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# ESCUELA POLITÉCNIICA NACIONAL.

## NOMBRE: Corella Medina Paul Santiago FECHA: 25/jun/2018

CURSO: GR-1
TEMA: Principios de la conversión de la energía electromecánica.

3.1 The rotor of Fig.3.25 is similar to that of Fig.3.2 (EX3.1) except that it has two
coils instead of one. The rotor is nonmagnetic and is placed in a uniform magnetic
field of magnitude B0 . The coil sides are of radius R and are uniformly spaced
around the rotor surface. The first coil is carrying a current I 1 and the second coil
is carrying a current I 2 . Assuming that the rotor is 0.3m long , R=0.13m , and
B0 =0.85 T , find the  -directed torque as a function of rotor position  for (a)
I 1 = 0 A and I 2 = 5 A , (b) I 1 = 5 A and I 2 = 0 A , (c) I 1 = 8 A and I 2 = 8 A .
3.3 Calculate the magnetic stored energy in the magnetic circuit of Example 1.2.

3.5 Repeat Problem 3.4, assuming that the inductor is connected to a voltage source
which increases from 0 to 0.4V (part a  ) and then is held constant at 0.4 V (part
b ). For both calculations, assume that all electric transients can be ignored.

3.7 An actuator with a rotating vane is shown in Fig. 3.26. You may assume that the
permeability of both the core and the vane are infinite (/z --+ oo). The total air-gap
length is 2g and shape of the vane is such that the effective area of the air gap can
be assumed to be of the form:
(valid only in the range 101 _< Jr/6). The actuator dimensions are g - 0.8 mm, A0
= 6.0 mm 2, and N = 650 turns.
a. Assuming the coil to be carrying current i, write an expression for the magnetic
stored energy in the actuator as a function of angle theta for theta<pi/6.
b. Find the corresponding inductance L(theta). Use MATLAB to plot this
inductance as a function of theta.

## 3.9 An RL circuit is connected to a battery, as shown in Fig. 3.28. Switch S is initially

closed and is opened at time t - 0.
a. Find the inductor current iL(t) for t > 0. (Hint: Note that while the switch is closed,
the diode is reverse-biased and can be assumed to be an open circuit. Immediately
after the switch is opened, the diode becomes forward-biased and can be assumed to
be a short circuit.)
b. What are the initial and final (t = c~) values of the stored energy in the inductor?
What is the energy stored in the inductor as a function of time?
c. What is the power dissipated in the resistor as a function of time? What is the total
energy dissipated in the resistor?

## 3.11 The inductance of a phase winding of a three-phase salient-pole motor is

measured to be of the form
L( m )  L0  L2 c o 2
s m
where  m is the angular position of the rotor.
a. How many poles are on the rotor of this motor?
b. Assuming that all other winding currents zero and that this phase is excited

by a constant current I0, find the torque Tfld(θ) acting on the rotor
3.13 Consider the plunger actuator of Fig. 3.29. Assume that the plunger is
initially fully opened(g = 2.25 cm) and that a battery is used to supply a
current of 2.5 A to the winding.
a. If the plunger is constrained to move very slowly (i.e., slowly compared
to the electrical time constant of the actuator), reducing the gap g from
2.25 to 0.20 cm, how much mechanical work in joules will be supplied
to the plunger.
b. For the conditions of part(a), how much energy will be supplied by the
battery(in excess of the power dissipated in the coil)?

3.15 Data for the magnetization curve of the iron portion of the magnetic circuit of the
fdfdplunger actuator of Problem 3.12 are given below:
a. Use the MATLAB polyfit function to obtain a 3'rd-order fit of reluctance and
total flux versus mmf for the iron portions of the magnetic circuit. Your fits will
be of the form:

b. (i) Using MATLAB and the functional forms found in part (a), plot the
magnetization curve for the complete magnetic circuit (flux linkages ), versus
winding current i) for a variable-gap length of g = 0.2 cm. On the same axes, plot
the magnetization curve corresponding to the assumption that the iron is of
infinite permeability. The maximum current in your plot should correspond to a
flux in the magnetic circuit of 600 mWb. (ii) Calculate the magnetic field energy
and coenergy for each of these cases corresponding to a winding current of 2.0
A.
c. Repeat part (b) for a variable-gap length of g = 2.25 cm. In part (ii), calculate
the magnetic field energy and coenergy corresponding to a winding current of 20
A.

