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Dynamic Analysis - Response Spectra Page 2 of 11

A response spectra analysis may be performed after the dynamic analysis to obtain forces, stresses and deflections. In

general, the response spectra analysis procedure is based on the assumption that the dynamic response of a structural

model can be approximated as a summation of the responses of the independent dynamic modes of the model.

2. Set the Eigensolution parameters.

3. Select the desired Combination Method. Then use the checkboxes to indicate which directions you want to

perform your response spectra analysis.

4. Select the spectra to be used for each direction. Then specify the other parameters. For help on an item, click

and then click the item.

Note

For a more thorough explanation of the Eigensolution options refer to Dynamic Analysis - Eigensolution.

Upon the completion of the solution you are returned to the Frequencies and Participation spreadsheet

and the participation yielded by the RSA is listed. To view model results such as

forces/deflections/reactions you will need to create a load combination on the Load Combination

spreadsheet that includes the spectra results. See below.

The Dynamic Solver option has been moved to the Global Parameters - Solution tab Advanced options.

1. After running the response spectra analysis go to the desired combination on the Load Combination

spreadsheet.

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Dynamic Analysis - Response Spectra Page 3 of 11

2. In the BLC column enter "SX", "SY", or "SZ" as the BLC entry (SX for the X direction RSA results, SY for the Y

direction RSA results, etc.).

3. To scale the spectral results enter the spectra-scaling factor in the Factor column.

Note

You can include more than one spectra solution in a single load combination. If you do this you can also

have RISA-3D combine the multiple RSA results using an SRSS summation. To do this, set the "RSA SRSS"

flag for the combination to "+" or “-”. Use “+” if you want the summed RSA results (which will be all

positive) added to the other loads in the load combination. Use “-” if you want the summed results

subtracted.

Response Spectra

The response spectra represent the maximum response of any single degree of freedom (SDOF) system to a dynamic

base excitation. The usual application of this method is in seismic (earthquake) analysis. Earthquake time history

data is converted into a "response spectrum". With this response spectrum, it is possible to predict the maximum

response for any SDOF system. By "any SDOF system", it is meant a SDOF system with any natural frequency.

"Maximum response" means the maximum deflections, and thus, the maximum stresses for the system.

In the response spectra analysis procedure, each of the model's modes is considered to be an independent SDOF

system. The maximum responses for each mode are calculated independently. These modal responses are then

combined to obtain the model's overall response to the applied spectra.

The response spectra method enjoys wide acceptance as an accurate method for predicting the response of any

structural model to any arbitrary base excitation, particularly earthquakes. Building codes require a dynamics based

procedure for some structures. The response spectra method satisfies this dynamics requirement. The response

spectra method is easier, faster and more accurate than the static procedure so there really isn't any reason to use the

static procedure.

If you wish to learn more about this method, an excellent reference is Structural Dynamics, Theory and

Computation by Dr. Mario Paz (1991, Van Nostrand Reinhold).

If a response spectra analysis is solved using modal frequency values that fall outside the range of the selected

spectra, RISA will extrapolate to obtain spectral values for the out-of-bounds frequency. If the modal frequency is

below the smallest defined spectral frequency, a spectral velocity will be used for the modal frequency that will result

in a constant Spectra Displacement from the smallest defined spectral frequency value. A constant spectral

displacement is used because modes in the “low” frequency range will tend to converge to the maximum ground

displacement. If the modal frequency is above the largest defined spectral frequency, a spectral velocity will be used

for the modal frequency that will result in a constant Spectra Acceleration from the largest defined spectral frequency

value. A constant spectral acceleration is used because modes in the “high” frequency range tend to converge to the

maximum ground acceleration (zero period acceleration).

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Dynamic Analysis - Response Spectra Page 4 of 11

Mass Participation

The mass participation factors reported on the Frequencies Spreadsheet reflect how much each mode participated

in the Response Spectra Analysis solution. Remember that the RSA involves calculating separately the response for

each mode to the applied base excitation represented by the spectra. Here is where you can tell which modes are

important in which directions. Higher participation factors indicate more important modes. The participation factor

itself is the percent of the model's total dynamic mass that is deflecting in the shape described by the particular mode.

