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LTE2210 Intra-Frequency Load Balancing


Extensions
RA4115 FL16 Feature Overview

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LTE2210 – Intra-Frequency Load Balancing Extensions
Agenda

Feature Overview

Configuration and Testing

Test Results

Operational Hints and Guidelines

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Feature Overview

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Feature Overview
LTE2210 – Intra-frequency load balancing extension

• This feature is related to the features:


- LTE1140 – Intra-frequency load balancing. Allows a source cell to establish partnerships via X2 to exchange CAC when source load
exceeds a pre-defined threshold, then based on neighbor cell CAC is able to modify the CIO for UEs in order to trigger HO sooner to
offload traffic to neighbors. Effectively shrinking the source cell coverage area and extending neighbor cells.
- LTE1113 / LTE1496 – eICIC. Load based scheduling coordination between macro and small cells in a HetNet to minimize interference for
small cells on the same frequency as the macro cells.

• Primary purpose of the feature is to extend the dynamic intra-frequency load balancing mechanism
to work with eICIC. LTE2210 can provide intra-frequency load balancing via delta CIO if LTE1140
and/or LTE1113/LTE1496 is enabled.
• LTE2210 also enhances LTE1140 (if enabled) to support handling RSR procedure in response to X2
Reset / Setup / link drop and reset of RSR contexts and delta CIO values.

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Feature Overview
LTE2210 – Intra-frequency load balancing extension general concepts

• In every eICIC area, consisting of one macro cell and N small cell eICIC partners, two eICIC related adaptation
loops are available:
- the ABS adaptation loop
- the CIO adaptation loop (new with LTE2210)

• The ABS adaptation adjusts the macro cell applied ABS pattern based on the current load conditions in the
entire eICIC area. An ABS pattern is valid for all established eICIC partnerships. The CIO adaptation adjusts
the CIO per eICIC partnership based on the current load condition for each small cell neighbor individually.
• For the two adaptation loops the intention is to execute ABS adaptation more often than CIO adaptation.
ABS pattern adjustment has an immediate impact on the load and it provides immediate reaction to sudden
load changes in the eICIC area. A CIO modification needs more time to impact the load since the related HOs
have to happen first and this depends on the current UE location. ABS pattern modification requires much
less control signaling than a CIO modification.
• The goal of the CIO adaptation is to determine the optimum CIO adjustment for each small cell eICIC partner
in order for the total small cell load and/or the small cell ABS load to reach preconfigured target values.

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Feature Overview
LTE2210 – Intra-frequency load balancing extension general concepts

• In every eICIC area, consisting of one macro cell and N small cell eICIC partners, two eICIC related adaptation
loops are available:
- the ABS adaptation loop
- the CIO adaptation loop (new with LTE2210)

• The ABS adaptation adjusts the macro cell applied ABS pattern based on the current load conditions in the
entire eICIC area. An ABS pattern is valid for all established eICIC partnerships. The CIO adaptation adjusts
the CIO per eICIC partnership based on the current load condition for each small cell neighbor individually.
• For the two adaptation loops the intention is to execute ABS adaptation more often than CIO adaptation.
ABS pattern adjustment has an immediate impact on the load and it provides immediate reaction to sudden
load changes in the eICIC area. A CIO modification needs more time to impact the load since the related HOs
have to happen first and this depends on the current UE location. ABS pattern modification requires much
less control signaling than a CIO modification.
• The goal of the CIO adaptation is to determine the optimum CIO adjustment for each small cell eICIC partner
in order for the total small cell load and/or the small cell ABS load to reach preconfigured target values.

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Feature Overview
LTE2210 – Intra-frequency load balancing extension general concepts

• CIO adaptation for eICIC can configure separate CIO values for R8/9/10 UEs and R11 UEs in order to exploit
the interference mitigation capabilities of R11 UEs that support FeICIC.
• QCI of bearers allocated to a UE can determine CIO.
• With the introduction of LTE2210-B following changes apply regarding the eICIC specific CIO parameters:
- O&M parameters eIcicMaxG2CioMacro and eIcicMaxG3CioMacro are removed for the macro cell feature LTE1113.
- O&M parameters eIcicMaxG2CioNonMacro and eIcicMaxG3CioNonMacro are removed for the small cell feature LTE1496.

• CIO adjustment refers to value of LNREL parameter cellIndOffNeighDelta which is dynamically determined by
macro cell CIO algorithm for eICIC for each partner cell.
• ABS must be active for dynamic CIO adjustment. If ABS is inactive (MP0) the cellIndOffNeighDelta will be set
to zero.
• CIO algorithm is target load driven and configurable based on partner CAC threshold or partner ABS load
threshold.
• When macro cell determines CIO needs to be changed it is done via X2 Mobility Change Request message.

