Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 163



Best Practices In



Animal Husbandry


1. Jalkund : East Sikkim District, Sikkim 4

2. Innovative Irrigation : Jhabua District, Madhya Pradesh 5
3. Exotic Vegetable Cultivation : Lucknow, UP 5
4. Vegetable Cultivation : Bangalore Rural District, Karnataka 6
5. Maize Technology : West Tripura District, Tripura 7
6. Maize Technology : Dehradun District, Uttarakhand 8
7. Maize De-Husker cum Sheller, Bhubaneshwar, Orissa 8
8. New Soyabean Variety : Ujjain District, Madhya Pradesh 9
9. Integrated Organic Farming, Sikkim 10
10. Village Adoption for Farm Technology Management: 11
Banda District, Uttar Pradesh
11. Regional Horticulture Promotion Project, Darjeeling 12
12. Livestock Based Farming : Barbanki District, Uttar Pradesh 13
13. Quality Seedling Production : Banglore, Karnataka 14
14. Seed Society : Jhabua District, Madhya Pradesh 15
15. Farmers Field School : District Ranchi, Jharkhand 16
16. Agro-forestry : District Tikamgarh, Madhya Pradesh 17
17. Green Fodder : Dharwad District, Karnataka 18
18. Hydroponics : Pernem Taluk, Goa 19
19. Agro-Processing : Ujjain District, Madhya Pradesh 20
20. Organic Agro-processing Centre, Nimkhed Bazaar, 21
Tal. Anjangaon Surji, Amravati, Maharashtra
21. Hand Operated Winnower, Ribhoi District, Meghalaya 21
22. Post-Harvest Management of Custard Apple, 22
Udaipur District, Rajasthan
23. Custard Apple Pulp Extraction Technology : 22
Udaipur District, Rajasthan
24. Tamarind Processing : Bastar District, Chhatisgarh 23
25. Aloe vera Processing : Udaipur District, Rajasthan 24
26. Farmer Friendly Fruit Fly Trap , Karnataka 25
27. Conservation of Indigenous Agro-Biodiversity, Karnataka 26
28. Genetic Diversification of Pearl Millet (Bajra) 27
29. Cotton Seed Delinting Plant, Mahabeej, 28
Shivani, Akola District, Maharashtra
30. Yantradoot – Farm Mechanization Initiative : 28
Madhya Pradesh
31. SMS Based Service, Gujarat, Karnataka 30
32. Digital Green 31


1. Aquaculture technology : South 24 Paragana District, West Bengal 32

2. Livelihood through Ornamental Fish Culture : 33
Chitradurga District Karnataka
3. Backyard Freshwater Prawn Hatchery : Village Atholi, 34
Kozhikode District, Kerala
4. Backyard Poultry : Singhbhum District, Jharkhand 34
5. Livelihood through Poultry – Kadaknath Variety : 35
Jhabua District, Madhya Pradesh
6. Backyard Poultry of Vanaraja Breed : Arunachal Pradesh 36
7. Athulya Layer Chickens : Namakkal District Tamilnadu 37
8. Livelihood for Women through Broiler Goat Rearing : 38
Kozhikode District, Kerala
9. Commercial Goat Farming : Dhar District, Madhya Pradesh 40
10. Scientific Goat Rearing : Deogarh District, Jharkhand 41
11. Ornamental Bird Rearing : Sunderban West Bengal 42
12. Project Nandini, Orissa 43
13. Doodh Ganga, Government of India 44
14. SUMUL (Surat Milk Union Ltd), Gujarat 45

1 Jalkund : Gokul Rai, Village Nandok, East Sikkim District, Sikkim

Mr. Gokul Rai was cultivating maize in Kharif season and farming returns were nominal. To
overcome the water shortage and harvest rain water, Jalkund with capacity of 40 cubic meter (size
: 5 m x 4 m x 2 m) was constructed. Runoff water from the village streams was harvested. Water
was used in rabbi season to cultivate organic cabbage cauliflower, broccoli. Micro-irrigation
system (sprinkler and drip) was used to use water judiciously. Income increased from Rs. 16500/-
to Rs. 82250/- from 0.45 Ha of land.

(Source: Krishi Vigyan Kendra, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Sikkim Centre, East
Sikkim, Ranipool)

2 Innovative Irrigation : Ramesh Baria, Rotla Village, Jhabua District, Madhya Pradesh

In tribal dominated Jhabua district, agriculture is rainfed and crop productivity is low. Hence
income from agriculture is also low. Mr. Baria from Rotla village used innovative idea. He cultivated
vegetable crops like bitter gourd, sponge gourd in summer. To overcome the water shortage,
waste glucose bottles (6 Kg. – 350 bottles) were purchased from the hospital and used to supply
water drip by drip. Bottles were purchased @ Rs. 20/Kg. Children helped Mr. Ramesh in filling the
bottles. Net profit earned was Rs. 15,200/- from 0.1 hectare of land. Thus it is possible to earn
higher profit margins. Mr. Ramesh was felicitated by the State Government.

(Source: Director Research, Rajmata Vijyaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior)


3 Exotic Vegetable Cultivation : Ramesh Verma, Village Kasimpur Biruha, Lucknow, UP

Mr. Verma marginal from lucknow district was practicing traditional agriculture which gave him
limited returns. Innovative Mr. Verma cultivated exotic vegetables like broccoli, parsley, red
cabbage, china cabbage, cherry tomatoes etc. Assistance was provided by the KVK, Lucknow.
Produce was sold to multinational retailers and hotels. Mr. Verma spent Rs. 26400/- on cultivating
these vegetables and earned net returns of Rs. 3.36 lakhs. Thus the net profit earned was 3.1 lakh
rupees from 0.5 hectares of land. Benefit – cost ratio (BCR) was 1:11.75
(Source: Krishi Vigyan Kendra, ICAR-IISR, Lucknow)


4 Vegetable Cultivation : Bangalore Rural District, Karnataka

Smt. Chenamma from village Antarahalli has shifted her focus from cultivating traditional crops
like ragi, jowar and sunflower to vegetables. Because of the limited production, income from
traditional crops was low. She started cultivating French Beans, Tomato, Peas, Radish, Brinjal, Chilli
and green leafy vegetables on her farm. For enrichment of soil, she started using both bio-fertilizer
(Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB), Azospirillum and Azotobacter) and bio-pesticides
(Pseudomonas fluoresces, Paecilomyces lilacinus & Pochonia chlamydospria). Yield for French
beans ranged from 16.5-17.4 tonn/Ha. And she got market price of Rs. 10/- per Kg. Because of the
quality, traders started coming in to her farm to purchase yield.

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore

(Source: NAIP Sub-Project on Mass Media Mobilization, DKMA with inputs from IIHR, Bangalore)


5 Maize Technology : Umendra Debbarma, West Tripura District, Tripura

Traditional variety of maize had low productivity and earnings were Rs. 24,000/- per Hectare. The
Benefit-cost ratio was around 1.28. Mr. Debbarma from village Madhya Ghaniamar cultivated
hybrid variety of maize (Disha 3502) with support from KVK West Tripura. Maize yield was 4.5 tonn
/Ha. He sold maize in the market which featched him rate of Rs. 20/- per Kg. Mr. Debbarma spent
around Rs. 31000/- on land preparation, input cost and labour etc. The net profit earned due to
new maize technology was Rs. 59,000/ Ha. Benefit Cost ratio increased from 1.28 to 2.9.

(Source: KVK, West Tripura)

6 Maize Technology : Chakrata & Kalsi Block, Dehradun District, Uttarakhand

In hilly parts of Dehradun district, maize is cultivated on 45% of land. However productivity is low
(976 Kg./Ha) as compared to the plains (1879 Kg./Ha). To increase the productivity, Vivek Maize
Hybrid 45 variety was developed for hilly regions of Uttarakhand. Compared to traditional varieties,
this variety is an early maturing (85-90 days), plant height is about 200-205 cm. and bears long
cylindrical cobs with good husk cover. It is high yielding variety (50-55 quintals/Ha) and could be
used as green fodder after harvesting of cobs. Variety is tolerant to Turicicum and Maydis leaf
blight. Farmers are happy with the new variety as the yield doubled, less damage due to high
winds and fodder for cattle.

AGENCY : ICAR-Vivekanand Parvatiya Krushi Anusandhan Sanstha, Almora


7 Maize De-Husker cum Sheller, Bhubaneshwar, Orissa

Post harvest activities like dehusking and shelling for maize crop are predominantly done by
women manually. To reduce the drudgeries, maize de-husker cum sheller has been developed.
The machine is operated by two persons and requires feeding of cobs one by one. Output of hand
operated machine is 89.6 Kg. grain/hour for men (at 57 rpm) and 63.4 Kg. grain / hour for women
(at 52 rpm). Drudgery reduction was 49% for dehusking and shelling with hand. It could also be
operated on 370W single phase electric motor. DRWA dehusker-cum-sheller has brought much
needed relief to women involved in the activity.
(Source: Directorate of Research on Women in Agriculture,(DRWA), Bhubaneswar)


8 New Soyabean Variety : Ujjain District, Madhya Pradesh

New soya variety – JS 95-60 was introduced in the district by KVK, Ujjain. The crop is produced in
short duration, productivity is high and farmers get good returns. In Ujjain cluster, the average
gross returns were Rs. 28000/- per Ha. and average net profit of Rs. 19500/- per Ha in Farmers
Practices. The average Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) came out to be 3.03. Increased income from
soyabean resulted in change in the lifestyle. The benefits of new soyabean variety cultivation were
– reduction in migration, improvement in purchasing power, purchase of farm equipments and

(Source: KVK, Ujjain)


9 Integrated Organic Farming, Sikkim

Improved varieties of rice and maize were cultivated during rainy season. During rabi and summer
seasons vegetables like broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, radish, tomato, coriander, spinach were
cultivated sequentially under low cost plastic tunnels (polyhouse). Fodder grass was also cultivated.
For providing water, Jalkund having dimensions of 5 m x 4 m x 1.5 m (capacity of 30000 liters) was
constructed using agri-polythene sheet (250 gsm). Backyard poultry (Vanaraja variety) and fishery
supported the agriculture. Jersey crossbred cow was reared for milk.

Mr. Lepcha earns gross income of Rs. 4,15,050/- [(rice cultivation (0.25 ha) = Rs. 8,000; maize
cultivation as green cob and grains (0.25 ha) = Rs. 9,500; sequential vegetable production
(seasons/year) under plastic tunnel (0.05 ha) = Rs. 1,50,000; Rabi vegetables (zero till cultivation of
garden pea and cole crops in 0.15 ha) = Rs. 12,500; large cardamom production (0.25 ha) = Rs.
45,000; milk production (2,880 l/year) = Rs. 75,800; backyard poultry (Vanaraja 100 nos.) = Rs.
63,750; fisheries (500 nos. Grass carp and Common carp) = Rs. 50,500] as compared to Rs.1,65,000
under traditional farming system. An expenditure of Rs. 89,750/- was incurred (excluding farming
family energy input i.e., labour cost) for maintaining the integrated organic farming system. The
benefit- Cost Ratio for this integrated farming is 4.6.