Thus, the sum of all the participation factors in a given direction can not exceed 100%.

The amount of participation for the mode may also reflect how much the mode moves in the direction of the spectra

application. For example, if the 1st mode represents movement in the global Y direction it won't participate much, if

at all, if the spectra is applied in the global X direction. You can isolate which modes are important in which directions

by examining the mass participation.

Note

Usually for the RSA to be considered valid, the sum of the modal participation factors must equal or exceed

90%. If you do an RSA and the total participation is less than 90%, you need to return to the dynamic

solution and redo the dynamic analysis with more modes. If you are getting a lot of modes with little or no

participation see Dynamics Troubleshooting – Local Modes.

You may also want to account for accidental torsion. See Modeling Accidental Torsion to learn how to do

this.

Models with a large amount of mass lost into boundary conditions may have difficulty achieving 90% mass

participation. See Dynamics Modeling for more information.

There are three choices for combining your modal results: CQC, SRSS, or Gupta. In general you will want to use either

CQC or Gupta. For models where you don’t expect much rigid response, you should use CQC. For models where the

rigid response could be important, you should use Gupta. An example of one type of model where rigid response

would be important is the analysis of shear wall structures. The SRSS method is offered in case you need to compare

results with the results from some older program that does not offer CQC or Gupta.

CQC stands for "Complete Quadratic Combination". A complete discussion of this method will not be offered here, but

if you are interested, a good reference on this method is Recommended Lateral Force Requirements and

Commentary, 1999, published by SEAOC (Structural Engineers Assoc. of Calif.). In general, the CQC is a superior

combination method because it accounts for modal coupling quite well.

The Gupta method is similar to the CQC method in that it also accounts for closely spaced modes. In addition, this

method also accounts for modal response that has “rigid content”. For structures with rigid elements, the modal

responses can have both rigid and periodic content. The rigid content from all modes is summed algebraically and

then combined via an SRSS combination with the periodic part which is combined with the CQC method. The Gupta

method is fully documented in the reference, Response Spectrum Method, by Ajaya Kumar Gupta (Published by CRC

Press, Inc., 1992).

The Gupta method defines lower ( f 1 ) and upper ( f 2 ) frequency bounds for modes containing both periodic and

rigid content. Modes that are below the lower bound are assumed to be 100% periodic. Modes that are above the

upper bound are assumed to be 100% rigid.

A response spectra analysis involves calculating forces and displacements for each mode individually and then

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Dynamic Analysis - Response Spectra Page 5 of 11

combining these results. The problem is both combination methods offered (SRSS and CQC) use a summation of

squares approach that loses the sign. This means that all the results are positive, except reactions, which are all

negative as a result of the positive displacements.

Because the RSA results are unsigned you cannot directly add the results to other static loads in you model. One way

around this is to treat the RSA results as both positive and negative by manually providing the sign. Using two

combinations for each RSA result, one with a positive factor and the other with a negative factor you can capture the

maximum deflections, stresses and forces when combining with other loads. See Load Combinations with RSA Results

for an example.

The mass participation may indicate that a model is dominated by a single mode in a direction. You may base the

signs for the final combined RSA results on the signs for the RSA for this single dominant mode by checking the box

that says “Use Dominant Mode for Signage?”. When that option is selected then the Mode that that the highest mass

participation in that direction will be considered to be the dominant mode.

Other Options

This is the frequency used by the Gupta method to calculate the upper bound for modes having periodic and rigid

content. The “rigid frequency” is defined as “The minimum frequency at which the spectral acceleration becomes

approximately equal to the zero period acceleration (ZPA), and remains equal to the ZPA”. If nothing is entered in this

field, the last (highest) frequency in the selected response spectra will be used.

