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SCIENCE (52)

CHEMISTRY
SCIENCE Paper - 2
Aims: 3. To acquire skills in proper handling of apparatus
and chemicals.
1. To acquire the knowledge of terms, concepts,
processes, techniques and principles related to 4. To develop scientific temper, attitude and
the subject. problem solving skills.
2. To develop the ability to apply the knowledge 5. To recognize Chemical Science as having
of contents and principles of chemistry in an important impact on the environment
unfamiliar situations. relating to cycles in nature; natural
resources, pollution.
CLASS IX

There will be one paper of two hours duration of terms of molecular motion (particles, atoms,
80 marks and Internal Assessment of practical work molecules); Boyle’s Law and Charles’ Law;
carrying 20 marks. absolute zero; gas equation; simple relevant
The paper will be divided into two sections, calculations.
Section I (40 marks) and Section II (40 marks). The behaviour of gases under changes of
Section I (compulsory) will contain short answer temperature and pressure; explanation in
questions on the entire syllabus. terms of molecular motion (particles, atoms,
molecules). Boyle’s Law (statement,
Section II will contain six questions. Candidates mathematical form, simple calculations).
will be required to answer any four of these six
questions. Charles’ Law; (statement, mathematical
form, simple calculations). Absolute zero;
Note: All chemical reactions should be studied with Kelvin scale of temperature. Gas equation
reference to the reactants, products, conditions, P1 V1 / T1 = P2 V2 / T2; simple relevant
observations and the (balanced) equation.
calculations based on gas equation.
1. Matter and its Composition: Law of (ii) Relationship between Kelvin Scale and
Conservation of mass Celsius Scale of temperature; Standard
(i) Explanation of change of state of matter temperature and pressure.
on the basis of Kinetic Theory of Matter. Conversion of temperature from Celsius
Main postulates of Kinetic Theory of Matter Scale to Kelvin scale and vice versa.
and explanation of change of state on the Standard temperature and pressure. (simple
basis of. Inter-particle space and Inter- calculations).
particle attraction and collision.
3. Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
(ii) Law of Conservation of Mass (i) General characteristics and differences
Statement and explanation with examples. between elements, compounds and
mixtures.
2. Study of Gas Laws Reasons for considering a substance as an
(i) The behaviour of gases under changes of element, compound or mixture may be given
temperature and pressure; explanation in to make the concepts clear.
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(ii) Types of mixtures: of two solids, a solid and non-metals; mono, di, tri and tetra valent
a liquid, two liquids, liquid and gas, two elements.
gases. Radicals – definition of radicals; formula and
Definition of mixture; each type of mixture valencies of the radicals and formula of
should be shown to the students (including compounds.
both homogeneous and heterogeneous Chemical equation – definition and examples of
types) – true solution, suspension and chemical equations with one reactant and two
colloidal solution to make the concepts or three products, two reactants and one
clear. product, two reactants and two products and
two reactants and three or four products;
(iii) Separation of mixtures involving - use of a balancing of equations. (By partial equation
solvent, filtration, evaporation and method and hit and trial method)
distillation, fractional distillation, simple
paper chromatography Centrifugation 5. Physical and Chemical Changes
immiscible liquid.
(i) Definitions and distinction between
The following examples should be used to Physical and Chemical changes.
illustrate the principles of separation of
mixtures by using following methods Simple experiments like dissolution of sugar
in water, burning of paper should be shown
(a) use of solvent and filtration (e.g. sodium to make the concepts of physical and
chloride + sand, (water as solvent), chemical change clear. More examples of
carbon and sulphur (Carbon tetra such type may be given.
chloride as solvent)
(ii) Conditions for chemical change.
(b) evaporation e.g. sodium chloride from
Close contact, heat, light, electricity,
its aqueous solution
pressure, catalysts with examples.
(c) distillation e.g. purification of water
(iii) Types of chemical change.
containing dissolved solids.
Direct combination; decomposition;
(d) fractional distillation involves the displacement; double decomposition with
difference in boiling points of liquids examples.
e.g. benzene + toluene.
(iv) Energy changes in a chemical change.
(e) simple paper chromatography (limited
to separation of colouring matter in Exothermic and endothermic reactions with
ink); examples – evolution/absorption of heat,
light and electricity.
(f) Centrifugation (involving separation of
(v) Burning: Definition and conditions of
cream from milk).
burning.
(g) immiscible liquids (separating funnel e.g
Definition; (Air is used for combustion)
water + carbon tetra chloride).
conditions for burning (combustible
4. The language of Chemistry substance, supporter of combustion and
ignition temperature); comparison of
Symbol of an element; valency; formulae of
respiration and burning; burning of
radicals and formulae of compounds. Balancing
magnesium or candle to show that
of simple chemical equations.
substances gain weight on burning; students
Symbol – definition; symbols of the elements to be made aware of how the balance of O2
used often. and CO2 is maintained in nature. O2 and
Valency - definition; hydrogen combination and CO2 Cycle.
number of valence electrons of the metals and

