Topographic Maps and Satellite Imaginary

A.2.1, 6 (v)

Task 2.7

Collection of Geotechnical Data


A.2.1, 6 (vii)

Task 2.8

Collection of Hydrological Data


A.2.4, 9 (vi)

Task 2.9

Collection of Information Related to Urban Planning

A.2.2,7 (v), (vi)

Task 2.10

Collection of Metrological Data to assess the adverse conditions likely to be encountered

A.2.2, 7 (vii)

Task 2.11

Collection of Environmental Details and Data of the Study Area


Task 2.12

Collection of Details of Livestock and Wild life within the Study Area

A.2.4, 9(v)

Task 2.13

Land Market Data


A.2.1.6 (ii), A.2.2.7 (v), (vi), A.2.4.9 (iv)

Task 2.14







A.2.5, 11


Task 2.15

Collection and Verification of Land Records


A.2.5, 11



Task 3.1

Topographic Mapping and Satellite Image Processing

A.2.1,6 (v); A.2.3,8 (i), A.2.4.9 (ii),(vii)

Task 3.2

Study of Available Geotechnical Reports


A.2.1, 6 (vii)

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

Task No.


Task Description


Reference in ToR

Task 3.3

Study of Available Hydrology Reports


A.2.4, 9 (ii) (vi)

Task 3.4

Identification of Potential Environmentally impacted areas within the Study Area


Task 3.5

Traffic and Transportation Studies



Task 3.6

Study of available Modern Track Design Criteria of Various Railways

A.2.2, 7 (ii)

Task 3.7

Development of 3 Environmentally Acceptable Alignments

A.2.2, 7 (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (vii); A.2.3, 8 (ii)

Task 3.8

Design of Formation, Side Drains, Catchment Drains and Protection Works

A.2.3, 8 (v); A.2.4, 9 (i)

Task 3.9








A.2.4, 9 (ii) (vi)


Task 3.10

Design of Tunnels



Task 3.11

Design of Tunnel Ventilation



Task 3.12

Station Planning and Architectural Design of Terminal stations, Intermediate Station and Yards


Task 3.13

Preparation of SIP for Signalling System


A.2.4, 9 (viii)

Task 3.14









A.2.4, 9 (viii)

Communication System


Task 3.15

Future OHE Provision Studies


A.2.4, 9 (viii) (x)

Task 3.16

Railway Operation and Maintenance Facilities


A.2.3, 8 (iii)

Task 3.17

Detailing of the Selected Alignment





Task 3.18

Urban Studies

A.2.1.6(ii), A.2.2.7 (v), (vi), A.2.4.9 (iv)

Task 3.19

Prepare Impact Mitigation Plans for Pedestrian, Livestock and Wildlife Crossings

A.2.4, 9 (v)

Task 3.20

Social Screening Survey


A.2.5, 11



Task 4.1

Establish Unit Costs


A.2.5, 10 (i)

Task 4.2

Cost Estimate

A.2.5, 10 (ii) (iii) (v) (iv)

Task 4.3

Environmental and Wildlife Impact Mitigation Cost


A.1, 4; A.2.4, 9 (v)

Task 4.4

Land Acquisition Cost


A.2.5, 11

Task 4.5

Demolition and Relocation BOQ and Cost of Structures


A.2.5, 11

Task 4.6

Utility Relocation BOQ and Cost


A.2.5, 11



Task 5.1

Monthly Progress Reports


D.2, 21 (i)

Task 5.2

Draft Final Report


D.2, 21 (ii) A.2.3,8(iv),



Task 5.3

Presentation of Alignment Study


D.2, 21 (iv); A.2.3,8(ii)

Task 5.4

Final Report

D.2, 21(vi)

Task 5.5

Executive Summery


D.2, 21(vii)

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia




Task 1.1:


Immediately after contract signing, the Consultants will make the following arrangements:

Organise visas for expatriate personnel

Agree with Client on mobilisation schedule

Organise work permits in project country

Finalise work schedule

Make arrangements for office setup

Plan local resources and organise recruitments

Organise residential accommodation

Organise project and individual vehicles

Organise kick-off meeting with the Client

Mobilise survey agencies

Organise data document collection process

This will ensure that the services can commence within the time frame specified in the contract.

Task 1.2:

Project Management

1.1.1. Management Approach

The Consultants shall endeavour:

To organise an efficient design team, with roles and responsibilities defined for each deliverable output;
















To ensure sub-consultants appointed for specific tasks are monitored for quality, cost and time based deliverables;

To finalise with MRT an adaptable work schedule taking reference from that submitted with the bid, with sufficient flexibility to respond to desired changes and directions, but without hampering key deliverables and their dates and without causing delay to other works that may be interrelated with this assignment. All aspects of the assignment, i.e. technical, interfacing, economic, and financial and management aspects must find a place inside this document;

To efficiently manage project deliverables by ensuring that required key and non-key professionals are available according to the schedule of work and work plan agreed with MRT;

To continuously interact with all connected offices of MRT and UBTZ at Ulaanbaatar, offices and workshops at various locations along the alignment.

To continuously interact with all agencies related with the assignment such as ADB, government offices related with environment, water, drainage, electrification plan, existing workshop / depot / sheds and metrological data;

To ensure that Team Leader is duly empowered to decide, act and advise on technical, staffing, administrative and financial matters related to the contract; and

To agree with MRT as regards setting up of Consultant‟s offices in Ulaanbaatar, with particular focus on proximity to offices of MRT and other agencies to minimise travel time.

1.1.2. Timely Completion of the Project

The Consultants will ensure that the project preparation work is completed in time and as per the work plan, thorough constant and close monitoring during all stages. The Consultants have adequate competent staff to carry out all the tasks / activities required to complete the assignment within schedule. The Consultants have also the requisite experience of working in Mongolia and is familiar in the know-how of the local conditions, rules / regulations and other pertinent requirements.

1.1.3. Establish design standards and approval procedures

The Consultants shall review and where necessary, revise or supplement in close cooperation with MRT design criteria, standard designs and drawings, cost estimate, standard specifications, codes etc. applicable for the project. The Consultants shall understand the approval process within MRT, the Government and ADB and take necessary action accordingly. The Consultants shall immediately inform MRT, if any agreed or approved scope of work / findings/ issue/design/ drawings/ specification / cost estimate, etc. needed to be changed with proper justification.

Task 1.3:

Quality Assurance

The Consultants shall establish quality assurance system for all alignment design steps and deliverables. Effective quality management will be achieved by the application of procedures like definition of responsibilities and duties, implementation of project planning and review, appropriate verification of inputs and project work, quality auditing and proper documentation. Regular reviews of the project shall be carried out to ensure progress is in line with requirements of the TOR and expectations of Client. This may mean adjustment of schedules without causing disruption to the overall schedule. In order to implement the consultancy project effectively, a Quality Assurance Plan shall be prepared that guarantees checks at each point in the process to avoid irretrievable errors. QAP will clearly laid down as to how satellite image processing, ground referencing, alignment design, verification and drawings will be executed to ensure quality and accuracy. Use of various equipment, computer aided design and software will also be mentioned therein.

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

Task 1.4:

Document Standards

An essential element of quality management is an efficient documentation system that allows recording and traceability at any stage of the project. Such system shall be developed in discussion with the Client. An important aspect of documentation system shall be to develop and maintain a file sharing system with MRT with restricted access. The documents to be shared could be drawings, documentation, manuals, input document listings, site visits, meeting minutes, correspondences, key date submissions, etc. TASK GROUP 2 - COLLECTION OF FIELD DATA AND PREVIOUS RECORDS

Task 2.1:

Collection of Railway Alignment & Track Plan Detail

The Consultants shall obtain all necessary data, documentation, specifications, manuals, layout plans, reports and future plans of MRT, and other agencies along the alignment and work site. Such data shall be used for due analysis to properly integrate the various components of the project. The Consultants shall decide the type of data required to be collected for the study. Since it is expected that there would be certain parts of the project where sufficient data may not be available, intelligent assumptions based on experience and logic shall be made in the study. Data collection shall comprise of secondary data and sufficient resources shall be put in place to conduct both. As such the Consultants have, during their extensive site visits, already collected certain data for a better understanding of the ground situation in order to define the best methodology for the assignment. Finally, in order to carry out detailed studies.

Task 2.2:

Collection of 2016-2020 Strategic Development and Technical Modernization Plan of UBTZ

Strategic development and technical modernization plan 2016 2020 of UBTZ shall be collected from UBTZ officials by making an official request to MRT. After collection of plan the Consultants shall studied and analyse features, benefits and limitations of the plan and prepare a report of understanding in consultation with MRT officials.

Task 2.3:

Collection of Rail Operations & Maintenance Data

Layout plans, engineering scale plans, circuit drawings, cable drawings, operating manuals, Maximum Train Loads, Loop Capacities, Maximum Permissible speeds for Passenger, Express and Freight Trains, Existing Axle load, maintenance manuals, training manuals, engineering codes, specifications and circulars of all civil, structural, mechanical and electronic disciplines shall be collected from MRT:

Permanent Way


Rolling Stock

Mechanical Workshops




Schedule of Dimensions




Commercial Data


Schedule of Rates

General Electrical

Task 2.4:

Collection of Railway Bridge Details

All the past data in respect of bridges available with MRT and other agencies will be collected and shall be reviewed by the Consultants and their merits / limitations will be assessed in clear terms. Generally, following additional data shall be collected / procured but not limited to:

Span & deck arrangement

Availability of material

Rail traffic data

Design loadings

Present condition of bridges

Geotechnical data

Hydraulic & structural performance

Type of structure

Aerial photographs

Climatic data

Alignment, Plan and Profile

Development plans

Task 2.5:

Collection of Projected Future Railway Traffic

The Consultants shall collect all necessary secondary data for Freight, container and passenger traffic from various agencies. The Consultants shall aim to have a good appreciation of transport systems, networks, operations, demographic and socio-economic profiles, and utilization levels of various transport systems, viz. Road, Rail, Air, Waterways and Maritime in order to understand magnitude of transport operations in the regional transport requirements. Further, an appreciation of various institutional, regulatory and financial frameworks will enable an understanding of their impact on transport availability, usage, level of service, geographical coverage, pricing etc. A number of transport planning, operational, regulatory, and maintenance bodies will be visited in for collection of these data and information.

The Consultants will discuss with MRT and identify data source and relevant government agencies to conduct traffic and transport study, utilize the given road and rail network map and google images to delineate the regional setting of the study area. Keeping the scope of works in view, the Consultants will collect various data which will comprise of the information, but not limited to, on the following:

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

Demographic Data

Economic Data

Land-use/Economic Activity

Transport Network

Transport Operations & Maintenance

Transport Infrastructure

Transport Planning/Regulations

Vehicle Licensing

Goods movement characteristics by various modes

Passenger travel mode

Task 2.6

Collection of Topographic Maps & Satellite Imageries

The Consultants will collect available hard and digital copies of topographic data, land use data, satellite pictures, hydrological data, geological data, rainfall data, and information related to constraints in the alignment i.e. national park boundary, mining area, private land, airport area, pre-existing feasibility study reports, existing and proposed railway proposal reports, other relevant reports including ongoing city development projects, data related to physical and social infrastructure, policy documents, maps etc. The collected information carefully review and check the quality for authentication to integrate in data modelling in GIS platform to identify possible alternative alignments in project Influence Area(PIA) to select single best alignment. The Broad methodology has given in flow chart.

2.1.1. Open Source DEM and Google Earth Imageries

The Consultants Initial stage to identify the possible alignments cost effective techniques Open source DEM and Google Earth Imagery shall be used supplementary to collected Soft and hard copy data from Client for data analysis, Integration and Modelling in GIS Software.

2.1.2. Procurement of High Resolution Stereo Satellite Imageries

After finalization of single alignment, the Consultants shall procure high resolution Stereo satellite Imagery from Authorized Agency and processed in image processing software for generation of Ortho Image and Digital Elevation Model(DEM) for refinement of horizontal alignment and vertical profile to minimize the construction cost by considering the environmental, social, hydrological, engineering design, terrain, geological, geomorphological, soil, existing and proposed developments, safety, distance, land market and other relevant parameters. High resolution data is used along the corridor to identify the latest developments, vacant lands and Identification suitable locations for Rail way stations and other relevant Infrastructure development.