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Feature Overview
Mobility Change Request (MCR) Procedure

• In macro cell, when new CIO adjustment is available for a small cell eICIC partner n, eICIC manager
sets the MCR message IEs
- Cause := ‘Load Balancing’
- eNB2 Proposed Mobility Parameters := Mobility Parameters Information -> Handover Trigger Change := new deltaCio

• Small cell n accepts CIO adjustment:


- Small cell n sends MCA (Mobility Change Accept) message,
- eICIC manager updates the LNREL parameter cellIndOffNeighDelta for small cell n and starts timer TCioModProhibit.

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1

Feature Overview
LTE2210 Feature Details
• CIOcur(n) = default CIO + cur. CIO adjustment =
cellIndOffNeigh + cur. cellIndOffNeighDelta
represents the current total CIO value of small cell n    100 − CAC target  
in dB configured at macro cell.  5b ⋅ log  + CIOcur (n); 
   100 − CAC (n)  
• CACtarget = O&M parameter   
eIcicPartnerCacTarget. By setting this parameter   
   100 − CACABS,target  CIOcur ( n ) 5b   
the operator declares preference on the aspired CIOnew (n) = INT min 5b ⋅ log ⋅ 10 − 1  + 1;  in [dB]
target CAC or target load for the small cell eICIC    100 − CACABS (n)   
  
partners. Note that loadtarget = 100-CACtarget.   
 cellIndOffNeigh + eIcicMaxCre 
• CACABS,target = O&M parameter   
eIcicPartnerCacAbsTarget. By setting this parameter   
the operator declares preference on the aspired
target ABS CAC or target ABS load for the small cell = cellIndOffNeigh + new cellIndOffNeighDelta
eICIC partners. Note that loadABS,target = 100-
CACABS,target.
• Variable b represent (existing) O&M parameter
largeCellBeta,

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For simplicity in formula implementation, the values CAC(n) = 100 and CACABS(n) = 100 are mapped/
changed to 99. The function “INT[∙]” rounds the number in [∙] down to the nearest integer number.
Feature Overview
LTE2210 Feature Details

• Following rules (checked by the macro cell eICIC manager) must be obeyed when determining the
new CIO adjustment:
- The new total CIO value CIOnew(n) must be included in the 3GPP range {-24 ... 24}dB for RRC signaling.
• This includes the case of CIOnew(n) > 6dB (or <-6dB), for which calculated CIOnew(n) must be even numbered.
- The maximum allowed increase/decrease is +/-4dB, i.e. the maximum allowed CioAdjustment(n) = +/- 8.
Exceptions for this rule are all cases of CIO adjustment being returned to zero, where the maximum step of +/-
10dB, i.e. CioAdjustment(n) = +/-20, allowed by 3GPP can be applied.
- 0dB ≤ new cellIndOffNeighDelta ≤ eIcicMaxCre.

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Feature Overview
LTE2210 Feature Details

• UE measurement reconfiguration depends on UE capability, QCI of bearers, and if


applyFeIcicFunctionality is enabled. CIO setting is based on following if
applyFeIcicFunctionality = TRUE:
new cellIndOffNeighDelta <= 6dB new cellIndOffNeighDelta > 6dB

mlbEicicOperMode mlbEicicOperMode mlbEicicOperMode mlbEicicOperMode


= ‘allUEs’ ≠ ‘allUEs’ = ‘allUEs’ ≠ ‘allUEs’
(cellIndOffNeigh + new (cellIndOffNeigh + new
cellIndOffNeighDelta ) cellIndOffNeighDelta ) for
for all R11 UEs w/o GBR all R11 UEs w/o GBR
(cellIndOffNeigh + new bearers bearers
(cellIndOffNeigh + new
cellIndOffNeighDelta ) (cellIndOffNeigh + max.
cellIndOffNeighDelta ) (cellIndOffNeigh + max.
6dB) for all R8/9/10 UEs
for all UEs 6dB) for all UEs with
w/o GBR bearers, see
GBR bearers and all
also Note 1
R8/9/10 UEs w/o GBR
cellIndOffNeigh for all cellIndOffNeigh for all
bearers, see also Note 1
UEs with GBR bearer(s) UEs with GBR bearer(s)

