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UNIT-3

THREE PHASE AC SYSTEM


Introduction: A Three phase system is essentially a combination of three single phase voltages having same
magnitude, same frequency but displaced from one another by equal angle (120O). To develop a three phase
system, the armature winding in an alternator is divided into three phases. The voltages in all the three
phases having same magnitude and same frequency but they will have a phase difference of 120O with
respect to each other. Such a supply system is called three phase AC system.

Advantage of Three Phase System: All the three phase system has the following advantages.

 In a single phase circuit the power delivered is pulsating but in the case of three phase system the total
power delivered is constant if loads are balanced.
 For the same size of machine, the output of the three phase machines is always higher than that of
single phase machine.
 The three phase ac motor is self-starting whereas the single phase motor needs to use an additional
starter winding.
 In the transmission system it is possible to transmit more power using a three phase system, than a
single phase system.
 Power factor of a single-phase motor is lower than that of single phase motor.
 Three phase system is more capable and reliable than single-phase system.

Generation of Three Phase Voltages: For the generation of three phase voltages, three windings, with equal no.
Of turns in each one, are used. Also, to obtain a balanced three phase voltages, the windings are to be
placed at an angle of 120O.(fig: 1)
 When three coils fixed together and 120O rotate about the same axis in a uniform magnetic field, the
induced emf in each of them will have a phase difference of 120O.
 Consider three identical coils RR1, YY1 and BB1 as shown below mounted on the same axis but displaced
from each other by 120O rotating in counter-clockwise direction.
 Here R, Y and B are the start terminals and R1, Y1 and B1 are the finish terminals.
 For the position in figure emf in RR = 0.
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 When RR1 moves by 90O, the emf induced in RR1 become maximum.
 Similarly again after 120O revolution coil YY1 attains maximum value, and after next 120O revolution coil
BB1 get maximum value.
All the voltages displaced from each other by 120O.

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Suppose eR is assumed to be the reference i.e.
eR = Em sin ωt
Then, eY = Em sin(ωt − 120O )
And, eB = Em sin(ωt − 240O )
The phasor diagram of these voltages can be as shown in fig: 3. As phasor rotates in anticlockwise direction.
We can say that eY lags eR by an angle of 120O and eB lags eY by an angle of 120O.

In symbolic notation, the real axis is usually made to coincide with the emf (or voltage) of coil RR1. Then the
effective values of the symmetrical system are given in complex numbers as,
e R = E P  0O
eY = EP  −120O
eB = EP  − 240O = EP  120O
Now it is easy to prove that at any instant, the algebraic sum of the three emf’s is zero i.e.
Resultant = eR + eY + eB
= (EP  0O ) + (EP  −120O ) + (EP  120O )
= (EP + j0) + (−0.5EP − j0.866EP ) + (−0.5EP + j0.866EP )
=0

Connection of three phase system: There are two type of configuration in which the three phase systems are
connected.
 Star or Wye connected system
 Delta or Mesh connected system

(i)Star or Wye connected system: The system is obtained by joining together similar ends, either the start or
the finish, the other ends are joined to the line wire. The common point N at which the similar ends are
connected is called the neutral point.(fig: 4

(ii)Delta or Mesh connected system: When the starting end of one coil is connected to the finishing end of
another coil, the delta or mesh connection is obtained.(fig: 5)
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Concept of Line quantity & Phase quantity:
(i)Line Voltage VL & Phase Voltage VPH: The Potential difference between any two lines of supply is called
line voltage VL and voltage across any phase winding is called phase voltage VPH.

(i)Line Current IL & Phase Current IPH: The current passing through any line or supply is called Line current IL
And current in any phase winding is called phase current IPH.

Relations Between Line quantity & Phase quantity:


(i)Relations For Star Connected Load: Consider a balanced star connected load as shown in fig: 10 below.

As the three phase system is symmetrical, then


Here Line voltages,
VLRY = VLYB = VLBR = VL (say)
Phase voltages,
VPHR = VPHY = VPHB = VPH (say)
Line Currents,
ILR = ILY = ILB = IL (say)
Phase Currents,
IPHR = IPHY = IPHB = IPH (say)

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From the circuit diagram we can say that all the phase current IPH is equal to the corresponding line current
IL .
i.e. 𝐈𝐋 = 𝐈𝐏𝐇
Now to derive relation between VL and VPH consider the line voltage VLRY , From circuit diagram(fig: 10),
VLRY = VPHR − VPHY
The phasor diagram to get VLRY is shown in fig: 11.