Damping Ratio

The damping ratio entered here is used in conjunction with the CQC and Gupta combination methods. This single

entry is used for all the modes included in the RSA, an accepted practice. A value of 5% is generally a good number to

use. Typical damping values are:

2% to 5% for welded steel

3% to 5% for concrete

5% to 7% for bolted steel, wood

Localized Modes

A common problem you may encounter in dynamic analysis is localized modes. These are modes where only a small

part of the model is vibrating and the rest of the model is not. Localized modes may not be obvious from looking at

the numeric mode shape results, but they can usually be spotted by animating the mode shape. See Plot Options -

Deflections to learn how to do this. If only a small part of the model is moving, this is probably a localized mode.

The problem with localized modes is that they can make it difficult to get enough mass participation in the response

spectra analysis, since these local modes don’t usually have much mass associated with them. Solving for a substantial

number of modes but getting very little or no mass participation would indicate that the modes being found are

localized modes.

If you have localized modes in your model, always try a Model Merge before you do anything else. See Model Merge

for more information. To get rid of localized modes not omitted with a merge the options are to adjust either the

mass or the stiffness of the model. For example, if your localized mode is an X-brace vibrating out of plane, you could

attach a spring (adjusting the stiffness) to the center of the X brace and restrain the brace. Alternatively you could

make the brace weightless and lump the mass at the end joints (adjusting the mass).

If you try the model merge and are still having trouble, see Dynamics Modeling for more help resolving local modes or

getting 90% mass participation for your model.

The most difficult part of the entire RSA procedure is normally calculating the scaling factor to be used when including

the RSA results in a load combination.

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Dynamic Analysis - Response Spectra Page 6 of 11

The ASCE 7 uses a particular “shape” for it’s spectra (See Figure 11.4-1), but the parameters SDS and SD1 make it

specific to a particular site. However, the ASCE 7 imposes several requirements regarding the minimum design

values. ASCE 7-10 Section 12.9.4.1 specifies a modification factor, 0.85*V/Vt, that may be used to scale the response

spectra results to something less than or equal the base shear calculated using the static procedure (ASCE 7 Sect.

12.8).

The static base shear (V) is calculated using the equations in ASCE 7-10 Sect. 12.8.1

Note that there are limiting values for the static base shear in ASCE 7-10 equations 12.8-3 through 12.8-6.

Therefore, in order to calculate the proper scaling factor, we need to know what the unscaled RSA base shear (this is

called the Elastic Response Base Shear in the IBC) is, and we also need to calculate the value of "V" (static base shear).

The calculation of V isn't particularly difficult because the two values that present the biggest problem in this

calculation (T and W) are provided by RISA. To calculate the value of W, simply solve a load combination comprised

of the model seismic dead weight. This almost certainly will be the same load combination you used in the Dynamics

settings for the Load Combination for Mass. The vertical reaction total is your "W" value.

The T value is simply the period associated with the dominant mode for the direction of interest. For example, if

you're calculating the scaling factor for a Z-direction spectra, determine which mode gives you the highest

participation for the Z direction RSA. The period associated with that mode is your T value. Note that there are

limiting values for T, see ASCE 7-10 section 12.8.2.

Calculating the unscaled RSA base shear also is very straightforward. Just solve a load combination comprised of only

that RSA, with a factor of 1.

Example:

Assuming we're looking at a Z direction RSA, enter “SZ” in the BLC field of the Load Combinations

spreadsheet and for the Factor enter "1". Leave all the other BLC fields blank.

Solve the load combination and look at the Z direction reaction total. This total value is the unscaled RSA base

shear.

To get the correct scaling factor, solve this equation:

You would do this calculation to obtain the scaling factors for all the directions of interest (X, Y and/or Z). Unless the

model is symmetric the fundamental period for each direction is probably different. Be sure to use the proper value

for "T" for the direction being considered.

Note: The ASCE 7 has additional requirements for vertical seismic components. (See ASCE 7-10 section 12.4.2.2).

The most difficult part of the entire RSA procedure is normally calculating the scaling factor to be used when including

the RSA results in a load combination. The Scaling Factor tool can be used to automatically calculate the RSA scaling

factor for each direction within your model.

