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1. Compare and/ or contrast the ff:

a. heat and temperature
b. superficial expansion and volumetric expansion
c. calorimetry and calorimeter
d. convection and advection

a. heat and temperature- the concept of heat and temperature are studied together in science,
which is somewhat related but not alike. Temperature is a property of a material, and thus
depends on the material, whereas heat is a form of energy existing on its own. While temperature
is related to thermal energy, there is no absolute correlation between the amount of thermal
energy (heat) of an object and its temperature. Temperature measures the concentration of
thermal energy in an object in much the same way that density measures the concentration of
matter in an object. As a result, a large object will have a much lower temperature than a small
object with the same amount of thermal energy. As we shall see shortly, different materials
respond to changes in thermal energy with more or less dramatic changes in temperature. Heat is
a measure of how much thermal energy is transmitted from one body to another. We cannot say a
body “has” a certain amount of heat any more than we can say a body “has” a certain amount of
work. While both work and heat can be measured in terms of joules, they are not measures of
energy but rather of energy transfer. A hot water bottle has a certain amount of thermal energy;
when you cuddle up with a hot water bottle, it transmits a certain amount of heat to your body.

b. superficial expansion and volumetric expansion- The area of a solid is increased with the
increase of temperature. It is called superficial expansion. Superficial expansion is the increase in
surface area of 1 meter square area of a solid for rise of temperature, 1kelvin is called the
coefficient of surface expansion of material of that solid.
The volumetric thermal expansion coefficient is the most basic thermal expansion coefficient.
Illustrates that, in general, substances expand or contract when their temperature changes,
with expansion or contraction occurring in all directions. Such substances that expand in all
directions are called isotropic.

c. calorimetry and calorimeter- Calorimetry is the science associated with determining the
changes in energy of a system by measuring the heat exchanged with the surroundings.
A calorimeter is a device used to measure the quantity of heat transferred to or from an object.

d. convection and advection- The term advection often serves as a synonym for convection, and
this correspondence of terms is used in the literature. More technically, convection applies to the
movement of a fluid (often due to density gradients created by thermal gradients), whereas
advection is the movement of some material by the velocity of the fluid. Thus, somewhat
confusingly, it is technically correct to think of momentum being advected by the velocity field
in the Navier-Stokes equations, although the resulting motion would be considered to be
convection. Because of the specific use of the term convection to indicate transport in association
with thermal gradients, it is probably safer to use the term advection if one is uncertain about
which terminology best describes their particular system.
2. Why wave properties of particle are normally observe only when we study very small

ANS: Because they are the simplest versions of the base electro-static charge that makes up all
matter and causes all reactive force. They follow the basic version of Coulomb’s Law of charge
forces to build all matter and cause all force between charges. As these base components (called
mono-charges) build up to make higher level matter of atoms and molecules that we see, their
internal charge interactions get too complicated for easy analysis. Therefore we must look at
their simplest joinings for photons, neutrinos, electrons and quarks to better understand. Each of
these simple joinings, when accelerated to velocity and a frequency, will propagate electro-
magnetic fields as they travel. Each has kinetic energy and momentum from their mass traveling
at both its velocity and its rotation speed (to get that frequency). Those rotations of travelling
charged masses propagate the electro-static ‘wave-like’ observations that we measure.

1. Discuss the biological effects of radiation and some effective preventive methods against
radiation exposure

ANS: Radiation is all around us. It is in our environment and has been since the Earth was
formed. As a result, life has evolved in the presence of significant levels of ionizing radiation. It
comes from outer space (cosmic), the ground (terrestrial) and even from within our own bodies.
It is in the air we breathe, the food we eat, the water we drink and the materials used to build our
homes. Radiation causes ionizations of atoms which may affect molecules, which may affect
cells, which may affect tissues, which may affect organs and which may affect the whole body.
Living cells exposed to radiation could: (1) repair themselves, leaving no damage; (2) die and be
replaced, much like millions of body cells do every day; or (3) incorrectly repair themselves,
resulting in a biophysical change.

2. Discuss the sources, causes and effects of air and water pollution. In what ways human
contribute to air and water pollution.

