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FORM

- Meaning of Form

- Properties of Form
- Shape
- Primary Shapes: Circle, Triangle, and Square
- Primary Solids
- Regular and Irregular Forms
THEORY OF D E S I G N
- Transformation of Form
FORM - Subtractive and Additive Forms

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Form
Form While form often includes a sense of three-dimensional mass
or volume, shape refers more specifically to the essential
aspect of form that governs its appearance—the configuration
or relative disposition of the lines or contours that delimit a
―Architectural form is the point of contact between mass and space … figure or form.
Architectural forms, textures, materials, modulation of light and shade,
color, all combine to inject a quality or spirit that articulates space. The Shape The characteristic outline or surface configuration
quality of the architecture will be determined by the skill of the designer of particular form. Shape is the principal aspect by which
we identify and categories forms.
in using and relating these elements, both in the interior spaces and in
the spaces around buildings‖.
In addition to shape, forms have visual properties of:
Size The physical dimensions of length, width, and depth
Edmund N. Bacon of form, while these dimensions determine the properties of
a form, its scale is determined by its size relative to other
The Design of Cities forms in its contexts.

1974 Color A phenomenon of light and visual perception that


may be described in terms of an individual‘s perception of
hue, saturation, and tonal value. Color is the attribute that
most clearly distinguishes a form from its environment. It
also affects the visual weight of a form.

Texture The visual and especially tactile quality given to a


surface by the size, shape, arrangement, and proportions of
the parts. Texture also determines the degree to which the
surface of a form reflect or absorb incident light.

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PROPERTIES OF FORM SHAPE


Forms also have relational properties which govern the
pattern and composition of elements:

Our perception of shape depends on the degree of visual


Position The location of a form relative to contrast that exists along the contour separating a figure
its environment or the visual filed within from its ground or between a form and its field.
which it is seen.

Orientation The direction of a form relative Bust of Queen Nefertiti


to the ground plane, the compass points,
The pattern of eye movement of a person viewing the
other forms, or to the person viewing the
figure, from research by Alfred L. Yarbus of the Institute
form.
for Problems of Information Transmission in Moscow.

Visual Inertia The degree of concentration In architecture, we are concerned with the shapes of:
and stability of a form. The visual inertia of a
- floor, wall, and ceiling planes that enclose space
form depends on its geometry as well as its
orientation relative to the ground plane, the - door and window openings within a spatial enclosure
pull of gravity, and our line of sight.
- silhouettes and contours of building forms

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PRIMARY SHAPES PRIMARY SHAPES

Form geometry we know the regular shapes to be the 1-CIRCLE


circle, and the infinite series of regular polygons that
can be inscribed within it. Of these, the most
significant are the primary shapes: the circle, the
triangle, and the square.
Plan of the Ideal City of Sforzinda, 1464.

Circle A plane curve every point of which is


equidistant from a fixed point within the curve.
Compositions of circles and
circular segments.

The Circle is a centralized, introverted figure that is


Triangle A plane figure bounded by three normally stable and self-centering in its environment.
sides and having three angle.
Placing a circle in the center of a field reinforces its
inherent centrality. Associating it with straight or
angular forms or placing an element along its
circumference, however, can induce in the circle an
Square A plane figure having four sides and apparent rotary motion.
four right angle.

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PRIMARY SHAPES PRIMARY SHAPES

2-TRIANGLE 3- SQUARE

The square represents the pure and the


rational. It is a static and neutral figure
The triangle signifies stability. When resting on one of its sides, the triangle is an having no preferred direction. All other
extremely stable figure. When tipped to stand on one of its vertices, however, it can either rectangles can be considered variations
be balanced in a precarious state of equilibrium or be unstable and tend to fall over onto of the square—deviations from the norm Compositions resulting from
one of its sides. by the addition of height or width. Like the rotation and modification
the triangle, the square is stable when of the square.
resting on one of its sides, and dynamic
when standing on one its corners.

Modern Art Museum, Caracas ,


Venezuela, 1955, Oscar Niemeyer.

Bathhouse, Jewish Community


Center, Trenton, New Jersey, 1954-
Vigo Sundt House, Madison, 59, Louis Kahn.
Wisconsin, 1942, Frank Lloyd Wright.
Agora of Ephesus, Asia Minor.
Great Pyramid of Cheops at Giza, Egypt, c. 2500 B.C.
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PRIMARY SOLIDS Discussion (1)


Make a discussion about the following buildings, using primary
solids characteristics.

Pyramids, Giza, Egypt, c. 2500 B.C.


Maupertius, Project for an Agricultural Lodge,
1775, Claude-Nicolas Ledoux.

Chapel Massachusetts Institute of technology,


Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1955, Eero Saarinen

Hanselmann House, fort Wayne, Indiana,


1967, Michael graves.

Project for a Conical Cenotaph, 1784, Etienne-Louis


Boulee.

