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fiziks

Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
GATE 2018
Section: General Aptitude
Q1. – Q5. carry one mark each.
Q1. “When she fell down the _________, she received many _______ but little help”.
The words that best fill the blanks in the above sentence are
(a) stairs, stares (b) stairs, stairs
(c) stares, stairs (d) stares, stares
Ans. : (a)
Solution: stairs means steps while stares means to look someone continuously.
Q2. “In spite of being warned repeatedly, he failed to correct his__________ behaviour”
The word that best fills the blank in the above sentence is
(a) rational (b) reasonable (c) errant (d) good
Ans. : (c)
Solution: The most suitable option is errant as errant means irregular.
Q3. For 0  x  2 , sin x and cos x are both decreasing functions in the interval________

     3   3 
(a)  0,  (b)  ,   (c)   ,  (d)  , 2 
 2 2   2   2 
Ans. : (b)
Solution: Graph of sin x and cos x is shown in the figure below
sin x cos x

3 / 2  /2 x
0  /2  2 x 0 3 / 2 2 

From the graph we see that sin x and cos x are both decreasing function in the interval
 
 , 
2 

Q4. The area of an equivalent triangle is 3 . What is the perimeter of the triangle?
(a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 8
Ans. : (c)

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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
3 2
Solution: Let the side of equilateral triangle  a , then the area  a
4
3 2
or a  3 or a 2  4 or a  2
4
Hence, the perimeter of the equilateral triangle  3a  3  2  6
Q5. Arrange the following three-dimensional objects in the descending order of their volumes:
(i) A cuboid with dimensions 10 cm, 8 cm and 6 cm
(ii) A cube of side 8cm
(iii) A cylinder with base radius 7 cm and height 7 cm
(iv) A sphere of radius 7 cm

(a) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) (b) (ii), (i), (iv), (iii)
(c) (iii), (ii), (i), (iv) (d) (iv), (iii), (ii), (i)
Ans. : (d)
Solution: The value of cuboid  10cm  8cm  6cm  480cm3
The volume of cube  8cm  8cm  8cm  512cm3
22
The volume of cylinder   r 2 h   7  7  7cm3  1078cm3
7
4 4 22
The value of sphere   r 3    7  7  7  1437.3cm3
3 3 7
Hence the descending orders of volume will be 1437.3cm3 , 1078cm3 ,512cm3 and

480cm3
Q6. – Q10. carry two marks each.
Q6. An automobile travels from city A to city B and returns to city A by the same route. The
speed of the vehicle during the onward and return journeys were constant at 60 km / h and
90 km / h , respectively. What is the average speed in km / h for the entire journey?
(a) 72 (b) 73 (c) 74 (d) 75
Ans. : (a)
Solution: Let the distance between A and B is xkm. Then

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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Total distance 2 xkm 360
Average speed    2x  km / h  72km / h
Total time  x x  10 x
   hour
 60 90 
Q7. A set of 4 parallel lines intersect with another set of 5 parallel lines. How many
parallelograms are formed?
(a) 20 (b) 48 (c) 60 (d) 72
Ans. (c)
Solution: Any two lines in one direction and any two parallel line in the other direction can form
a parallelograms.
So, number of parallelogram formed
5! 4! 4  5 3 4
 5C2  4C2      10  6  60
2!3! 2!2! 2 2
Q8. To pass a test, a candidate needs to answer at least 2 out of 3 questions correctly. A total
of 6,30,000 candidates appeared for the test. Question A was correctly answered by
3,30,000 candidates. Question B was answered correctly by 2,50,000 candidates.
Question C was answered correctly by 2,60,000 candidates. Both questions A and B were
answered correctly by 1,00,000 candidates. Both questions B and C were answered
correctly by 90,000 candidates. Both questions were A and C were answered correctly by
80,000 candidates. If the number of students answering all questions correctly is the same
as the number answering none, how many candidates failed to clear the test?
(a) 30,000 (b) 2,70,000 (c) 3,90,000 (d) 4,20,000
Ans. (d)
Solution: Let n  0  denote the number of students answering none of the questions and n  3 be

the number of students answering all questions, then


n  A  B  C   n  0   n  A   n  B   n  C   n  A  B   n  B  C   n  A  C   n  3

6,30, 000  n  0   3,30, 000  2,50, 000  2, 60, 000  1, 00, 000  90, 000  80, 000  n  3