Task 2.7

Collection of Geotechnical Data

The Consultants shall collect all existing data and documentation from the available sources. These would include available geotechnical reports of the area, Terrain and geology, climatic features, Maps (geological, soil maps, topographical), aerial photographs, and satellite imageries. The information gathered will be collated and reviewed. All existing relevant data related to other railway projects of that area will also be collected.

Task 2.8

Collection of Hydrological Data

The following data, records and study reports shall be collected for Hydrology:

2.1.3. Primary Data

Local inquiries, HFL, History of flooding/ overtopping, mean annual rainfall, regional runoff coefficient;

Visual inspection Bed level, clearance, HFL, Overtopping, vegetation cover, flood plain, blockage/sedimentation, flow direction, terrain, embankment height, scour.

2.1.4. Secondary Data

Toposheets, Land use, soil type, cover condition and slope;

90m SRTM Digital Elevation Model (DEM) (from website http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org/) - to analyse the river catchment characteristics in GIS platform;

Rainfall Runoff data from Local Offices.

Task 2.9

Collection of Information related to Urban Planning

Information on urban planning for cities and province coming in between shall be collected such as-

Regional Connectivity (i.e. Details of Approved High Speed Road Project);

Direction of the growth;

Demographic characteristics;

Socio-economic profile of the urban centres;

Census data of the urban centre;

Base Map of urban centres;

Land Use map;

Existing plans such as Master Plan and Vision Documents (i.e. Overall Development Plans of Ulaanbaatar City);

Existing Acts and Regulations;

Ownership data at the areas for the location of the stations, Yard and Depot; and

Real estate data on the areas in and around the station locations, Yard and depot.

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

Task 2.10

Collection of Metrological data and Seismic data to assess the adverse conditions likely to be encountered

Meteorological data on rainfall, temperature, wind pattern, snowfall etc. will be collected. Flood history of Tuul River shall be also collected, if any. Historical Seismic activity data will be collected. These data shall be assessed to establish the past and future trend and suggest climate resilience measures along the project corridor.

Task 2.11

Collection of Environmental details & data of the study area

This task will include collection of secondary data on environmental aspects such as location of National park or protected areas if any, vegetation type, wildlife habitat, water bodies in the project area. Desk review of relevant secondary shall be done however site survey will be done to verify the secondary data, if required.

Environmental policies and regulations of the Government of Mongolia, ADB‟s Environmental Assessment Guidelines, 2003 and Safeguard Policy Statement, 2009 shall be referred.

Task 2.12

Collection of details of Livestock and Wildlife within the study area

ADB Safeguard Policy Statement, 2009, requires biodiversity conservation and natural resources management. Mongolia has unique and significant wildlife distribution as well as numerous livestock farms; the Consultants will collect relevant data on livestock and wildlife dwelling in the project area. Published literature by World Wildlife Fund (WWF), International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Wildlife offices of the Mongolian government etc. shall be referred. Presence of any threatened wildlife species in the project area shall be reported

Stakeholder consultation shall be carried to identify wildlife corridor or habitat, if any in the project area. Consultation on livestock rearing and pastureland conservation shall be done as it is an important occupation

in the area.

Task 2.13

Land Market Data

In order to effectively plan the areas surrounding the railway stations. Development and Building approval requirements will need to be studied. Certain key items that will be reviewed will include:

Change of Land use, if required;

Method of calculation of FSI over the entire site including tracks, yards, maintenance sheds, depots, workshop locations;

Identification of site boundary and ownership;

FSI exemption on usages such as Railway operational activities based on the Railway Act; and

City and Town Master Plans, Development Control Norms and guidelines from City and Town Authorities, Ownership documents and records from revenue dept.

Following urban planning data would be collected:

Regional Connectivity

Direction of the growth Socio-economic profile of the urban centres Existing plans such as Master Plan and Vision Documents

Demographic profile

Census data of the urban centre

Existing Acts and Regulations

A secondary survey towards an initial land market survey would include the following aspects:

Government circle rates and market rates Rental rates

Preliminary meetings with local authorities for understanding of local aspects

Report on various assumptions for the change in the real estate scenario

Task 2.14

Collection of Socio-economic Data from Secondary Sources

The Consultants shall collect, review and analyses all existing reports, data and documents from the Client and other regional government and private agencies relating to the project alignment. To understand the socio-economic context of the proposed project and for providing necessary inputs into social analysis of the project, relevant baseline data on socio-economic and cultural conditions will be collected and analysed.

Task 2.15

Collection and Verification of Land Records

The Consultants shall collect the respective village maps, revenue records and cost of lands with the help of concerned revenue officers. Affected plots falling within PRoW (Proposed Right of way) will be identified from the super imposed maps and marked separately. Land records of the affected plots will be collected from the DC‟s office and Mongolian Railways‟ estate office.

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia



Task 3.1

Topographic Mapping & Satellite Image processing

3.1.1. Data Quality Checking and Image Enhancement

The collected satellite imageries will be processed in any standard image processing software i.e. ERDAS LPS Suit or Geomantic. For better visual interpretation suitable image enhancement techniques shall be applied and verify the correctness of the imagery and data with truth data of field. The Consultants keeps satellite data in safe custody and return back after preparation of base maps of project corridor. To improve the Image quality the Consultants shall use histogram matching and haze reduction Techniques in image processing software.

3.1.2. Establishment of GNSS Control Network for Geo-

referencing satellite Images Primary Control Survey for Fixing of GPS Pillars After Procurement of High-resolution stereo satellite imageries for single alignment corridor, for image rectification and stereo data processing to generate contours, slope, drainage network suitable triangulation network of GNSS control points shall be established covering the entire project area with maximum base line length of 20km or less which may further be densified adequately to cover possible alignment routes. The GNSS control network will adhere to the national mapping standards of Mongolian and will adopt national projection system, the Geodetic Datum and the Geoid Model for all relevant surveys and mapping on the project. The GNSS control network will be used to fix coordinates of ground control points required for geo-referencing satellite images called

the GCPs. The locations of the GCPs will be suitable selected so that the location is identifiable beyond

doubts in the satellite image as well as on the ground.

doubts in the satellite image as well as on the ground. Fig. 1: Stereo Data Processing

Fig. 1: Stereo Data Processing in Leica Photogrammetric Suit (LPS) software

Topographic Survey

Detailed Topographic Survey using Total Station /RTK may be carried out where ever required in developed areas along final alignment to survey missing information in satellite image due to Obstructions.

3.1.3. Quality Assurance for DGPS and Auto Level Survey

Quality is the essence of the work and cannot be compromised at any stage. Designated Survey Engineer will ensure that the survey teams working at site adhere to standard international survey practices. All survey equipment used for survey work at site is in good working order duly calibrated before the start of survey. Only qualified and trained surveyors shall be deployed for carrying out survey work. Survey Control network will be established using double frequency GNSS receivers in static mode of observations. All national Bench Marks available in the project area shall be connected to the GNSS survey control network established for the project and suitable adjusted to fix desired coordinates of control points including best possible MSL heights based on the local Geoid model

3.1.4. Stereo Satellite Imageries Processing to Generate Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Contour

Detailed Step By Step Approach for Stereo Image Processing has been given in below fig. During DEM Process Proper Assurance will be taken for Quality Control of DTM. Manual and tool based checks will be performed to ensure accuracy of DTM as per Specification.

be performed to ensure accuracy of DTM as per Specification. Fig.2: Stereo Data Processed Digital Elevation

Fig.2: Stereo Data Processed Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Snapshot

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

3.1.5. Generation of Contours

The Contours will be generated at 2 M interval from the final DTM. Smooth contours will be generated compatible in CAD environment. Every 5th Contours will be marked as Major Contour and will be shown thicker than basic contour. Snapshot of Generated Contour Using Processed DEM has been shown in figure. These contours will be used to refine vertical profile of railway alignment.

be used to refine vertical profile of railway alignment. Fig.3: Contour Generation Using Processed DEM 3.1.6.

Fig.3: Contour Generation Using Processed DEM

3.1.6. Generation of Ortho-Rectified Image from Processed DEM

The "orthorectification" is a process of geometrical correction of satellite images. Ortho-rectification of the satellite imagery will be done using the DTM and Control points. Image tone balancing, Rectification, mosaicking, and re projection etc will be done to prepare seamless error free data set for analysis.

3.1.7. Georeferencing

The collected cadastral, topographic, soil, geology, geomorphology, landuse maps, master plans and other relevant maps shall be converted from hard copy to soft copy through scanning process to carryout georeferencing. It shall be done using orthorectified images, authentic topo sheets and DGPS field survey. The georeferenced maps shall overlay to carryout data integration and analysis. For proper edge matching techniques such as Rubber Sheeting, Spatial Adjustment, Scaling, Alignment, Edge Matching and Transformation shall be used in any standard image processing software like ERDAS; GEOMATICA etc. During georeferencing Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection and WGS-84 datum shall be assigned as per scope of work.

3.1.8. Image Mosaic and Tile Generation

The mosaic of satellite images will be performed using satellite Image processing Software like ERDAS Imagine. The mosaic line is drawn along the features in one of the image and the resulting locations in the adjacent image can be viewed alongside. It thus helps in selecting the best area of the two images. While drawing cut lines, user can clip the images and cross check the quality resultant mosaiced images. Create closed polygons of the mosaiced lines for each image and export the coordinates of the mosaiced polygons into a text files. These text files will be used in the tile processing. Mosaiced images are large in size and difficult to handle. So they need to be cut into small manageable tiles for effective utilization and further processing. As the images for each tile may come from more than one image, they have to be color balanced to be visually perfect and seamless. This seamless images will be utilized for thematic data extraction, feature rectification etc., feature rectification etc. Below figure shows the process of mosaicing and tilting.

3.1.9. Feature Extraction Using High Resolution Satellite Imageries and Projection Assignment

Image interpretation is one of the domain areas where we have done extensive work with wide variety of satellite images of various resolutions. We developed a method for accurate and improved feature extraction. This gives an elaborate classification of urban land use (from high- resolution satellite images) and better representation of roads and built-up areas (by capturing the built-up and non-built-up areas). The feature extraction using this method is done in a cost and time effective manner using semi-automatic techniques. Based on level of details and classification type, the features have been grouped into three categories Point, Line and Polygon or Area Feature. The Consultants shall assign UTM projection system for all digital layers. Snapshot of Feature extraction from Image given in below.

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

Program – 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia Fig. 4: Features Extraction from Satellite Images 3.1.10.

Fig. 4: Features Extraction from Satellite Images

3.1.10. Base Map Preparation and Updation

Base map is the Physical representation of actual features on the ground as collected part of the field survey. The data thus collected form special framework with the attribute database supporting the base map that can be used for detail design and mapping. For base map preparation the preliminary interpreted map should be ground verified and the final map is to be prepared by incorporating the ground truth data, these detailed maps consisting of the planimetric details, Cadastral boundaries, micro level land use and utility services etc, Improvement / Validation of the existing base map require accurate and precise interpretation / identification of various natural and man-made features on the satellite image and ground truth collected using total station survey. Final base maps are to be prepared incorporating the data collected from survey and different entities. The base maps will be prepared in various layers for ease of operation. Snapshot of data validation using imageries shown in figures.

3.1.11. Error Removal and Quality Control

Need for Quality Control

Since the process involves collating information from various sources (e.g. Satellite Image, Field Survey, Secondary Information etc.), and interpretation of satellite images and maps, hence there is a possibility that the output contains certain errors in it (though most of these errors will be trapped and rectified during the data development stage itself). Keeping this in mind, Consultant‟s understands the importance of a team, not directly involved in the Base Map database creation process, for examining the quality of the finished product. We will depute a dedicated quality control team that will be involved in setting up the project‟s quality related aspects from the initial stages and will form an integral part of each aspect of the day-to-day project functioning. This integrated approach will enable us to deliver an accurate, consistent and error free work throughout the production process

and error free work throughout the production process Fig. 5: Highlighting the need for data layer

Fig. 5: Highlighting the need for data layer validation

Fig. 5: Highlighting the need for data layer validation Fig. 6: Highlighting the need for data

Fig. 6: Highlighting the need for data layer validation

Quality Cycle Stages

The work units that get submitted in the data capture phase will then be ready for quality checking by the quality checking team. The quality team will be automatically allocated the highest priority work unit for quality check. The user at this level will select the respective work unit allocated to him / her and based on visual thematic checks, would pass / fail the output data. Once the user passes a work unit, the features corresponding to the same are flagged as ready for shipment extraction. All the vector data created / updated base map will undergo stringent quality check before final delivery for designing of Alignment.

