Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10

Manuel V. Gallego Foundation Colleges, Inc.

Cabanatuan City
Office of the Vice President for Academic Affairs

Definitions of Learning
ORNSTEIN (1990) LARDIZABAL (1991) SLAVIN (1995) CALDERON (1998)
CHECK (Discussion Questions)
1. What are the essential elements of constructivist view of learning?

2. Differentiate cognitive constructivism and social constructivism.

3. Identify the various constructivist principles of teaching and learning.

REFLECT
Think about these questions for a minute. How would you respond to each of the following?
How would a constructivist?

Who should control students’ learning?

Is it left to the student alone?

Can others help students arrive at meaning and understanding?


Manuel V. Gallego Foundation Colleges, Inc.
Cabanatuan City
Office of the Vice President for Academic Affairs

Direction: Compare behaviourism, cognitive constructivism and social constructivism as to: view of
knowledge, view of learning, view of motivation and implications for teaching.

Behaviourism Cognitive Social


Constructivism Constructvism

View of Knowledge

View of Learning

View of Motivation

Implications for
teaching
CHECK (Discussion Questions)
1. Identify and explain the cognitive and metacognitive factors of learning that affect the learning

process.

2. Explain the role of prior knowledge in learning.

3. There are various ways by which learning transfers. Discuss how the teacher facilitates transfer of

learning.

REFLECT
Try to recall how your teacher facilitated transfer of learning among students. Write a paragraph
about this experience.
CHECK (Discussion Questions)
1. Explain the statement that ‟Motivation can mean the difference between success and failure in the

classroom.”

2. Identify certain basic principles that are applicable to learning in any situation.

3. Discuss how self-efficacy, self-concept, self-regulation and cognition affect the behavior of learners.

REFLECT
Think about situations/activities/persons in the classroom which/who motivated you to learn.
CHECK (Discussion Questions)
1. How do learning and thinking of elementary school children differ from that of adolescents?

2. In general, are the ways in which adolescents learn and think similar to or different from the ways in

which adults learn and think?

3. Explain student development and progress across the five dimensions: confidence and independence,

skills and strategies, knowledge and understanding, use of prior and emerging experience, and critical

reflection.

REFLECT
Recall your learning experiences when you were in the preschool, elementary grades and high
school. Was there an improvement in your learning/thinking ability?
CHECK (Discussion Questions)
1. What are the specific ways in which knowing about the zone of proximal development can be used to

improve students’ learning?

2. Recognizing that students develop knowledge and concepts through experiences within their cultures,

what can you or your schools do to create a bridge between their backgrounds and their school

experiences?

3. Differentiate situated learning from other experiential forms of acquiring knowledge.

REFLECT
Think of instances where your family background, school environment influenced how you
learned.
CHECK (Discussion Questions)
1. Discuss ways by which the different theories of intelligence affect academic learning/achievement.

2. Identify the differences in cognitive styles, thinking styles, learning styles and preferences. How do

these affect the teaching-learning process?

3. Discuss the relationship between the learning styles of students and the teaching styles of the
teacher.

REFLECT
Different people have different learning and thinking styles. Try to remember your own style of
learning and thinking. Is it different from how others think and learn. How?
CHECK (Discussion Questions)
1. How should gifted children and students with special learning needs be treated by parents and

teachers?

2. Explain the role of the classroom teacher in working with students with special learning needs.

3. How do learning disabilities influence student success in the classroom.

4. Discuss some strategies that can be used by the teacher in helping students with special learning

needs.

REFLECT
Have you ever encountered children with special learning needs in school and in your
neighborhood? What makes them different from other children? How did you react to them?
CHECK (Discussion Questions)
1. How will the various learner-centered psychological principles help you facilitate the learning of

students?

2. How would you choose objectives that are appropriate for the lesson?

3. What objectives should dominate and be developed in classroom instruction? Why?

REFLECT
Imagine how your teacher taught you in the previous years. How would you view the lessons,
objectives, activities and classroom procedures that you have experienced. Did they help facilitate
learning?