 6,30, 000  n  0   5, 70, 000  n  3

Since, n  0   n  3

Hence, 2n  0   60, 000  n  0   30, 000

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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Using this fact and the information given, one fill the Venn-diagram.
A
B

1, 80, 000
70, 000
90, 000
30, 000
50, 000
60, 000

1, 20, 000
C

It is obvious that the number of failed students will be, the sum of number the students
who only passed in one subject and the number of student answering none of the question.
Hence, the number of students failed to clear the test
 1,80, 000  1, 20, 000  90, 000  30, 000  4, 20, 000
1
Q9. If x 2  x  1  0 , what is the value of x 4  ?
x4
(a) 1 (b) 5 (c) 7 (d) 9
Ans. : (c)
1 1
Solution: Given that x 2  x  1  0  x 1  x   1  1  x   x   1 ,
x x
1 1
x2  2
 3  x4  4  9  2  7
x x
Q10. In a detailed study of annual crow births in
Annual sale of crackers in India

Annual crow births in India

India, it was found that there was relatively


no growth during the period 2002 to 2004
and a sudden spike from 2004 to 2005. In
another unrelated study, it was found that
the revenue from cracker sales in India
which remained fairly flat from 2002 to
2004, saw a sudden spike in 2005 before
2001 2003 2005 2007
declining again in 2006. The solid line in

H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com  
 
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
the graph below refers to annual sale of crackers and the dashed line refers to the annual
crow births in India. Choose the most appropriate inference from the above data.
(a) There is a strong correlation between crow birth and cracker sales
(b) Cracker usage increases crow birth rate
(c) If cracker sale declines, crow birth will decline
(d) Increased birth rate of crows will cause an increase in the sale of crackers
Ans.: (a)
Solution: The growth pattern of crows and the growth in annual sales of fire crackers in nearly
the same. The two graphs are almost parallel to each other. Hence there is strong
correlation between crow birth and crackers sales.

Section: Physics
Q1. – Q25. carry one mark each.
Q1. The eigenvalues of a Hermitian matrix are all
(a) real (b) imaginary
(c) of modulus one (d) real and positive
Ans. : (a)
Solution: Eigenvalue of Hermitian matrix must be real.
Q2. Which one of the following represents the 3 p radial wave function of hydrogen atom?
( a0 is the Bohr radius)
Rr Rr
(a) (b)

0 r / a0 0
r / a0

(c) Rr (d) Rr

0 0 r / a0
r / a0

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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 

Ans. : (b)

 r   3a0
r

Solution: 3 p radial wave function is R31 r 1  e


 6a0 
Q3. Given the following table,
Group I Group II
P: Stern-Gerlach experiment 1: Wave nature of particles
Q: Zeeman effect 2: Quantization of energy of electrons in the atoms
R: Frank-Hertz experiment 3: Existence of electron spin
S: Davisson-Germer experiment 4: Space quantization of angular momentum
Which one of the following correctly matches the experiments from Group I to their
inferences in Group II?
(a) P-2, Q-3, R-4, S-1 (b) P-1, Q-3, R-2, S-4
(c) P-3, Q-4, R-2, S-1 (d) P-2, Q-1, R-4, S-3
Ans. : (c)
Q4. In spherical polar coordinates  r ,  ,   , the unit vector ˆ at 10,  / 4,  / 2  is

(a) k̂ (b)
2

1 ˆ ˆ
jk  (c)
1
2

 ˆj  kˆ  (d)
2

1 ˆ ˆ
jk 
Ans. : (d)
z
Solution: ˆ  cos 45 ˆj  sin 45 kˆ
0 0

 /4
 ˆ 
2

1 ˆ ˆ
jk  ˆ
y
Q5. The scale factors corresponding to the covariant metric tensor gi j in spherical polar

coordinates are
(a) 1, r 2 , r 2 sin 2  (b) 1, r 2 ,sin 2  (c) 1,1,1 (d) 1, r , r sin 
Ans. : (d)
Q6. In the context of small oscillations, which one of the following does NOT apply to the
normal coordinates?
(a) Each normal coordinate has an eigen-frequency associated with it
(b) The normal coordinates are orthogonal to one another

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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
(c) The normal coordinates are all independent
(d) The potential energy of the system is a sum of squares of the normal coordinates with
constant coefficients
Ans. : (b)
Solution: Normal co-ordinate must be independent. It is not necessary that it should orthogonal.
Q7. For the given unit cells of a two dimensional square lattice, which option lists all the
primitive cells?