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6. Water Discovery of Atomic Number and its use as a
Water as a compound and as a universal basis for Modern Periodic law, Modern
Periodic Table (groups 1 to 18 and periods 1 to
solvent; its physical and chemical properties.
7).
Why is water considered a compound? Chief
physical properties should include: density, b.p, 9. Study of the First Element -Hydrogen
m.p. Experiment to show that the water we Position of the non-metal (Hydrogen) in the
drink, contains dissolved solids and dissolved periodic table and general group characteristics
gases (air); their significance. Solutions as with reference to valency electrons, burning, ion
'mixtures' of solids in water; saturated formation applied to the above mentioned
solutions; qualitative effect of temperature on element.
solubility (e.g. solutions of calcium sulphate,
(i) Hydrogen from water (ii) hydrogen from
potassium nitrate, sodium chloride in water). dilute acids (iii) hydrogen from alkalies.
Water Pollution – Causes – household, Hydrogen from water. Cold water and
detergents, sewage, industrial waste, offshore metals; hot water and metals; steam and
and oil drilling. metals; steam and non-metals. Application
Treatment of Water Pollution – Proper of activity series for the above mentioned
collection and disposal of domestic sewage, preparations. Displacement of hydrogen
treatment of industrial waste to yield safe from dilute sulphuric acid or hydrochloric
acid by zinc or iron (no reaction with
effluents.
copper). Displacement of hydrogen from
Chemical Properties: The action of cold water alkalis (NaOH, KOH) by Zn, Al – unique
on sodium and calcium; the action of hot water nature of these elements.
on magnesium and steam on iron; reversibility (ii)The preparation and collection of hydrogen
of reaction between iron and steam. by a standard laboratory method other than
Students can be shown the action of sodium and electrolysis.
calcium on water in the laboratory; they must In the laboratory preparation, the reason
be asked to make observations (equations for for using zinc, the impurities in the gas,
the above reactions) and form reactivity series their removal and the precautions in the
based on reactions. collection of the gas must be mentioned.

7. Atomic Structure Industrial manufacture of hydrogen by


Bosch process with main reactions and
Structure of an Atom mass number and atomic conditions; separation of CO2 and CO from
number, Isotopes and Octet Rule. it.
Definition of an element, definition of an atom; 10. Atmospheric pollution
constituents of an atom - nucleus (protons,
neutrons) with associated electrons; mass (a) Acid rain – composition, cause and its
number, atomic number. Electron distribution in impact.
the orbits - 2n2 rule, Octet rule. Reason for Sulphur in fossil fuels giving oxides of
chemical activity of an atom. Definition and sulphur when burnt. High temperatures in
examples of isotopes (hydrogen, carbon, furnaces and internal combustion engines
chlorine). produce oxides of nitrogen. (Equations to
be included). Acid rain affects soil
8. The Periodic Table chemistry and water bodies.
Dobereiner’s Triads, Newland’s law of Octaves,
Mendeleev’s contributions; Modern Periodic (b) Global warming:
Law, the Modern Periodic Table.(groups and
periods) Greenhouse gases – their sources and ways
of reducing their presence in the
General idea of Dobereiner’s triads, Newland’s atmosphere.
law of Octaves, Mendeleev’s periodic law,
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(water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane 2. Add dilute sulphuric acid to the unknown
and oxides of nitrogen) substance, warm if necessary, make
observation, identify the product and make
(c) Ozone depletion
deductions.
Formation of ozone – relevant equations (a) a sulphide
Function in the atmosphere. (b) a carbonate
Destruction of the ozone layer – chemicals (c) a metal
responsible for this to be named but
reactions not required. 3. Apply the flame test to identify the metal in the
unknown substance.
(a) a sodium salt
INTERNAL ASSESSMENT OF
PRACTICAL WORK (b) a potassium salt

