You are on page 1of 4

# 5.

## 2 BOND, LAPS AND BEARING STRESSES IN BENDS

Bond is the grip due to adhesion or mechanical interlock and bearing in deformed
bars
between the reinforcement and the concrete. Anchorage is the embedment of a bar in
concrete so that it can carry load through bond between the steel and concrete. A
pull-out
test on a bar is shown in Fig.5.12(a). If the anchorage length is sufficient, then
the full
strength of the bar can be developed by bond. The area over which the bond stress
acts
is the anchorage length multiplied by the perimeter of the bar. Anchorages for bars
in a
beam to external column joints and in a column base are shown in 5.12(b) and
5.12(c)
respectively.
Clause 3.12.8.1 of the code states that the embedment length in the concrete is to
be
suffip in the d to graph a function of a single variable, like g(x) = 3x.
eu would plot (2, 6) because 6 = 3 � 2.
ve coordinates, like (x, y, z).

e da je u opsegu od
+10OC do +35OC.

## Ratingen is ry to repots as an intermediate bonding layer between the existing

of his earlier masterpiece destroyed by fire, prompted this trend. Once again old
arguments were called forth to justify the new turn of events. The German archi-
tect and hisl can be spsius argued that his era, "so full of intelligence,"

The minimum lap length specified in clause 3.12.8.11 is not to be less than or 300
mm whichever is greater. From clause 3.12.8.13 the requirements for tension laps
are the
following:
1. The lap length is not to be less than the tension anchorage length;
2. If the lap is at the top of the section and the cover is less than two bar
diameters the lap
length is to be increased by a factor of 1.4;
3. If the lap is at the corner of a section and the cover is less than two bar
diameters the lap
length is to be increased by a factor of 1.4;
4. If conditions 2 and 3 both apply the lap length is to be doubled.
The length of compression laps should be 1.25 times the length of compression
anchorage.
Note that all lap lengths are based on the smaller bar diameter. The code gives
val-
ues for lap lengths in Table 3.27. It also sets out requirements for mechanical
couplers
in clause 3.12.8.16.2 and for the welding of reinforcing bars in clauses 3.12.8.17
and
3.12.8.18.
5.2.4 Bearing Stresses Inside Bends
It is often necessary to anchor a bar by extending it around a bend in a stressed
state, as
shown in Fig.5.14(a). It may also be necessary to take a stressed bar through a
bend as
shown in Fig.5.14(b).
In BS 8110: Part 1, clause 3.12.8.25.1, it is stated that if the bar does not
extend or is
not assumed to be stressed beyond a point four times the bar diameter past the end
of the
bend no check need be made. If it is assumed to be stressed beyond this point, the
bearing

the production of modern vehicles and ships, and saw the Queen Anne style led
by Richard Nf "Time is frcommenting on the new shapes cre-
ated by modern technology, Wagner says in the first edition, "They all recall the
forms of past times..."; the second edition reads, "They scarcely recall the forms
of past times..."; the third edition is emphatic, "They do not recall the forms of

## 5.3.2 Structural Analysis Including Torsion

Rigid-jointed frame buildings, although three dimensional, are generally analysed
as a
series of plane frames. This is a valid simplification because the torsional
stiffness is much
less than the bending stiffness. Figure 5.16(a) shows where bending in the beams in
the
transverse frames causes torsion in the longitudinal side beams, where only the end
frame
beams are loaded. In Fig.5.16(b) the loading on the intermediate floor beam causes
torsion
in the support beams. Analysis of the building as a space frame for various
arrangements
of loading would be necessary to determine maximum design conditions including
torsion
for all members.
If torsion is to be taken into account in structural analysis BS 8110: Part 2,
clause 2.4.3,
specifies that