1 5

4
3
2

(a) (1) and (2) (b) (1), (2) and (3)


(c) (1), (2), (3) and (4) (d) (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5)
Ans. : (c)
Solution: For primitive cell, N eff  1

In cell (1), (2), (3) and (4) N eff  1 , these are primitive cell

Whereas in cell (5), N eff  2 , this is non-primitive cell.


  
Q8. Among electric field ( E ), magnetic field ( B ), angular momentum ( L ) and vector

potential ( A ), which is/are odd under parity (space inversion) operation?
  
(a) E only (b) E and A only
   
(c) E and B only (d) B and L only
Ans. : (b)
Solution: Under parity operation r  r
V
E ; E : P  E
r
 
B  I r ; B : P  B
 
Lrp ; L : P  L

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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
A
E ; A: P  A
t
Q9. The expression for the second overtone frequency in the vibrational absorption spectra of
a diatomic molecule in terms of the harmonic frequency e and anharmonicity constant

xe is

(a) 2e 1  xe  (b) 2e 1  3 xe  (c) 3e 1  2 xe  (d) 3e 1  4 xe 

Ans. : (d)
2
 1  1
Solution:  V  e  v    e xe  v  
 2  2
Second overtone v  0  v  3

7 
2 2
7 1
 v   v 3   v  0  e  e xe    e  e xe    3e  12e xe  3we 1  4 xe 
2 2 2 2
Q10. Match the physical effects and order of magnitude of their energy scales given below,
e2
where   is fine structure constant; me and m p are electron and proton mass,
4 0 c
respectively.
Group I Group II
P: Lamb shift 1: ~ O  2 me c 2 

Q: Fine structure 
2: ~ O  4 me c 2 
R: Bohr energy 
3: ~ O  4 me2 c 2 / m p 
S: Hyperfine structure 
4: ~ O  5 me c 2 
(a) P-3, Q-1, R-2, S-4 (b) P-2, Q-3, R-1, S-4
(c) P-4, Q-2, R-1, S-3 (d) P-2, Q-4, R-1, S-3
Ans. : (c)
Solution:- Bohr energy E   2 me c 2

Fine structure E   4 me c 2

Lamb straight E   5 me c 2

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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
 me c
4 2
Hyperfine structure E 
mp

Q11. The logic expression ABC  ABC  ABC  ABC can be simplified to
(a) A XOR C (b) A AND C (c) 0 (d) 1
Ans. : (a)
Solution: Y  ABC  ABC  ABC  ABC  AC  B  B   AC  B  B 

 Y  AC  AC  A XOR C
Q12. At low temperatures ( T ), the specific heat of common metals is described by (with 
and  as constants)

(a)  T   T 3 (b)  T 3 (c) exp   / T  (d)  T   T 5

Ans. : (a)
Solution: C  Ce  C pn   T   T 3

Q13. In a 2-to-1 multiplexer as shown below, the output X  A0 if C  0 and X  A1 if C  1 .

Which one of the following is the correct implementation of this multiplexer?

A0 A0
(a) C (b) C
X X
A1 A1

A0 A0
(c) C X (d) C X
A1 A1
Ans. : (a)
Solution: Check option (a),
X  A0C  A1C

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Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
If C  0  X  A0

If C  1  X  A1

Q14. The elementary particle  0 is placed in the baryon decuplet, shown below, at



Strangeness Q

P R

S
3rd component of isospin

(a) P (b) Q (c) R (d) S


Ans. : (c)
 0  
0
  
 
Q
 0
 
P R


Q15. The intrinsic/permanent electric dipole moment in the ground state of hydrogen atom is
( a0 is the Bohr radius)

(a) 3ea0 (b) zero (c) ea0 (d) 3ea0


Ans. : (b)
Solution: For dipole moment energy is eEr cos 
E11  eEr cos   eE r cos   0 [ cos   0 ]

Q16. The high temperature magnetic susceptibility of solids having ions with magnetic
1
moments can be described by   with T as absolute temperature and  as
T 
constant. The three behaviours i.e., paramagnetic, ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic
are described, respectively, by
(a)   0,   0,   0 (b)   0,   0,   0