Krishi Vigyan Kendra, ICAR Sikkim Centre, Ranipool, East Sikkim


10 Village Adoption for Farm Technology Management: Banda District, Uttar Pradesh
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Banda adopted Para Banno Begum village under Baberu block of
Banda district. KVK initiated several measures that changed the agriculture scenario of the village.
The initiatives were –

Til cultivation: Til variety Gujarat Til-2 giving a yield of 11 quintals / hectare and a profit of Rs
58300/- per hectare, was cultivated til cultivation which used to be taken only on 20 acre in 2008
increased to 200 acre in 2010.

Increase in area under Paddy: Water management techniques demonstrated by the KVK were a
great hit and there was a marked increase in irrigation through private tube-wells. Inspired by the
technological management, farmers shifted to large-scale cultivation of paddy variety CSR-30
giving a yield of 26.75 quintals per hectare.

Vegetable cultivation: By spending a sum of Rs. 10000/- for cultivation of chilly and brinjal, a
profit of Rs.40000/- was earned by the farmers. Cultivation of brinjal alone gave a return of
Rs.45000/- per bigha for an investment of only Rs.5000/-.

These interventions resulted in reduction in migration as well as increase in income.

(Source: Dr. G. C. Tewari, Vice Chancellor, CS Azad University of Agriculture and Technology,

11 Regional Horticulture Promotion Project, Darjeeling

Lack of systematic farming methods and a plethora of products from nearby cities has
detrimentally affected the lives of Kalimpong farmers. To address this issue, Dr. Graham’s Homes
in association with Miyazaki International Volunteer Centre (MIVC) - a Japanese NGO, with support
from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), started the Regional Horticulture
Promotion Project (RHPP) in 2009.

Under the RHPP, farmers from 20 villages in the district of Darjeeling are given training on methods
like soil cooking, germination, construction of low cost greenhouses, pest management, tissue
culture and food processing techniques. They are also given practical knowledge of cultivating
Japanese rice, Chinese cabbage, broccoli, statice, sweet pea, globe amaranth etc..

These new techniques support off-season production and have increased the yield and income of
farmers. They have become self-sufficient. A farmer’s co-operative with a self-help marketing
system for mass production is underway.

Agencies –

Miyazaki International Volunteer Centre (MIVC)

Uttar Bang Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya (UBKV)

12 Livestock Based Farming : Barbanki District, Uttar Pradesh

Ram Kumar Singh marginal farmer from village Dowdpur, Trivediganj block has changed his life
through the NAIP programme.

Before Intervention : He was having 7 bovines with average milk production per day 15 lit. ( range
7-30 lit), growing vegetables for own consumption equivalent to Rs.2500/- per annum and 0.6
hectare of land for wheat and paddy cycle fetching nearly Rs. 20000/- per annum for family
consumption as well as selling for other household needs, inputs etc. His total estimated annual
income was approximately Rs. 40000/-

After : In July, 2009, the NAIP-3 (ICAR) project intervention came to his rescue. The cereal
production increased by 20-30% due to integrated approach. He sold off-season vegetables
fetching Rs. 39400/- and fruits Rs. 8225/-. He started rural poultry production and sold worth Rs.
18800/- and apiculture unit produced honey of Rs. 4200/-. He is producing in-situ vermicompost
for use in his own field as well as selling, biopesticides, biofertilizers, biodynamic preparations. He
is taking 40 lit milk per day which fluctuated between 10-50 lit. /day. He has transplanted high
yielding perennial fodder in 0.2 ha (CO-3 variety). He has renovated animal shed by investing Rs.
12000/- and his house by Rs. 18000/-. He also started one goat unit of Sirohi breed and local
goats. He reported that his annual income is around Rs. 1.5 lakhs and by end of 2011 likely to cross
Rs. 2.50 lakhs and has sustainable livelihood.

(Source :R.B.Rai Consortium P.I. email: drrbrai@yahoo.co.in )

13 Quality Seedling Production : Banglore, Karnataka

Quality seedlings are the key to good crop production. Mr. Prakash from Banglore initiated
seedling production with assistance from Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR)
Bangalore. He constructed structure of size 9’ x 30 ‘ using shade nets, and started vegetable
seedling production in coco-peats. Seeing the success, Mr. Prakash expanded the activity on his
2.5 acres of land. He used machineries like media siever and hand operated portray dibbler. He
developed his own pot mixture using coco-peat, neem-cake and tricho-rich. Mr Prakash has used
innovative method to protect the seedling during rains in the net house which is simple, cheap
and easy to use.

Mr. Prakash grows seedlings of tomato, cabbage, cauliflower, brinjal, capsicum, chilli, knoll-khol,
ridge gourd, cucumber and other vegetables He has increased the capacity of the nursery which
today produces 40 lakh seedlings per annum; with a monthly profit of over Rs 1,00,000/- .

(Source :NAIP Mass Media Sub-Project on Mass Media Mobilization, DKMA with inputs from
IIHR, Bangalore)

14 Seed Society : Jhabua District, Madhya Pradesh

Increased agricultural production through crop diversification and related technologies

enhanced livelihood opportunities for tribal farmers in Jhabua district of Madhya Pradesh.
However, scarcity of quality seeds, high seed price and middle men in seed supply were the
major challenges. Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) Jhabua implemented concept of seed societies.
Four societies, comprising 21 tribal farmers each were formed. They were provided training on –
formation and management of societies, seed production, technologies and seed standards.

Seed societies are engaged in seed production, processing, and storage as well as for seed
quality assurance. They are marketing the seed produced to both farmers in the community and
beyond. The benefits of this initiative are – high quality seed is available at the right time and
place, seed production facilities have been strengthened in the area. Farmers have become

These societies have produced around 307.2 tonnes of quality seeds in last two years from a
sown area of 6223ha in six crops. In the last two years, the societies registered under NAIP
project have generated business worth of Rs. 63.87 lakhs. On an average, farmers are getting a
profit of Rs 33034/ha/year from production and marketing of quality seeds. The success of these
four societies have inspired many neighbouring villages and districts. In Dhar district, 21 societies
have started offering good quality seeds to tribal farmers.

(Source: Director Research and NAIP team, Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya,

15 Farmers Field School : District Ranchi, Jharkhand

The Farmers Field School has been set up by Shri. Chedua Bedia along with some other farmers
in the area and is supported by SPWD, an NGO that promotes the concept of Sustainable
Integrated Farming Systems (SIFS) for small and marginal farmers. The school began with a focus
on single crops such as paddy, groundnut etc., but as the group matured it moved on to
integrating the various components of agriculture.

The school are run throughout the cropping season. The curriculum of the school was designed
taking into consideration various aspects of farming and to equip farmers with the knowledge
needed to develop their SIFS farms. Farmers receive training on how to manage crops, waste and
pests. Meaningful discussions are held in the farms on crop growth, climate, soil conditions and
constraints to crop production. Based on these observations, farmers make informed decisions to
increase yields and improve the soil fertility of their fields.

Now many such schools have come up in the Ranchi District. These schools serve as the training
ground for new farmers. The y are run by lead farmers under a facilitator and a master trainer. This
form of class has helped the farmers gain confidence. They also discuss among themselves, raise
questions, and attempt to find solutions by visiting the field. Leaders and farmer-trainers of the
Schools are provided training at regular intervals.

16 Agro-forestry : Dhani Ram, Village Ubaro, District Tikamgarh, Madhya Pradesh

Dhani Ram owns 4 acres of land. Because of traditional agriculture practices and continuos
droughts he could barely meet his expenses. Dhani participated in the programme initiated by
NRC for Agro forestry. He was able to get 50% more production for groundnut. Guava and citrus
(lemon) saplings were planted at a distance of 6 x 8 m each. Wheat and groundnut were cultivated
as intercrops. Amla plants were cultivated on the boundary. Vegetables like brinjal, chilli, bottle
gourd, bitter gourd were sown during rabbi season. Dhani Ram also cultivated fodder crops.
Organic manures were used. His family is engaged in agriculture activities for whole year. His
income has trebled and he is earning Rs. 50000/- per year from his land.

(Source: NAIP sub project on Mass Media Mobilization, DIPA base on inputs from Dr. S. K.
Dhyani, Director, National Research Centre for Agroforestry, Jhansi )

17 Green Fodder : Dharwad District, Karnataka

Mr. Shrishail from Hiremalligawada village in Dharwad district decided to start dairy farm. He was
purchasing the dry fodder of Rs. 1.4 lakhs every year. To reduce the costs he decided to cultivate
fodder on his farm land. Considering the shortage of labour in the area, he decided to cultivate
high yielding perennial fodder crops. Bajra Napier hybrids and Guinea grass. In first year, on
average he obtained 2.0-2.5 quintals of green fodder every day to feed his 27 cattle. He expanded
the fodder are to 6 acres from which he gets 6 quintal fodder per day. Mr. Shrishail started with
the 18 buffalos and now he has 40 animals.

Sharing his experiences Shrishail said, “I am now getting 120 liters of milk a day which is sold at
the rate of Rs. 35/- per liter. My expenditure on feed concentrate has gone down considerably
after I started feeding green fodder. And 20-30% of extra milk yield is solely due to the use of
green fodder. Because of the availability of green fodder round the year I am planning to further
increase my herd size.”

(Source: IGFRI, Jhansi)


18 Hydroponics : Mr. Suryakant Gawade, Mandrem Village, Pernem Taluk, Goa

Goa state produces only one third of its daily milk requirement while remaining milk comes
from other states. The major issue with dairy farming in Goa is non-availability of feeds and
fodders. Small land holding size, soil salinity, high cost of fencing and labour charges are the
other reasons for low milk production.

Under the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojna (RKVY), 11 hydroponics green fodder production units
have been established. Each unit has production potential of 600 kg green fodder daily in
seven days. Mr. Gawde has one such unit. On daily feeding of 10 kg hydroponics fodder
maize per cow, he saved 1.0 kg concentrate mixture per cow and experienced enhancement
of 1.0 litre milk per cow per day, which was equivalent to 12.5% of the milk production.

The young calves fed with 1-2 kg hydroponics fodder gained higher body weight (350g Vs
200g) with better skin coat. By spending Rs.40 on hydroponics green fodder he saves Rs. 20
on concentrate mixture and additionally earns Rs. 30 on enhanced milk production per cow
per day. Along with the additional net profit of Rs.10 per cow per day, the animals remain

(Source: ICAR Research Complex for Goa, Old Goa)

19 Agro-Processing : Ujjain District, Madhya Pradesh

Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ujjain introduced hybrid varieties of tomato trained farmers in management
of nursery, integrated nutrient and pest management etc. It helped in increasing the tomato
production from 150 Quintal per Ha. to 250-325 quintals per Ha. Area under tomato cultivation
has gone upto 3500 Hectare. To overcome the market rate fluctuations KVK decided to train
women SHGs for processing. Two groups were trained in preparing tomato ketchup. Tomatoes
were procured from local market and processed into ketchup which has good shelf life. At present,
both the groups are capable of producing 2000 to 2500 kg of finished products. With market
support the groups are planning to install a small processing unit with financial assistance from
Bank of India

(Source: KVK, Ujjain)

20 Organic Agro-processing Centre, Nimkhed Bazaar, Tal. Anjangaon Surji, Amravati,

About 280 framers from Vidarbha region have started cultivating organic crops on 4000 acres of
land. To process the organic crops Agro-processing centre has been developed. It includes Mini
Daal Mill, Cleaner, Grader, Destoner, Mini Oil Mill and Papad making machine. The group has
started selling organic products in local and foreign market and are earning 10-25% more
revenues as compared to the normal products.