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

3.1.12. Digital Data Layers Integration and Modelling

The Consultants shall integrate thematic layers and assign weights in spatial modelling to choose best possible alignments. Terrain analysis shall be used to identify slopes, elevations, drainage pattern, landslide prone areas, location of tunnels, crossings and low lying areas etc.

drainage pattern, landslide prone areas, location of tunnels, crossings and low lying areas etc. Technical Proposal

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

Task 3.2

Study of available Geotechnical reports

3.2.1 Desk Study

The Consultants shall perform desk study involving review of previous reports, topographical maps, geological and soil maps of the route corridor, data published by various authorities and any relevant data available locally concerning the project by the Mongolian government. The data will be reviewed to ascertain the type of soil and its condition in the project area including section of weak and problematic soil. The study will be used to anticipate the bearing pressure of the strata to be encountered. Reference of the desk study of the geotechnical reports of the existing railway / highway bridges shall be taken into consideration for determining the type of foundations required for the proposed structures. This study will form the basis of preliminary cost estimate.

3.2.2 Geology

The study area is located around Ulaanbaatar, and the length of the proposed project railroad is estimated to be around 80-140 km based on selected alignment alternative. The proposed railroad shall pass Ulaanbaatar in its west at the territories of Khan-Uul, Songino-Khairkhan districts and Batsumber, Altanbulag, Sergelen, Bayan soums of Tuv province. The study area belongs to the Hangay-Hentey basin (Fig. 8). The basin is subdivided into the Silurian Mandal Group, the Lower Devonian Sergelen Formation, the Middle- Upper Devonian Gorkhi Formation, the Lower Carboniferous Altan-Ovoo Formation and the Lower-Upper Carboniferous Orgioch-Uul Formation. Basement units in this area are composed of two formations with different stratigraphy. One is the Gorkhi Formation consisting mainly sandstone, and the other is the Altan- Ovoo and Orgioch-Uul Formation comprising sandstone and mudstone. The Gorkhi Formation yields radiolarian fossils from chert. The shallow marine Carboniferous system is composed of conglomerate and sandstone in the lower part and mudstone with thin sandstone beds. The conglomerate in the lower part yields some kind of fossils such as brachiopods. Mesozoic Granite intrudes into the Altan-Ovoo & Orgioch Formation in the southeast area, and rhyolite, andesite and granite dikes intrude into the Altan-Ovoo and Orgioch-Uul Formation in the northwest area. Talus deposits

mainly consisting of gravel bed are distributed along rivers and in the valley with slightly higher surface than

Fig. 7 : Simplified geological map around project area (modified from Tomurtogoo et al., 1998)

around project area (modified from Tomurtogoo et al., 1998) recent river bed. Fault with large displacement

recent river bed. Fault with large displacement and many folds are reported in the area. The basal bed of the Altan- Ovoo and Orgioch-Uul Formation consists of pillow and massive lavas of basalt. It is overlaid by alternating beds of reddish purple mafic tuff, green basalt and mudstone, alternating beds of red chert and mudstone, siliceous mudstone and clastic rocks in ascending order. The Gorkhi formation consists of basalt lava as the base layer, tuff, alternating beds of chert and dark red tuff siliceous shale and clastic rocks showing upward-thickening and coarsening. Sedimentary features like grading, load cast, cross lamination, channel structure have been reported from the area. Overturned folds are also identified in the area. The Gorkhi Formation is in fault contact with the Altan- Ovoo and Orgioch-Uul Formation. Various faults have been identified earlier which also show presence of fracture zone. To further study the geology of the area, a detailed survey will be conducted and the geological mapping of the entire project area will be done to evaluate the most feasible alignment keeping in view the rock types and various other geological features like folds and faults.

3.2.3 Soil properties of the area

The territory is at a high elevation and there is sporadic distribution of permafrost. The area is situated above 1200msl. The domination of soil forming process is in the minus temperature. Mountain, Forest, Steppe and Desert soils are present.

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

The area has a dense forest taiga soil with discontinuous permafrost. Powdery carbonated dark soil covers the northern mountains, and swamp soil with permafrost is spread along the Tuul river valley. Dominant type of soil in Bogdkhan Mountain is a taiga soil. The meadow forest permafrost soil is spread through the higher parts of the mountain. Sediment rocks that come up on the surface along the edges of the mountain tops are well spread along in the range.

3.2.4 Geomorphology

The area is capped by a regionally extensive, paleo-erosional surface of inferred Late Cretaceous age. Surface correlation with counterparts in the basins south and west of the Hangay suggests that it has been uplifted and the surface morphology of the range suggests that the doming and uplift is relatively recent. The continental drainage divide separating waters flowing out and into the closed Mongolia Depression of Lakes and the Gobi Desert is a northwest-trending belt of flat- topped peaks running across the axis of the Hangay Dome.

3.2.5 Seismology of the area

The rocks record successive episodes of terrain accretions and consequent deformation and the area has been studied tectonically by many geologists and described as accretionary complex. Hangay-Hentey fold belt tectonic evolution of continental regime started in late Permian. Local seismic monitoring has revealed dense seismic activity around the area under study. The reports reveal that the high micro seismicity of this region is either associated with large fault or with regional widespread activity. Some quaternary fault scarps are reported around the area.

For further details, seismic study of the project area will be carried out that are necessary to ensure earthquake safety of the structures under requirements mandated by the site location and its associated seismic hazard, the selected design and the risk of failure of the competent structures. Accordingly appropriate mitigation measures shall be suggested. The following guidelines for seismicity study will be adhered:

following guidelines for seismicity study will be adhered: Fig. 8 : Earthquake Risk Map of Mongolia

Fig. 8 : Earthquake Risk Map of Mongolia








seismological data;

History of earthquakes in project site with epicenter(s) and date(s) of occurrence etc. and details of seismological data collected from the seismological observatories installed by National seismological center /Department of mines and geology other available sources and evaluation of seismic status of faults, thrusts and other weak features etc.;

Micro zoning to estimate site effects from seismic

measurements; and

The result will be supplemented by examination of the study of satellite images and aerial photos.

Task 3.3

Study of available Hydrology reports

3.1.13. Design Approach for Hydraulic Study

The Consultants shall carry out preliminary hydraulic study report collected from site and augment wherever required. The Consultants will carry out hydrological analysis and studies for each bridge site which shall include:

Area and Shape of the catchment;

Details of the course of main Stream and its tributaries;

Longitudinal slope of the main stream;

Average land slope of the catchment;

Characteristics of Flood such as steady, fleshy or eddy forming and their hazards;

Observed scour;

Rainfall records;

Requirement of protection work;

Nature of soil in the catchment as well in the river channel;

Extent of vegetation in the catchment;

Silt Factor for theoretical Scour;

Back water flow;

Flow distribution;

Velocity of flow;

Details of the existing bridge such as type, span, vertical clearance, scour depth on the adjoining bridges on the same river, if any;

Geotechnical report for the river, if conducted in previous studies; and

Climatic conditions (i.e. Temperature, Humidity and Snow accumulation etc.).

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia


Hydrological Study for Bridge Design

Basin Parameters

The watersheds of the rivers / streamlets at the proposed crossing points shall be delineated with the help of Google Earth Imagery and ArcGIS Software. The watershed area, fall in height, total and segmental stream lengths and corresponding elevations shall also be determined with the help of GIS Software. The superimposition of delineated catchment areas over the digitalized 25, 50 and 100 years return rainfall isopluvial maps shall be done with the help of ArcGIS to determine the area weighted design rainfall for the watershed. Estimation of Design Flood

Catchments, where stream flow records (yearly peak discharges) are available for the desired recurrence interval or more, the design discharge shall be the computed for the desired recurrence interval. To provide for an adequate margin of safety against an abnormal flood of magnitude higher than the design discharge (Q) the foundations, protection works and training works except free board, shall be designed for a higher flood discharge. The magnitude of this discharge shall be computed by increasing the design discharge (Q) estimated by the percentage indicated below:

Catchment Area < 500 Sq.km


500 Sq.km < Catchment Area < 5,000 Sq.km

30% to 20% (Decreasing with increase in area)

5000 Sq.km < Catchment Area < 25,000 Sq.km

20% to 10%(Decreasing with increase in area)

Catchment Area < 25,000 Sq.km

Less than 10% Design Return Period

The below components shall be designed for major and minor bridges, For Waterway

Generally the determination of Waterway shall be on the basis of 50 Years return flood. But for Important and Major Bridges shall be designed for 100 year return period and minor bridges shall be designed for 50 year return period. For HFL

HFLs of Important and Major Bridges shall be designed for 100 year return period and minor bridges shall be designed for 50 year return period with backwater and compared with HFL value collected from local enquiry. Higher of these two values will be adopted in design. For scour

The stipulations of “Design of Sub-Structures and Foundation of Bridges” shall be adopted for estimating the scour depth. Design Afflux

Maximum permissible afflux under a bridge will be considered as 300 mm.

The headwater elevation of culverts will be determined on the basis of acceptable head up of water upstream of the bridge point and in no case the Hw/D ratio (Headwater Depth and Diameter/Depth of bridge ratio) will be more than 1 for the safety of the subgrade / pavement materials. Vertical Clearance

The minimum vertical clearances for bridges shall be provided on the basis of stipulations of the Standards.

Task 3.4

Identification of potential Environmentally Impacted areas within the study area

Relevant maps and satellite imageries shall be referred to study the environmental features of the project corridor. Information on the project, available relevant secondary data/ information/ records and published literature shall be referred to get an overview of the environmental status of the study area. Environmental sensitive locations such as Protected areas - National park and Wildlife habitats along the project corridor shall be identified. Environmental features such as water bodies, pasturelands, hilly areas, steep slopes etc. shall be also provided. Environmental sensitive receptors in settlement areas such as health centre, cultural centre, education institutes etc. shall be identified along the final corridor, if any.

Task 3.5

Traffic and Transportation Studies

3.5.1 Overview

Requirement of traffic and transportation study for proposed railway bypass line alignment around city of Ulaanbaatar is to assess existing passenger and freight demand through primary and secondary data collection and analysis, to estimate existing modal share of goods and passenger travel between rail and road modes. Projected freight and passenger load in proposed Bogdkhan railway bypass line is also to be estimated. It is also required to estimate and future vehicular traffic on the cross roads to identify requirement of Rail Over Bridge (ROB)/ Rail Under Bridge (RUB) and at-grade level crossing along the new bypass rail track.

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

3.5.2 Identification of Data Source and Data Collection for Existing Railway corridor through

Ulaanbaatar and its Surroundings The Consultants will discuss with Ministry of Road Transport (MRTD), Ulaanbaatar Railway Mongolia (UBTZ) and identify data sources and relevant government agencies to conduct traffic and transport study. The given road and rail network maps, and google images will be utilized to delineate the regional setting of the study area corridor. The Consultants will collect various data which will comprise of the various information, but not limited to, on the following:

Existing Road and Rail network maps;

Vehicle Registration data;

Past Traffic data;

Demographic characteristics, population growth, Census data;

Economic base, time series data on Gross Domestic Product, District Domestic Product and City revenue etc.; and


economic cooperation. The Consultants will review the detailed studies and published documents of the various Government Agencies/Departments and inter-country trade potential among China, Russia through Mongolia.