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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
(c)   0,   0,   0 (d)   0,   0,   0
Ans. : (c)
C
Solution: Paramagnetism:  
T
C
Ferromagnetism:  
T  TC
C
Anti-ferromagnetism:  
T  TC
Q17. Which one of the following is an allowed electric dipole transition?
(a) 1S0  3 S1 (b) 2P3/ 2  2D5 / 2 (c) 2D5 / 2  2P1/ 2 (d) 3P0  5D0
Ans. : (b)
Solution: For electric dipole transition
L  0, 1  0  0  , J  0.  1 , S  0

Only option (b) satisfies above selection rules


Q18. In the decay,    e  e  X , what is X ?
(a)  (b)  e (c)   (d)  

Ans. : (d)
Solution:- u   e   e  u

Lu :  1 0 0 1

Le : 0 1 1 0

Q19. A spaceship is travelling with a velocity of 0.7 c away from a space station. The
spaceship ejects a probe with a velocity 0.59 c opposite to its own velocity. A person in
the space station would see the probe moving at a speed Xc , where the value of X is
___________ (up to three decimal places).
Ans.: 0.187 c
Spacestation
Spaceship
Solution:   0  7c , ux  0  59 c , Prob
  0  7c
ux  u x  0.59 c
ux 
u
1 x
c2

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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
0  59c  0  7c 0.11c 0.11c
ux     0.187 c
1  0  7  0  59 1  0.413 0.587
Q20. For an operational amplifier (ideal) circuit shown below,
4k 

2k  10V
V1 
V0
V2 
5k  RL

10V

If V1  1V and V2  2V , the value of V0 is __________ V (up to one decimal place).

Ans. : 3.6
4 4
Solution: V0  V01  V02   1V   2 V
2 5
V0  2  1.6  3.6V
Q21. An infinitely long straight wire is carrying a steady current I . The ratio of magnetic
energy density at distance r1 to that at r2   2r1  from the wire is ___________.

Ans. : 4
B2 1 u r 2  2r 
Solution: uB   2  B1  22  21  4
2 0 r uB 2 r1 r1

Q22. A light beam of intensity I 0 is falling normally on a surface. The surface absorbs 20 %
of the intensity and the rest is reflected. The radiation pressure on the surface is given by
X I 0 / c , where X is __________ (up to one decimal place). Here c is the speed of light.

Ans. : 1.8
I0  I  I
Solution: Radiation pressure    0.8 0   1.8 0
c  c c
Q23. The number of independent components of a general electromagnetic field tensor
is__________
Ans. : 6

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fiziks
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Solution: In Cartesian co-ordinate, three Independent coordinate for electric field,  Ex , E y , Ez 

and three Independent co-ordinate for magnetic field  Bx , By , Bz  .

Q24. If X is the dimensionality of a free electron gas, the energy ( E ) dependence of density
1
X Y
2
of states is given by E , where Y is_________.
Ans. : 1
d 
 1
Solution:   E 2 

Q25. For nucleus 164


Er , a J   2 state is at 90 keV . Assuming 164
Er to be a rigid rotor, the

energy of its 4 state is ___________ keV (up to one decimal place)


Ans. : 300
Solution: EJ  hcBJ  J  1 _________ 4

E2  hc B 2  2  1 and E4  hc B 4  4  1 _________ 2

E4  20 20
Then,   E4   90 keV  300 keV
E2  6 6

Q26. – Q55. carry two marks each.


     
Q26. Given V1  iˆ  ˆj and V2  2iˆ  3 ˆj  2kˆ , which one of the following V3 makes V1 ,V2 , V3 
a complete set for a three dimensional real linear vector space?
 
(a) V3  iˆ  ˆj  4kˆ (b) V3  2iˆ  ˆj  2kˆ
 
(c) V3  iˆ  2 ˆj  6kˆ (d) V3  2iˆ  ˆj  4kˆ
Ans. : (d)
  
Solution: Let A be the matrix formed by taking V1 , V2 and V3 as column matrix i.e.,

 1 2 2 
A  V1 V2 V3    1 3 1   A  2 . Here V3  2iˆ  ˆj  4kˆ  
 0 2 4 
  
Since, A  0 , hence, V1 , V2 and V3 form a three dimensional real vector space.

Hence, option (d) is correct.