The RSA scaling factors automatically default to 1.0 and can only be changed from within the Scaling Factor dialog.

The dialog may be opened by clicking the scale factor button, SF, on the Spreadsheet Toolbar. This button is only

available when the Load Combinations Spreadsheet is the active window.

Note

Currently these factors are only calculated when you open this dialog and click the Calculate button.

Therefore, if you have previously calculated these and then made changes to your model, you will need to

come back into this dialog and re-click the Calculate buttons to update the scaling factors.

Base Shear

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Dynamic Analysis - Response Spectra Page 7 of 11

The Base Shears section of the Spectra Scaling Factor dialog box reports to you the static base shear and the un-

scaled RSA base shear for each direction. If these values have not been calculated yet, then you may press the

Calculate button. This will launch the Seismic Load Generation window for the calculation of the Static Base Shear,

or the Dynamic Solution dialog for the calculation of the Unscaled Base Shear for your Response Spectra results.

Scaling Factor

Program Calculated

This section compares the ELF (Equivalent Lateral Force) Limit, as reduced by the Base Shear Multiplier, and the I/R

Limit. These values are explained in detail below.

The Base Shear Multiplier is used in the calculation of the ELF Limit. This multiplier can be used to reduce the

calculated (unscaled) base shear below the base shear value obtained by the Equivalent Lateral Force Method.

For the 1997 UBC, this is covered in section 1631.5.4. For the 2000 IBC, this is covered in section 1618.7. For

the 2010 NBC, it is discussed in clause 4.1.8.12 (8). In the ASCE 7-10, it is discussed in section 12.9.4.1.

The ELF Limit is the limiting scaling factor calculated per the Equivalent Lateral Force procedure:

The I/R Limit simply takes the elastic dynamic base shear and reduces it to an inelastic base shear. This value

is calculated per the I (Importance Factor) and R (Response Modification Coefficient). You may edit these

values in the Seismic tab of Global Parameters.

The Controlling Limit is the governing (larger) value of the ELF limit and I/R limit.

User Input

You may manually override the program calculated factor by selecting the User Input option and entering in an

alternate value.

Apply Checkbox

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Dynamic Analysis - Response Spectra Page 8 of 11

The Apply SF to all RSA Load Combinations checkbox will apply the SF scale factors to all load combinations that

currently reference response spectra results. The final Load combinations will appear similar to those shown below:

1997 UBC

You may have the 1997 UBC spectra generated automatically by selecting "UBC 97, Parametric Design Spectra" for

your RSA. The Ca and Cv seismic coefficients are needed to calculate the values for the UBC ’97 spectra. See Figure 16-

3 in the UBC for the equations used to build the spectra. See Tables 16-Q and 16-R to obtain the Ca and Cv values. The

default values listed are for Seismic Zone 3, Soil Type “Se” (Soft Soil Profile). These values can be edited in the Seismic

tab of Global Parameters.

2000 IBC

You may have the 2000 IBC spectra generated automatically by selecting "IBC 2000, Parametric Design Spectra" for

your RSA. The SDS and SD1 seismic coefficients are needed to calculate the values for the IBC 2000 spectra. See Figure

1615.1.4 in the IBC for the equations used to build the spectra. See section 1615.1.3 to obtain the SDS and SD1

values.These values can be edited in the Seismic tab of Global Parameters.

2005 ASCE

You may have the 2005 ASCE spectra generated automatically by selecting "ASCE 2005, Parametric Design Spectra"

for your RSA. The S , S , and TL seismic coefficients are needed to calculate the values for the ASCE 2005 spectra.

DS D1

See Figure 11.4-1 in ASCE-7 2005 for the equations used to build the spectra. See section 11.4.4 to obtain the S and

DS

S values and Figures 22-15 thru 22-20 for the TL value. These values can be edited in the Seismic tab of Global

D1

Parameters.

2010 ASCE

You may have the 2010 ASCE spectra generated automatically by selecting "ASCE 2010, Parametric Design Spectra"

for your RSA. The S , S , and TL seismic coefficients are needed to calculate the values for the ASCE 2010 spectra.