As per Master Plan for Ulaanbaatar, four national and regional logistics centres will be built in satellite towns and settlement areas along the railways around Ulaanbaatar. They will be built towards the west (Emeelt-Argalant), east (near Nalaikh), and southwest (Bagakhangai) and the south (Aerocity in Khushig Valley near to the new international airport). International standard terminals and logistics centres will be built in Tolgoit to replace the existing limited terminals and infrastructure in Ulaanbaatar. The projected traffic data of these logistic centres will be obtained from planning bodies and modal split will be analysed based on consultations and available software.

3.5.3 Review of Regional Freight Movement in

Mongolia and Neighbouring Countries Proposed Bogdkhan bypass alignment is included in 2016-2020 Action Plans adopted by the Ministry of Road and Transport, Government of Mongolia. It is a part of proposed economic corridor linking Russia,

Mongolia and China. Trade and economic relation between the three nations and Asia-European countries are expected to be intense in near future. Fig. 10

presents existing and proposed regional rail corridor among Mongolia, Russia and China. The Consultants will analyse the freight carried by rail, road and air modes to and from Mongolia. As per the data available, the total freight carried in Mongolia was increased by 6.1% from its previous year on 2010. Railway transport carried 15 Million Ton, road carried 18.7 Million Ton and air transport carried 3061 Ton of freight in 2010 in Mongolia. Mongolia is a landlocked country and it is dependent on existing sea ports in China and Russia. The Consultants will examine the available open source data for






open source data for on inter-country trade and Regional Fig.9: Existing and Proposed Regional Railway Network

Fig.9: Existing and Proposed Regional Railway Network

Fig.9: Existing and Proposed Regional Railway Network Fig. 109: Existing and Proposed Regional Railway Network

Fig. 109: Existing and Proposed Regional Railway Network

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

growth projections of ports in China and Russia, where most of the mining products are exported from Mongolia through Trans-Siberian Railway.

Economy of Russia, China and Mongolia and the inter-country trade will be examined based on available data to assess the projected demand for container movement through the proposed new Bogdkhan railway bypass alignment.


Assessment of Existing and Projected Freight & Passenger Demand

Development of Transport Network in GIS

The existing railway line and road network in the study area comprising Ulaanbaatar city, New Airport at Khushig Valley, Bagakhangai in south and Mandal in north, will be coded in the ArcGIS software utilizing the inventory data, topographic sheets (if any), and satellite imageries. Development of coded road and rail network will include type of the link with capacity, junctions and rail stations, etc. Development of Regional Transport Demand Model

A Regional transport demand model will be developed using the coded rail and road network for the study area around Ulaanbaatar including Bagakhangai and Mandal. Regional transport demand model (RTDM) will be developed for base year, which will be calibrated and validated with the primary survey data, and then used for forecasting the travel demand for horizon years. The traditional four-stage transportation planning process consisting of trip generation, trip distribution, modal split and trip assignment is to be adopted for the purpose of analysing the base year transport data and also to develop and calibrate the regional transport demand model. Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ)

The entire study area will be divided into various Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ), which are the spatial subdivision to facilitate the spatial quantification of population and economic factors that influence travel pattern. Proposed zones or TAZ will be geographically associated with the origins and destinations of passenger and goods movement as observed from the primary survey. New Airport at Khushig Valley will be considered as a separate TAZ, trip attractions will be estimated specifically for new airport. Base Year Regional Transport Demand Model (RTDM)

O-D matrix estimation method also will be adopted to develop base year transport demand model using appropriate transport planning software, which utilizes the midblock link counts, as the traffic distribution parameters and the trip-ends due to production and attraction will be developed utilizing trip generation and attraction of the respective TAZs. Regional transport demand model will be calibrated using the base year OD matrix using established calibration parameters, and validated using primary survey data. The model will work based on Vehicle Operating Cost (VOC) and Value of Time (VOT) assigned to passenger and goods travel in each network link. Generalized cost, which includes VOC, VOT and direct cost like tickets, freight charges and road tolls, etc. for passenger and goods travel, which will act as the determinant for split of passenger and goods travel (allocation) on competing rail and road network under existing conditions. Coded road/rail links will reflect existing capacity of road/rail network links with travel time and speed etc. Finally, trips will be allocated between pairs of zones by the most likely routes using calibrated RTDM, for validation of the RTDM for Base Year. Trip End Projection and Growth Rates

Econometric method will be used to estimate growth rate for passenger and goods travel demands. The method of long-term traffic forecasting incorporates analyses of some of the key socio-economic characteristics in the influence area of the corridors (i.e. the study area) and their anticipated rates of change during the study period upto horizon year. These characteristics are being taken as indicators for the future growth of passenger and goods travel.

The Consultants will use elasticity approach for determining the growth rates of future passenger and goods traffic. This will involve establishing a quantitative relationship between passenger and goods traffic growth in the network as the dependent variable and growth of various socio-economic indicators as independent variables. The methodology will involve fitting of a log-log regression equations to the time series data. Future Network and Horizon Year Transport Demand Model

New Bogdkhan Railway bypass alignment, proposed road network in the region and other economic activities planned with different time frames (horizon years) will be incorporated to the future transport network of the study region and the development scenarios. Analysis of secondary data for container movement

Existing data on commodity of container, its origin and destination, duration of storage and container loading and unloading time will be collected from UBTZ and other secondary sources. Existing influence area of container movement, which will include international border, neighbouring countries and internal locations within Mongolia. Internal zones within Mongolia and external zones in neighbouring countries will be developed based on OD survey data. Proportional distribution of zonal influence on each pair of OD of container movements will be derived through data analysis.

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia Generated Demand due to Additional Facilities

The Consultants will analyse details of new Multimodal Fright terminal facility at Khushig Valley based on available reports, in terms of its freight handling and storage capacity and detailed capacity proposed new International Airport to be developed at Khushig Valley, from published reports and secondary sources. Projected passenger and freight demand share of the new Bogdkhan railway bypass alignment and the existing railway alignment through Ulaanbaatar city will be derived through analysis of estimated benefits of time and cost savings of freight movement along the new bypass rail alignment, freight storage and handling facilities at Multimodal freight terminal facilities at Khushig valley. Projected additional passenger trips due to new proposed international airport will be estimated based on potential trip generating zones at the surrounding cities. Future Horizon Years

The passenger and goods transport demand will be projected for short term 5 years, medium term 10 years and long term 20 years horizon, and will be assigned to the future network scenarios. Modal split model will be achieved through generalized cost of the future network including VOC, VOT and other direct costs. Passenger and goods travel demand, when assigned to the composite future road/ rail network, will provide the network loads for the road and rail links.

3.5.5 Final Passenger Volume and Freight Volume in Horizon Year

Passenger and freight train services capacity of proposed New Bogdkhan Railway bypass alignment corridor will depend on the signaling system, speed, frequency and various other factors. Therefore, final passenger and freight volumes on proposed Bogdkhan bypass alignment corridor in the horizon year will be determined through a capacity analysis of the rail network using the model output.

3.5.6 Assessment of Existing and Projected Vehicular Traffic at Level Crossings

Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) on road at all major and minor level crossings in the proposed Bogdkhan bypass alignment rail corridor will be determined from primary surveys of classified traffic count. Elasticity method will be used to estimate the growth rate of each mode of traffic observed at the level crossing locations, based on socio-economic data in the study region. Projected road traffic at level crossing locations will be derived using mode wise growth rates. Similarly, railway traffic (in number of trains in each direction) during an average 24 hour day will be collected from the proposed future train schedules.

Railway Works Manual for Mongolia standard MNS 5833 will be used for understanding the requirements for manned level crossing and grade separated crossing. Types of level crossing requirement analysis will be carried out using number of trains passing over the level crossing, which is represented by Train Vehicle Unit (TVU), and the vehicular traffic volume crossing the railway line.

3.5.7 Recommendation of Proposed types of Level Crossing and ROB/RUB

TVUs of each of the level crossings will be derived multiplying projected road traffic and projected train frequency in a day. Based on the criteria mentioned in Works Manual MNS 5833, the level crossing will be recommended to be upgraded to manned level crossing with safety equipment and signage and further to Rail over Bridge (ROB) or Rail under Bridge (RUB) as grade separated option. Proposed Level crossing up- gradation will be incorporated in the detailed design of the proposed Bogdkhan bypass alignment.

3.5.8 Assessment of Existing and Projected Passenger Load and Parking at Major Stations

The Consultants will conduct primary surveys and also collect secondary data for the major Railway stations in the existing rail corridor from Bagakhangai to Mandal. Existing passenger demand will be analysed based on passenger count at the railway stations, passenger ticket sales through secondary data from UBTZ. Parking accumulation and duration survey at the existing station locations will be carried out to assess passenger parking demand at the station premises. Projected passenger volume at stations will be derived from projected O-D matrix of passenger travel along with assigned link loadings on the rail network from RTDM and the future train services plan. Passenger parking at railway stations depends on car ownership of the project influence area and usage of different access modes. Therefore, the Consultants will assess the volume of private vehicle parking as well as the public transport parking facilities required at each of the major railway stations along the study corridor.

Task 3.6

Study of available Modern Track Design criteria of various Railways

The available data with the MRT regarding the design criteria for the Russian and China shall be studied thoroughly to correlate the same with the MRT standards and if any better track design criteria are observed during the course of study shall be incorporated in the design standards of Mongolian railways in consultation with appropriate authorities.

Task 3.7

Development of 3 environmentally acceptable alignments and analysis of design features

Methodology and Route Finalization Definition of alignment alternatives in area of interest entails various aspects such as geometrical, geological, geo-technical and interference from existing structures of the area where the alignment is to be executed. In addition to this, important standards about environmental concerns, land use issues, economics, long-term traffic levels and other economic criteria, as added are far beyond what

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has traditionally been considered. These additional considerations are well beyond normal task of alignment design in plains but are crucial for appropriate planning and design in mountainous terrain. On a more discrete level, the basic components of alignment design for particular route includes tangents, grades, horizontal and vertical curves, super elevations which shall be cost effective, easy to maintain, efficient and safe to operate. In the initial stage for development of 3 alignment options, Base Map prepared from open source DEM and Google Earth Imagery shall be used and on finalisation of the alignment option, Base Map prepared from High Resolution Stereo Satellite Imageries shall be used for further accuracy. The process of alignment design will be the same for Base Map prepared with either of the imageries as described below. The step wise approach followed for finalizing the different alignment options is as follows:

Corridor Selection;

Define criteria for alignment design;

Finalization of alignment design parameter;

Identification of possible station location;

Block definition (Start and finish point and any intermediate towns to be connected);

Each of the above listed steps has been described in brief in the following sections to arrive at best suitable alignment between defined obligatory points.

3.7.1 Corridor Selection

The planned new railway line will have significant effect on the growth of the towns and villages along the route. While selecting the corridor; population, the terrain and connectivity to the main habited area shall be considered. During initial planning stage of the route, it has been kept in mind to achieve social and economic advantage for deciding the corridor. The corridor selection for the present study is mainly governed by the requirement of bypassing Ulaanbaatar city to the southwest and providing connectivity to the New Ulaanbaatar Airport and multimodal freight terminal in Khushig valley. As per Consultant‟s preliminary review of the study area; Tsarduult, Sergelen, Zuunmod, Songino, Altanbulag, Dartsagt, Emeelt, Arshaant were identified as possible stations along the route. Looking into the importance of the places in the proposed corridor with respect to future development, it is foreseen that the New Ulaanbaatar Airport and probably Zuunmod, Sergelen, Arshaant and Altanbulag become the fixed points to be connected along the upcoming railway route. Other places along the route need to be planned to suit the overall alignment between identified obligatory points and to meet operational requirements.

3.7.2 Criteria for the Alignment Design

For planning new railway route, following main criteria for the definition of the alignment shall be adopted:

Shortest route wherever possible, adhering to maximum permissible ruling gradient;

Avoid major interference with the existing infrastructures like roads, bridges, structures etc.;

As far as possible, cross the geologically weak zones perpendicular to the strike;

Locate topographic low points in mountain terrain in order to optimize tunneling length;

Identify most suitable locations for crossing major river and for tunnel portals;

Improve passenger comfort and speed, reduce the operational wear and tear of rails, reduce maintenance by increasing the radius of curve;

Respect obligatory points and make use of existing infrastructure in the area; and

Minimum interference with natural ground topography and forest in the area.