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Q27. An interstellar object has speed v at the point of its shortest distance R from a star of
much larger mass M . Given v 2  2GM / R , the trajectory of the object is
(a) circle (b) ellipse (c) parabola (d) hyperbola
Ans. : (c)
J2 GMm
Solution: At shortest distance E  2

2mR R
Since, mvR  J  J 2  m 2 v 2 R 2
2GM
Now, J 2  m2 2GMR  2GMm2 R (Given that v 2  )
R
2GMm 2 R GMm GMm GMm
E    0
2mR 2 R R R
For Kepler’s potential, if energy is zero, then the shape is parabola.
Q28. A particle moves in one dimension under a potential V  x    x with some non-zero

total energy. Which one of the following best describes the particle trajectory in the phase
space?
p p

(a) (b)
x x

p p

(c) (d)
x x

Ans.: (a)
p2 V  x
Solution: E   x
2m
p2 x
For x  0 , E   x
2m
 p 2  2m  E   x 
px
p2
For x  0 , E   x x
2m

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 p  2m  E   x 
2

Q29. Consider an infinitely long solenoid with N turns per unit length, radius R and carrying
a current I  t    cos t , where  is a constant and  is the angular frequency. The

magnitude of electric field at the surface of the solenoid is


1 1
(a) 0 NR sin t (b) 0 NR cos t
2 2
(c) 0 NR sin t (d) 0 NR cos t
Ans. : (a)
   NI  t  zˆ, inside
Solution: B   0
0 , outside

  B 
Since,  E  dl     da
line
t

 E  2 R   0 N   sin t    R 2

 1
 E  0 NR sin t
2

Q30. A constant and uniform magnetic field B  B0 kˆ pervades all space. Which one of the
following is the correct choice for the vector potential in Coulomb gauge?

(a)  B0  x  y  iˆ (b) B0  x  y  ˆj (c) B0 xjˆ


1

(d)  B0 xiˆ  yjˆ
2

Ans. : (c)
Solution: Check option (c),
    
  A  0, B    A  B0 kˆ

Q31. If H is the Hamiltonian for a free particle with mass m , the commutator  x,  x, H  is

(a)  2 / m (b)   2 / m (c)   2 /  2m  (d)  2 /  2m 

Ans. : (b)
Solution: For free particle, potential is zero.

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2
P
H  x
2m
 P 2  2i
Now,  x, H    x, x   Px
 2 m  2 m

2i i 2
 x,  x, H    x  
x , P  i   
2m m m
Q32. A long straight wire, having radius a and resistance per unit length r , carries a current
I . The magnitude and direction of the Poynting vector on the surface of the wire is
(a) I 2 r / 2 a , perpendicular to axis of the wire and pointing inwards
(b) I 2 r / 2 a , perpendicular to axis of the wire and pointing outwards
(c) I 2 r /  a , perpendicular to axis of the wire and pointing inwards
(d) I 2 r /  a , perpendicular to axis of the wire and pointing outwards
Ans. : (a)
  
Solution: S 
1
0
 E  B   1 Vl  2 Ia  IRl  2I a
0

R  I 2r
V  IR, r   S 
l 2 a
Q33. Three particles are to be distributed in four non-degenerate energy levels. The possible
number of ways of distribution: (i) for distinguishable particles, and (ii) for identical
Boson, respectively, is
(a) (i) 24, (ii) 4 (b) (i) 24, (ii) 20 (c) (i) 64, (ii) 20 (d) (i) 64, (ii) 16
Ans. : (c)
Solution: Number of particles, N  3
Number of state, g  4

For distinguishable particle, w  g N  43  64


N  g 1 6 6 5 4
For identical Bosons, w     20
N g 1 33 3 2

Q34. The term symbol for the electronic ground state of oxygen atom is
(a) 1S0 (b) 1D2 (c) 3P0 (d) 3P2
Ans. : (d)
M L  1 0 1
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  
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2 2 4
Solution: O : 1s , 2s , 2 p
Here, S  1 , L  2
According to Hund’s rule, for ground state energy
J  L  S  2  2 S 1
LJ  3 P2

Q35. The energy dispersion for electrons in one dimensional lattice with lattice parameter a is
1
given by E  k   E0  W cos ka , where W and E0 are constants. The effective mass of
2
the electron near the bottom of the band is
2 2 2 2 2
(a) (b) (c) (d)
Wa 2 Wa 2 2Wa 2 4Wa 2
Ans. : (a)
1
Solution: E  k   E0  W cos  ka 
2
dE aW d 2 E a 2W
 sin  ka   2  cos  ka 
dk 2 dk 2
2 2 2 2
 m*    [At bottom of the band, k  0 ]
d 2 E a 2W Wa 2
cos  ka 
dk 2 2
Q36. Amongst electrical resistivity    , thermal conductivity   , specific heat  C  , Young’s

modulus Y  and magnetic susceptibility    , which quantities show a sharp change at

the superconducting transition temperature?