Candidates will be asked to observe the effect of (c) a calcium compound


reagents and/or of heat on substances supplied to
4. The percentage composition of a mixture of
them. The exercises will be simple and may include powdered salt and water-washed sand.
the recognition and identification of certain gases
listed below. The experiment would test techniques in
dissolving, filtering or decanting, washing and
Gases: Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, weighing. It may be counted out as taking too
Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Sulphur dioxide, much time. The weakness could be met by
Hydrogen sulphide, Ammonia, Water vapour, supplying a given weight of the mixture; also by
Nitrogen dioxide. choosing sand of such grain size that filtering or
decanting will not be slow and yet not so large
Candidates are expected to have completed the that separation of salt and sand cannot be done
following minimum practical work. simply by sorting out mechanically the sand
from the salt. The experiment should take about
20 minutes using 10g mixture (4g sand, 6g salt).
Simple experiments on:
5. Simple experiments based on hard water and
1. Heat the given (unknown) substance, make
soft water – identification of hardness – simple
observations, identify any products and make
softening – by heating the temporary hard
deductions where possible.
water, using washing soda and advantage of
(a) copper carbonate, zinc carbonate using detergents over soap in hard water.
(b) washing soda, copper sulphate crystals 6. Find out the sources of pollution of water
(c) zinc nitrate, copper nitrate, lead nitrate bodies in the locality and determine the
(d) ammonium chloride, iodine, ammonium
quality of water.
dichromate

100
CLASS X

There will be one paper of two hours duration of 2. Chemical Bonding


80 marks and Internal Assessment of practical work
Electrovalent, covalent and co-ordinate bonding,
carrying 20 marks.
structures of various compounds – orbit
The paper will be divided into two sections, structure and electron dot structure.
Section I (40 marks) and Section II (40 marks).
Definition of Electrovalent Bond.
Section I (compulsory) will contain short answer
Structure of Electrovalent compounds NaCl,
questions on the entire syllabus.
MgCl2, CaO;
Section II will contain six questions. Candidates
Characteristic properties of electrovalent
will be required to answer any four of these six
compounds – state of existence, melting and
questions.
boiling points, conductivity (heat and
Note: All chemical process/reactions should be electricity), ionisation in solution, dissociation
studied with reference to the reactants, products, in solution and in molten state to be linked with
conditions, observation, the (balanced) equation electrolysis.
and diagram.
Covalent Bond – definition and examples,
structure of Covalent molecules on the basis of
1. Periodic Properties and variations of
duplet and octet of electrons (example :
Properties – Physical and Chemical.
hydrogen, chlorine, nitrogen, water, ammonia,
(i) Periodic properties and their variations in carbon tetrachloride, methane.)
groups and periods.
Characteristic properties of Covalent
Definitions of following periodic properties and compounds – state of existence, melting and
trends in these properties in groups and periods boiling points, conductivity (heat and
should be studied: electricity), ionisation in solution.
 atomic size,
Comparison of Electrovalent and Covalent
 metallic character compounds.
 non-metallic character
Definition of Coordinate Bond: The lone pair
 ionisation potential effect of the oxygen atom of the water molecule
 electron affinity and the nitrogen atom of the ammonia molecule
 electronegativity to explain the formation of H3O+ and OH- ions
in water and NH4+ ion. The meaning of lone
(ii) Periodicity on the basis of atomic number for
pair; the formation of hydronium ion and
elements.
ammonium ion must be explained with help of
Relation between atomic number for light electron dot diagrams.
elements (proton number) and atomic mass for 3. Study of Acids, Bases and Salts
light elements; the modern periodic table up to
period 3 (students to be exposed to the complete (i) Simple definitions in terms of the molecules
modern periodic table but no questions will be and their characteristic properties.
asked on elements beyond period 3 – Argon); Self-explanatory.
periodicity and other related properties to be
described in terms of shells (not orbitals); (ii) Ions present in mineral acids, alkalis and
special reference to the alkali metals and salts and their solutions; use of litmus and
halogen groups. pH paper to test for acidity and alkalinity.
Examples with equation for the
ionisation/dissociation of ions of acids,
bases and salts: acids form hydronium ions
(only positive ions) which turn blue litmus
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red, alkalis form hydroxyl ions (only hydroxide on solutions of copper salt and
negative ions) with water which turns red sodium hydroxide on ammonium salts.
litmus blue. Salts are formed by partial or On solution of salts:
complete replacement of the hydrogen ion
of an acid by a metal should be explained  Colour of salt and its solution.
with suitable examples. Introduction to pH  Action on addition of Sodium Hydroxide
scale to test for acidity, neutrality and to solution of Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb
alkalinity by using pH paper or Universal salts drop by drop in excess. Formation
indicator. and colour of hydroxide precipitated to
be highlighted. with the help of
(iii) Definition of salt; types of salts.
equations.
Types of salts: normal salts, acid salt, basic  Action on addition of Ammonium
salt, definition and examples. Hydroxide to solution of Ca, Fe, Cu,
(iv) General properties of salts: Zn, and Pb salts drop by drop in excess.
Formation and colour of hydroxide
 Deliquescence, efflorescence, water of precipitated to be highlighted with the
crystallization. help of equations.
Definition and example of each of the  Special action of Ammonium Hydroxide
above. on solutions of copper salts and sodium
 Decomposition of hydrogen carbonates, hydroxide on ammonium salts.
carbonates, chlorides and nitrates by (ii) On certain metals and their oxides (relevant
appropriate acids with heating if laboratory work is essential).
necessary. (relevant laboratory work The metals must include zinc and
must be done). aluminium, their oxides and their
Action of dilute acids on carbonates, hydroxides, which react with caustic alkalis
hydrogen carbonates and action of (NaOH, KOH), showing the amphoteric
concentrated acid. Equations of formation nature of these substances.
of Acid rain. (Sulphuric acid) on chlorides
5. Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
and nitrates, to obtain carbon dioxide,
hydrogen chloride and nitric acid, (i) Gay Lussac’s Law of Combining Volumes;
respectively should be taught. This will Avogadro’s Law.
assist the students in their practical work. Idea of mole – a number just as dozen, a
(v) Preparation: laboratory preparation of salts gross; Avogadro’s Law - statement and
(normal and acid salts) – relevant laboratory explanation; Gay Lussac’s Law of
work is essential (no apparatus details are Combining Volumes. – statement and
required). explanation, “the mass of 22.4 litres of any
gas at S.T.P. is equal to its molar mass”.
Laboratory preparation of salts (normal (Questions will not be set on formal proof
and acid salts): Direct combination; but may be taught for clear understanding)
decomposition; displacement; double – simple calculations based on the molar
decomposition; neutralization. volume.