3.7.3 Alignment Design Parameters

Basic design parameters used for this study are extracted from the tender documents are listed below:

Combine all factors analysis into overall assessment for final route selection.

Study of different route possibilities (between identified blocks and categorize routes options considering topographic, engineering, geological and hydrological factors); and

Starting point for study


End point of study



Diesel traction with possibility of Electric traction

Loop length

Passenger Loops 1250 m

Reception & Despatch lines shall be 10% extra of maximum train length.

Other Sidings as per operational requirement (Minimum 300m)

Classification of

1520 mm Single line /Double line

Railway Gauge


Extreme / High Density of Freight Traffic

Track Structure


60 -75 kg /1080 Grade for LWR section & non-LWR section on Main line


Rails 50kg New /90 UTS or 60 KG SH Rails for LWR & Non-LWR section on loops and sidings

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60 kg PSC sleeper with sleeper density 2000/Km on Main Line

60 kg PSC sleeper with sleeper density 1680/Km in Turn in Curves on Loop Line

50 kg PSC sleeper with sleeper density 1600/Km on Loop Line & sidings

PSC fan shaped suitable for 60 KG Rail section at turnouts:

PSC Bridge sleepers suitable for 60 KG Rail section for Deck Bridges with provision of guard Rails

Steel channel / H beam wooden sleepers on open web steel girder bridges.

Surface track:

Ballasted Track

Ballastless Track Tunnel and specific bridges

Ballast section

Top Width of ballast for single Track:

shall be 3.85 m

Extra Ballast on outside of curves shall be 10 Cm for curves having Radius less than 600m.

Side Slope of Ballast:

shall be 1:1.5

Ballast Cushion:

350 mm on Main Line and Main Line Turnouts or 200 mm ballast over sand bed of 150 mm

200 mm on Loop Line, Sidings and Sidings Turnouts.

Formation Width:

11.7 m for double line Track on Straight (minimum)

7.6 m for single line Track on Straight

400 mm shall be extended on outside of curves & in the part of ever Frozen Ground as per Mongolian Standard.

500 mm widened on approaches of Major Bridges up to 10 m from the Abutments on either side.

Guard Rail (derailment guard or displacement guard)

Important, Major Bridges and minor bridges on high bank


High Banks


1 in 11 to 1 in 18 as per site requirements for Passenger Trains depending on speed at Turnouts.

1 in 9 for Freight Trains.

Design Parameters

Ruling gradient

6%ₒ or (1 in 166 Compensated for curves)

Limiting gradient in station yard

1 in 400 (Max) 1 in 1000 nominal


Maximum Radius of curvature

for Horizontal Curves 1200 m

For Vertical Curves 20,000 m

Maximum speed

160 km/h for Passenger Train

120 km/h for Goods Train

140 km/h for Refrigerated Train

Maximum cant, Ca

150 mm

Maximum cant

as permitted as per Mongolian Standard.


Maximum cant excess:

as permitted as per Mongolian Standard.

Maximum cant gradient:

as permitted as per Mongolian Standard

Length of Platform:

1000 m subject to site availability, feasibility and approval of railway

Height of Platform:

High level platforms at all stations, subject to one platform shall be rail level to permit movement of Over Dimensional Consignments

Number of loops lines:

To be decided based on railway's operational requirement site availability and feasibility.

Track centre in yards:

5.3 m between Main Tracks.

At minor Stations it can be between 4.5 to 4.8 m

Track centre in Block section:

7.65 m keeping Minimum as 7.4 m

Indicative Block

12 to 15 km apart in general subject to railways approval.

sections length:

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Maximum height of bank

20 m, subject to review as per site conditions


As per Mongolian or international guidelines


at every 6 m height, 1 m wide berm after every cut/fill of 6 m subject to review as per site conditions

Protection of Track:

Shall be done as per Mongolian Standard by providing a longitudinal wall for protection from Snow, Sand, Dirt & other Conditions.

3.7.4 Identification of Possible Station Location

Considering the importance of the places in selected corridor, suitable locations for the station shall be identified based on feasibility to meet the station construction requirements and its public usage. Aligning the proposed rail system with the future growth in mind, will maximize the rail patronage. This was the principle objective guiding the process of selecting possible station locations. Looking into future development of the region, Tsarduult, Sergelen, Zuunmod, Songino, Altanbulag, Dartsagt, Emeelt, Arshaant have been acknowledged as the vital points to be connected in selected corridor.

These possible station locations shall be refined based on study objectives and constraints/ issues identified to locate the station in particular section. In addition to these, other places for station location along the routes shall be identified based on functional and operational requirements of the route.

3.7.5 Block Definition

After selecting the station location on the Base map, to study the possible connection between any two identified stations, block study for the section shall be carried out. Each connection between two stations is designated as separate block. This approach provides an opportunity to study possible different routes between two points to connect station locations. Individual block between any two stations shall be studied in detail and compared with other blocks in particular stretch to derive the best connection option. This methodology shall help in comparison and decide upon the best possible alignment between defined obligatory points.

The straight path between the obligatory points shall be marked. All constraints and obstructions (i.e. rivers, canals, water bodies, hills, cliffs, utilities, habitation, environmental protected areas, sensitive structures etc.) on this path shall be identified and the alignment shall be modified to avoid these constraints and obstruction by providing horizontal curves to suit the projected speed corresponding to the category of line proposed. The sharpest radius of horizontal curves shall be 1200 m and Minimum Radius of vertical curves shall be taken as

4000 m as mentioned in TOR / MNS:6229. The shape of transition curves shall be a cubic parabola. The

length of transitions shall correspond to the projected speed, permitted cant deficiency and cant excess for

1520 mm gauge track on Mongolian railways. It will be ensured that the alignment passes at least 50 m away

from the toe of the steep sloppy hill and on the leeward side of the hill in order to protect the track from landslides and heavy impact of harsh winds, as far as possible. Provision of tunnels shall be avoided. If it is unavoidable, then tunnel length shall be limited to 2000 m on straight and 1500 m on curved alignment as mentioned in MNS 6229: 2010 so that mandatory tunnel ventilation is not required. In case length is more, then tunnel ventilation shall be mandatory and along with tunnel design ventilation system shall also be design considering the prevailing climatic condition and geotechnical investigation. It shall be preferred to provide tunnels on straight. Each of these blocks shall be studied in detail considering different design parameters and constraints of the particular area that will govern the definition of alignment. This block study shall help in exploring the best possible route between two identified stations. Preferred block between identified station locations shall be then combined to derive different feasible alignment options in the defined corridor. Alignment design will be an iterative process. 4 to 5 alternative alignments will be selected for detailed examination. Weightage (0 to 5) will be allotted to below mentioned criteria in order to compare and decide upon the best possible alignment.

Total length of tunnel;

Nos. of bridges;

Height of bridges;

Geological conditions;

No. of Livestock and Wildlife Crossings;

Approach roads;

Connectivity to city, logistic hubs, mining zones etc.;

Ease to locate station;

Ease of construction; and


After detailed examination crucial location on these alignments will be physically visited by the experts. All tunnel faces and major bridges shall be critically examined. After fine tuning, these alignments shall be subjected to multi criteria analysis to arrive at 3 preferred options.

3.7.6 Multi Criteria Analysis

After analysing the given corridor with respect to the requirements and selecting the different possible alignments, it become important to decide on the best possible option that will serve the objective. But to handle the amount of data collected for each preferred option and compare it to choose the best of rest is difficult. For this, Multi- Criteria analysis shall be used to select the best option out of three alternative options.

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A Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) is a general term that refers to techniques used to obtain the most suitable

solution to a problem by making a series of choices from different data (Arentze and Timmermans, 2000). It is

a technique that can be used to identify a single most preferred option, to rank options, to short-list a limited number of options for subsequent detailed appraisal, or simply to distinguish acceptable from unacceptable possibilities. MCA in simple language is a method of breaking the problem into more manageable pieces to allow data and judgements to be brought to decide on the pieces and then of reassembling the pieces to present a coherent overall picture to decision makers. The purpose is to serve as an aid to thinking and decision making, but not to take the decision. MCA has ability to handle large amounts of complex information

in a consistent way and thus can be used in such projects where governing parameters are many. Further,

MCA has many advantages over informal judgement unsupported by analysis:

It is open and explicit;

The choice of objectives and criteria that any decision making group may make are open to analysis and to change if they are felt to be inappropriate;

Scores and weights, when used, are also explicit and are developed according to established techniques. They can also be cross-referenced to other sources of information on relative values and amended if necessary;

Performance measurement can be sub-contracted to experts, so need not necessarily be left in the hands of the decision making body itself; and

It can provide an important means of communication, within the decision making body and sometimes, later, between that body and the wider community. For alignment study, Multi-criteria analysis will be used as an approach that involve many evaluation steps taking into account the relevant geometric, geological /geotechnical factors, constructional, safety, operational and financial aspects for determining best alignment. For present study, Linear Additive Model shall be used to carry out the analysis. Linear Additive Model is generally used where the criteria are mutually preference independent. Most MCA approaches use this additive model. This model shall be used for the analysis as the criteria‟s are preferentially independent of each other and uncertainty is not formally built into the MCA model. This model also confirms how option‟s values on the many criteria can be combined into one overall value. This is done by multiplying the value score on each criterion by the weight of that criterion and then adding all these weighted scores together. While deciding the best possible alignment alternative, such analysis will guide to a conclusive solution making use of wide variety of key parameters and by giving right consideration to their importance. The typical steps followed for carrying out MCA are as below:

Identify the options to be evaluated;

Identify criteria for assessing

Assign weights for each of the criterion to reflect their relative importance to the decision;

Combine the weights and scores for each option to derive an overall value;

Assess the expected performance of each option against the criteria. Then assess the value associated with the consequences of each option for each criterion;

Describe the consequences of the options;

Score the options on the criteria;

Brief description of the above listed steps is as below. Identify the options to be evaluated: - As per TOR, three options in the defined project area shall be compared in Multi Criteria Analysis. Identify Criteria: - Next step is to identify criteria for assessing the consequences of each option. Assessing options require thought about the consequences of the options. To compare the preferred alignments alternatives derived from the study, different criteria that will govern the development of project were identified for comparison and weightages were assigned to each of the criteria based on their importance to the project. Scoring The key idea of this step is to construct scales representing preferences for the consequences, to weight the scales for their relative importance, and then to calculate weighted averages across the preference scales. Analysis shall be done using two different approaches as mentioned below; Approach 1- In this approach, score shall be given in a relative way, so that in each comparison the less preferable value has been taken as “-1” while the more preferable value has been taken as “+1”. The intermediate values are calculated by interpolation among the preferable and the less preferable values. Results obtained with this approach shows sizeable variation (i.e.-1 to +1 as stated above) in relative rating although the difference in the values obtained for identified criteria‟s is less. To lessen this effect, MCA is also carried out using another approach.

Calculate overall weighted scores at each level in the hierarchy;

Check the consistency of the scores on each criterion;


consequences of each option;

Organise the criteria by clustering them under high-level and low-level objectives in a hierarchy if possible;

Calculate overall weighted scores; and

Examine the results.

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Approach 2- Relative rating score is calculated by dividing the individual value for particular criteria by summation of values for all three option for respective criteria. This approach shows better results for comparison purpose. Weighting and combining the weights The overall preference score for each option shall be simply the weighted average of its scores on all the criteria. Letting the preference score for option i on criterion j be represented by sij and the weight for each criterion by wj, then n criteria the overall score for each option, Si, is given by:

In simple words, multiply an option‟s score on a criterion by the importance weight of the criterion, do that for all the criteria, then sum the products to give the overall preference score for that option. Then repeat the process for the remaining options to arrive at the final rating.

Task 3.8

Design of Track, Formation, side drains, catchment drains and protection works

For the purpose of Cost per unit length of track the following assumptions shall have to be made:

3.8.1 Height of Formation

This will be assumed to be minimum 1m higher than the highest flood level in the area. The data for this will be collected from local enquiries and Flood marks on the structures and past history of wash away / breaches / water flowing over the Structures in the area.