(a)  ,  , C , Y (b)  , C ,  (c)  ,  , C ,  (d)  , Y , 
Ans. : (b)
Q37. A quarter wave plate introduces a path difference of  / 4 between the two components
of polarization parallel and perpendicular to the optic axis. An electromagnetic wave with

E   xˆ  yˆ  E0 ei kz t  is incident normally on a quarter wave plate which has its optic axis
y
making an angle 1350 with the x - axis as shown.
The emergent electromagnetic wave would be
Optic axis 1350
(a) elliptically polarized x
(b) circularly polarized

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(c) linearly polarized with polarization as that of incident wave
(d) linearly polarized but with polarization at 900 to that of the incident wave
Ans. : (c)
Q38. A p - doped semiconductor slab carries a current I  100 mA in a magnetic field
B  0.2 T as shown. One measures Vy  0.25 mV and Vx  2 mV . The mobility of holes

in the semiconductor is___________ m 2V 1s 1 (up to two decimal places)

B x
Vy y t  1mm
I z
w  4mm
l  10mm
Vx
Ans. : 1.55
Q39. An n - channel FET having Gate-Source switch-off voltage VGS  OFF  2 V is used to

invert a 0  5V square-wave signal as shown. The maximum allowed value of R would


be _________ k  (up to two decimal places). 5V
5k 
Vout
5V
5V Vin R
0V
0V
1k  100

12V
Ans. : 0.70
Q40. Inside a large nucleus, a nucleon with mass 939 MeVc 2 has Fermi momentum 1.40 fm 1
at absolute zero temperature. Its velocity is Xc , where the value of X is__________ (up
to two decimal places).
( c  197 MeV -fm )
Ans. : 0.29
Solution: Here, fermi – momentum or fermi radius, k F  1.40 fm 1 and c  197 Mev – fm

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Now, Fermi velocity –
P k F  c  k F  c 197   1 40  c 275  8c
VF       0.29c
m m mc2 939 939

Q41. 4 MeV  - rays emitted by the de-excitation of 19F are attributed, assuming spherical
symmetry, to the transition of protons from 1 d3/ 2 state to 1 d5 / 2 state. If the contribution
 
of spin-orbit term to the total energy is written as C l  s , the magnitude of C is ______

MeV (up to one decimal place).


Ans. : 1.6
1 3 5
Solution: l  1, s  , ˆj1  , ˆj2 
2 2 2

     j2  l 2  s2 
j   l  s   j  l  s  2l  s  l  s 
2 2 2

2
   j  j  1   l  1  s  s  1   2
l s 
2
   
    5  7  3  5       20   2  20  C
2
E    l  s  l s 2 2 2 2 2  
 5/ 2 3/ 2 
   8  8
20 32
E  C  4MeV  C  MeV , C  1.6 MeV .
8 20
Q42. An  particle is emitted by a 230
90 Th nucleus. Assuming the potential to be purely
Coulombic beyond the point of separation, the height of the Coulomb barrier is________
MeV (up to two decimal places).
e2
(  1.44 MeV -fm, r0  1.30 fm )
4 0
Ans. : 25.995
Solution: The height of coulomb barrier for  particle from

90 Th 230  88 X 226  2 He 4 (  - particle)

1  2 ze 2 
VC   
4 0  R 

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2
e
Here, R0  1.3 fm,  1.44 MeV fm
4 0

And R  R0 A1 / 3
Here, we consider pure Coulombic interection
 A1X/ 3  A1 / 3  226   4   6.09  1.58  7.67
1/ 3 1/ 3 1/ 3
ATh

R  R0 ATh
1/ 3
 1.37.67 

 e2  2  90 180  1.44 MeV


Hence, VC    
 4 0  1.37.67  1.3  7.67 fm
VC  25.995 MeV
Q43. For the transformation
Q  2q e 1 2 cos p, P  2q e  1 sin p

(where  is a constant) to be canonical, the value of  is _________.