21 Hand Operated Winnower, Ribhoi District, Meghalaya

Rice is the main crop in the north-east as well as many parts of India. Traditional winnowing
method uses wind flow to separate impurities and husks from rice grain. Hand Operated Winnower
has been developed by the Agriculture Engineering Division of ICAR-RC-NEH Region. The
machine uses fan blades, chain and sprocket arrangement to enable fan operations faster with
little effort. Weighing around 29 kg, the Hand Operated Winnower comes with a fan guard to
prevent accident. This winnower has proved beneficial as rice quality improved fetching more
income to farmers. Also farmers earned extra income by hiring it to other farmers. They charge Rs.
100/- per user and earn about Rs. 3000 – 5000/- in the season.

(Source: NAIP Mass Media Project, DKMA, with input from ICAR-RC-NEH, Barapani and
Agriculture Engineering Division, ICAR)


22 Post-Harvest Management of Custard Apple, Udaipur District, Rajasthan

Tribal people were suffering losses due to improper harvesting, packaging and during
transportation of custard apples. Earlier, they used to fill 20 kg of the fruits in plastic crates without
any cushioning material and only the top surface was covered with the newspapers. Post harvest
management training was given. Now, fruits are harvested at proper maturity, are graded properly
then packed carefully using foam sheets. Records are maintained and fruits are transported to
different places in Rajasthan and Gujarat. It has resulted in increase in income. It has also helped
them in management of other minor forest produce.


23 Custard Apple Pulp Extraction Technology : Udaipur District, Rajasthan

Custard Apple is widely grown fruit crop in Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Rajasthan
states. Custard Apple pulp is used to prepare Ice cream, Rabdi and beverages. Extraction of pulp
is a major constraint in processing of custard apple fruits. Development of enzymatic browning
within an hour of pulp extraction, bitterness, unpleasant repulsive off-flavour in the pulp on
heating beyond 650C and presence of gritty cells are problems encountered during processing of
fruits. Traditional pulp extraction is non hygienic, less shelf life, poor in quality and it is done
manually so it is costly.

The pulp extraction machine has been developed which has two parts. First part scoops out the
pulp with seed from fruit leaving behind the peel (i.e. pulp extraction). The second part separates
the seed from the pulp which can be stored for up-to one year. New technology is very useful as
it reduces the cost of pulp extraction and enhances the quality of pulp and shelf life.
To harvest the benefits of this technology to the remotest users, the MPUAT has licensed the
technology of browning free mechanised pulp extraction from the Custard Apple for
commercialization to two companies in Gujarat namely Santram Ice-cream and Snacks, Anand and
Deep Fresh Frozen products, Navsari through Business Planning and Development Unit (BPDU)

(Source: NAIP-Mass Media Project, DKMA with inputs from Department of Horticulture, MPUAT,
Udaipur and DMAPR, Anand)


24 Tamarind Processing : Bastar District, Chhatisgarh

Tribal people from Bastar region collect tamarind. However they were earning meager income as
the traders earned all the profit. The process of collection, procurement, and processing was
assigned to different groups. Male groups procured tamarind ponds while women groups
processed it. De-hulling and de-seeding was done by the tribal families. Processed material was
packed and stored in the cold storage and was sold in the market when prices were high. Groups
earned good profits.

The matured pods were collected by the villagers and were purchased at mandi rates, which is
always Rs 1.0/- higher than the rates given by middlemen. After procurement of raw pods, male
group sold it to women group by adding Rs 1.0/- as their profit, which otherwise goes to outsider
middlemen. The women group thus acquired raw material at the cost of Rs 8.0/ kg for processing.
The raw pods were distributed to the families interested in dehulling and deseeding of tamarind.
They were paid Rs 2.0/- per kg of raw tamarind for the processing. This helped in creating
employment at village itself for a period of about 4 months. One women can process 20 kg
tamarind per day and thus earned Rs 40/- day. The processed material was returned back to the
group who packed it in 15 kg bags for marketing. It was sold at the rate of Rs 25-30/ kg of flesh
and Rs 4/kg of seeds.

On an average each family of collection group obtained Rs 8200. The procurement group earned
profit of Rs 48000 per group by sale to processing group. The two processing groups processed
1700q of tamarind and earned a profit of Rs 27000 per group. Rs 3.4 lakh were distributed to 92
families involved in processing and 4350 man days of employment was generated.

It also generated employment for tribal during February –May. Assistance has been provided to
process tamarind and prepare paste, sauce and candy.

(Source: NAIP, ICAR, New Delhi)


25 Aloe vera Processing : Village Atatiya, Udaipur District, Rajasthan

Aloevera has great medicinal as well as nutritional value. In the Aravali mountain ranges, forest
department has cultivated aloevera on thousands of acres. Tribal SHG members were trained to
extract aloevera gel using extraction machine and prepare juice, squash and beverages. Processing
unit runs for 6 months from September to February. Tribal members are earning net profit of Rs.
60/- per litre. Beverages are prepared by mixing aloe-vera juice with lemon, ginger and mint
extracts. These beverages are sold as health drinks to general public and tourists.

From November 2009 to January 2010, the group handled approximately 4 tonnes of aloe leaf and
produced 950 litres of aloe juice. The expenditure on labour, electricity, preservative (KMS), bottles,
cans, etc. has been estimated as Rs 31,000/-. As the raw material i.e. Aloe leaf is a forest produce
and managed by Van Surakshya Avam Praband Samiti, Atatiya hence no cost has been incurred
for aloe leaf. The building for housing the principal equipment and product was provided by the
Forest Department, Government of Rajasthan. Therefore, with a revenue of Rs 95,000 obtained @
Rs 100/litre against the expenditure of Rs 31,000, a net profit of Rs 64,000 was realized for the

The Aloe vera processing unit established with an investment of Rs 70,000/- is providing
employment to 8 persons per day (collection of leaf, processing, packaging and marketing). The
unit can be effectively operated from September to February i.e. 6 months in a year, while the cost
of unit could be recovered in almost three months.

(Source: sk_nanda4578@sify.com)


26 Farmer Friendly Fruit Fly Trap , Karnataka

Mango, the king of fruits, has a great export potential due to exquisite taste and flavor. But
infestation with oriental Fruit Fly (Bactocera dorsalis) has been a major impediment to mango
export which accounts for about 27% loss. A simple, eco-friendly, cost-effective trap developed by
the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessarghatta, Bangalore.

The trap works on a simple Male Annihilation Technique (MAT). The trap consists of a small plastic
container with a piece of plywood treated with methyl eugenol and dichlorovos which in hung on
the tree. This trap attracts the male fruit fly. In the absence of males, females fail to procreate and
hence the fruits are free from infestation. For one acre, six to eight traps are required. This has
facilitated export of mangoes to several countries like USA, Japan, New Zealand and Australia
which had previously banned Indian Mangoes because of fruit fly.

(Source: NAIP sub project on Mass Media Mobilization, DIPA and IIHR, Bangalore)


27 Conservation of Indigenous Agro-Biodiversity, Karnataka

The Community-based Agricultural Biodiversity Conservation Programme aims to conserve agro-

biodiversity, and build self-reliance and livelihood security for communities involved.
The debilitating effects of Green revolution-induced high yield variety seeds, chemical fertilizers
and pesticides and mechanized farming techniques have been rampant for farming communities
in India, particularly in the south. Farmers' suicides have been directly linked to their over-
dependence on the market and resulting capture in the debt trap. Farmers have been reduced to
the role of mere 'facilitators' in the processes of farming, their traditional knowledge systems
relegated to the background.
The Community-based Agricultural Biodiversity Conservation Programme initiated by the GREEN
(Genetic Resource Ecology Energy and Nutrition) Foundation in 1996, aims to help small and
marginal farmers conserve the subsistence crops for the food security.
Work started with the seed conservation, now the programme has expanded to include - organic
farming, use of bio-pesticides, bio-fertilizers and soil improvement. Along with these, maintenance
of kitchen and community gardens, vermi-compost production, organic farming certification,
organization of farmers into a federation called Janadhanya, Field Farmers' School Programme,
and income generation activities like handicrafts, also come within its purview. Women are
accorded a particularly enhanced role in the programme. A major goal of the programme is to
provide sustainability through –farmers' federations, Village Development Committees and
Community Resources Persons.
The programme currently covers 65 villages in Karnataka and has impacted nearly 4000 farmers.
It runs 14 community seed banks across the state and a gene bank that houses approximately 420
seed varieties. The impact of the programme extends far beyond this. Its partners over the years
have adopted the approach in their respective regions of operation, extending up to Bangladesh
and Nepal. The Karnataka government's Organic Farming Mission is substantially inspired by it.


28 Genetic Diversification of Pearl Millet (Bajra)

Pearl Millet is grown in drought prone areas of north India and gives food security to people.
Under hybrid development programme 60 hybrids were released resultibg in increase in grain
productivity by 20 Kg./Ha/Year.

29 Cotton Seed Delinting Plant, Mahabeej, Shivani, Akola District, Maharashtra

Pollution free cotton seed de-linting plant having capacity of 1.0 Tonn/Hour has been developed
by Maharashtra State Seeds Corporation Limited (Mahabeej). The plant is based on dry HCL gas
generation without the use of sulphuric acid and has been installed at Shivani (Akola). The new
eco-friendly technology has been dully certified by the Maharashtra Pollution Control Board. The
machines have been coated with taflan and lined with FRP for corrosion resistance. Electric power
consumption has been minimized and initial cost of installation is considerably lower than other
imported plants. The cotton linters after the de-linting process are converted into a powder which
could be further refined to pharmaceutical grade cellulose. Thus, the process of obtaining clean
cotton seed after de-linting has been made completely eco-friendly without any adverse
environmental effect.


30 Yantradoot – Farm Mechanization Initiative : Madhya Pradesh

The Yantradoot Village Scheme seeks to increase agricultural productivity in Madhya Pradesh
through dissemination of information and know-how on improved agricultural technologies
among farmers in the State.
Under the Yantradoot scheme, district level agricultural officers in Madhya Pradesh periodically
demonstrate the use of farm implements to farmers in 25 villages spread across 25 districts in the
state and make these implements available on hire by the farmers at nominal prices. As a result,
farmers in these villages are now using modern farm tools for each stage in the production of their
Such mechanization is reducing not just the drudgery faced by farmers under traditional manual
practices but is also quickening agricultural processes, saving time, costs and enhancing
agricultural productivity. With Yantradoot, each of these 25 villages are being turned into complete
models for agricultural mechanization. Such increased mechanization has resulted in a 40 percent
increase in the agricultural productivity of farmers because now their crops are being sown,
irrigated, treated and harvested adequately and on time. Farmers' income has also seen an almost
two-fold increase in the past two years that the scheme has been operational. As a result of these
outcomes, many nearby villages are being inspired to switch over to the Yantradoot model of farm
By implementing the Yantradoot scheme, the Government of Madhya Pradesh is creating access
to advanced agricultural technologies and machinery among farmers in the rural areas, increasing
the overall agricultural productivity of the state and empowering its farming community. Inspired
by the successes of the scheme, the Government of India has proposed to launch a National
Mission on Agricultural Mechanization.