We know that the resultant of two vector X & Y is,


R = √X 2 + Y 2 + 2XY cos θ
Form phasor diagram,

VLRY = √VPHR 2 + VPHY 2 + 2VPHR VPHY cos 60O

VL = √VPH 2 + VPH 2 + 2VPH VPH cos 60O


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VL = √VPH 2 + VPH 2 + 2VPH VPH .
2

VL = √3VPH 2
𝐕𝐋 = √𝟑 . 𝐕𝐏𝐇
Thus the line voltage is √3 times the phase voltage in star connection.
Now, here impedance per phase ZPH relates IPH andVPH. Hence phase angle ɸ is always between IPH &
VPH.
𝐕𝐏𝐇
𝐙𝐏𝐇 =
𝐈𝐏𝐇

Now, Power consumes in each phase i.e. PPH = VPH IPH cos ɸ
Till the power consume in all the three phases will be same. Then total power,
P = 3 PPH = 3 VPH IPH cos ɸ
We know that, for star connection,
VL
VPH = & IPH = IL
√3
V
So, Active power, P= 3 . L3 . IL cos ɸ

𝐏 = √𝟑 . 𝐕𝐋 . 𝐈𝐋 . 𝐜𝐨𝐬 ɸ watt (W)

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Similarly reactive power,
𝐐 = √𝟑 . 𝐕𝐋 . 𝐈𝐋 . 𝐬𝐢𝐧 ɸ Reactive volt-amp (VAR)
And apparent power,
𝐒 = √𝟑 . 𝐕𝐋 . 𝐈𝐋 Volt-amp (VA).

(i)Relations For Delta Connected Load: Consider a balanced delta connected load as shown in fig: 12 below.

As the three phase system is symmetrical, then


Here Line voltages,
VLRY = VLYB = VLBR = VL (say)
Phase voltages,
VPHR = VPHY = VPHB = VPH (say)
Line Currents,
ILR = ILY = ILB = IL (say)
Phase Currents,
IPHR = IPHY = IPHB = IPH (say)

From the circuit diagram we can say that all the phase voltage VPH is equal to the corresponding line Voltage
VL .
i.e. 𝐕𝐋 = 𝐕𝐏𝐇

Now to derive relation between IL and IPH consider the line current ILR , from circuit diagram (fig: 11),
ILR = IPHR − IPHB
The phasor diagram to get ILR is shown in fig: 12,

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We know that the resultant of two vector X & Y is,
R = √X 2 + Y 2 + 2XY cos θ
Form phasor diagram,

ILR = √IPHR 2 + IPHB 2 + 2IPHR IPHB cos 60O

IL = √IPH 2 + IPH 2 + 2IPH IPH cos 60O


1
IL = √IPH 2 + IPH 2 + 2. IPH IPH . 2

IL = √3. IPH 2
𝐈𝐋 = √𝟑 . 𝐈𝐏𝐇
Thus the line voltage is √3 times the phase voltage in star connection.
Now, here impedance per phase ZPH relates IPH andVPH. Hence phase angle ɸ is always between IPH &
VPH.
𝐕𝐏𝐇
𝐙𝐏𝐇 =
𝐈𝐏𝐇

Now, Power consumes in each phase i.e. PPH = VPH IPH cos ɸ
Till the power consume in all the three phases will be same. Then total power,
P = 3 PPH = 3 VPH IPH cos ɸ
We know that, for star connection,
IL
𝐼PH = & VPH = VL
√3
IL
So, Active power, P= 3 . 3 . VL cos ɸ

𝐏 = √𝟑 . 𝐕𝐋 . 𝐈𝐋 . 𝐜𝐨𝐬 ɸ watt (W)
Similarly reactive power,
𝐐 = √𝟑 . 𝐕𝐋 . 𝐈𝐋 . 𝐬𝐢𝐧 ɸ Reactive volt-amp (VAR)
And apparent power,
𝐒 = √𝟑 . 𝐕𝐋 . 𝐈𝐋 Volt-amp (VA).

Power Measurement By Two Wattmeter Method: In two wattmeter method, the current coils of the two
wattmeter’s are connected in any two lines while the voltage coils of each wattmeter is connected between
its own current coils terminal and the line without a current coil. The connections are same for star & delta.

(i)Star Connected Load: Consider star connected load and two wattmeter connected as shown in fig:13.

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For wattmeter 1,
Current in Current coil = ILR
Voltage across potential coil = VLRB
So reading of wattmeter 1, W1 = VLRB . ILR cos θ1
Here θ1 is the angle betweenVLRB & ILR .

Similarly reading of wattmeter 2, W2 = VLYB . ILY cos θ2


Here θ2 is the angle between VLYB & ILY
To find the angle θ1 & θ2, let us draw the phasor diagram.