Ans. : 2
Solution: Q  2qe 1 2 cos p, P  2qe  1.sin p

Since, Q, P   1

Q P Q P
  1
q p p q

1 
 
1
 2  12  .1
 2q 2 .e 1 2 cos p  2qe  1 cos p  2qe 1 2   sin p  . q e sin p  1
2  2

 e  2 . cos 2 p  sin 2 p   1  e0

  2
Q44. Given
d 2 f  x df  x 
2
2  f  x  0 ,
dx dx
and boundary conditions f  0   1 and f 1  0 , the value of f  0.5  is __________ (up

to two decimal places) .


Ans. : 0.81

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d f  x
2
df  x 
Solution: 2
2  f  x  0
dx dx
Auxiliary equation is,

m 2

 2m  1  0

 m  1
2
 0  m  1,1

Hence, the solution is


f  x    c1  c2 x  e x

using boundary condition,


f  0   c1e0  c1  1 (i)

f 1   c1  c2  e  0 (ii)

From (i) and (ii), c2  1

Hence, f  x   1  x  e x  f  0.5   1  0.5  e0.5  0.81

Q45. The absolute value of the integral


5 z 3  3z 2
 z 2  4 dz ,
over the circle z  1.5  1 in complex plane, is __________ (up to two decimal places).

Ans. : 81.64
5 z 3  3z 2
Solution: f  z  
 z  2  z  2 
Pole, z  2, 2
z  2 is outside the center
2  1.5  1 So, will not be considered

Now, Re s  2   lim  z  2 
 5z  3z   52
3 2 3
 322 40  12
  13
z 2  z  2  z  2  4 4

I  2 i  residue  2 i  13  26  3.14  I  81.64


Q46. A uniform circular disc of mass m and radius R is rotating with angular 
speed  about an axis passing through its centre and making an angle

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  30 with the axis of the disc. If the kinetic energy of the disc is  m 2 R 2 , the value
0

of  is__________ (up to two decimal places).


Ans. : 0.21
Solution: The kinetic energy of the disc is,
1 
T L 
2

Where L is angular momentum and  is angular velocity

1   1 3 1  mR 2  2 3
T L  cos 300  I       
2 2 2 2 2  2

3
T m 2 R 2  0.21 m 2 R 2   m 2 R 2  0.21 m 2 R 2
8
Hence,   0.21
Q47. The ground state energy of a particle of mass m in an infinite potential well is E0 . It

 22
 
changes to E0 1   103 , when there is a small potential pump of height V0 
50 mL2
and width a  L /100 , as shown in the figure. The value of  is ________ (up to two
decimal places). V  x

x a
V0
L
Ans. : 0.81
L a L a L
Solution: 1     ,  2     , a 
 2 2  2 2 100
2 2
 2 2 x 
E1  V0    sin   dx
1  L  L 
2 
V  2 x  V  L 2 x  2
 0
L  1  cos L  dx  L0  x 
2
sin
L 1
1

V0  L  2  L  a  2  L  a   
 a   sin  sin 
L  2  2L 2L  

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V  L L   a    a  
 0   sin      sin     
L 100 2   L   L  

 1
 0.0314  0.0314 
1
 V0  
100 2 
 20 
 V0 103 10  10   E0 103      E0 103  0.81 E0 103
 25 
Hence,   0.81
Q48. An electromagnetic plane wave is propagating with an intensity I  1.0 105 Wm 2 in a
medium with  3 0 and   0 . The amplitude of the electric field inside the medium

is _________ 103 Vm 1 (up to one decimal place).

( 0  8.85 1012 C 2 N 1m 2 , 0  4 107 NA2 , c  3 108 ms 1 )

Ans. : 6.6

1 2I 2I 
Solution: I  v  E2  E2    2I
2 v 1
 


0 4  107
 E 2  2  105  2  105  4363.4  104
3 0 3  8.8  1012

 E  66 102  6.6 103 V / m


Q49. A microcanonical ensemble consists of 12 atoms with each taking either energy 0 state,
or energy  state. Both states are non-degenerate. If the total energy of this ensemble is
4  , its entropy will be _________ k B (up to one decimal place), where k B is the
Boltzmann constant.
Ans. : 6.204
Solution: The number of ways having total energy 4  , out of 12 atom is
12 12 1110  9
 12C4    495
48 4  3 2

Hence, entropy, S  k B ln w  k B ln  495   k B  6.204   6.204 k B

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Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 
Q50. A two-state quantum system has energy eigenvalues   corresponding to the normalized
1
states   . At time t  0 , the system is in quantum state        . The
2
probability that the system will be in the same state at t  h /  6  is _________ (up to

two decimal places).