Earth Science
1. Explain the statement “the destruction of the environment is also the destruction of the
quality of life.”
2. How do earthquakes occur? Cite some precursors of earthquake. Elucidate the effects of
earthquake and tsunamis to the environment to human beings and to the economy of the

ANS: Earthquakes are usually caused when rock underground suddenly breaks along a fault.
This sudden release of energy causes the seismic waves that make the ground shake. When two
blocks of rock or two plates are rubbing against each other, they stick a little. They don't just
slide smoothly; the rocks catch on each other. The rocks are still pushing against each other, but
not moving. After a while, the rocks break because of all the pressure that's built up. When the
rocks break, the earthquake occurs. During the earthquake and afterward, the plates or blocks of
rock start moving, and they continue to move until they get stuck again. The spot underground
where the rock breaks is called the focus of the earthquake. The place right above the focus (on
top of the ground) is called the epicenter of the earthquake. Earthquake environmental
effects are the effects caused by an earthquake on the natural environment, including
surface faulting, [[tectonic tsunamis, soil liquefactions, ground resonance, landslides and ground
failure, either directly linked to the earthquake source or provoked by the ground
shaking.[1] These are common features produced both in their near and far fields, routinely
recorded and surveyed in recent events, very often remembered in historical accounts and
preserved in the stratigraphic record (paleoearthquakes). Both surface deformation and faulting
and shaking-related geological effects (e.g., soil liquefaction, landslides) not only leave
permanent imprints in the environment, but also dramatically affect human structures. Moreover,
underwater fault ruptures and seismically-triggered landslides can generate destructive tsunami

1. Biotechnology is the guide to find out answers to global warming and other
environmental problems. Expound and cite specific answers.


1. Info systems are indispensable tool or arm for the use of the management given the
appropriate resources, values and vision. Cite the elements of info systems and the role of
each element in the system.

ANS: Hardware- Hardware is the most obvious part of a computer-based information system.
Hardware refers to the computers themselves, along with any and all peripherals, including
servers, routers, monitors, printers and storage devices. A CBIS may use a single computer or

Software- Without software, the hardware wouldn't be very useful. Software, the second element
of a CBIS, is what tells the hardware how to function. It gathers, organizes and manipulates data
and carries out instructions. Everything you do using a computer is done by the software.

Data- Data, or information, is the third element of a CBIS. Just as hardware cannot function
without software, software cannot function without data. This is the information part of an
information system, and whether that is statistical data, sets of instructions, lists of names or even
graphics and animations, it is all key to a CBIS.

Procedures- It is commonly said that "procedures are to people what software is to hardware."
The fourth element of CBIS, procedures are the rules, descriptions and instructions for how
things are done. In computer-based information systems, procedures are frequently covered in
instruction or user manuals that describe how to use the hardware, software and data.
People- People are the most often overlooked and most important part of a computer-based
information system. It is people who design and operate the software, input the data, build the
hardware and keep it running, write the procedures and it is ultimately people who determine the
success or failure of a CBIS.

Communication- Communication is left out of some lists of CBIS elements, but for a CBIS that
involves more than one piece of hardware to function, communication or connectivity is a
necessity. This is, in part, because parts of it are covered under hardware. The components that
allow one computer to communicate with another are hardware and are controlled by software. If
communication between people is included in this element, though, it is an important element.

2. Develop a work breakdown structure and Gantt Chart for setting up a simple computer

ANS: I HAVE NO IDEA (pic lang)

3. Explain the impact of IT in the ff:
a. workplace

ANS: Research suggests that new technologies are influencing how staff are organised in several
key ways: Improvements in technology mean that less qualified or experienced staff can provide
diagnosis and care that might previously have been the preserve of higher grades or more
specialised staff. Communication technology means that teams can be drawn from different
organisations and disciplines, meaning that more interprofessional collaboration and learning is
possible. Communication technology means that teams can provide care remotely for patients.
This may reduce travelling time for staff and patients, thereby increasing capacity. However
relatively senior or experienced staff are usually required for remote consultations.
Technological advances mean that patients can take more responsibility for care and can become
part of the care team, for instance monitoring their blood sugar or blood glucose and sending
data via telephone lines to practitioners. This means that professionals may need to learn to relate
to patients in a different way, as a core part of the care team. There is little evidence about
whether introducing new technologies increases or reduces working hours or impacts on teams in
other such practical ways. Case studies about particular technologies and organisations are
available but this does not translate into generalisable trends. This is largely because the
introduction of new technology differs depending on the organisational and team context.
However there is relatively little research in this area and a real need to develop a much greater
knowledge base with appropriate methodologies and survey tools. Often there is no systematic
follow up of how new technologies have been integrated into work practices, although there are
some exceptions.