The phase current in each phase will lag with their respective phase voltages by equal angle ɸ.
In case of star, line current will be in same direction as of phase current.
The line voltages,
VLRB = VPHR −VPHB
And VLYB = VPHY −VPHB
Now from phasor,
Angle betweenVLRB & ILR , 𝜃1 = 30 − ɸ
Angle betweenVLYB & ILY , 𝜃2 = 30 + ɸ
And if all the line voltages are same (say VL) and all the line current (say IL) is same i.e. symmetrical system.
Then W1 & W2 are,
W1 = VL . IL cos(30 − ɸ)
W2 = VL . IL cos(30 + ɸ)
On addition of W1 & W2,
W1 + W2 = VL . IL [cos(30 − ɸ) + VL . IL cos(30 + ɸ)]
W1 + W2 = VL . IL [(cos 30 cos ɸ + sin 30 sin ɸ) + (cos 30 cos ɸ − sin 30 sin ɸ)]
W1 + W2 = VL . IL [2 cos 30 cos ɸ]
W1 + W2 = √3 . VL . IL . cos ɸ = Total Power of three phase circuit

i.e. net power,


𝐖 = 𝐖𝟏 + 𝐖𝟐

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(ii)Delta Connected Load: Consider delta connected load and two wattmeter connected as shown in fig:15.

For wattmeter 1,
Current in Current coil = ILR
Voltage across potential coil = VLRB
So reading of wattmeter 1, W1 = VLRB . ILR cos θ1
Here θ1 is the angle betweenVLRB & ILR .

Similarly reading of wattmeter 2, W2 = VLYB . ILY cos θ2


Here θ2 is the angle between VLYB & ILY
To find the angle θ1 & θ2, let us draw the phasor diagram.

The phase current in each phase will lag with their respective phase voltages by equal angle ɸ.
In case of Delta,
VPHR = VLRY
VPHY = VLYB
VPHB = VLBR
And the line voltage,
VLRB = −VLBR
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The line currents,
ILR = IPHR − IPHB
And ILY = IPHY − IPHB
Now from phasor,
Angle betweenVLRB & ILR , θ1 = 30 − ɸ
Angle betweenVLYB & ILY , θ2 = 30 + ɸ
And if all the line voltages are same (say VL) and all the line current (say IL) is same i.e. symmetrical system.
Then W1 & W2 are,
W1 = VL . IL cos(30 − ɸ)
W2 = VL . IL cos(30 + ɸ)
On addition of W1 & W2,
W1 + W2 = VL . IL [cos(30 − ɸ) + VL . IL cos(30 + ɸ)]
W1 + W2 = VL . IL [(cos 30 cos ɸ + sin 30 sin ɸ) + (cos 30 cos ɸ − sin 30 sin ɸ)]
W1 + W2 = VL . IL [2 cos 30 cos ɸ]
W1 + W2 = √3 . VL . IL . cos ɸ = Total Power of three phase circuit

i.e. net power,


𝐖 = 𝐖𝟏 + 𝐖𝟐

Power Factor Measurement By Two Wattmeter Method: In case of power measurement method, reading of
both wattmeter are,
W1 = VL . IL cos(30 − ɸ)
W2 = VL . IL cos(30 + ɸ)
On addition of W1 & W2,
W1 + W2 = VL . IL [cos(30 − ɸ) + VL . IL cos(30 + ɸ)]
W1 + W2 = VL . IL [(cos 30 cos ɸ + sin 30 sin ɸ) + (cos 30 cos ɸ − sin 30 sin ɸ)]
W1 + W2 = VL . IL [2 cos 30 cos ɸ]
W1 + W2 = √3 . VL . IL . cos ɸ
On subtraction of W1 & W2,
W1 − W2 = VL . IL [cos(30 − ɸ) − VL . IL cos(30 + ɸ)]
W1 − W2 = VL . IL [(cos 30 cos ɸ + sin 30 sin ɸ) − (cos 30 cos ɸ − sin 30 sin ɸ)]
W1 − W2 = VL . IL [2 sin 30 sin ɸ]
W1 − W2 = VL . IL . sin ɸ
Now,
W1 −W2 VL .IL .sin ɸ
W1 +W2
=
√3 .VL .IL .cos ɸ
W1 −W2 tan ɸ
W1 +W2
=
√3
√3(W1 −W2 )
tan ɸ = (W1 +W2)
√𝟑(𝐖𝟏 −𝐖𝟐 )
ɸ = 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 (𝐖𝟏 +𝐖𝟐)
And power factor,
√𝟑(𝐖𝟏 −𝐖𝟐 )
𝐜𝐨𝐬 ɸ = 𝐜𝐨𝐬 [𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 (𝐖𝟏 +𝐖𝟐)
]