3.8.2 Width of Formation

The width shall be based on the number of tracks, gauge of the track i.e. 1520 mm, assuming Ballast cushion

of 350 mm on main line with cess width of about 1 m or as per MRT Standard, Centre to centre distance between two tracks in case of proposal for double line & Width of trenches to drain off water in cuttings. The

overall width of the formation at top shall not be kept less than 7.60 m in case of availability of land in the area. The Cross slope on top of the formation shall be assumed to be 3% or 1 in 30.

3.8.3 Side Slopes

The side slopes shall depend upon the stability of the Earth Work which in turn will be based on Cohesion &

Friction of the soil & its angle of Repose. These shall be slightly flatter than the angle of Repose. For the purpose of estimation this will be assumed to be 2:1(Horizontal: vertical) in embankment and 1.5:1 in case of

cutting. Turfing (wicker work) shall be taken into account for high banks of more than 4.5 m and Stone pitching of side slopes at the approaches of high bridges shall be considered which are liable to flash floods.

3.8.4 Side Drains

Side drains shall be provided to receive discharge from embankment surface and countryside runoff and carry it safely to the nearest outfall point ensuring safety to the embankment toe, which is the area most vulnerable

to erosion / failure passing through sides of hills. Side drains shall also be taken into account for the portion of track in cuttings with proper longitudinal slope and cross section.

3.8.5 Blanketing Material

At the designed axle load of 25 T and the design speed of 160 km/h there is good likelihood that ballast may puncture and damage the formation soil. To cope with this problem a suitable layer of coarse granular well- graded blanket material shall be provided along the entire formation width which shall not be less than 450

mm varying up to 1 metre depth depending the properties of the soils in the area. It has to be ensured that the

ground is well drained upto maximum depth of ground freezing.

3.8.6 Ground stabilization

Generally the poor soils like black cotton shall be removed and replaced upto design depth. However if not

practically possible to replace then suitable ground stabilization measures shall be adopted.

3.8.7 Ballast


top width of ballast section for the 1520 m gauge shall be taken as 3850 mm in the straight reach and 300


extra on outside of curves i.e. 4150 mm on curves. The Ballast Cushion shall be taken as 350 mm for

main line & 200 mm for loops in Station Yards over blanketing layer. The side slopes of the ballast shall be kept as 1.5:1 (Horizontal: Vertical)

3.8.8 Sleepers

Mono-block PSC sleepers shall be used at all locations except on Steel Girder Bridges without Decks. Sleeper density on Main line shall be taken as 1667/km. On Steel Girder Bridges where decks cannot be provided suitable Steel Channel Sleepers or as per MRT standard shall be used with the density of 2000 /km.

3.8.9 Rails

The Rail section for the 25 t axle load shall be taken as 60 Kg UIC 1080 grade for Main line & 50 kg 880 grade

for loops.

3.8.10 Rail fastenings

Elastic fastenings with Metal / Glass Filled Nylon (GFN) liners and Rubber grooved pads (Under Rail Seat) shall be assumed for the purpose of costing.

3.8.11 Station Yards

Suitable site shall be selected near New Ulaanbaatar International Airport for the proposed Railway Station. The Station Yard shall be proposed in straight alignment to the maximum extent as far as possible having ample space for various utilities and services. The ESP of the existing Ulaanbaatar stations shall be studied

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for assuming the required clear standing room (CSR) for different lines for the proposed yard. Keeping in view the existing traffic facilities at Ulaanbaatar railway station, this Proposed Station Yard shall be designed to have loading/ unloading facilities, C&W Maintenance depots, Loco Sheds and Store facilities for P Way, S&T, Works Department. The yard shall have loop lines of 1080 m length with Receipt & Despatch lines for Goods, Sick, Maintenance sidings for C&W & other sidings as per demand as decided by MRT. The Points & Crossings for main lines, Loop lines and Sidings shall be in accordance with the Mongolian railway Standard or as per best international practices as per direction of MRT Officials. At Other Locations the station yard shall have Crossing facilities with Main Line and minimum of two Loop Lines of 1080m capacity with turnouts of appropriate standard. The rails shall be assumed to have LWR and CWR to the maximum extent at the time of laying.

3.8.12 LWR/ CWR

Due to the hilly terrain, It will be checked from the topography about the prospects of LWR/CWR in the alignment proposed.

3.8.13 Carriage & Wagon & Loco Workshops

The available plans of existing C&W workshop, loco shed and loco workshop shall be studied to assess the infrastructural facilities to be considered for these workshops at new locations keeping in view future capacity enhancement. The location for Carriage & wagon workshop & Loco workshop shall be identified to have ample space for various sheds required for periodic maintenance of carriage, freight stock & locomotives.

3.8.14 Fuelling Storage facility

The site for Fuelling Storage facility shall be identified to have sufficient storage space adjoining the yard with Decanting facilities with approach roads.

Task 3.9

Design Bridges & Culverts and recommend span arrangements

3.9.1 Overview

This section covers philosophy and methodology for the identifying, standardization, preliminary designs and drawings and estimation of quantities for various kinds of railway bridges and similar structures along the various alignments for bypasses the city of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia for passenger and freight Railway traffic.

3.9.2 Scope of work

Based on the site recurring survey, topographic survey, hydraulic study, general soil quality; the Consultants shall identify numbers and size of River/Stream Bridges along different possible alignments. The Consultants shall also identify location of ROBs, RUBs, Level crossings, FOBs, wildlife/livestock crossing etc. Preliminary design calculations, General Arrangement and other drawings and estimates for the Bridges/structures would be prepared for different alignment options. The proposal would be discussed with MRT officials of Mongolia and best possible option would be finalized.

3.9.3 Approach Methodology

The approach to the project shall be covered in following steps:

Study various alignment options on Satellite imagery (Google Earth) and/or Topographic sheets and mark probable locations of river/stream for rail bridges;

Siting of river major bridges shall be carried out to minimize Bridge length and ensure right angled crossing to the extent possible;

Recurring survey shall than be carried out to confirm and finalize bridge location;

Consultants shall identify the structure affected in various alignment options and prepare their demolition and relocation plan;

Conduct hydrology study for all identified rivers/streams crossing;

Collect and study all the available geotechnical reports;

Standardize minor river/stream crossings in minimum size groups;

Carry out preliminary design and prepare typical general arrangement drawings for estimate and tender purpose;

For Major river crossing, an outline concept shall be prepared;

Consultants shall also identify Rail Over Bridges (ROBs & Rail Under Bridges (RUBs) at major road crossing locations and prepare typical drawings for the same after preliminary design calculations;

In addition to ROBs & RUBs, the Consultants shall identify locations for level crossings as per policy agreed with MRT. Standard specifications and typical drawings shall be developed by the Consultants for estimation purpose;

Constant shall identify suitable locations for pedestrian, livestock and wildlife crossings in accordance with the policy and discussion with MRT and other stockholders. Wherever required pedestrian Foot Over Bridges (FOBs) shall be proposed and typical drawings for the same shall be prepared for estimation purpose;

Consultants shall than carry out cost estimate for all the rail bridges/structures along various alignment options; and

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

The Consultants shall also prepare merits and demerits statement for various alignment options and discuss the same with MRT and ADB project officers for their comments/approval.

A diagrammatic representation of the approach that we would follow is shown below:

Study various Site Reconnaissance Hydrology study alignment options Sitting of Major Bridges and Investigation
Study various
Site Reconnaissance
Hydrology study
alignment options
Sitting of Major
and Investigation
Collect and study
Geotech data
Carry out preliminary
design calculation
Prepare typical
General Arrangement
Drawings for minor
Outline concept
drawing for major
Identify ROBs and
RUBs locations
Concept drawings for
ROBs and RUBs
Identify locations for
level crossings
specifications and
drawings for Level
Identify locations for
pedestrian, livestock
and wildlife crossings
Detailed bill
quantities and rates
Preparing Merits and
demerits for various
Discussion with MRT and ADB project officers
Discussion with MRT
and ADB project
Finalize best suitable alignment
Finalize best suitable

Task 3.10

Design of Tunnels

3.10.1 Tunnel Elements

A tunnel is more than just a hole in the ground to provide for a desired movement of people or material. To

accomplish the movement satisfactory, one or more of a variety of facilities in simple or complex form must be provided in addition to the continuous space. Having considered the principal element to consider how a tunnel is actually designed and constructed. That includes layout, location, ground conditions, and the theoretical and practical consideration of how the tunnel hole is kept open, temporarily during construction and permanently during operation and use. A study approach shall be made with due consideration of ecological system and Mongolian/ International standard in practice, for deciding the shape, size and length of tunnels. However, considering the information available at this stage, horse shoe or modified horse shape seems to be most suitable and stable option.

3.10.2 Tunnel Layouts

The consideration of internal clearances and overall alignment that is common to all transportation tunnels, including Railway tunnel. Also covered here are limitations on the tunnel layout imposed by operating requirements and by factors inherent in certain construction methods. Finally, alternative layout concepts for railway tunnels, which generally admit a greater Variety of approaches.

3.10.3 Tunnel Survey and Alignment Control

Surveying is an integral part of tunnel project from early in the conceptual stage to the completion of the as built drawings. A preliminary survey, expanded from the existing data but including limited field work, is necessary and must be provided for planning and concept development. As the planned project develops, photogrammetric mapping, recording of seismic activity and geophysical profiling become necessary, as does accurate location of bore holes for the geotechnical investigation.

A preliminary horizontal and vertical control survey is required to obtain general site data for route selection

and records and monuments that are based on the same horizontal and vertical datum that will be used for final design of the structures. Additional temporary monuments and bench marks are placed as needed to support field investigations, mapping, environmental studies and route selection. Modern mapping equipment and techniques provide a wide range of products and services to support planning and design, and ongoing construction management.

3.10.4 Geotechnical Investigation:

Geology plays a dominant role in many major decisions made in designing and constructing a tunnel, from determining its feasibilities and cost to assessing its performance. In tunnels, unlike other structures, the ground acts not only as the loading mechanism, but as the primary supporting medium as well. When the excavation is made, the strength of the ground keeps the hole open, until supports are installed. Explorations help evaluate the feasibility safety, design and economics of a tunnel project, in soft ground, rocks and tunnelling in difficult ground.

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

Developing sufficient understanding of regional geology and hydrology;

Defining the physical characteristics of the materials that will govern the behaviour of the tunnel;

Helping define the feasibility of the project and altering the engineer and contractor to conditions that may arise during construction for the preparation of contingency plans;

Providing data for selecting alternative excavation and support methods and, where project status permits, determining the most economical alignment and depth;

Providing specific rock, soil and hydrologic design parameters;

Minimizing uncertainties of physical conditions for the bidder;

Predicting how the ground and groundwater will behave when excavated and supported by various methods;

Establishing a definitive design condition (geotechnical basis for the bid) so a “changed condition” can be fairly determined and administered during construction;

Improving the safety of the work;

When project funds permit, providing experience working with the specific ground at the project site through large-scale tests or test explorations, which in turn will Improve the quality of design and field decisions, made during construction; and

Providing specific data needed to support the preparation of cost, productivity, and schedule estimates for design decisions, and for cost estimates. The underground poses some formidable, but not impossible, challenges to the geological and tunnel design, some of these challenges are:

There is vast uncertainty in all underground projects and the cost and feasibility of the project is dominated by geology;

Every feature of geologic investigation is more demanding than tradition foundation engineering projects;

The regional geology must be well known and understood as fully as the specific geology within the tunnel corridor;

Engineering properties change with a wide range of condition, such as time, season, rate and direction of loading, etc.-, sometimes drastically;

Ground water is most difficult condition/parameter to predict and the most troublesome during the construction;

It is guaranteed that the actual stratigraphy, groundwater flow, and behaviour encountered during construction will be compared with the geotechnical predictions; and

Broadly as per Q value system of Barton, the classification of rocks is mentioned below;

Sr. No.