31 SMS Based Service, Gujarat, Karnataka

Fasal Intuit is a free SMS-based service that connects rural farmers in Gujarat, Karnataka and
Andhra Pradesh with buyers; provides them with real-time price information to make better market
decisions and earn profit.
The majority of farmers in India have access to two or more mandis where they can go and sell
their produce. Unfortunately, these farmers do not have easy access to agriculture related
information. Most of the time they do not know prevailing whole sale market prices in their area
because of which they often end up going to a market with lower price or sell at the village level
at lower price.
To help farmers address this challenge, the Global Business Division team at Intuit conceived a
simple yet sophisticated solution in 2008 known as ‘Fasal’. It is a free SMS-based service that
connects rural farmers with buyers and provides them with real-time price information. This service
uses SMS technology available on simple mobile phones to provide real time market price
information to farmers as well as connect rural farmers (producers) with buyers in their area/Mandi
to sell their produce at best possible price. Farmers can subscribe to this service by calling the
Fasal call center 1800 102 8767.
Intuit Fasal can be termed as an innovative practice because it provides personalized, real-time
information to farmers for commodities and markets in local language; allows farmers to make
informed decisions about marketing their produce and helps them make, on average, 15% to 20%
more money for their crops and finally uses widely available SMS technology to deliver relevant
information when farmers need it.
Currently, approximately 800,000 farmers across three states use the service.

32 Digital Green

Digital Green combines technology and social organization to improve the cost-
effectiveness and broaden the community participation of existing agricultural extension
By building on existing social linkages and using technology, Digital Green seeks to
amplify the impact of agriculture extension workers who help farmers become more

Digital Green records live demonstrations of agricultural practices by experts, transmit

them to a large database and distributes them on DVDs to local organizations for
dissemination among small and marginal farmers. Digital Green uses low-cost and
portable technology viz. camcorders, TVs and Pico projectors for the production and
dissemination of videos. Videos are based on content identified by the community,
feature local farmers, are created in local dialects, and are duly checked for accuracy by
agricultural experts. These screenings are mediated by an expert to help farmers adopt
the practices as well as monitor their status after adoption.

Digital Green partners with local organizations, that are already working on agricultural
extension programmes. Currently, it is operating in 5 states and partners with 7
organizations. It has more than 1650 videos in its database and a reach over 58,000




1 Aquaculture technology South 24 Paragana District, West Bengal

Villages in Bali islands were devasted due to cyclonic storm. As a rehabilitation measure, ICAR-
CIFA gave inputs for integrated composite freshwater aquaculture. Carp hatchery unit was started
for seed production which produced 10 lakh spawn seeds. Varieties like Rohu, Katla, Mrigal and
Bata were introduced. Families were given training on aquaculture. They were able to produce fish
3.0-3.5 tonn/ Ha/Year. Income of Rs. 4.56 lakhs/ha could be achieved by selling fish @120/- per
kg. Duck rearing was also introduced. The beneficiaries were provided with feeder, drinker and
initial feed for 1 month for the ducks. Through duck-cum-fish culture 38 farm families received a
total profit of Rs. 2.8 lakh per year from 3.0 ha pond water area. This model is being replicated in
Sunderban delta.

(Source: ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Bhubaneswar)

2 Livelihood through Ornamental Fish Culture : Chitradurga District Karnataka

There is great demand for ornamental fish in local and international market. Ornamental fish
culture is an innovative technology that consumes less time, requires less investment with high
profits, besides increasing the water productivity. As part of IGA ornamental fish culture was
introduced with initial investment support from the project by constructing the cement
tank/cistern and by introducing the suitable varieties of ornamental fishes (Molly, Guppy, and
sword tail). National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP) has supported 70 such units.

Fish are sold to the aquarium shops or to Karnataka Fisheries Development Corporation at an
average rate of Rs. 8/- per fish. In local Melas, farm women/ SHG are also sell a pair of fishes in 6
or 8” bowls along with a packet of feed (25g) and a twig of ornamental aquatic plant for Rs.150/-
. The gross return per annum of Rs. 24,634/- was obtained by incurring the total cost of Rs. 14,
398/- for two cement tanks of 500 liters each besides other expenditure towards labour,
fingerlings, feed, water etc. The net benefit was of Rs. 10, 235/- per annum.

(Source: College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore-560 065)

3 Backyard Freshwater Prawn Hatchery : Village Atholi, Kozhikode District, Kerala

Mr. Manoj from Malabar started prawn hatchery in his backyard. He prepared fibre wire mesh to
prepare low cost fibre cages. Instead of PVC pipes he used empty plastic bottles to float the cages.
Cost for standard cage reduced from Rs. 3000/- to just Rs. 1000/-. Manoj started selling post larvae
prawns, he was able to sell around 5000 post-larvae prawns in the first stage. He also started
pearlspot farming in the backyard. Manoj is producing around 20000 fingerlings in each breeding
season. He is earning good profits from his enterprise.

(Source: NAIP Sub-Project of Mass Media Mobilization, DKMA with inputs from IISR)


4 Backyard Poultry : Singhbhum District, Jharkhand

Mr. Jarome Soreng initiated backyard poultry farming with two sheds measuring 200 sq. ft. each.
He purchased 100 birds of Jharsim variety which serves dual purpose. Proper housing, feeding
(kitchen and farm waste) and timely vaccination of birds led to early maturity (1.4 kg body weight
gain in 3 months) in birds, first egg lay (at 22 weeks of age). He could sell 28 cocks @ Rs. 400/-
per bird after 4 months of age. He managed to get about 5000 eggs from remaining 50 hens and
sold each egg at the rate of Rs 7/- per egg. After year, he replaced the birds stock by selling each
bird for Rs 250/-. Gross income through first batch of 100 birds fetched him Rs. 60,000/- in one
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, East Singhbhum

(Source: ICAR- AICRP on Poultry Breeding, Ranchi Center)


5 Livelihood through Poultry – Kadaknath Variety : Jhabua District, Madhya Pradesh

Kadaknath is native to Jhabua district of Madhya Pradesh. Kadaknath is famous for its black meat
which is known for its meat quality, texture and flavour. There is belief that this species has
medicinal value. This variety is mainly reared by the tribal people in Jhabua and Dhar districts. It
was observed that the population of this bird is declining rapidly and it is under threat of
extinction and genetic erosion. High market demand, existence of backyard poultry system of its
rearing, slow growth on natural feeding (186 days sexual maturity) and more than 50 % mortality
before maturity are major factors which affect the survival, growth and productivity of this breed.

To overcome the hurdles, interventions were planned. Ten farmers were given one hundred poultry
chicks of ten days old to each beneficiary. The farmers were advocated on technologies for
scientific poultry production, balance feeding, handling of feeder and drinkers, health
management and marketing. Timely vaccination was also carried out for the control of ranikhet
(F1/B1, lasota and R2B) and gumboro diseases. Deworming was performed at 55 days age. The
beneficiaries have been trained in managing the production of Kadaknath in better way. They are
using low cost poultry feed comprising of grain, bran, cake calcite, salt, minerals and vitamins etc.

As a result of scientific interventions, mortality rate reduced from 50% to 10-12%; birds attained
weight of 1.10 kg. in 105-120 days. Farmers earned @ Rs. 300-350/ kg. body weight. The net profit
of each beneficiary was Rs. 90000/- per year.

The initiative has resulted in stopping of out-migration for the tribal people in Jhabua and Dhar

(Source:Directorate of Research Services, Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya,

Gwalior. Email: drsrvskvv@rediffmail.com)


6 Backyard Poultry of Vanaraja Breed : Arunachal Pradesh

Lower Dibang Valley district of Arunchal Pradesh is predominantly tribal and follow non-vegetarian
dietary pattern. Hence there is great demand for poultry meat and eggs. Realizing the need Krishi
Vigyan Kendra, Lower Dibang Valley initiated programme on poultry development.

Twenty farmers from 10 villages of the district were selected and imparted skill based training on
various aspects of backyard poultry farming. They were provided with 10 fertile eggs of Vanaraja
per person free of cost. Eggs were procured from Poultry Division (AICRP), Veterinary College,
Khanapara, Assam Agriculture University, Guwahati.

Three progressive farmers started this enterprise on commercial scale. They produced 6,000 fertile
eggs and distributed among these 25 fellow farmers. Now, 50 farmers are practicing this less
capital intensive and sustainable economic returns and livelihood oriented enterprise in the
district. The venture has successfully generated average income of Rs. 60,000 from eggs and Rs.
52,500 from meat. Local non-descript birds were upgraded due to crossbreeding of improved

Benefits for the farmers are many – faster growth of birds more number of bigger sized eggs
thrives well under low input system, resistance to most of the diseases, and requires small space,
minimum labour force and investment.
(Source: KVK, Lower Dibang Valley, Arunachal Pradesh)


7 Athulya Layer Chickens : Namakkal District Tamilnadu

Mrs. Manimaran poultry farmer from Namakkal district, Tamil Nadu, was raising layer (egg layers)
chickens purchased from the market and had to contend with the poor income realized from the
farm. She interacted with the scientists of All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) Unit on
Poultry Breeding under Indian Council of Agricultural Research at Mannuthy, Kerala. She came to
know about the high producing heat tolerant Athulya strain (ILM-90) of layer chicken developed
for high egg production with desirable egg weight.

Mrs. Manimaran purchased 2,800 Athulya day-old chicks from Mannuthy centre and initiated
rearing under the supervision of scientists of AICRP. She reared the chicks in deep litter house and
experienced lower chick and grower mortality compared to other strains of birds. At 16 weeks of
age, pullets were shifted to layer cages. The birds started laying during 16th week of age. Mrs.
Manimaran realized 5%, 50% and 90% production on 130th, 149th and 208th days of age,
respectively. Egg weights were 50.6 g, 53.8 g and 57.5 g, respectively.

Mrs. Manimaran received premium price (Rs. 4-5 more per 100 eggs) for the larger eggs laid by
the hens even from the early laying period itself. The mortality was also low during the laying
period. In one full production cycle (up to 72 weeks of age) she obtained about 303 eggs per bird.
Higher body weight also fetched her higher price for culled birds. She also noticed that the
chickens were heat tolerant during the summer months.

Mrs. Manimaran has earned a profit of approximately Rs.2,92,100/- from 2,800 of Athulya chickens.
She spent Rs. 18,24,800/- on feed, Rs 56,000/- for purchase of chicks, Rs. 54,000/- for labour and
Rs. 18,200/- as miscellaneous expenses. She realized a revenue of Rs. 20,77,920/- from sale of
eggs, Rs. 1,48,200/- from sale of spent hens, Rs. 2,600/- from manure and Rs. 16,380/- from sale
of empty feed gunny bags.