3.17 Figure 3.31 shows the general nature of the slot-leakage flux produced by current
i in a rectangular conductor embedded in a rectangular slot in iron. Assume that the
iron reluctance is negligible and that the slot leakage flux goes straight across the slot
in the region between the top of the conductor and the top of the slot.
a. Derive an expression for the flux density Bs in the region between the top of the
conductor and the top of the slot.
b. Derive an expression for the slot-leakage ~s sits crossing the slot above the
conductor, in terms of the height x of the slot above the conductor, the slot width s,
and the embedded length 1 perpendicular to the paper.
c. Derive an expression for the force f created by this magnetic field on a conductor of
length 1. In what direction does this force act on the conductor?
d. When the conductor current is 850 A, compute the force per meter on a conductor
in a slot 2.5 cm wide.
3.19 An electromechanical system in which electric energy storage is in electric fields
can be analyzed by techniques directly analogous to those derived in this chapter for
magnetic field systems. Consider such a system in which it is possible to separate the
loss mechanism mathematically from those of energy storage in electric fields. Then
the system can be represented as in Fig. 3.33. For a single electric terminal, Eq. 3.11
applies, where:

where v is the electric terminal voltage and q is the net charge associated with electric
energy storage. Thus, by analogy to Eq. 3.16,
a. Derive an expression for the electric stored energy Wild (q, x) analogous to that for
the magnetic stored energy in Eq. 3.18.
b. Derive an expression for the force of electric origin Ffld analogous to that of Eq.
3.26. State clearly which variable must be held constant when the derivative is taken.
c. By analogy to the derivation of Eqs. 3.34 to 3.41, derive an expression for the
coenergy Wfld(V , X) and the corresponding force of electric origin.

## 3.21 Figure 3.35 shows in schematic form an electrostatic voltmeter, a capacitive

system consisting of a fixed electrode and a moveable electrode. The moveable
electrode is connected to a vane which rotates on a pivot such that the air gap between
the two electrodes remains fixed as the vane rotates. The capacitance of this system is
given by:

## A torsional spring is connected to the moveable vane, producing a torque

a. For 0 < theta <alpha or, using the results of Problem 3.19, derive an expression for
the electromagnetic torque Tnd in terms of the applied voltage Vdc.
b. Find an expression for the angular position of the moveable vane as a function of
the applied voltage Vdc.
c. For a system with:

3.23 Two coils, one mounted on a stator and the other on a rotor, have self- and
mutual inductances of
where theta is the angle between the axes of the coils. The coils are connected in
series and carry a current

## a. Derive an expression for the instantaneous torque T on the rotor as a function

of the angular position theta.
b. Find an expression for the time-averaged torque Tavg as a function of theta.
c. Compute the numerical value of Tavg for I -- 10 A and theta = 90 °.
d. Sketch curves of Tavg versus 0 for currents I = 5, 7.07, and 10 A.
e. A helical restraining spring which tends to hold the rotor at 0 - 90 ° is now
attached to the rotor. The restraining torque of the spring is proportional to the
angular deflection from 0 -- 90 ° and is -0.1 N. m when the rotor is turned to 0
- 0 °. Show on the curves of part (d) how you could find the angular position
of the rotor-plus-spring combination for coil currents I -- 5, 7.07, and 10 A.
From your curves, estimate the rotor angle for each of these currents.
f. Write a MATLAB script to plot the angular position of the rotor as a
function of rms current for 0 < I < 10 A. (Note that this problem illustrates the
principles of the dynamometer-type ac ammeter.)

## 3.25 A loudspeaker is made of a magnetic core of infinite permeability and circular

symmetry, as shown in Figs. 3.37a and b. The air-gap length g is much less than the
radius r0 of the central core. The voice coil is constrained to move only in the x
direction and is attached to the speaker cone, which is not shown in the figure. A
constant radial magnetic field is produced in the air gap by a direct current in coil 1, i
l = I1. An audio-frequency signal i2 = 12 COS cot is then applied to the voice coil.
Assume the voice coil to be of negligible thickness and composed of N2 turns
uniformly distributed over its height h. Also assume that its displacement is such that
it remains in the air gap
a. Calculate the force in the coil,
b. Calculate the self-inductance of each coil.
c. Calculate the mutual inductance between the coils. (Hint: Assume that current is
applied to the voice coil, and calculate the flux linkages of coil 1. Note that these flux
linkages vary with the displacement x.)
d. Calculate the force on the voice coil from the coenergy Wfld