• If applyFeIcicFunctionality = FALSE then cellIndOffNeighDelta must be <= 6dB

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1

Management Data
New Parameters

Parameter Description
eIcicCioAdaptAlgo determines whether the CIO adjustment for eICIC is statically configured or adapted to
the current load conditions. (Macro and Small Cell)

eIcicMaxCre determines the maximum allowed CIO adjustment, i.e. cell range expansion (CRE) for
the eICIC partner cells, equal for all eICIC partners.
applyFeicicFunctionality determines whether an FeICIC related CIO shall be applied or not. It is required from
the operator that the setting is the same within an eICIC area. (Macro and Small Cell).
multCioAdaptExecEicic used to define the execution periodicity of the CIO adaption algorithm as
TCioModProhibit = multCioAdaptExecEicic * (multLoadMeasRrmEicic *
tLoadMeasX2Eicic)

eIcicPartnerCacTarget defines operator’s preference on small cell eICIC partner target load during eICIC
operation. This value applies for all small cell eICIC partners.
eIcicPartnerCacAbsTarget defines operator’s preference on small cell eICIC partner target ABS load during eICIC
operation. This value applies for all small cell eICIC partners.

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applyFecicFunctionality = ‘TRUE’: setting of parameter eIcicMaxCre defines the maximum allowed CRE value
in all small cell eICIC partners used for FeICIC capable UEs. Further rules apply for FeICIC non-capable UEs
and UE’s current QCI combination. This setting is recommended for operators intending to deploy NOKIA
Networks equipped HetNets.

applyFeicicFunctionality = ‘FALSE’: setting of parameter eIcicMaxCre defines the maximum allowed CRE
value in all small cell eICIC partners used for all UEs. Further rules apply based on UE’s current QCI
combination. This setting is recommended for operators intending to deploy HetNets with macro eNB and
small cell eNBs from different vendors.
1

Interdependencies
Supporting Features – no limitations

• LTE533 - Mobility Robustness


• LTE1768 - MRO Ping Pong
• LTE914 - Graceful Cell Shutdown
• LTE3 - S1, X2 and RRC Common Signaling
• LTE1170 / LTE1387 / LTE1531 - Inter-Frequency Load Balancing features
• LTE1841 - Inter-Frequency Load Equalization
- LTE1841 and LTE2210 / LTE1140 use the same procedures and CAC information, but
measurements are for inter-freq neighbors for LTE1841 and intra-freq neighbors for LTE1140 /
2210. No specific interaction between features, but procedure on X2 will be handled similarly for
both features.

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applyFecicFunctionality = ‘TRUE’: setting of parameter eIcicMaxCre defines the maximum allowed CRE value
in all small cell eICIC partners used for FeICIC capable UEs. Further rules apply for FeICIC non-capable UEs
and UE’s current QCI combination. This setting is recommended for operators intending to deploy NOKIA
Networks equipped HetNets.

applyFeicicFunctionality = ‘FALSE’: setting of parameter eIcicMaxCre defines the maximum allowed CRE
value in all small cell eICIC partners used for all UEs. Further rules apply based on UE’s current QCI
combination. This setting is recommended for operators intending to deploy HetNets with macro eNB and
small cell eNBs from different vendors.
1

Interdependencies
Supporting Features – no limitations

• LTE1800 - Downlink Interference Shaping


- LTE1800 shall use the common RSR procedure for acquiring PRB measurement (Radio Resource
Status), while LTE1140 / LTE1113 / LTE2210 shall use the same procedure to acquire CAC / ABS
information. The messaging will be optimized to combine the measurement requests and reduce
the # of Resource Status Update messages.
• LTE1140 - Intra-Frequency Load Balancing (enhanced to support inter-vendor
scenarios).
• LTE1113 / LTE1496 - enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination
- Enhanced to support dynamic CIO calculation for load balancing between macro and small cells.
• LTE1089 / LTE1332 / LTE1558 / LTE1562 / LTE1784 / LTE1830 - Downlink Carrier
Aggregation features

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applyFecicFunctionality = ‘TRUE’: setting of parameter eIcicMaxCre defines the maximum allowed CRE value
in all small cell eICIC partners used for FeICIC capable UEs. Further rules apply for FeICIC non-capable UEs
and UE’s current QCI combination. This setting is recommended for operators intending to deploy NOKIA
Networks equipped HetNets.

applyFeicicFunctionality = ‘FALSE’: setting of parameter eIcicMaxCre defines the maximum allowed CRE
value in all small cell eICIC partners used for all UEs. Further rules apply based on UE’s current QCI
combination. This setting is recommended for operators intending to deploy HetNets with macro eNB and
small cell eNBs from different vendors.
1