(Source: Animal Science Divison, ICAR)


8 Livelihood for Women through Broiler Goat Rearing : Kozhikode District, Kerala

Traditional goat rearing is on decline because of shrinking of pasture lands and lack of green
fodder. On this background, ‘Broiler Goat Rearing’ developed by Peruvannamuzhi Krishi Vigyan
Kendra is proving boon to the farming communities especially in the area where green fodder is

Under this method, 15 to 30 days old kids of local variety with a higher birth weight are selected
before they start eating green leaves. These kids, once identified, are kept away from their mothers
and are housed separately in sheds made of bamboo or wooden poles. Proper ventilation, sunlight
and cleanliness are ensured at all the times.
Initially, the kids are given small quantities of concentrated feed. And the quantity is increased
gradually. Additional supplements such as liver tonic mixed with fish oil are also given twice a
week. Pure water is a must and should be provided in the shed round the clock. Young kids are
also provided with mother’s milk for one month (twice or thrice a day) for their proper growth.

The goat feed available in the market could be given or farmers can also prepare their own feed
mix by using locally available ingredients like de-oiled ground nut cake, horse gram, wheat or
maize, rice or wheat bran, etc. De-worming of the kids should be done every month.

Kids bred under broiler technology gain about 25-33 kilograms in 120-140 days, whereas in
traditional system, the goats acquire only a maximum weight of 10 kilos, that too in 6 months. The
expenditure towards feeding a kid under this method comes to about Rs. 1200/-. A net income of
Rs. 5050 to 7050/- (at Rs. 250 per kg on live weight basis) can be easily realized.

This method is very beneficial to landless labourers and small farmers as well as for women SHGs.

(Source: NAIP- Mass Media Project, DKMA with inputs from Consortium Partner, IISR, Kozhikode)

9 Commercial Goat Farming : Dhar District, Madhya Pradesh

Unemployed agriculture graduate Mr. Deepak Patidar from village Sundrail, District Dhar Madhya
Pradesh started goat farm Ekta Agronomic and Livestock in 2001. He had attended training course
on Commercial Goat Farming organized by Central Institute for Research on Goats, Mathura, Uttar
Pradesh. Mr. Deepak started with 60 local goats reared under stall-fed intensive system of
management. Initially he faced a number of problems like high cost of production, mortality and
low price of the produce. He received guidance from CIRG scientists, they suggested changes like
breed (Sirohi), preparing pure breed animals as breeding stock and effective marketing strategy
and strengthening linkages with the other farmers.

The results were amazing. The mortality in adults and kids, which was 10 and 40% respectively in
the beginning, decreased to about 3% to 8 % per annum. Presently he has 180 goats in his farm
and prepares pure breed animals mainly of Sirohi breed of goat for selling them as breeding stock
to the farmers and entrepreneurs. He also has some goats of Barbari, Jakhrana and Jamunapari
breed. He sells his goats only on live body weight basis at the rate of Rs. 120 to Rs. 200 per kg of
live body weight. At present the annual gross revenue of the goat farm is Rs. 4 to 5 lakhs and total
annual expenditure is Rs. 1.5 to 2 lakhs giving an annual net income of Rs. 2 to 3 lakhs.

(Dr. Shalander Kumar and Prof. (Dr.) M. C. Sharma, CIRG, Makhdoom)

10 Scientific Goat Rearing : Deogarh District, Jharkhand

Mrs. Sulochana Kisan, young tribal woman from village Kenduchhapal (Dist. Deogarh, Jharkhand)
was rearing goats traditionally. Inspite of hard work her income from goat rearing hampered due
to high costs and mortality. She came in contact with scientists from Krishi Vigyan Kendra,
Deogarh. They provided technical guidance and advised her to go for improved breeds. Mrs.
Sulochana got a bank loan of Rs. 2.5 lakhs under SJGSY and started rearing goats of improved
breeds like Sirohi and Black Bengal.
She followed improved goat rearing practices like deworming, vaccination, feed management,
supplementation of vitamins and minerals. Cross breeding was also done with Boer buck with an
idea to get more income. Timely deworming, vaccination and routine checkup lowered down the
mortality and morbidity rate thereby increasing the growth and body weight of the goats.
Now, she usually sells the castrated goat at the rate of Rs.6000 and un-castrated at Rs. 2500. She
sells the female for Rs.3500. Her net annual income now comes to Rs.50,000, where as cost of
rearing the goats is only Rs. 10,000.

(Source: KVK, Deogarh)


11 Ornamental Bird Rearing : Sunderban West Bengal

Considering the geographical situation as well as the untapped human resources, Ramkrishna
Ashram Krishi Vigyan Kendra (RAKVK), Nimpith, South 24 Parganas entered into a new venture of
promoting ornamental bird rearing at riverine blocks of Sundarban in particular and district as a
whole in general.

RAKVK, South 24 Pgs have developed a unit of ornamental birds consisting of budgerigar,
cockatiels, love birds, finze both in cage and in-house system from where hands-on training
programme for the rural womenfolk of remote Sundarban areas are imparted. Within the span of
one year, KVK imparted training to 105 numbers of womenfolk and out of them 84 have started
their farms with an average monthly income of Rs. 1900/-.

Besides, KVK through NAIP programme developed a village-Damkal- as ornamental bird village
where more than 50 number of households have been engaged in this income generating avenue
and already 6 of them have established themselves as entrepreneur. In this village, the rural
womenfolk are earning Rs. 1800-2650/- per month from 6th month onwards with initial bird
strength of 10 pairs. The RAKVK has also developed the doorstep marketing channel for selling
the birds with continuous monitoring to prevent farmers exploitation from the unscrupulous

(Source: NAIP Sub-Project on Mass Media Mobilization, DKMA with inputs from Zonal Project
Director, Zone- II, ICAR, Kolkata)

12 Project Nandini, Orissa

Project Nandini, a livestock information system implemented by the Government of Orissa aims
to provide extension services to cattle farmers in Jagatsinghpur, Cuttack and Mayurbhanj districts
of the State.
Under Nandini, a web-based portal houses a dependable animal database along with details of
their owners. The portal focuses on systematising the reproductive life cycle of crossbred cows by
monitoring specific details like animal to attain peak yield, animal due and suitable for oestrus,
animal due for pregnancy diagnosis, animal to be dried off, animal due for parturition and animal
to be vaccinated/de-wormed. Based on the information and data available, a decision support
system is provided to government departments/functionaries. Reports generated out of a web
software helps government livestock inspectors and veterinarians get a fortnightly ‘To Do List’ to
render selective and need based services in a timely manner.
The farmers also receive vital information related to the health and reproductive cycle of their
cattle through an SMS alert, a helpline and also by visiting the village Common Service Centres.
The information helps farmers take accurate precautionary measures and gradually increase the
productivity of their cattle.
Project Nandini is a first of its kind initiative in India. Through Nandini a proper pattern for livestock
related service delivery is being established wherein the needs of both service providers and the
end users have been connected through an organized online information system. Nandini has
turned cattle breeding into an integrated process that’s benefiting farmers in over 880 Orissa


13 Doodh Ganga, Government of India

Doodh Ganga Yojana is a Government of India dairy venture scheme that provides partial interest
free loans and capital subsidy provisions to promote organized dairy farming and create
employment opportunities in Himachal Pradesh.

The scheme was started by the Department of Animal Husbandry, Government of India as a dairy
venture capital scheme to be implemented through the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural
Development (NABARD). The scheme helps to transform micro enterprises engaged in dairy
farming into organized dairy business enterprises. Doodh Ganga Yojana plans to economically
uplift 50,000 rural households through the formation of 10,000 Self Help Groups within a span of
three years. The scheme makes comprehensive provisions to sell dairy products on a larger scale.

The primary objective of the scheme was to create alternative livelihoods for local populations.
The secondary objective was to call for a 'white revolution' through the successful implementation
of the scheme.

The scheme has been successful in raising the economic status of the rural population involved.
To date, Doodh Ganga Yojana has supported 2531 beneficiaries. Out of the proposed 300 crore
target, loans to the tune of 50 crore have already been advanced to the beneficiaries.


14 SUMUL (Surat Milk Union Ltd), Gujarat

SUMUL - established in 1951 to address the lack of an organized milk market - is a market leader
and key driver of social and economic development in the region.

Surat Milk Union Limited, (recently renamed The Surat District Co-operative Milk Union Ltd, is one
among the 12 district unions which act as manufacturing units of dairy products for Gujarat Co-
operative Milk Marketing Federation Limited, the marketers of Amul and Dhara brand of products.

SUMUL - established in 1951 to address the lack of an organized milk market - is a key driver of
social and economic development in the region. By effectively leveraging emerging technologies
like GIS, biometric systems, mobile phones SUMUL has been able to consistently leverage the
power of co-operatives, and to deliver on its promise of quality products and services to its
members, consumers and the society at large. Today, the organization is seen as an industry leader
when it comes to making innovative use of technology in a socially responsible manner.

Best Practices In



Water Resource Development



1 Small Scale Mushroom Cultivation, ASSAM 4

2 Financial Initiative for Sustainable Resource Regeneration, Tamilnadu 5
3 Transfer of Earth-Based Technologies, Tamilnadu 6
4 Livelihood Generation in Rural Assam 7
5 Floating Gardens : Puri District Orissa 8
6 Gram Laxmi Vermicomposting Initiative: Gujarat 10
7 Neem Project, Gujarat 11
8 Mango Value Chain, Chitoor, Andhra Pradesh 12
9 Labournet, Banglore Karnataka 13
10 Livelihood Development Cooperative Societies, Madhya Pradesh 14
11 Traditional Embroidery, District Patan Gujarat 15
12 iLEAD Programme 16
13 Medicinal Plant Cultivation, Himachal Pradesh 17


1. Dhara Vikas : Spring-shed Development, Sikkim 19

2. Jal Sabha – People Managing Their Water Needs, Rajasthan 20

3. Jal Dals : Children’s Institution for Water Conservation, Rajasthan 21

4. Women Uniting for Water Security, Barmer, Rajasthan 23

5. Community Cohesion and Adaptive Water Management, Rajasthan 24

6. Women Operationalizing Successful Water Alliance, Rajasthan 25

7. Small Water Enterprises and Social Entrepreneurship, Rajasthan 27

8. Transforming rural livelihoods in Odisha 28

9. Water Harvesting Technology : Adilabad District, Andhra Pradesh 29

10. Equitable Water Management System, Nagaland 30

11. River Linking Project - Jalgaon, Maharashtra 31

12. Gujarat Watershed Management Project 32


1 Small Scale Mushroom Cultivation, ASSAM

Mushroom Development Foundation, a not-for-profit organisation in Assam, supports small-scale

farmers to cultivate, produce and market mushroom as a livelihood opportunity.
Despite agriculture being the mainstay of majority of the population, farmers in the north-east
region remain the most exploited in the entire workforce. Lack of access to the organised market
combined with the decreasing size of land holdings and high rate of unemployment, economic
deprivation continues to exist in the region. To address this economic situation, the Mushroom
Development Foundation (MDF), a not-for-profit organisation, started working towards spawn
production, training of farmers, and marketing of mushrooms to leverage the available resources.
MDF has encouraged many small scale agricultural farmers to practice mushroom cultivation to
sustain themselves and created a strong network to further their interest in this agricultural activity.
The MDF model follows a cluster based approach in which a Cluster Coordinator supervises a
group of about 100 farmers in mushroom cultivation, planting materials and marketing activities.
A Cluster Monitoring Committee, comprising of experts in the field, is responsible for all the
clusters in the northeast. The farmers are the prime stakeholders and based on their interests,
decisions are made to cultivate fine mushroom products. The clusters are also linked to the rural
shops for easy access to the market.