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REGULAR AND IRREGULAR FORMS REGULAR AND IRREGULAR FORMS

Regular forms refer to those whose parts are related


to one another in a consistent and orderly manner:
They are generally stable in nature and symmetrical
about one or more axes. The sphere, cylinder, cone,
cube, and pyramid are prime examples of regular
forms. A Regular Composition of Regular Forms:
Forms can retain their regularity even when
transformed dimensionally or by the addition or Irregular Forms: Coonley Playhouse, Riverside, Illinois, 1912, Frank Lloyd Wright
subtraction of elements. Form our experiences with Philharmonic Hall, Berlin, 1956-63, Hans Scharoun
similar forms, we can construct a mental model of
the original whole even when a fragment is missing
or another part is added.

Irregular forms are those whose parts are dissimilar


in nature and related to one another in an
inconsistent manner. They are generally Irregular Forms within a Regular Field:
asymmetrical and more dynamic than regular forms.
Philharmonic Hall, Berlin, 1956-63, Hans Scharoun
They can be regular forms from which irregular
elements have been subtracted or results from an An Irregular Composition of Regular Forms:
irregular composition of regular forms.
Katsura Palace, Kyoto, Japan, 17th century
Since we deal with both solid masses and spatial voids
in architecture, regular forms can be contained within Regular Forms within an Irregular Composition:
irregular forms. In a similar manner, irregular forms
can be enclosed by regular forms. Masjed of Sultan Hasan, Cairo, Egypt, 1356-63
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Discussion (2) Discussion (2)


Make a discussion about the projects of architect Frank Gehry, Make a discussion about the projects of architect Frank Gehry,
using the concept design of the irregular forms . using the concept design of the irregular forms .

Vitra Design Museum at Weil-am-Rhein, Germany,


1990 by Frank O. Gehry

Guggenheim Museum : Bilbao, spain 1997


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Discussion (2) Discussion (2)


Make a discussion about the projects of architect Frank Gehry, Make a discussion about the projects of architect Frank Gehry,
using the concept design of the irregular forms . using the concept design of the irregular forms .

Guggenheim Museum :
Bilbao, spain 1997
By Frank O.Gehry
Cinémathèque Française By Frank O.Gehry

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TRANSFORMATION OF FORM TRANSFORMATION OF FORM


All other forms can be understood to be
transformations of the primary solids,
variations which are generated by the
manipulation of one or more dimensions or
by the addition or subtraction of elements. Dimensional Transformation of a cube into a vertical slab:
Dimensional Transformation United d‘Habitation, Firminy-Vert, France, 1963-68, Le Corbusier

A form can be transformed by altering one or more of its dimensions and still retain as a member of a family of a
form. A cube, for example, can be transformed into similar prismatic forms through discrete changes in height,
width, or length. It can be compressed into a planner form or be stretched out into a linear one.

Subtractive Transformation
A form can be transformed by subtracting a
portion of its volume. Depending on the extend of
the subtractive process, the form can retain its
initial identify or be transformed into a form of
another family. For example, a cube can retain its
identify as a cube even though a portion of it is Subtractive Transformation Creating Volumes of Space:
removed, or be transformed into a series of
Gwathmey Residence, Amagensett, New York, 1967, Charles
regular polyhedrons that begin to approximate a
Gwathmey/Gwathmy Siegel
sphere.

Additive Transformation
A form can be transformed by addition of elements to
its volume. The nature of the additive process and the
number and relative sizes of the elements being Additive Transformation of a Parent Form by the
attached determine whether the identity of the initial Attachment of Subordinate Parts:
form is altered or retained.
United d‘Habitation, Venice, 1577-92, Andrea Palladio
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DIMESIONAL TRANSFORMATION DIMESIONAL TRANSFORMATION

Dimensional Transformation of spherical form in to Dimensional Transformation of cube in to other


ellipsoid form by enlongating it along an axis rectangular prismatic form by shorting or enlongating its
heights, width or depth

Plan of an elliptical church: Pensiero Della chiesa S. Carlo YAHARA BOAT CLUB (PROJECT): Madison Wiscosin 1902
A project of Franscesco Baromini A project by Frank Lloyd Wright
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SUBSTRACTIVE FORM SUBSTRACTIVE FORM


When regular form have fragments missing from their volumes , they can retain
When regular form have fragments missing from their volumes , they can retain
their identity if we perceive them as if they were whole and complete , we
their identity if we perceive them as if they were whole and complete , we refer to these mutilated form as subtractive forms
refer to these mutilated form as subtractive forms

Square shape ‗L‘ configuration of two


Subtractive form planes

Kanchanjunga Apartments
Gwathmey residence , New York by Ar. Charles Correa- 1983
by Ar. Charles Gwathmey -1967
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SUBTRACTIVE & ADDITIVE FORMS Le Corbusier comments on form:


SUBSTRACTIVE FORM Cumulative Composition
- additive form - a rather easy type-
picturesque; full of movement
- can be completely disciplined by classification
and hierarchy