4. Analytical Chemistry – Use of Ammonium (ii) Refer to the atomicity of hydrogen, oxygen,
nitrogen and chlorine (proof not required).
Hydroxide and Sodium Hydroxide
(i) On solution of salts: colour of salt and its The explanation can be given using
solution; formation and colour of hydroxide equations for the formation of HCl, NH3,
precipitated for solutions of salts of Ca, Fe, and NO.
Cu, Zn and Pb; special action of ammonium (iii) Relative atomic masses (atomic weight) and
relative molecular masses (molecular
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weights): either H=1 or 12C=12 will be illustrated by the electrolysis of: molten lead
accepted; molecular mass = 2vapour bromide; acidified water with platinum
density (formal proof not required). electrodes and aqueous copper (II) sulphate
Deduction of simple (empirical) and with copper electrodes; electron transfer at
molecular formula from the percentage the electrodes.
composition of a compound; the molar The above electrolytic processes can be
volume of a gas at S.T.P.; simple studied in terms of electrolyte used,
calculations based on chemical equations; electrodes used, ionization reaction, anode
both reacting weight and volumes. reaction, cathode reaction, use of selective
Idea of relative atomic mass and relative discharge theory wherever applicable.
molecular mass – standard H atom or 1/12th
of carbon 12 atom. (iv) Applications of electrolysis: electroplating
with nickel and silver; purification of
Relating mole and atomic mass; arriving at copper; choice of electrolyte for
gram atomic mass and then gram atom; electroplating.
atomic mass is a number dealing with one
atom; gram atomic mass is the mass of one Reasons and conditions for electroplating;;
mole of atoms. names of the electrolytes and the electrodes
used should be given. Equations for the
Relating mole and molecular mass arriving reactions at the electrodes should be given
at gram molecular mass and gram molecule for electroplating, refining of copper.
– molecular mass is a number dealing with
a molecule, gram molecular mass is the (v) Acids, bases and salts as electrolytes:
mass of one mole of molecules. reference should be made to the activity
series as indicating the tendency of
Molecular mass = 2vapour density
metals, e.g. Na, Mg, Fe, Cu, to form ions.
(questions will not be set on formal proof
but may be taught for clear understanding); 7. Metallurgy
- simple calculations based on the formula.
(i) Definition of Metals and Non-metals.
Deduction of simple (empirical) and
Self-explanatory.
molecular formula from the percentage
composition of a compound. (ii) Position of the metals (alkali metals and
alkaline earth metals) in the Periodic table
6. Electrolysis and general characteristics applied to these
(i) Electrolytes and non-electrolytes. elements with reference to the following –
occurrence, nature, bonding, action of air,
Definitions and examples. action of water, action of acids.
(ii) Substances containing molecules only, ions Self-explanatory.
only, both molecules and ions.
(iii) Comparison of Metals and Non-metals.
Substances containing molecules only,
ions only, both molecules and ions. General properties with special reference to
Examples; relating their composition with physical properties: state, lustre, melting
their behaviour as electrolyte (strong and point, density, ductility, malleability,
weak), non-electrolyte. brittleness, conduction of electricity
(exceptions to be specifically noted - e.g.
Definition and explanation of electrolysis, graphite, mercury); chemical properties: a
electrolyte, electrode, anode, cathode,
metal forms at least one basic oxide;
anion, cation, oxidation and reduction (on
non-metal, an acidic or neutral oxide;
the basis of loss and gain of electrons).
discharge of metallic ions at the cathode
(iii) An elementary study of the migration of from fused metallic chlorides (link with
ions, with reference to the factors bonding and ion formation); many metals
influencing selective discharge of ions, liberate hydrogen from dilute HCl and
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H2SO4.In the physical properties of metals Description of the changes occurring,
and non-metals, atomicity and valence purpose of the substances used and the main