1. Reproduction can be done through mitosis using somatoplast (body cells) on one hand
and through meiosis using gonadoplast (sex cells) on the other hand. Discuss.

ANS: There are two ways cell division can happen in humans and most other animals,
called mitosis and meiosis. When a cell divides by way of mitosis, it produces two clones of
itself, each with the same number of chromosomes. When a cell divides by way of meiosis, it
produces four cells, called gametes. Gametes are more commonly called sperm in males
and eggs in females. Unlike in mitosis, the gametes produced by meiosis are not clones of the
original cell, because each gamete has exactly half as many chromosomes as the original cell.

2. Genetics engineering creates improved plants and animals through biotech. Discuss by
giving specific and illustrate your point.
ANS: Genetic engineering, also known as genetic modification, can help us in a variety of ways.
GMOs can help crops and plants by enhancing nutritional content of food or even helping crops
fight drought and insects. Below is a list of what traits GMOs can offer plants and crops:

 Insect resistance. This trait provides farmers with season-long protection against target
pests, reduces the need for pesticide applications, and lowers input costs.
 Drought resistance. GM crops that express drought resistance can grow in much drier
areas, conserving water and other environmental resources.
 Herbicide tolerance. Crops that can tolerate specific herbicides allow farmers to fight
weeds by applying herbicides only when needed and enable them to use no-till
production methods that preserve topsoil, prevent erosion, and reduce carbon emissions.
 Disease resistance. Through genetic modification, the Hawaiian papaya industry was able
to recover from the devastating papaya ringspot virus that had crippled the industry.
 Increased/enhanced nutritional content. Currently in development are genetically
modified soybeans with an enhanced oil profile, much like olive oil, made to be longer
lasting and trans fat free.

Scientific Research
1. What is the impact of advances in scientific research and technologies to society along
a. health- through scientific research health is improved
b. moral and ethical value system- AWAN MABIROKAK
c. info tech
d. food production

a. health- through scientific research health is improved
The list below encompasses 10 advances in health and medical practices that have changed --
and in many ways continue to change -- the world today.

Throughout history, communicable diseases have had a tremendous impact on human history. So
too, then, has the development of one of the most effective ways to defend against rampant viral
infection -- vaccination.
Dr. Edward Jenner first introduced the idea of vaccinations in 1796, when he successfully
prevented a young English boy from getting smallpox.

The concept of vaccination was propelled further by scientists such as Louis Pasteur, and in the
modern era, when large groups of soldiers were successfully vaccinated in World War I and II
against such diseases as tetanus, diphtheria and typhus.

"Polio vaccine is one that people think of because it had such an impact," said Dr. Jeffrey Baker,
director of the history of medicine program at the Duke University School of Medicine.

But from the global health standpoint, Baker said Jenner's introduction of the smallpox vaccine
may have had an even more significant impact in terms of lives saved.
Surgical Anesthetic and Antisepsis

Without a doubt, surgery used to be a much graver proposition than it is today. One of the chief
reasons for this is that before the middle of the 19th century, anesthetic simply wasn't an option.

That changed Oct. 16, 1846, when William T.G. Morton demonstrated the mysterious wonder of
ether -- a substance powerful enough to dull the pain and agony that had long been associated
with surgery.

But while anesthetic was a great advance in and of itself, another advance that occurred at
roughly the same time may have been even more beneficial -- antisepsis, or the creation of a
sterile surgical environment.

"Anesthetic made it possible to operate on a patient without pain," Baker notes, "but without
antisepsis they'd die anyway."

Clean Water and Improved Sanitation

Put them beside surgical advances and other cutting-edge technologies, and public health
measures don't look so sexy. But the fact is that clean water and sanitation have likely saved
millions -- perhaps billions -- of lives since they were widely implemented in the 19th and 20th

"It's something that's so important around the world and in America," Baker said. "It used to be
that 15 percent of infants would die, and the biggest reason for this was diarrhea brought about
by unclean water and milk."

Clean water and public health measures dramatically cut down the incidence of such deadly
water-borne diseases as cholera and improved sanitation, drastically lowering the health impacts
of parasitic infections and other health conditions related to the environment.