DS D1

See Figure 11.4-1 in ASCE-7 2010 for the equations used to build the spectra. See section 11.4.4 to obtain the S and

DS

S values and Figures 22-12 thru 22-16 for the TL value. These values can be edited in the Seismic tab of Global

D1

Parameters.

2005 NBC

You may have the 2005 NBC spectra generated automatically by selecting "NBC 2005 Parametric Design Spectra" for

your RSA. The Site Class and the S values are needed to calculate the values for the NBC 2005 spectra. Please see

a

section 4.1.8.4(7) to obtain the S values and Table 4.1.8.4(A) for the Site Class. Please see section 4.1.8.4(7) for the

a

equations used to build the spectra.These values can be edited in the Seismic tab of Global Parameters.

2010 NBC

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Dynamic Analysis - Response Spectra Page 9 of 11

You may have the 2010 NBC spectra generated automatically by selecting "NBC 2010 Parametric Design Spectra" for

your RSA. The Site Class and the S values are needed to calculate the values for the NBC 2010 spectra. Please see

a

section 4.1.8.4(7) to obtain the S values and Table 4.1.8.4(.A) for the Site Class. Please see section 4.1.8.4.(7) for the

a

equations used to build the spectra.These values can be edited in the Seismic tab of Global Parameters.

You may add your own spectra to the database and edit and delete them once they are created. You can add/edit

spectra data pairs in any configuration by choosing between Frequency or Period and between the three spectral

values. You may also choose to convert the configuration during editing. At least two data points must be defined.

Log interpolation is used to calculate spectra values that fall between entered points. Make sure that all of the modal

frequencies in your model are included within your spectra.

2. Select Add or Edit.

3. Select the format to be used and specify the parameters. For help on an item, click and then click the item.

Note

The spectra data is not currently stored with the RISA model file. Instead it is stored in the

RSPECT32.FIL database file located in the directory set using Tools - Preference - File Locations. If a file

with a custom spectra needs to be transferred to another computer, then this file must also be transferred

to the new computer.

This plot is a convenient logarithmic representation of all the values of interest in the response spectra definition.

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Dynamic Analysis - Response Spectra Page 10 of 11

Frequency (f)

Period (T)

Pseudo Velocity (Sv)

Pseudo Acceleration (Sa)

Pseudo Displacement (Sd)

The relationships between these values (for the undamped case) is as follows:

T = 1. / f

Sv = Sd * 2πf = Sa / 2πf

For the tripartite plot, the frequency values are plotted along the bottom with the reciprocal period values displayed

along the top. The ordinate axis plots the Sv values (labeled on the left side) and the diagonal axes plot the Sa (lower

left to upper right) and Sd (upper left to lower right) values.

The spectra data itself is represented with the thick red line. Therefore, to determine the Sv, Sa or Sd value for a

particular frequency or period, locate the desired period or frequency value along the abscissa axis and locate the

corresponding point on the spectra line. Use this point to read off the Sv, Sa and Sd values from their respective axes.

Remember, all the axes are logarithmic!

This plot is a Response spectra representation that is given in the building codes. The vertical axis can plot the spectra

using Pseudo-Acceleration, Pseudo-Velocity, or Pseudo Displacement on a vertical or logarithmic scale. The

horizontal axis will plot the Period or Frequency using a Linear or Logarithmic scale.

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Dynamic Analysis - Response Spectra Page 11 of 11

Frequency (f)

Period (T)

Pseudo Velocity (Sv)

Pseudo Acceleration (Sa)

Pseudo Displacement (Sd)

The relationships between these values (for the undamped case) is as follows:

T = 1. / f

Sv = Sd * 2πf = Sa / 2πf

The spectra data itself is represented with the thick red line. Therefore, to determine the Sv, Sa or Sd value for a

particular frequency or period, locate the desired period or frequency value along the horizontal axis and locate the

corresponding point on the spectra line. Use this point to read off the Sv, Sa and Sd values from their vertical axis.

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