Type of Rock

Q value


1. Class I

Good Rock

10 to 40


2. Class II

Fair Rock

4 to 10


3. Class III

Poor Rock

1 to 4


4. Class IV

Very Poor Rock

0.1 to 1.0

3.10.5 Tunnelling Driving Method

Conventional Method (Sequence of operation) For tunnel driving in soft ground, rocky or in difficult ground conditions following operations or normally required:

Surveying and Marking of tunnel profile;

Setting up drilling pattern and commencement of drilling operation;





De-fuming - Removal of foul gases by naturally or



Checking of misfires after de-fuming;

Scaling and de-fuming;

Mucking Disposal of excavated material to dumping yard; and

Providing temporary and permanent supports as per approved drawing / design / technical specification

New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM - Sequence of operation)

Drilling and blasting operation;

Defuming - Removal of foul gases by naturally or

Mucking Disposal of excavated material to dumping yard;

mechanically; Scaling;

Initial layer or sealing shotcrete;

Fixing of wire-mesh;

Installation of lattice girder;


Final layer of shotcrete;

Rock bolting; and

Closing the ring as per rock class.

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

3.10.6 Tunnel Support System

The principal objective in the design of an underground excavation support design is to assist the rock mass to support itself. The basic philosophy in tunnelling and rock engineering is that the extent of rock supports should reflect the actual rock condition. During the excavation, at the working face, temporary supports are installed to ensure safe working conditions. Generally rock bolts and shotcrete are used for it. The permanent supports are generally installed after the excavation, behind the working face. The temporary supports will form a part of the total support requirements. The most commonly used rock support methods are:

Rock Bolting The tensioned rockbolts are normally used for immediate support at the working face. These bolts are anchored mechanically or resin anchored. In corrosive environment, grouted bolts are used. These bolts are generally tensioned to 25-50% of their yield strength, except under rockburst conditions. In rockburst situations, a minimum tensioning is applied and large steel plates are used to avoid crushing of the surrounding rock. For Rockbolting behind the working face, untensioned grouted bolts are commonly used. Generally, the effect of rockbolting as support for rock mass will depend to a very large extent on the proper direction and the depth of penetration beyond the discontinuity. Shotcreting Recently, the shotcreting is the most commonly used and well-recognized method for supporting rock mass in tunnels and caverns. Use of the fibre-reinforced shotcrete improves physical properties of shotcete such as shear and flexural strength, durability, reduction of shrinkage cracks etc. considerably. Adding steel fibres about 1% of the shotcrete volume, it increases the load carrying capacity of a 50 MPa shotcrete slab by about 85% and its ductility as much as 20 times the original value. Accelerators allow the shotcrete to achieve early high strength, preventing sagging and sloughing of shotcrete during application, thus reducing rebound and increasing the plasticity of the mix. Micro silica in the mix improves the mix properties of the shotcrete and makes the mix workable. Also, it improves its frost resistance. Shotcrete is primarily applied in heavily jointed rock mass as an immediate support with a thickness of about 50mm. In case of heavy rock spalling shotcrete is supplemented with rockbolts and used as a permanent support. Normally this combination has the capacity to replace concrete lining that was earlier considered as the only option available in such rocks. Shotcrete can be recommended in the areas with weakness zones and faults provided water seepage and swelling clay material is not present in the rock mass. If the leakage is not very high, drainage may be installed along with the shotcrete. Concrete Lining

Concrete lining is used only in certain areas with exceptionally poor rocks like weakness zones active with black cotton soil. In the presence of swelling nature of strata, a cast-in-situ concrete lining has the advantage over shotcrete, as it is subjected to a lower swelling pressure due to the incomplete filling of concrete against the crown of the support and shrinkage of concrete. Concrete lining is normally designed with a minimum thickness of 30 cm. The cost of concrete lined tunnels may be as high as 3 to 5 times the cost of unlined tunnels. Steel Ribs The steel ribs are used at certain locations having very poor rock and squeezing ground conditions. The steel ribs can be placed at a fast rate. Steel ribs cab also be used with shotcrete and rock bolts at certain areas. Grouting Grouting is very rarely used in the tunnels or caverns except in cases of high water inflow or tunnelling is very difficult or there is a risk of washing out of in-filled materials. Pre-grouting can be used in major faults and weakness zones to improve the strength of rock and seepage of water in the rock. Pre-grouting (ahead of the face) normally gives better results than post- grouting (behind the face). The grouting is carried out around the concrete plug in pressure tunnel and pressure shaft extensively. Grouting can be used in major faults and weakness zones to improve the strength of rock and seepage of water in the rock. Pre-grouting (ahead of the face) normally gives better results than post- grouting (behind the face). The grouting is carried out around the concrete plug in pressure tunnel and pressure shaft extensively.

3.10.7 Safety Provisions

In discussing safety provisions, we must keep two facts in mind. First and contrary to some beliefs accidents are not inevitable. Second, accidents are extremely costly, and so accident prevention makes sound economic sense. The major causes of accidents are:

Uncontrolled contact between personnel and materials or equipment;

Failure of temporary structures;

Inherent constructional hazards such as the use of explosives; and

Unsafe practices or carelessness by individual workers.

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

The employer must recognize these causes and establish programs, rules, regulations, guidelines, and whatever else might be necessary to reduce accidents. Reducing the number and severity of accidents reduces much cost in addition to insurance and other items obviously affected by accidents. When an

accident occurs there can be not only lost time of the injured employee, but also lost time of co-workers due to general work stoppage; lost time of supervisors attending to the injured person. Investigating and preparing accident report; costs associated with damaged equipment or property; as well as many other partially hidden costs. Adherence to safety regulations in the sensitive tunnel construction industry is the prudent economic course to follow.

3.10.8 Fire and Life Safety

Major tunnel have been rare occurrences. However, the potential for entrapment and injury of large numbers

of people who routinely use railway tunnels warrants special considerations. An effective program for fire life

safety in tunnels depends on the coordinated interaction of several subsystems. These subsystems include detections, alarm, certification, incident location, communications, response plan, personnel evacuation, smoke control (ventilation), fire suppression and electrical power supplies. Given the interdependence of the

various subsystems, a deficiency in any one of them would reduce the attainable level of total system safety.

3.10.9 Tunnel Lighting

The railway tunnels lighting design can have an intensive lighting zone greater than 1.0Km, owing to the great mass of the train and stopping distance. Close coordination with railway tunnel operation agencies to establish intensive zone criteria will be required. Issues such as mandatory train entry speed, grade, alignment, and train mass will provide a basis for engineering judgments. Economic consideration must include capital cost, energy and maintenance costs. Portal to portal illumination will be require assessment of tunnel lining relectance. Low reflectance resulting from the characteristics of the material and minimal maintenance will require greater lamp lumens with high

reflective surfaces. This suggests that an asymmetrical lighting concept be employed for positive and negative visibility. Location of luminaries to coincide with refuge niches, to indicate the location as well as providing visibility, is recommended.

3.10.10 Water Supply and Drainage System

Water Supply The Railway tunnels are usually provided with hose valves and fire extinguishers and, in some instances, with water deluge systems on the exhaust fans. The most significant aspect of the water supply requirement is the tunnel fire protection system. The water for fire protection is transported through a water main located within the tunnel. The minimum flow and pressure criteria must be established prior to implementation of design. Drainage System

A drainage system is required in all tunnels to remove water that could accumulate from rainfall, tunnel

washing operations, tunnel seepage, vehicle drippings, firefighting operations, or any combination of these

sources. Drainage of a tunnel can be accomplished either by a gravity flow system or a pumped system. A gravity flow system will suffice for tunnels with continuous grades, provided that collected water can be

properly disposed of at the lower end of the tunnel. It may be necessary to have a pumped system to dispose

of collected water when a low point occurs within the tunnel.

3.10.11 Service Building and Ancillary Spaces

The number, type and specifics of tunnel ancillary facilities and service buildings depend on the functional requirements of each tunnel. Broadly speaking, ventilation equipment, electrical switchgear, and other mechanical and electrical equipment required for the operation of a roadway tunnel are housed in one or more below or above grade buildings, there must be space to house and maintain service vehicles and emergency trucks, shops for electrical and mechanical repairs, and adequate storage for the material and equipment needed to operate and maintain the tunnel and related roadways. Traffic control and surveillance, communications and equipment monitoring functions must be accommodated, and facilities for operating personnel have to be provided. In addition, facilities for the administrative operation of the tunnel must be provided, either as part of a broader district operational facility or as stand-alone quarters. Ancillary spaces for rapid transit underground stations must provide similar functions. Space for ventilation equipment, electrical switchgear, other mechanical and electrical equipment, train control and communications facilities, and station maintenance provisions are necessary as patron access provisions, the attendant‟s booth, and so on.

Task 3.11

Design of Tunnel Ventilation

In general the Tunnel shall be avoided in selection of the alignment but to achieve the objective of making the

alignment as much as possible straight the tunnel shall be provided after ensuring that depth of cutting minimum 30 m. The following component shall be keeping in mind while designing of the Tunnel.

3.11.1 Tunnel Ventilation

In normal operating condition Tunnel ventilation is required to keep the air quality breathable and in an emergency condition it should be capable to perform smoke free evacuation of the passengers. Transverse and longitudinal ventilation systems are the most commonly used for tunnel ventilation. Type and capacity of ventilation system depend upon the traffic density, length of tunnel and electrified / non electrified rail lines.

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

Transverse ventilation systems use dedicated ducts for fresh air supply and extraction and they are well suited for long tunnels with bidirectional traffic. They have to be designed to assure smoke confinement in a small section of the tunnel keeping the air velocity low to enhance their stratification and provide effective

extraction. Longitudinal ventilation systems use jet fans installed within the tunnel bore (generally on the tunnel ceiling) to provide longitudinal smoke control. They are highly effective when used in unidirectional traffic tunnels. In the case of longitudinally ventilated tunnels the air velocity has to be high enough to prevent smoke spreading against the flow direction.

3.11.2 Smoke Detection Systems by way

This system is used for early detection of fire and to take precautionary action to avoid any mishappening. Smoke detectors are synced with the tunnel ventilation and fire protection system, so if there is any detection

of smoke the ventilation system inside the tunnel shall get activated to exhaust all the smoke from the tunnel.

3.11.3 Water Sprinkler System

This system is also a precautionary provision to bring down the ambient temperature in case of fire or smoke and help to keep the temperature normal inside the tunnel. The water sprinkler system shall be synced with smoke detectors and tunnel ventilation system and act accordingly.

3.11.4 Visibility Systems

Poor visibility can lead to an accident or can bring down the average speed of the train operation. Electronic

Visibility sensor shall be provided inside the tunnel to measure the visibility. To maintain the uninterrupted movement of the train with safety good visibility inside the tunnel shall be maintained by providing fog lamps, warm air blowers in ventilation system. Air blower shall maintain the temperature and reduce the fog density.

3.11.5 Temperature Detection Systems

Linear strip running along the Tunnel with temperature sensing at every one meter interval shall be provided

to ensure the required temperature inside the tunnel. Tunnel coolers and warm air blowers are responsible for maintaining the temperature of the tunnel.

3.11.6 Passenger Guidance System

In the event of an accident or an emergency the LED strip shall be activated to guide and ensure that the passengers are evacuated safe from the Tunnel. The LED strip shall brighten the direction from where the fresh air is coming, so the passengers can move in the right direction and evacuated safely.

3.11.7 Gas Detection Systems

The percentage of the gases present in the air such as oxygen, carbon di oxide, carbon mono oxide and other fumes which exhausted from the engines has to be observed to ensure that the air quality is breathable and safe for the passengers. Exhaust System to suck out the gases and facilitate the draft of the fresh air to maintain the good quality of air. 3.1.14. Auto Activation Control System All the systems to be operated for the tunnel shall be designed for a pre-set atmosphere and shall be capable of maintaining those conditions.

Task 3.12

Station Planning and Architectural Design of Terminal stations, Intermediate Station and yards

3.12.1 Master Planning

The Consultants shall prepare a master plan for integrated development of the identified infrastructure from the detailed analysis of land use development patterns, urban planning, traffic and transportation study, travel demand forecasting, corridor planning, and alignment design of potential rail network based on extensive surveys, projections and stakeholder consultation. Master plan shall include design proposals and zoning plans according to functional relationship between station areas, transition areas, operational and maintenance facilities, other buildings, physical infrastructure, etc. Master plan development should not be limited to the proposed corridor, station development areas, operational and maintenance infrastructure, etc. but also include proposed infrastructural facilities on adjoining railway land, surrounding roads network etc. From conceptualized master plan, Consultants shall prepare development plans and proposals for mitigation of approach roads with internal road network which leading to different zones, building complexes, parking, circulation, fire tender movement and transition areas with respect to passenger and vehicular traffic forecast.