MDF is presently working in various villages of Assam, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh and
Meghalaya. It has plans to replicate its efforts in neighbouring countries such as Bhutan and
Bangladesh due to similar climatic and geographic conditions. MDF has given farmers a strong
collective voice with which they can negotiate for a minimum price in the market, basic facilities
from the government, and loans for expanding their businesses. It believes that the success of
mushroom farmers will pave the way for other farmers to organise themselves and demand their

2 Financial Initiative for Sustainable Human Economic Resource Regeneration,

Ramnathpuram, Tamilnadu

People's Action for Development (PAD) works in the Gulf of Mannar region, off the coast of Tamil
Nadu, with vulnerable communities - fisher folk and palymrah tappers - to create self-led
sustainable livelihoods and rid indebtedness.
Prior to PAD's engagement with the local communities, fisher folk were perpetually in ‘debt’ to
moneylenders/merchants. Merchants did not offer loans in the traditional sense – they did not
expect cash for loan repayments nor did they charge interest. Instead, they lent out boats and nets
and demanded catch be sold directly to them. In this manner, merchants were also able to offer
below market prices for the catch.
In response to this dire situation, PAD has taken up Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) strategies
in three cluster areas and 17 villages: Vembar (5 villages), Keelakkara (9 villages), and
Rameshwaram (3 villages), spanning two districts and four blocks. PAD has helped to organise the
fisher communities into functional groups that save towards loan repayment, for purchase of
community-owned assets including nets, boats and vehicles, and for future emergencies. By
uniting, fishermen have gained a voice to demand freedom to fair-market prices. A drastic increase
in price for catch, combined with new savings, has enabled the fisher folk to ensure their own
sustainable livelihoods.
Since 2002, PAD has helped to build 35 fisher groups in the Gulf of Mannar. Moreover, 2085 fisher
families have been relieved from debt to date.

3 Transfer of Earth-Based Technologies, Tamilnadu

The Auroville Earth Institute (Tamil Nadu) conducts research and development, and training of
sustainable and cost effective earth-based architecture.
The Earth Institute is part of a world network as a partner of CRATerre (The International Centre
for Earth Construction), ABC Terra- Brazil, and a number of Indian NGOs. It is also the Asian
representative of the UNESCO Chair, ‘Earthen Architecture, Constructive Cultures and Sustainable
Development’. The centre aims to effectively disseminate technical knowledge of earthen
architecture to higher education institutions in the three focus areas: environment and heritage,
human settlements, and economy and production.
Today, the institute offers training courses in sustainable architecture – use of earth for block
making and appropriate design through arches and domes. The aim of the training is to impart
knowledge upon those who have a basic understanding of architecture for the global promotion
of environmentally friendly, cost effective and low maintenance technologies.
To date, the Earth Institute has trained over 6,700 people from 67 countries (about 550 per year).
It has also been given two international and 11 Indian awards for its excellence in building and

4 Livelihood Generation in Rural Assam

Arecanut leaf plate manufacturing project aims to generate livelihood in rural Assam through
setting up of micro enterprises producing high-quality disposable plates from usually discarded
arecanut sheaths.
Arecanut leaf plate manufacturing project is a livelihood generation initiative undertaken by the
non-governmental organisation, Dhriiti, to promote self employment among the rural youth of
the North Eastern state of Assam. On realizing the potential of establishing a manufacturing
company of disposable plates and bowls made form arecanut leafs abundant in north east, Dhriiti
set up its first production unit in the Borpeta district of Assam.
Compiling the results of its extensive research and the learning from the pilot project, the arecanut
leaf plate manufacturing project came up with an easily replicable production design. Keeping in
mind the weather condition and existing shortcomings of this specific region an LPG based low
cost machine, with changeable dies (iron plates designed to shape the arecanut sheaths) of
different sizes was designed by Dhriiti with the help of Sandhya Engineering Concern, Howrah.
Apart from the machines, the micro industry has requirements of store rooms for raw materials
and the finished products, water tanks to clean the sheaths and a dryer to dry the cleaned sheaths.
Thus, the initial investment cost of one micro industry comprising two machines, store rooms and
a dryer is 2. 25 lakh. One such industry has the capacity to produce 15, 000 plates per month while
generating 3 direct employment and 10 indirect employment options.
The major achievement of the project lies in its ability to develop entrepreneurial spirit among the
rural youth, by providing them a dignified livelihood generation activity. As unemployment has
been identified as a major cause of social unrest in the region,productive income generating
venture such as the arecanut project is expected to divert the energy of the frustrated unemployed
youth in a right direction. This project also has immense potential to provide a subsidiary
occupation along with farming, which is the most crucial and yet underdeveloped aspect of the
state’s economy. Setting up of the Tamul Plates Marketing Private Limited Company, by Dhriiti
jointly with the rural producers, as a marketing support wing of the project in 2008 is another
highlight of the project. As observed in most of the north eastern states, marketing and advertising
is the most crucial aspects in which a small and micro industry fail to focus on. However, on
realizing the importance of creating an accessible, fair, competitive and sustainable market for its
product, the project decided to have a wing exclusively focusing on the marketing function.
Growing environment concerns has largely made this bio degradable product a desirable one in
the national and international market.
However, like in all the small and micro enterprises, the arecanut leaf plate manufacturing project
is also encountering few challenges in its operations. Some major issues faced by the initiative are
financial crisis, mainly with regard to shortage of working capital, shortage of LPG to run the
machines, and lack of community will to adopt it as a prime mode of occupation.

5 Floating Gardens : Puri District Orissa

The livelihoods of marginalized people in coastal Odisha are often constrained by 7-8 months of
water stagnation due to floods. To solve the problem due to water hyacinth, the Regional Centre
for Development Cooperation (RCDC) initiated the floating garden concept in the region.

Floating gardens--a concept which is not new to India thanks to Srinagar's Dal Lake--are farms
made on water bodies. Bamboo beds with an average size of 20ft x 5ft x 1ft are constructed and
floated on the water bodies. At the bottom of the bed surface, dried water hyacinth is intertwined
to form a mesh. On this mesh, a 4-inch layer mixture of silt and chopped water hyacinth leaves is
made. Above this is a 5-inch layer of a mixture of silt, vermi-compost and farm yard manure. The
top most layer is packed with a 3-inch mixture of dry leaves of leguminous plants, soil and silt.
The idea is to grow greens, spices, and leafy vegetables for daily consumption to fulfill the
nutritional need of the family. For better nutrition management, plantation is preferred on a
rotational basis. RCDC organized training workshops for villagers in Dahana. Lakshmi cultivated
floating garden with support from RCDC. She cultivated Kashala and palanga (local vegetables)
during rainy season followed by Khada, Saga and tomatoes in the Rabbi season. For almost four
months, they didn’t purchased vegetables from the market. Compost was sold in the market after
second harvest.
Floating farms can help the landless poor to eke out a living during floods and also reduce food

6 Gram Laxmi Vermicomposting Initiative: Sabarkantha District Gujarat

By employing rural women in recycling units for converting animal waste into organic matter, the
Gram Laxmi initiative of Government of Gujarat presents an indigenous approach for empowering
women and positively altering agricultural practices.
In 2011, the Gram Laxmi initiative was started as a pilot in Sabarkantha district of Gujarat by the
District Rural Development Agency (DRDA), to convert agricultural and animal waste into organic
manure. Gram Laxmi runs under Mission Mangalam- a Government of Gujarat (GOG) livelihood
and poverty alleviation programme. Under the project, Gram Laxmi vermicomposting units are set
up in villages and Self Help Groups of women are trained to run and manage these units. These
women collect the agricultural and cattle waste from their farms and treat it in the unit. Post
treatment, they derive vermicompost from the unit which is used as manure during farming. This
vermicompost is sold to farmers at nominal rates and also used for personal consumption on the
women's farms.
The cost of setting up a Gram Laxmi unit is financed through convergence of different centrally
sponsored rural development schemes like the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC), MGNREGA,
National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM), Swaranjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY),
Backward Region Grant Fund (BRGF), Nirmal Gram etc. and through a one-time public
From a pilot project across 25 villages in 2011 , the Gram Laxmi initiative today has been up scaled
to 96 villages of Sabarkantha district. Gram Laxmi successfully demonstrates the potential that
rural areas have for developing indigenous and sustainable livelihood options.The use of localised
and easily available raw materials, the pooling together of funds from well established national
and state level schemes and the leveraging of existing network of local human resources (SHG
women) involved in government functioning makes Gram Laxmi a sustainable initiative. The
development and implementation of Gram Laxmi did not require any major changes in
government processes, nor did it burden the community with additional responsibility. Community
members have to invest only one hour of their time daily for making additional income, managing
waste in their community and generating organic manure for use in their fields. These factors make
the initiative environmentally and economically viable. Furthermore, the initiative is proving its
social relevance by providing rural women an opportunity to step outside their homes and earn a
living and contribute to the community's well being.
Gram Laxmi reflects how government dedication and understanding of the local context and
livelihood situation can help to harness existing resources in an economically and socially
beneficial manner. This commitment has to be complemented by creating community awareness
about the vast potential of locally available resources.

7 Neem Project, Gujarat

Government of India has mandated 100% neem coating on Urea from May 2015, as it reduces the
application of urea by 10%, protects crops from diseases and is instrumental in controlling
deterioration of soil fertility.

Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizers and Chemicals Limited (GNFC) has initiated Neem Project
focusing on manufacturing of Neem oil, Neem cake, organic Neem Pesticide and Neem cake
fertilizer. GNFC is implementing project through 69 Narmada Khedut Sahay Kendra (NKSK) across
the state. Through this network supply chain for Neem seed collection has been created with a
focus on employment generation. Women Self Help Groups, milk cooperatives, Sakhi Mandals,
Pani Samitis, NGOs have been involved in the supply chain as Village Level Collection Centres.
There are more than 2200 VLCC engaged in the activity. Seeds are collected by VLCC stored and
dried and are then processed to manufacture.

Neem seed collection has benefitted women from socio-economically backward groups. They are
earning average income of Rs. 7000/- per month. Migration has been stopped. Assets like livestock
and stoves have been created, women have more money at their disposal.

There is great demand for neem seeds. This activity could be expanded / replicated in other areas
to engage more number of women and provide them with livelihood opportunity.