Ans. : 0.25
1
Solution:   0         
2

1  
it it

And   t    e   e 
 

2 

At t  ,
6
ih 2 ih 2  i i
1    1  
 t   
  e 6h
  e 6h
  
  e 3
   e 3

2  2 
Now, probability in same state

 t    0
2

2 2
1 2 1 1 1
P  e  i / 3  ei / 3  2 cos   2  0.25
 4 4 3 4 2

Q51. An air-conditioner maintains the room temperature at 270 C while the outside temperature
is 470 C . The heat conducted through the walls of the room from outside to inside due to
temperature difference is 7000 W . The minimum work done by the compressor of the
air-conditioner per unit time is__________ W .
Ans. : 466.67
Solution: Q2  W  Q1 T1  47  273  323 k
Q2
Coefficient of performance of refrigerator  AC   Q1
W
T2
Also, coefficient of performance of refrigerator,  W
T1  T2
Q2  7000 J / S
300 7000
  Q2  Heat coming in room 
47  27 W
T2  27  273  300 k
7000  20 1400
W  J /s   466.67 W
300 3
H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
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Q52. Two solid spheres A and B have same emissivity. The radius of A is four times the
radius of B and temperature of A is twice the temperature of B . The ratio of the rate of
heat radiated from A to that from B is __________.
Ans. : 256
Rate of heat radiation from solid sphere  A  4 RA2TA4
Solution: 
Rate of heat radiation from solid sphere  B  4 RB2TB4

 RA  4 RB and TA  2TB

4 RA2TA4  4 RB    2TB 
2 4

   16  16  256
4 RB2TB4  RB   TB 
2 4

Q53. The partition function of an ensemble at a temperature T is


N
  
Z   2 cosh 
 k BT 


where k B is the Boltzmann constant. The heat capacity of this ensemble at T  is
kB

X Nk B , where the value of X is __________ (up to two decimal places).

Ans. : 0.42
N
   
Solution: The partition function, z   2 cosh  
  k BT  
  ln z 
The average energy, E  k BT 2
T
       
Nk BT 2  2sinh    2 
  k B T    k BT    
   N  tanh  
    k BT 
2 cosh  
 k BT 
d E      
C   N  sec h 2   . 2 
dT  k BT   k B T 
 N 2
At T  , C  sec h 2 1  Nk sec h 2 1  0.42 Nk B
k k   / k 
2 2

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Q54. An atom in its singlet state is subjected to a magnetic field. The Zeeman splitting of its
650 nm spectral line is 0.03 nm . The magnitude of the field is ___________ Tesla (up
to two decimal places).
( e  1.60 1019 C , me  9.11 1031 kg , c  3.0 108 ms 1 )

Ans. : 1.52
2 eB
Solution:   
c 4 m
c 4 m 3  108 4  9.1 1031
B      
 0.03  109  1.52T
2 e  
19
650 109
2
1.6  10

Q55. The quantum effects in an ideal gas become important below a certain temperature TQ

when de Broglie wavelength corresponding to the root mean square thermal speed
becomes equal to the inter-atomic separation. For such a gas of atoms of mass
2  1026 kg and number density 6.4 1025 m 3 , TQ  ____________ 103 K (up to one

decimal place).
( k B  1.38 1023 J / K , h  6.6 1034 J -s )

Ans. : 84.2
h h
Solution:   
2mE 3mkT
At T  TQ ,   a

h h2
  a  TQ 
3mkTQ 3mka 2

1
where 3
 6.4  1025 m 3  a  2.5 109 m
a

 6.6 10 
2
34
J -s
 TQ 
 
2
3  2 1026 kg  1.38 1023 J / k  2.5 109 m

 0.0842 K  84.2  103 K

H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
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fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, JEST, TIFR and GRE in PHYSICAL SCIENCES 
 

H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016 
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com