In order compliance with barrier free movement for differently abled user and universal design, Consultants shall formulate safety checks, audits and recommendation on all the proposed stations, operation and maintenance buildings, control infrastructure etc.

3.12.2 Station Planning

The Station planning and building design will be an analysis of station user study, proposed passenger and freight handling capacity, level of service (LOS), proposed amenities, sustainably inspired buildings concepts and passenger environments derived from surveys, projections and global design standards.

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

Analysis and segregation of departing and arriving passengers, Ingress and egress flow patterns of freight within all proposed station areas and loading - unloading bays in transition areas with help of computer based simulation.

Architectural design, volumetric analysis, area requirement and schematic layouts of station building based on passengers waiting (concourse), inter-platform transfer and holding areas for peak hour demand with compliance of adequate level of service (LOS) and other applicable guidelines.

Consultants shall design and propose all facilities and amenities in proposed terminal and intermediate stations such as enquiry and assistance counters, international signage systems, public address and information display systems, ticket counters, waiting areas based on passenger profiles, medical emergency facilities, left luggage office, platform shelters (as required), refreshment and vending stalls, food courts (on big stations), toilets, sanitation and cleaning facilities, master signaling room, carriage and wagon support staff facilities, parcel and booking offices, electrical and DG facilities, loading-unloading and stacking areas, parking etc. in accordance with functional relationship between passenger and freight movement.

3.12.3 Operational, Maintenance and Control Facilities

The Consultants shall prepare zoning plan and schematic architectural layouts with respect to proposed functional, operational, mechanical requirements and supplementary infrastructural requirement for proposed rail corridor such as administrative buildings, running staff resting facilities (i.e. drivers, train conductors, guards), duty rostering crew lobby/lounges, other offices, stores, sheds and other structures, gate lodges at level crossings, integrated maintenance depots, carriage & wagon and loco workshop, train examination, washing and cleaning facilities, wagon examination and repair facilities, rolling stocks depots and fuelling facilities, track and bridge maintenance depot etc. as required and identified in consultation with various stakeholders.

The Consultants shall also review existing and propose schematic layouts based on volumetric analysis and area requirements for centralized control officer who can address and handle train control, commercial control, centralised public announcement and train indication system, communication control systems, loco control centre, security control (even in case of emergency to maintain law and order), disaster management system, engineering control systems etc. based on managerial and operational suitability, availability of space and other infrastructural requirement for proposed rail corridor.

Task 3.13

Preparation of SIP for Signalling System

3.13.1 General

The signalling system as it exists today cannot handle the current and forecast traffic In view of design year as per this TOR in terms of safety, reliability, speed and efficiency, it is essential to conduct additional studies. The objective is to convert the entire system including sidings and stabling lines to computer based interlocking and have the entire route under centralised train traffic control for safer, faster, efficient and reliable working of trains.

3.13.2 Design Philosophy

It is necessary to study the current status of the signalling along the alignment and at the yards, depots and maintenance facilities. An Engineering Scale Plan shall be prepared in multiple options based upon the options of yard layout plans prepared at feasibility stage, separately for station yard and workshop yards. The approved ESP of each option will be the base for carrying out the signalling studies of various stations, their yards and the Level Crossing gates for the road users. The demarcation of station section and Block sections etc. shall also be earmarked for other references.

On the basis of ESP, a Signal Interlocking Plan shall be prepared, clearly indicating the location of points, signals, the centre point of operations of signalling gears, the place for fixing junction boxes, location boxes, the system of Interlocking, the class of stations etc. Thereafter a protocol of agreement between various users directly connected with the train operation and maintenance shall need to be achieved following which the SIP will have to be finally approved by a Competent Authority. Once the SIP is finalized by the railways, circuit diagram and all other relevant diagram will be prepared on the basis of SIP. In view of future design to handle traffic growth, Microprocessor based solid state interlocking or CBI (computer Based Interlocking) system is the latest options to provide better service and improved headway. A relative techno-economic study of both the alternatives will be prepared and put up to the Client for decision. In case level crossings cannot be avoided, than level crossing will be interlocked with additional warning features for road users. Track circuits together with axle counters and other safety features similar to ETCS level I shall need to be introduced into the system. Interlocking at sidings, workshops and ICD rail yards etc. will be decided on case to case basis.

3.13.3 Centralised Train Control

This system is essential to be planned for the project line, to be integrated with entire network. A complete system architecture shall have to be drawn up at concept design stage based on which the details of CTC shall be worked upon.

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

Task 3.14

Preparation of Cable Route plan for the suitable communication system

The existing telecommunication system shall be evaluated and feasibility of enhancements shall be evaluated as follows:

Common Installations

Additional Installations for Station Area

Additional Installations for Workshop Areas and Logistic Terminal

Public Address Systems

Passenger Information Display

Access Control System

Surveillance CCTV

GPS / GPRS Digital Clock

Electronic Weighing Scale

IP based EPABX

Cable TV Network

Digital Display System

Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity)

X-ray Baggage Inspection System


Optical Fibre Cable (OFC)


Task 3.15

Future OHE Provision Studies

3.15.1 Electric Traction

Currently Mongolian Railway is 100% run on diesel electric locomotives. In the long run, electric traction locomotives would need to be gradually introduced due to the obvious benefits of cost, speed, hauling tonnage etc.

3.15.2 Requirements

In order that electric locomotives can be run on the same track as being developed under this current project, it would necessary to consider certain current provisions and certain future modifications so that the migration becomes easy.

The following provisions and modifications shall be required as a minimum:


The formation width shall need to be checked for accommodating future OHE masts, including at turnouts;

Similarly bridges shall have suitable provision for installing future OHE masts at the time of construction;

Yard plan shall have to match be with the future OHE plan and hence the yard plans that shall be prepared as part of this assignment must keep provisions;

Yard facilities need to keep provision for OHE traction, hence designed accordingly at this time itself;

All height clearances for bridges, RUBs, FOBs, tunnels etc. shall be provisioned at this stage of design; and

Suitable space provision for traction sub-station yards and related auxiliary systems must be kept in the design. Electrical

All 33 kV cable crossings shall have to be moved under the track;

All transmission wires equal to or greater than 66 kV need to have a height clearance of at least 15 m; and

Transmission towers close to the alignment shall be constructed such that the distance from the nearest track is at least equal to the height of the tower + 6 m. Signalling

All signalling relays shall be immunized induction type along with provision of repeater relays;

Impedance bonds shall be installed to take care of traction return current; and

All cables must be properly shielded and earthed, so must all junction boxes be.

3.15.3 Double Stacked and Oversized Containers

Depending upon the regional and international container traffic, a future provision of double stacking of containers shall be kept, primarily from the point of view of height clearances, axle load etc. Since the current assignment deals with 25 T axle load, any double stacking shall be limited to be designed for 25 T axle load for all structural components.

Task 3.16

Railway Operation and Maintenance Studies

3.16.1 Main Features of the Suggested Operational Plan

In designing an Operational plan for the Eastern Railway Line, one major underlying principle is to ensure that forecasting the traffic demand and the projected sales for each calendar year is determined in advance in order to make available, adequate resources in terms of specialised and unspecialised manpower, equipment and rolling stock, infrastructure amongst others to support the expected traffic demand without sacrificing the benchmarked performance and efficiency. Consultants will examine and identify the key elements and considerations that have to be factored into preparing the operational plan for this section of Railway Line. These include:

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

3.16.2 Traffic Demand and Sales Forecasting

Outline of the Stages in Traffic Demand Assessment

Based on the infrastructure parameters of the proposed Railway line, Consultants will provide the guidelines for the preparation of the traffic demand forecasting once the bypass is operational. Ideally, this assessment should be done annually to help provide an up-to-date and efficient operational plan. The suggested outline for demand forecasting is as follows:

3.16.3 Demand Capacity and Workload Planning

Capacity and Workload Planning Given that all the necessary forecasts for traffic demand and the necessary infrastructure that will be needed to support their transportation have been considered, it is important for a closer look to be taken at the capacity of the railway operations in order to further assess its ability to handle the expected demand and how the demand will be managed through workload planning.

Consultants believe that this will go a long way to help improve the efficiency of the railway operations along the bye pass Line and adequately manage any unexpected

changes in the traffic demand. The estimated average train length factored in the freight workload planning is proposed to BE45 wagons. The container flat rake that will be used for transporting containers on the railway line should have capacity of 90 TEUs each. The tank wagon rake, which will be used for transporting liquid cargo along the line, should have a capacity of 2200 tons .Open wagons and covered wagon rakes used in operations should have a carrying capacity of 3000 tons each.

3 4 RESOURCE PRODUCTION PLANNING AND SERVICE DESIGN Based on the Traffic Assessments the number of

Based on the Traffic Assessments the number of trains required to be operated will be worked out for different categories of traffic, following are the categories anticipated:

International through traffic

Domestic long distance traffic,

International traffic originating or terminating in Mongolia

Domestic regional traffic

The traffic in each category will have following sub categories:

Passenger super-fast,

The freight traffic will have following sub categories:

Container- on flat wagons,

Petroleum- in tank wagons,

Cement, food grain, livestock etc. - in covered

wagons, The demand for each category of traffic will be assessed separately and tabulated, taking into account the seasonal variations. The peak demand and average demand on will then be worked out.

Passenger commuter


Minerals, coal, quarry products, mining products etc.- in open wagons,

Refrigerated cargo (Cold chain) - in special container or Tank wagons.

TA-8935 MON: Bogdkhan Railway Bypass Investment Program 01 Alignment Study (48329-001), Mongolia

The requirement of different types of Locomotives will also be worked out.

3.16.4 Resource Planning

Importance of Resource Planning

Having worked out the requirement of different types of rolling stock, the resource planning such as, examination points and maintenance stations will be determined. The need for maintenance infrastructure will also be calculated based on this demand assessment.

Resource or supply planning involves using personnel and systems used to assess and allocate the resources used in rail operations to support its optimal utilisation and performance. Some of the elements of the railway operations that feed into supply planning include:

Provision of Utilities at the stations (water and electricity);

Operational Logistics(Rolling Stock) such as locomotives, wagons, operational and maintenance services and facilities;

Management Information Systems for railway operations.

Maintenance Works Scheduling;

Inefficient use of resources can bloat the annual cost of passenger and freight operations. In today‟s increasingly competitive and challenging economic climate, management of the Eastern Railway line need to put in place various measures, adequate plans and support systems that will help optimise the elements listed above in the most efficient and cost effective way to ensure profitability.

3.16.5 Production and Service Design Planning

Importance of designing a well-defined Service Plan After the traffic forecasts and tariff authorisation have been completed and the necessary stakeholder engagements have been carried out to access the required capacity, workload and supply needs, the management of the railway have to design a service plan. The service plan essentially gives a schedule or time table as to the frequency of trips required daily and weekly and for what specific cargo as well as passenger timetables. The service plan will facilitate an efficient and productive flow of freight and passengers. The intersectional running times will be worked out for different types of trains, considering the (i) length of the section, (ii) curves and gradients, (iii) Train

characteristics (iv) Signalling delays etc. Trial „Train Operation and scheduling plans‟ will be generated using appropriate simulation software‟s. Appropriate paths will be allocated to the passenger carrying trains in

Infrastructure such as station points and rail tracks;

Human Capital Management; and

Helps monitor and Productive identify any Rail capacity Operations shortfalls Benefits of Helps Rail regulate
monitor and
identify any
Benefits of
in delivery
of service

consultation with stakeholders and then the simulation will be run again. At the next stage the available unhindered paths will be allocated to faster and valuable freight traffic. After several iterations, a complete Master chart of train operation plan will be generated in graphical form and tabular form. Tabular form may look like:


Bagakhangai to Mandal




Mandal to Bagakhangai