8 Mango Value Chain, Chitoor, Andhra Pradesh

Farmers were organized into Mutually Aided Cooperative Societies (MACS) for undertaking
marketing of mangoes as near to the consumers as possible. Scientific support was provided to
the community in order to improve the production, post harvesting processes, to reduce waste
and to improve product quality through value addition. Simultaneously, access to inputs by
linking them to private and public organisations like universities, private companies, research
institutes, the government, and banks was also provided. The Jaipur office of USAID and ACDI
VOCA funded GMED helped to impart training on scientific practices to a selected batch of
First one and a half years of the project activities were devoted to social mobilization activities
involving in the formation of 8 Mandal level (mandal is an administrative unit with a population
of 60,000 and more) exclusive mango farmers owned Mutually Aided cooperative Societies
(MACS). Apart from social mobilization, the training and awareness dissemination involving
imparting of best management practices in terms of new scientific techniques took up the first
phase of the project.
The second half of the second year was devoted to marketing aspects. After having analyzed
the crop pattern and the variety, a leading beverage company was approached as the crop in
the district was largely Totapari variety, which is used for the preparation of mango pulp.
FFA facilitated the purchase of mango fresh fruit from the MACS through an
arrangement with the Coca cola India Pvt. limited which is engaged in the production
of mango-based beverage. Transportation costs were borne by the Coca Cola
company under CSR. It benefitted farmers in many ways.
● Farmers saved, anywhere between Rs. 1,700 to Rs. 3,600 for 10-tonne lorry, due to
free transport
● They were paid instantaneously, thus . avoided raising fresh debts.
● The net advantage from the free transport for the farmers’ societies ranged from Rs.
5,000 to Rs.11,000 in absolute terms, if it was a 5-acre farmer with 30 tonnes yield.
FFA facilitated the entire project management including price negotiations, monitoring
profit margins, logistics, transportation, scheduling, deliveries, managing mango
sourcing matrix, business process and management reviews.
The farmer at the end of the day was able to get an enhanced price as compared to
that of the previous years. Some of the achievements have been:
Direct monetary gains
● The net gain through waiver on transport charges has been 3 to 5 per cent to each
● The commission of 4 to 7 per cent has been avoided.
● Correct weighing has helped gain anywhere in excess of 3 to 5 per cent.
● Sale proceeds were credited to farmers’ account on the third day.
Indirect benefits :
● The farmers got free transport of their produce.
● Procurement worries were eased.
● There were no middlemen to deal with.
● Farmers played proactive role in price fixation.


9 Labournet, Banglore Karnataka

LabourNet, set up in 2005, is an innovative social enterprise that is leveraging the

capacity of informal sector micro and small entrepreneurs (MSEs) to provide a
technology-enabled labour exchange for matching demand and supply. Workers from
different unorganized sectors and trades enroll with LabourNet and gain access to jobs
with registered clients (individuals and companies) requiring the services in their
trades. LabourNet forms a bridge between the two sections of society, thereby
improving the lives of all stakeholders. LabourNet is an initiative of MAYA, a
nongovernmental organization based in Bangalore,
The LabourNet has registered over 6,000 MSE profiles and has a reach of close to
20,000 informal sector workers through its existing MSE network. Small entrepreneurs
are labour coordinators who mobilise and control the work of 5-20 workers each. They
scout for work for the workers, negotiate wages, attempt some minimal on the job
training and most importantly collect and pay wages. LabourNet has also addressed
growing demand for services by having over 2,000 registered clients in their database,
who are willing to access services of workers at standardized rates.
Benefits to Clients : Timely placement and replacement guarantees; Assured work
quality by trained workers; Verified and traceable workers account; Centralized service
centre support
Benefits to Workers/ MSEs : Timely work information at standard rates; Access to
business and trade skills training: Financial credibility through a Bank account; Accident


10 Primary Livelihood Development Cooperative Societies, Madhya Pradesh

In Madhya Pradesh, Indian Farm Forestry Development Co-operative (IFFDC) an NGO

has formed Primary Livelihood Development Cooperative Societies (PLDCS), which
leverages the joint strength of the SHGs and CBOs to generate livelihood options. The
core idea is – to provide long term sustenance to social groupings for improved
livelihood conditions of the villages. A range of activities come under the fold of each
Trading: Trading in farm inputs (fertilizers and agrochemicals), farm products (grain)
and non-timber forest products (NTFPs). By buying and selling in bulk, the PLDCS
provides better prices for farmers, charging a commission as its earning.
Services: Provision of local services such as tractor, bicycle and thresher hiring. The
cooperatives also have a role in organising social services (such as health camps) and
providing loans at preferential rates to the poorest members.
Entrepreneurship: Supporting entrepreneurial activities for women by promoting
sewing and making of shoes. Trainers have been engaged to extend market
knowledge, that the products could get a better market.
Training: Each PLDCS will be able to sell their services as trainers to other villages, to
the IFFDC Resource Centre for Livelihood Promotion and also to local agencies.
While forming the society, one-time admission fee of Rs.5/- is levied, with the
condition that each individual member would hold a share worth Rs. 100/- whereas
each group would hold a share of Rs.1,000/- in the cooperative (society). Membership
thus ensures stakes in the PLDCS by individuals as well as by the community groups.
Example : Patelia PLDCS has initiated a variety of income generating activities, ranging
from procurement and marketing of crop-based inputs to trading on durable and
consumer goods in the village, each of which contributes directly or indirectly to the
livelihoods of the community. The backward-forward linkage of the activities not only
provides return on investment to the society but extends support by way of service
provisions at the doorsteps of the rural households.
In its second year (2004-05), the Patelia PLDCS achieved a turnover of some Rs.
1,165,000, with a net profit of Rs. 22,380/-


11 Traditional Embroidery, District Patan Gujarat

Patan is the drought prone district in the Gujarat, many of the families were migrating
to other parts of Gujarat for earning livelihood. SEWA conducted survey in the district
and found that women were skilled in traditional embroidery. In their spare time they
would make clothes for themselves and household use with embroidery and mirror
work, which they would exchange with traders for items like steel and plastic vessels
and dishes.
A number of production-cum-training sessions were organized for the artisans for
them to come up to the required skill levels. Training was imparted either in-house or
by outside trainers. Craft became the only source of livelihood for many of these
people, most of whom had never used it earlier as a means of subsistence. To support
these women child-care centres were opened; camps were organized for testing and
correcting eyesight; Rainwater harvesting to save time; savings program and insurance
cover. Credit program was also started. Member took loans for the following purposes:
(a) to free up mortgaged assets (b) to purchase cattle (c) as working capital (in cases
where they bought their own kits) (d) to set up small shops for their male members
(husband or son) and (e) for housing.
Learning’s from the SEWAs experience are –
1. Involve rather than intervene
2. Coordinate attempts from different organizations / units
3. Develop community support systems
4. Identify and develop skills
5. Build capacities before providing market services
6. Provide financial services
7. Build linkages


12 Institute for Livelihood Education and Development (iLEAD) Programme

Aide-et-Action has been working in India since 1981. It has developed iLEAD
programme which aims at providing livelihood support to dropout youth of 18-25
years from marginalized sections of the society through employability training in
various trades. Training design has the following features:

• Training modules are tailor made to suit the needs and demands as per the
opportunities available in the local market and rural context.

• Focuses equally on technical skills and personality development of candidates.

Besides quality technical skills (theory, practice and on-job), training modules include
a significant amount of inputs on personality development like spoken English,
communication skills, mannerisms etc. required to meet the market demands.

• Programs include a regular interface with local business, industrial and other
potential employers for course development, training methodology, placements and
building backward and forward linkages.

• All candidates provided with both pre and post placement support as well as hand-
holding and initiation inputs and linkages under the program.

• Focus on ensuring social equity in project benefits i.e. priority for inclusion of
marginalized communities like dalits, tribals, landless, women, disabled persons etc.
The project would aim to ensure that at least 80% of beneficiaries are from BPL families.

Some of the major trades offered in iLEAD centers are – Information technology,
Automation technology, Hospitality, Sales and marketing, Beautician, Dress designing,
Secretarial practices, Refrigeration and AC repairing, Apparel and garments, Mobile
phone services and repairing etc.

iLEAD programme is implemented through 94 centres. Its achievements are as follows

 A total number of 44,534 candidates trained with 75-80 per cent placement.
 The income level of families of these candidates has increased.
 iLEAD has created a win - win model for both communities and business
 iLEAD has extended professional training maintaining high quality standards
which includes demand oriented courses catering to customized needs.
 High results in a very short period of time.
 Low Investment – High Returns.
 iLEAD has promoted various strategic tie ups and collaborations with business
leaders for improvement and growth.


13 Medicinal Plant Cultivation, Himachal Pradesh

Pragya is working for the conservation and sustainable utilization of the medicinal and
aromatic plants of the Indian Himalayas. The project promotes the cultivation of high-
value herbal species as alternative cash crops by local communities, thus enhancing
farmer incomes. Medicinal plants cultivation is a high-yield use of land resources in
the Himalayas.
Medicinal plants cultivation: Farmers and traditional healers are being trained and
assisted in setting up micro-plantations of medicinal plants at altitudes ranging from
8,000 ft. to 16,000 ft. Recognizing women as the key repositories of knowledge on
aromatic, spice and dye plants, the project has helped set up several groups of women
kitchen gardeners and supports them in undertaking cultivation of these species in the
backyards of their houses. regular training and field demonstrations are conducted for
farmers and continual technical assistance is provided on propagation, cultivation,
agronomy and pest management.
Several nurseries and greenhouses and a demo farm for medicinal plants have also
been set up for propagation of the high-value medicinal species and distribution of
saplings to farmers. Farmer Expert Groups have been created in each valley for local
level research into medicinal plants cultivation and mentoring of new farmers.
Medicinal Plant Growers Cooperative Societies have been formed. These societies have
been provided with equipment for drying and packing, to reduce the wastage and
transportation costs. Market linkages have been established between cultivators and
Community-based ‘Natural Heritage Conservation Councils’ have been formed in all
Himalayan valleys with responsibility for the conservation of natural resources and
local level activities directed towards it. They are also being encouraged to adopt and
protect commonly owned lands which have a concentration of medicinal plants;
measures include social or physical fencing or controlled usage of the sites. Some of
these areas of plant wealth are being established as ‘Indigenous Protected Areas’ that
could also serve as genetic reserves for the species concerned. The strong fabric of the
people and plants relationship in the Himalayas is being documented and revitalized.