Interdependencies
Feature limitations

• LTE1382 - Cell Resource Groups


- Cannot be activated with LTE2210
• LTE116 - Cell Bandwidth 3MHz
- Cannot be activated with LTE2210
• LTE117 - Cell Bandwidth 1.4MHz
- Cannot be activated with LTE2210

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applyFecicFunctionality = ‘TRUE’: setting of parameter eIcicMaxCre defines the maximum allowed CRE value
in all small cell eICIC partners used for FeICIC capable UEs. Further rules apply for FeICIC non-capable UEs
and UE’s current QCI combination. This setting is recommended for operators intending to deploy NOKIA
Networks equipped HetNets.

applyFeicicFunctionality = ‘FALSE’: setting of parameter eIcicMaxCre defines the maximum allowed CRE
value in all small cell eICIC partners used for all UEs. Further rules apply based on UE’s current QCI
combination. This setting is recommended for operators intending to deploy HetNets with macro eNB and
small cell eNBs from different vendors.
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Configuration and Testing

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Test Requirements
Lab Requirements

• Two eNBs with minimum of one cell configured on each on the same frequency.
• Phase synchronization to both eNBs (required for eICIC).
• Preferably two UEs with Rel 10 eiCIC capabilities (FGI 115=1), but most capability can be shown with
single Rel. 8 UE.
• eNBs configured for eICIC with cell on eNB 1 configured as macro and cell on eNB2 configured as
small cell as a partner to eNB1 macro cell.
• Wireshark and Emil tracing for RRC, X2 and S1 interfaces.
• iPerf for DL load generation.
• Variable attenuators to control UE HO between macro and small cell.

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Test Requirements
Test #1 – Trigger mobility change procedure and verify delta CIO is modified

• Make sure eNB 1 and eNB2 are configured for eICIC and macro / small cell partnership is established
and confirm X2 resource status updates are being forward to macro cell.
• If eICIC is enabled, but no RSU messages are being sent, check that LNREL exists between macro and
small cell (perform HO back and forth) to make sure LNREL exists and mobility between partner cell is
enabled.
• LTE2210 is activated by setting eIcicCioAdaptAlgo parameter to ‘adaptive’ and setting
eIcicPartnerCacTarget and eIcicPartnerCacAbsTarget parameters to the desired target CAC.
• In order to trigger large changes in CAC with one or two UE is useful to adjust the intra and inter freq
common load balancing parameters to values to maximize the estimated load for non-GBR traffic.
- mlbEicicOperMode = nonGbrOnly
- targetLoadNonGbrDl = 20
- nomNumPrbNonGbr = 10

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Number: 1 Author: Presenter Subject: Presentation Notes Date: 2/4/2016 3:28:10 AM
NOTE: Small cell does not require configuration of macro cell LTE1113 parameters in FL16. This was forced
in FL15A by BTSSM validation, but appears fixed in FL16.
1

Test Requirements
Test #1 – Trigger mobility change procedure and verify delta CIO is modified
Setting
Managed
Abbreviation Description Range and step during
Parameter Name object
test
determines whether the CIO adjustment for
eIcicCioAdaptAlgo eIcicCioAdaptAlgo eICIC is statically configured or adapted to the Static/adaptive adaptive LNCEL
current load conditions
This timer defines the periodicity with which 1000,
Load
neighbor cells are requested by the eNB cell to
measurement X2 timer for tLoadMeasX2Eicic 2000, 2000 ms LNCEL
send updated values of the load measurements
eICIC
for eICIC via X2 5000,10000ms

This value is multiplied by tLoadMeasX2 to define


Load measurement RRM the periodicity with which the collected available 1...32, step 1
multLoadMeasRrm 2s LNCEL
timer multiplier resource reports from the enquired neighbor
cells are evaluated

used to define the execution


periodicity of the CIO adaption
algorithm as
TcioModProhibit=multCioAdaptExec *
multCioAdaptExec multCioAdaptExec 2,3,...32, step 1 5 LNCEL
(multLoadMeasRrm *
tLoadMeasX2Eicic).

Determines whether an FeICIC related


applyFeicicFunctionality applyFeicicFunctionality TRUE, FALSE TRUE LNCEL
CIO shall be applied or not.