electrons should also be included; suitable reactions with their equations.
examples must be given for basic, acidic (a) Uses of iron, aluminium and zinc and their
and neutral oxides; formation and alloys.
discharge of ions at the cathode (metallic)
and anode (non-metallic) should be Uses of iron, aluminium and zinc and their
explained with examples. alloys. Composition of their alloys – steel,
duralumin, brass.
(iv) Reduction of metallic oxides; some can be (b) Other important alloys – bronze, fuse metal
reduced by hydrogen, carbon and carbon and solder.
monoxide (e.g. copper oxide, lead oxide,
iron (II) oxide) and some cannot (e.g. Uses only.
Al2O3, MgO) - refer to activity series).
8. Study of Compounds
Equations with conditions and observations  Hydrogen Chloride
should be given.
Hydrogen chloride: preparation of hydrogen
(v) Extraction of metals based on the activity chloride from sodium chloride; refer to the
series. density and solubility of hydrogen chloride
Extraction of metals: principle of extraction (fountain experiment); reaction with
of metal from its compounds by reduction – ammonia; acidic properties of its solution.
carbon reduction, electrolytic reduction. Preparation of hydrogen chloride from
Active metals by electrolysis e.g. sodium, sodium chloride; (the laboratory method of
aluminum (reference only). preparation can be learnt in terms of
reactants, product, condition, equation,
(vi) Corrosion of iron and its prevention. diagram or setting of the apparatus,
Experiment to illustrate that moisture and procedure, observation, precaution,
oxygen in air are responsible for the collection of the gas and identification).
corrosion. Reaction of corrosion. Simple experiment to show the density of the
Prevention by painting and galvanization. gas (Hydrogen Chloride) –heavier than
air.
(vii)Metals and their alloys: common ores of Solubility of hydrogen chloride (fountain
iron, aluminium and zinc. Extraction of experiment); (setting of the apparatus,
Aluminium. procedure, observation, inference) – method
of preparation of hydrochloric acid by
Metals and their alloys: Occurrence of dissolving the gas in water- the special
metals in nature - mineral and ore. arrangement and the mechanism by which
Common ores of iron, aluminium and zinc. the back suction is avoided should be learnt.
Dressing of the ore – hydrolytic method,
Reaction with ammonia
magnetic separation, froth flotation method,
chemical method by using chemical - NaOH Acidic properties of its solution - (reaction
for purifying bauxite – Baeyer’s Process. with metals, their oxides, hydroxides and
carbonates to give their chlorides;
Extraction of Aluminium: the constituents in decomposition of carbonates, hydrogen
the charge, method of electrolytic extraction carbonates, sulphides, sulphites,
(flow chart to be used); structure of thiosulphates and nitrates).
electrolytic cell and reason for using
cryolite, electrolyte, electrodes,, electrode  Ammonia
reaction.
(i) Ammonia: its laboratory preparation
from ammonium chloride and
104
collection; ammonia from nitrides (ii) The catalytic oxidation of ammonia, as
like Mg3N2 and AlN and ammonium the source of nitric acid; (refer to
salts. Manufacture by Haber’s Process; Ostwald process) simple diagram for a
density and solubility of ammonia catalytic oxidation of ammonia in the
(fountain experiment); aqueous solution laboratory (with conditions and
of ammonia; its reactions with hydrogen reactions only).
chloride and with hot copper (II) oxide
Self-explanatory.
and chlorine; the burning of ammonia in
oxygen; uses of ammonia.
 Nitric Acid
Laboratory preparation from
ammonium chloride and collection Nitric Acid: one laboratory method of
(the preparation can be studied in terms preparation of nitric acid from potassium
of, setting of the apparatus and nitrate or sodium nitrate. Nitric acid as an
diagram, procedure, observation, oxidizing agent.
collection and identification). Nitric Acid: Laboratory method of
Manufacture of ammonia on a large preparation of nitric acid from
scale - reference should be made to potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate; the
Haber Process for the manufacture of laboratory method can be studied in
ammonia. terms of reactant, product, condition,
equation, setting, diagram, precaution,