works of the next decade in which he implements this new construction method, in
particular, the Church of Saint Leopold Am Steinhof (1904-1907) and the
Postal Savings Bank (1904-1906 and 1910-1912) (fig. 7). In both cases brick
structures are sheathed o]n Wagner wanted the anchor caps in the center to be
gilded so as to be seen better from godern way of building.
Yet the anchor bolt000 enhanced and articulated bolts only held the panels in
place during the first three weeks of construction while the binding mortar bed
hardened.95 In e--struction is not enriched with ornament expressive of its pur-
pose, but rather the decoration (the bolt heads) is invested with a constructional
meaning seemingly inspired by necessity. Haiko has termed this decorative artifice
"symbolic functionalism," in that the bolts represent the technological, economic,
and time-saving attributes of this type of construction. It was the appearance,
rather than the reality, upon which Wagner's artistic conception was based.
Moreover, it is not just the bolt heads and surface texture that pass beyond a
constructional logic. The cambered panels on the first two stories of the Postal
Savings Bank, which up close are detailed in such a way as to reveal and em-
phasize their purpose as applique, allude to a bank's classical image of impreg-
nability. The concentration of enlarged bolt heads and the projecting blocks in the
upper story (shown in the competition drawing as blue tiles) are abstract residues
of a traditional frieze. The building as a whole, like all of Wagner's designs, is
centralized in a traditional compositional massing. Everywhere, it seems, Wag-
Parquet
Parquet comprises individual pieces of wood, called �billets.� These are generally
oak, from 3/8 to 3/4 inch thick, joined together to form a variety of patterns.
These small
pieces are held together by various methods: a metal spline, gluing to a mesh of
paper, or
gluing to a form of cheesecloth. Sizes vary from 9 to
19 inches square.
There are many parquet patterns and most manufacturers make a similar variety of
patterns, although the names may vary. One company will name a pattern
Jeffersonian, an-
other Monticello or Mt. Vernon, but they are variations of the same pattern. This
particular
design is made with a central block surrounded by pickets on all four sides. The
center may
be made of solid wood, a laminated block, five or six strips all in the same
direction, or a
standard unit of four sets.
Designers need a word of warning about using some parquet patterns that may have
direction (for example, the herringbone pattern). Depending on whether the pieces
are laid
parallel to the wall or at an angle, a client may
see L�s, zigzags, or arrows. The important thing
to consider is the client�s expectations.
To reduce expansion problems caused by moisture, the oak flooring industry has
devel-
oped several types of parquets. The laminated or engineered block is a product that
displays
far less expansion and contraction with moisture changes and, therefore, can be
successfully
installed below grade in basements and in humid climates. It can even fit tight to
vertical ob-
structions. Blocks can be glued directly to the concrete with several types of
the industry is making VOC compliant. One concern in the past has been a laminated
block�s
ability to be sanded and refinished. Because the face layer is oak, with proper
maintenance
the initial service life can be expected to be 20 to 30 years. Any of the laminated
products on
the market today can be sanded and refinished (at least twice) using proper
techniques and
equipment, so the expected life of a laminated block floor is 60 to 90 years.
Parquet flooring is packed in cartons with a specific number of square feet. When
order-
ing parquet flooring, only whole cartons are shipped, so the allowance for cutting
may be
taken care of with the balance of the carton.
All the parquet woods mentioned in this section are quarter sawn or plain sawn, but

some species are cut across the growth rings (end grained). End-grain patterns are
formed
by small cross-cut pieces attached into blocks or strips with the end grain
exposed. The
thickness may vary from 1 inch to 4 inches, depending on the manufacturer. One-and-
a-half
inches of end-grain block have insulating qualities equal to 23 inches of concrete.
Some
end-grain block floors are still in place after more than 40 years of heavy in-
dustrial use. These blocks absorb noise and vibration and have been installed
in museums and libraries.
Figure 4.6 illustrates the differences between on, above, and below grade.
Above grade is not a problem for installation of wood floors, because no mois-
ture is present. As mentioned earlier, moisture is the major cause of problems
with wood. On grade means that the concrete floor is in contact with the
ground. The floor usually has drainage gravel as a base, covered by a polyeth-
ylene film to prevent moisture from migrating to the surface. The concrete is
then poured on top of this polyethylene sheet. Below grade means a basement
floor in which the presence of moisture is an even greater problem. All freshly
poured concrete should be allowed to cure for 30 to 60 days.
The National Oak Flooring Manufacturers Association (NOFMA) recom-
mends testing for excessive moisture in several areas of each room on both old
and new slabs. When tests show too much moisture in the slab, do not install
hardwood floors. For a moist slab, wait until it dries naturally or accelerate