Cubic Composition (Pure Prisms)


- very difficult (to satisfy the spirit)

Very easy
- (convenient combining)

Shodhan house , Ahemdabad by Subtractive form


Le corbusier-1956
- very generous
- on the exterior an architectural will is confirmed
- on the interior all functional needs are satisfied
(light, penetration, continuity, circulation)

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ADDTIVE FORMS ADDTIVE FORMS


THE BASIC Possibilities for Two
Form to group together are CENTRALIZED FORMS
Consist of a number of secondary forms clustered
about dominant , central parent form
BY SPATIAL TENSION
LINEAR FORMS
Consist of form arranged
Sequentially in a row
BY EDGE TO EDGE CONTACT
RADIAL FORMS
Are composition of linear forms that extend
outward from central forms in radial manner
BY FACE TO FACE CONTACT
CLUSTERED FORMS
Consist of forms that are grouped together by
proximity or the sharing of a common visual trait
BY INTERLOCKING VOLUMES
GRID – FORMS
Are modular forms whose relationships are
regulated by three dimensional grids
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CENTRALIZED FORMS CENTRALIZED FORMS

S. MARIA DELLA SALUTE : Venice 1931-82 ,


Baldessare Longhena

TEMPIETTO S. PIETRO : Montorio , Rome


THE ROTONDA : VILLA CAPRA , Italy , Andrea Palladio -1552-67 1502, Donato Bramante .
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LINEAR FORMS FORMS


A Linear form can result from a proportional
change in forms dimensions
A Linear form can oriented vertically as tower
elements to fix a point in space
Arrangement of series of form along a
line
A Linear growth :
repetition of forms
A Linear form can be segmented or curvilinear to
respond to conditions of its site as topography
A Linear forms expressing
procession or movement
A Linear form can be used to front or define
an edge of an exterior space or define a
plane of entry to the space behind it.
A Linear form can act as organizing
elements to which a variety of forms
A Linear form can be manipulated to enclosed
can be attached
space

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LINEAR FORMS LINEAR FORMS

Burroughs adding machine company : plymouth michigan 1904 Albert kahn


Runcorn new town housing : England 1967 James Stirling
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LINEAR FORMS LINEAR FORMS

AGORA OF ASSOS : Asia Minor 2nd cent BC


Henry babson house : riverside,
ILLINOIS , 1907 , Louis Sullivan
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RADIAL FORMS RADIAL FORMS

A Radial form consist of linear forms that


extend outward from centrally located core
element in a radiating manner
Composition = Centrality + linearity

Have extroverted nature

Can grow into network of several


centers
UNESCO HEADQUARTERS : Paris , 1953-58 , Marcel Brever
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RADIAL FORMS RADIAL FORMS

Jail

Biomedical Engineering Building

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CLUSTERED FORMS CLUSTERED FORMS


Organized in following ways Organized in following ways

Attached as Interlock their


appendages to volume and merge into
larger parent from or single form that have These forms are visually ordered into a
variety of faces Consist of forms that
space coherent , non-hierarhical organization
are generally not only by by their close proximity to one
Related by proximity
alone to articulate and equivalent in size another but also by the similarity of their
express their volume as shape and function visual properties.
individual

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CLUSTERED FORMS CLUSTERED FORMS

Trulli village Resort :


Italy
G N Black House : Massauchusetts 1982-83 , Peabody & Stearns

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CLUSTERED FORMS CLUSTERED FORMS

Habitat : montreal canada 1967


Moshe Safdie
Taos Pueblo :
Valley of the Rio Grande in Taos,
New Mexico

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GRID FORMS GRID FORMS

A grid can be defined as two or more intersecting sets of regularly spaced


parallel lines .
It generates a geometric pattern of regularly spaced points (where the
grid lines intersect ) and regular spaced fields (define by grid lines)

Square grid : is Essentially -neutral , Non-hierarchical and Non- directional

GUNMA PREFECTUAL MUSEUM OF FINE


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GRID FORMS GRID FORMS


Hattenbach Residence : California 1971-73
Raymond Kappe

Nakagin capsule building : tokyo1972,


Kisho kurokawa
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References FD Architects & Planners Forum

 Architecture: Form, Space & Order, Francis Ching, ISBN 0-


442-21535-5
 Elements of Architecture, Pierre Von Meiss, ISBN 0-747- This forum is for, by and of the architect fraternity
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and it will only grow by creating New
 Ordering Systems: An introduction to Architectural Design,
Edward T. White, Architectural Media, University of Arizona. Thread and New Reply, we can also comment in
 Principles of Form and Design, Wucius Wong, ISBN 0-442- existing threads by clicking following button on upper
01405-8 right corner of forum .
 The Good House: Contrast as a Design Tool, Max Jacobson,
Murray Silverstein, Barbara Winslow, ISBN 0-942391-05-5
Post your valuable comments in forum regularly.

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