Ammonia from nitrides like Mg3N2 and collection, identification.
AlN and ammonium salts; the reactions
can be studied in terms of reactant, As an oxidising agent: its reaction with
product, condition, equation. copper, carbon, sulphur.
Density and solubility of ammonia  Sulphuric Acid
(fountain experiment); the property can
Sulphuric Acid: its behaviour as an acid
be learnt in terms of setting of the
when dilute, as an oxidizing agent when
apparatus, procedure and observation
concentrated - oxidation of carbon and
and inference.
sulphur; as a dehydrating agent -
Aqueous solution of ammonia - reaction dehydration of sugar and copper (II)
with sulphuric acid, nitric acid, sulphate crystals; its non-volatile nature.
hydrochloric acid and solutions of
iron(III) chloride, iron(II) sulphate, Manufacture by Contact process (reference
lead nitrate, zinc nitrate and copper only). Detail of the process to be avoided.
sulphate. Its behaviour as an acid when dilute -
Its reaction with: hydrogen chloride, reaction with metal, metal oxide, metal
hot copper (II) oxide, with chlorine in hydroxide, metal carbonate, metal
excess and ammonia in excess, burning bicarbonate, metal sulphite, metal
of ammonia in oxygen; all these sulphide.
reactions may be studied in terms of Concentrated sulphuric acid as an oxidizing
reactants, products, condition, equation agent - the oxidation of carbon and sulphur.
and observation; reference should be
made to preparation of nitrogen from Concentrated sulphuric acid as a
air and from ammonium nitrite. dehydrating agent- (a) the dehydration of
sugar (b) Copper(II) sulphate crystals.
Uses of ammonia - manufacture of
fertilizers, explosives, nitric acid, Non-volatile nature of sulphuric acid -
refrigerant gas (Chlorofluro carbon – reaction with sodium or potassium chloride
and its suitable alternatives which are and sodium or potassium nitrate.
non-ozone depleting), cleansing agents,
source of hydrogen.
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8. Organic Chemistry Cl, Br and I; structural formulae of
(i) Introduction to Organic compounds. hydrocarbons. Structural formula must be
given for: alkanes (up to butane), alkene
Unique nature of Carbon atom – tetra
(C2H4); alkynes (C2H2). Uses of methane,
valency, catenation, formation of single,
ethane, ethene, acetylene.
double and triple bonds, straight chain,
branched chain and cyclic compounds. (vi) Alcohols: ethanol – preparation, properties
and uses.
(ii) Structure and Isomerism.
Preparation of ethanol:
Structure of compounds with single, double
and triple bonds; Isomerism – structural  hydration of ethene;
(chain, position)  by hydrolysis of alkyl halide;
(iii) Homologous series – characteristics with  Properties – Physical: Nature, Solubility,
examples. Density, Boiling Points. Chemical:
Alkane, alkene, alkyne series and their Combustion, Oxidation with acidified
gradation in properties and the relationship Potassium dichromate, action with
with the molecular mass or molecular sodium, ester formation with acetic acid,
formula. dehydration with conc. Sulphuric acid
with reference to Ethanol.
(iv) Simple nomenclature.
 Denatured alcohol:
Simple nomenclature - of the hydrocarbons
with simple functional groups – (double  Important uses of Ethanol.
bond, triple bond, alcoholic, ether, (vii) Carboxylic acids (aliphatic - mono
aldehydic, keto, carboxylic group) longest carboxylic acid): Acetic acid – preparation,
chain rule and smallest number for properties and uses of acetic acid.
functional groups rule – trivial and IUPAC
names. Preparation of acetic acid from Ethyl
alcohol.
(v) Hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes.
Properties of Acetic Acid: Physical
Alkanes - general formula; methane (green
properties – odour (vinegar), glacial acetic
house gas) and ethane - methods of
acid (effect of sufficient cooling to produce
preparation from sodium ethanoate (sodium
ice like crystals). Chemical properties –
acetate), sodium propanoate (sodium
action with litmus, alkalis and alcohol (idea
propionate), from iodomethane (methyl
of esterification).
iodide) and bromoethane (ethyl bromide).
Oxidation of methane and ethane in Uses of acetic acid.
presence of oxygen under suitable
INTERNAL ASSESSMENT OF
conditions, reaction of methane and ethane
with chlorine through substitution. PRACTICAL WORK