Antibiotics and Antivirals

As with vaccination, the advent of antibiotics hailed a new era in the treatment of communicable

Interesting, then, that the concept of antibiotics may have been uncovered accidentally. In 1928,
Sir Alexander Fleming left a petri dish of Staphylococci bacteria uncovered and later noted that
the bacteria had been killed by a mold.
Upon further studying the mold, he discovered it was from a family called Penicillium notatum.
Others soon saw the potential uses of what later came to be known as penicillin.

Today, antibiotics are used to treat a plethora of bacterial illnesses. And today, researchers are
developing antivirals -- most notably, the AIDS-fighting antiviral AZT -- to deal with a host of
viral illnesses as well.

The Birth Control Pill

Arguably, few developments have had as profound a social impact as the introduction of the
birth control pill -- though its path to widespread use has been a rocky one.

Although the Federal Drug Administration approved contraception as safe in the early 1960s, it
only became legal for married couples in 1965 and for unmarried couples in 1972.

But because of the Pill, countless women have been given control over their own fertility -- a
concept that created a social revolution.

"Thinking about how it has transformed women's lives, in terms of family planning and the entry
of women into the work force, its impact has been significant indeed," Baker said. "It was the
first-ever lifestyle drug. It's not treating a disease, but it was making life better for women."

Improvements in Heart Surgery and Cardiac Care

Heart disease remains at the top of the list of the country's killers. Despite this, numerous
important advances in its treatment have made a considerable impact, extending and improving
the lives of its sufferers.

Not the least of these advancements is surgeons' ability to operate on and repair the heart --
without putting the patient at an unreasonable amount of risk.

"Maybe the breakthrough moment was the rise of the heart-lung bypass, which made it possible
to operate on the heart for more than just a few minutes at a time," Baker said. "This was
followed by coronary artery bypass grafting, which is, I believe, a most important procedure."

Advancements in Childbirth
Up until the middle of the 20th century in the United States, childbirth was considered to be the
most feared part of a woman's life.

"Go into any old graveyard, and you always see a number of women who died in their 20s,"
Baker said. "That was in a large part due to childbirth."

With the advent of techniques in anesthesia, cesarean section, and forceps delivery, the chances
of a successful have pregnancy improved, at least in developed countries. Unfortunately, many
resource-poor societies around the world still lag behind in this arena.

Organ Transplantation
Few surgical interventions today carry as much complexity -- or as much ethical significance --
as organ transplantation.

"It's such a technically complex intervention that it's an amazing thing that it can even be done,"
Baker said. "It ties together both surgery and immunology."

The first successful transplant operation, which took place in 1954, removed a kidney from one
donor and installed it in the body of his identical twin. Other organ transplants followed,
including the first liver transplant in 1967 and the first heart transplant in 1968.

Today, there are more than 90,000 people awaiting a transplant in the United States alone -- a
situation that also reveals the moral considerations that come entwined with such techniques.
"It represented an important turning point in the field of medical ethics," Baker said. "It really
challenged physicians' ethic of 'first, do no harm.'"
C. info tech- Technologies such as broadband, the Internet… Broadband Internet access offers
many benefits, both to individuals and society as a whole. Put another way, benefits to the
individual improve quality of life, while benefits to society enhance quality of
D. food production-

Advances in Crop Science and Technology is the field dealing with the selection, breeding, Crop
productivity, Seed Production, organic cover crops, crop technology transpiration, field crops
research, domestic animals, Crop and Irrigation technology. The goal of the journal is to provide
an Open Access platform for researchers to share their expert knowledge in almost all area of
plant and particularly crop sciences & weed control.

the processing of a food or beverage includes an array of technologies and processes to transform
raw food materials and ingredients into consumer food products. The primary purpose of these
processes is for preservation (for example, transforming perishable fruits and vegetables with the
highest quality outcome possible into products available throughout the year around the world)
and to ensure food safety. The processing of a food does create some changes in the quality
attributes of the product. In some cases, these changes are intentional and provide improvements
in the nutritive quality, texture, appearance, and flavor of the product. In other cases, the changes
may simply make the product different, without improving or changing its quality. Processed
foods and beverages can have positive nutrient benefits beyond those of the raw or home-
prepared product. Nutrient retention is highly variable, depending on commodity, cultivar,
timing of harvesting, storage conditions, nutrient type (for example, sensitivity to heat or oxygen,
and water solubility), and processing method. D