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Number: 1 Author: Presenter Subject: Presentation Notes Date: 2/4/2016 3:28:10 AM
NOTE: Small cell does not require configuration of macro cell LTE1113 parameters in FL16. This was forced
in FL15A by BTSSM validation, but appears fixed in FL16.
1

Test Requirements
Test #1 – Trigger mobility change procedure and verify delta CIO is modified
Setting Managed
Abbreviation Description Range and step
Parameter Name during test object

eIcicPartnerCacTarget defines operator’s preference


eIcicPartnerCacTarget CACtarget(n) on small cell eICIC partner target load during eICIC 10,15,20,25 20 LNCEL
operation

eIcicPartnerCacAbsTarget defines operator’s


eIcicPartnerCacAbsTarget CACABS,target(n) preference on small cell eICIC partner target ABS load 10,15,20,25 10 LNCEL
during eICIC operation.

Determines maximum allowed CIO adjustment. Once


eICICMaxCre eICICMaxCre this value is reached, only reducing the CIO 6,7,8,9,…,16dB 10dB LNCEL
adjustment is allowed.

This parameter selects the cell load evaluation profile.


The selected profile controls the cell resources that
nonGbrOnly (0),
Mode for calculating the CAC are included in the determination of the load nonGbrOnly
mlbEicicOperMode nonGbrPdcch (1), LNCEL
in load bal. and eICIC condition. In addition, if eICIC is activated, the (0)
allUes (2)
parameter is used to define the set of UEs that will
receive the adjusted CIO value.

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Number: 1 Author: Presenter Subject: Presentation Notes Date: 2/4/2016 3:28:11 AM
NOTE: Small cell does not require configuration of macro cell LTE1113 parameters in FL16. This was forced
in FL15A by BTSSM validation, but appears fixed in FL16.
Test Requirements
Test #1 – Trigger mobility change procedure and verify delta CIO is modified

• Start Emil and Wireshark traces on RRC, X2, and S1 interfaces.


• After verifying X2 resource updates are being forwarded to macro cell make a call on the small cell.
• If ABS is inactive generate high DL load to the UE in the small cell and check wireshark for X2 Load
Information message from macro cell to change from MP0  MP1.
• Keep small amount of DL data going to UE in small cell to prevent going idle (e.g. ping) so that
resource status updates are showing CAC above the target.
• Check Wireshark for X2 Mobility Setting Change message.
- As long as CAC target has not been reached this should continue to modify the CIO (handover trigger change IE) until the maximum is
reached.
- Confirm eNB LNREL:cellIndOffNeighDelta value is updated on the eNB.
- Confirm in Emil RRC reconfiguration message is sent to UE updating the CIO.

• Generate high load on the DL to the UE in the small cell until the target CAC threshold is reached and
surpassed.
- X2 Mobility Setting Change messages should start to reduced the CIO.

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Test Requirements
Test #2 – Stop intra-frequency load balancing

• While still tracing from test #1 make a call with UE 2 to the macro cell
- It may help to disable HO to make it easier to keep UE 1 in the small cell if RF attenuation cannot be independently controlled for each UE.

• Create enough DL load to the UE 2 in macro cell to get source CAC to 0 in order to disable ABS.
- Syslog may be a way to see source cell CAC.
- Using iPerf create multiple, parallel, UDP streams of data to the UE to increase estimated load. (may be necessary to alter the common
load parameters.

• Check Wireshark trace for X2 Load Information message that shows MP1-> MP0 to deactivate ABS.
• Following ABS deactivation there should be an X2 Mobility Change Request to reduce CIO by up to
10 dB.

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Test Results

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Test Results
Test #1 – X2 Mobility Change Procedure

Load Indication activates ABS to


MP1

Mobility Setting Change


message starts to adjust CIO
since reported CAC is higher
than target.

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Test Results
Test #1 – Delta CIO and measurement update
Emil showing RRC reconfiguration
with updated CIO

BTSSM RNW parameters shows


delta CIO update in real-time.

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Operational Hints and Guidelines

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Operational Hints and Guidelines

• There is an inconsistency in the naming for the


parameter above. The long name indicated
load, but the short name indicates CAC.
• CAC is what the value indicates.

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Operational Hints and Guidelines

• If trying to connect one UE to small cell and one to macro cell it may be useful to disable HO in LNCEL
in order to adjust attenuation to attach to correct cell without handing over the other UE.
• CAC measurements can be influenced by common load balancing parameters. Setting a low target
load and a high value for nominal number of PRBs for load balancing will one or two UEs generate
enough load to get CAC to 0.
• If trying to generate load is restricted due to UDP limiting (via corporate firewalls), try using iPerf to
generate load from within the lab network and with iPerf you can create multiple UDP streams in
parallel to create very high throughput to the UE.

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