Alkenes – (unsaturated hydrocarbons with a Candidates will be asked to observe the effect of
double bond); ethene as an example. reagents and/or of heat on substances supplied to
Methods of preparation of ethene by them. The exercises will be simple and may include
dehydro halogenation reaction and the recognition and identification of certain gases
dehydration reactions. and ions listed below. The examiners will not,
Alkynes -(unsaturated hydrocarbons with a however, be restricted in their choice to substances
triple bond); ethyne as an example containing the listed ions.
of alkyne; Methods of preparation Gases: Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide,
from calcium carbide and 1,2 Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Sulphur dioxide,
dibromoethane ethylene dibromide). Only Hydrogen sulphide, Ammonia, Water vapour,
main properties, particularly addition Nitrogen dioxide.
products with hydrogen and halogen namely
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Ions: Calcium, Copper, Iron, Lead, Zinc and 4. Use of pH in soil analysis, water analysis,
Ammonium, Carbonate, Chloride, Nitrate, Sulphide, medical field – simple identification with
Sulphite and Sulphate. universal indicator.
Knowledge of a formal scheme of analysis is not EVALUATION
required. Semi-micro techniques are acceptable but
The assignments/project work are to be evaluated by
candidates using such techniques may need to adapt
the subject teacher and by an External Examiner.
the instructions given to suit the size of the
apparatus being used. (The External Examiner may be a teacher
nominated by the Head of the school, who could be
Candidates are expected to have completed the from the faculty, but not teaching the subject in
following minimum practical work:
the section/class. For example, a teacher of
1. Make a solution of the unknown substance: add Chemistry of Class VIII may be deputed to be an
sodium hydroxide solution or ammonium External Examiner for Class X Chemistry projects.)
hydroxide solution, make observations and give
your deduction. Warming the mixture may be The Internal Examiner and the External Examiner
needed. Choose from substances containing will assess the assignments independently.
Ca2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Pb2+, Zn2+, NH4+.
2. Supply a solution of a dilute acid and alkali. Award of marks (20 Marks)
Determine which is acidic and which is basic, Subject Teacher (Internal Examiner) 10 marks
giving two tests for each.
External Examiner 10 marks
3. Add concentrated hydrochloric acid to each of
the given substances, warm, make observations, The total marks obtained out of 20 are to be sent to
identify any product and make deductions: the Council by the Head of the school.
(a) copper oxide (b) manganese dioxide. The Head of the school will be responsible for the
entry of marks on the mark sheets provided by the
Council.

NOTE: According to the recommendation of International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC),
the groups are numbered from 1 to 18 replacing the older notation of groups IA ….. VIIA, VIII, IB …… VIIB
and 0. However, for the examination both notations will be accepted.
Old IA IIA IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIII IB IIB IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 0
notation
New 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
notation

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