1 Dhara Vikas : Spring-shed Development, Sikkim

Increasing occurrence of droughts in South Sikkim and West Sikkim districts, where
the springs and streams used to dry up every year between the months of March to
May, led the Rural Management Development Department (RMDD) to launch the
Dhara Vikas initiative in 2008. The initiative was launched under the centrally
sponsored Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)
scheme, with technical support from other government agencies and organisations
like WWF - India; People’s Science Institute, Dehradun; ACWADAM, Pune, and
Arghyam, Bangaluru.
Under Dhara Vikas, programmes were organized in coordination with various NGO
stakeholders to develop specialized knowledge and skills in areas such as rainwater
harvesting, geohydrology, and spring discharge measurement; use of Global
Positioning System (GPS); and laying of contour trenches.
The initiative’s strategic focus has been on controlling runoff water and increasing its
permeation to enhance groundwater recharge. Activities toward this objective include
developing springs-sheds, enhancing hydrological contribution of hill-top forests,
reviving lakes, expanding minor irrigation networks, terracing sloping lands, enhancing
water storage infrastructure, developing para-professionals in geohydrology, and
carrying out research and documentation.
Dhara Vikas has created a significant impact by recharging lakes and reviving several
springs in Sikkim. As many as 50 springs have been revived. Further, five lakes were
revived by the initiative. It has also led to reforestation of seven hill-top forests. Overall,
at an investment of Rs. 2.5 crore over the last four years, Dhara Vikas has brought
about 900 million litres of annual groundwater recharge.
(Pages 59-63)

2 Jal Sabha – People Managing Their Water Needs, Barmer District Rajasthan

Village Sarwari Purohitan in Barmer district had difficulties in meeting the water
requirements for its 450 households. Village received water only once a month through
government supplies and people were forced to purchase water from tankers at high
To address this grave situation, the community decided to form a water association to
renovate and increase the capacity of their main water resources - the Ghoda Nadi
(grassland pond) and the Gawai Talab (pond) with both bodies having Gauchar and
Agor as catchments.
After the meetings and discussions with the Jai Bhagirathi Foundation, Jal Sabha was
formed in the village. The functioning of Jal Sabha was based on principles of
democratic governance and participatory management. It also served as a focal point
for all sections of the community to meet, discuss and contribute towards planning
their water security. Many communities put aside their caste prejudices and came
forward to plan jointly to restore their water structures. In 2007, the depth and size of
the pond was increased and in the second phase, the water channel was repaired. 30%
of the overall costs were generated by the community and deposited in `Jal Kosh’
(water development fund) and the rest of the amount was raised through project
funds. Funds for the Jal Kosh were collected through household campaigns which
encouraged the families to contribute a minimum of INR 200/- towards making the
village water secure.

IMPACT : Forming Jal Sabhas in the village enhanced community participation and
ownership of common property resources resulting in easier and round-the-year
availability and access to water. Expansion in capacity of Gawai Talab from 960 Cubic
Metre (CuM) to 5,218 CuM and that of Ghora talab from 17,280 CuM to 26,601 CuM
resulted in a 50% increase in water availability in both cases. This resulted in marked
reduction in cost of purchase of water which went down from INR 3,480/- before
intervention to INR 960/- after this intervention per annum.
(Page 27-32)
3 Jal Dals : Children’s Institution for Water Conservation, Barmer District
Godawas Khurd in Barmer district like many other villages faced chronic water
problems which became severe with declining rainfall and irregular water supply. The
only open well in the village contained saline water with a Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
of 6,500. The village was facing acute water crisis. Women and children (mainly girls)
were the most affected since a huge amount of their time was spent in meeting the
daily requirements for water.
Children were irregular in attending schools and their education was put on the
backburner due to the burning issue of water access. The Government High School of
Godawas experienced extremely poor enrollment and attendance rates. The onset of
summer worsened the situation further with the school registering zero attendance
due to lack of availability of drinking water. Children dropped out as they had to devote
large amount of time and efforts in helping their mothers fetch water from distant
The Gram Panchayat constructed a 10,000 litres water tank in the school to address
the water problem, but water for the tank was completely dependent on tankers which
was enormously expensive ranging from INR 1,200 - 1,800/- per tanker. The school
collected contribution of INR 5 to 10/- from students every month for refilling the tank.
This practice was followed till 2007, when number of students enrolled was 150.
Further, to ensure maintenance of the newly constructed tank, a student body of 10
members called Jal Dal was constituted. The Jal Dal took the responsibility of cleaning
the roof, cleansing of the silt chamber and meticulous functioning of the hand pump.
Additionally, the school teachers also began educating children on water distress and
encouraged them to be a part of environment conservation plans in and around their
village. The school students were also involved in environment conservation activities
and planted 50 trees in the school premises. Each plant was adopted by two students.
These democratic practices inculcated a sense of duty to the fragile ecology of their
village. Students started a piggy bank in which students from higher classes contribute
one rupee per month for maintenance of the tank and purchase of water during times
of distress.
IMPACT : This intervention has positively impacted education in the desert thus
yielding growth in the literacy rate. Children no longer have to miss schools to
accompany their mothers in search of water. There has been a noticeable fall in the
school dropout rate and attendance has become more consistent. Students have
become aware of environment conservation and its correlation with rainfall. The Jal Dal
has instilled a sense of leadership and responsibility towards preservation of the
(Page 33-38)
4 Women Uniting for Water Security, Barmer, Rajasthan
In order to have round-the-year availability of water, women of Satuni Purohitan
village joined hands to enhance the capacity of the Hemajal Nada. They collected INR
10,000/- and approached Jai Bhagirathi Foundation (JBF) with a request to support
them to bring water closer to their homes. Women’s Jal Sabha was formed. It
comprised 30 women members who collected money for the Jal Kosh to undertake
the capacity enhancement of Hemajal Nada. Thus, 30% of the total funds were
mobilised by the women Jal Sabha while the rest was contributed by Jal Parishad as a
Marwar region has a typically patriarchal culture, where women are confined to homes
while men are involved in planning and managing community matters. This was the
situation in Satuni village despite the fact that it was mandatory to have 20% women
representation in the Jal Sabhas. Village women have set an example for other villages
and showcase how their active involvement enhanced women’s access to water.
Women proudly call the pond the `Woman’s Pond’ and they have forbidden access of
tankers to their pond. They regularly carry out maintenance activities like de-silting
and cleaning the catchment area. With the establishment of this Jal Sabha, women
have taken a more informed role within their households creating greater awareness
about safe drinking water practices, health and hygiene as well.

IMPACT : The capacities of the two water harvesting structures was increased at a total
cost of INR 177,380/- (30% community contribution) at INR 70/- per person (one time
cost). More specifically, returns to investment included reduction in women’s drudgery
in terms of distance travelled to fetch water. Before intervention women had water
closer to home only for two months and had to walk for the rest of the year. After
intervention they have water available for seven to 12 months depending on the water
source being accessed. As a result, their drudgery has reduced remarkably. The
formation of this women’s Jal Sabha has tremendously influenced the community
mobilization process. Forming a women’s Jal Sabha has most importantly contributed
to empowerment of women and has led to their engagement with the larger water
restoration/construction projects being implemented in the village along with other
Jal Sabhas in the area.
(Page 39-44)

5 Community Cohesion Leading to Adaptive Water Management, Barmer,


Mandli village with 525-household and a population of 3,785 people receive erratic
rainfall. There is a perpetual water crisis in this village. Hence, village communities took
the onus to improve accessibility of water. The main source of water for this village
was Gawai Talab which has the capacity of 2,869 cubic metres. Water harvested in the
pond lasted only for four months in a year. During summer women had to walk a
distance of four–six kilometers a day in search of water. Villagers either had to purchase
water, or had to depend on the limited supply of saline water.
The community collectively took decision to change the water situation of their village.
30% of the project cost came from the Jal Kosh and the remaining funds were
provided by Jai Bhagirathi Foundation as a grant. In the first year, the pond size was
increased by 50%. Water lasted for a period of 10 months.
Jal Sabha felt the need to enhance the efficiency of water harvesting and storage
capacity of the pond. They realized the need of a regulatory mechanism for controlled
use of water and to check free availability of water for neighbouring villages.
Coupon system was introduced for water distribution. People from other villages were
allowed to use water at a cost of INR 100/- per tanker of 4,000 litres. The system
provided means of accountability and ensured distribution of water according to the
needs. After the successful implementation the village pond was able to provide water
access to 14 other villages.
The money collected was deposited in the Jal Kosh. It facilitated regular maintenance
which was carried out by the village volunteers twice a month. To improve the
efficiency water, channels were renovated, trees were planted. Equitable distribution
system was keenly followed by maintaining a register that noted the time and
coordinates of people taking water. With the help of Jal Kosh funds, support from Jai
Bhagirathi Foundation, the depth and area of the talab or pond was further increased
in the second phase.

IMPACT : Primary impact has been in the availability of sweet drinking water round-
the-year despite 2009 being declared as a severe drought year. A community member
said: “It is incredible that we have achieved water security even in a severe drought
year that completely wiped off our crops.” Expansion in the capacity of Gawai Talab
from 2,869 CuM to 5,218 CuM and that of Narsingh Nada from 2,308 CuM to 26,601
CuM has resulted in a 50% increase in water availability in both cases making water
available all year long. Further, 13 villages also benefitted by sourcing water through
tankers. Creation of Jal Sabhas has put forward a bottoms-up approach in achieving
development goals. It has enhanced leadership skills and motivated people for a better
and improved life. The Jal Sabha achieved a sustainable financial source for regular
maintenance through coupon system.

(Page 47-54)

6 Women Operationalizing Successful Water Alliance, Jodhpur District


The village of Rampura located 40 kms. from Jodhpur in Pali district, presents this poor
state of affairs. The only water source is a village pond that is located at a distance of
3 kms from the village. Women fetch water from this pond daily and their problems
intensify in summer, women have to travel a distance of six kms each day to collect
Village Jal Sabha with 20% women representation was created to address extreme
state of distraught. The outcomes of time analysis exercise with women revealed that
women were involved in agriculture for two-three months in a year and for the
remaining period they were free to be associated with other livelihood activities.
Women were motivated to revive and renovate the village water management
structures. Women expressed keen interest in constructing individual tankas to reduce
their drudgery. They were also motivated to form SHGs or Jal Mandals to solve their
financial problems.
Women Jal Mandals comprising 10–16 members began operating joint SHG bank
accounts and contributed INR 100/- on a monthly basis towards the group corpus.
SHGs also facilitated inter-loaning of money. Through the Jal Mandals, women were
able to realize their dream of building individual tankas. Five out of the total 10
members managed to own individual tanka through loans taken from the Jal Mandal
and with technical assistance from Jai Bhagirathi Foundation (JBF). This led to a sense
of empowerment and motivated other women to save money so that they could own
their own tankas. At present, each member of the Jogmaya Jal Mandal has a saving of
INR 2,500/- in the bank to spend on ensuring water security for their families and the
community at large.
IMPACT: The forming of Jal Mandals greatly impacted the life of women. In Rampura,
while the Jal Sabha played the role of addressing larger community water issues, the
Jal Mandals in tandem catered to the individual requirements of women by
construction of individual tankas. Further, this model introduced women to the
practice of saving money which has proved to be a boon for them.
(Page 57-60)

7 Small Water Enterprises and Social Entrepreneurship, Barmer District Rajasthan

Pachpadra is a village where people rely on just one pond to meeting their water
requirements. During the dry spells, water is bought from nearby villages to fill up
underground tanks in households at a cost of INR 500-600/- per 4,000 litre tanker.
Water contains TDS ranging up to 4,500 ppm, including chlorides, fluorides and
nitrates which are above permissible levels. It resulted in high prevalence of water
borne diseases.
To solve this issue and provide livelihood, the Jai Bhagirathi Foundation initiated a pilot
project under a Public-Private-Community Partnership model. The project ensured the
availability of safe drinking water as well as improved livelihood opportunities of SHG
members in the village. This was a joint collaboration of the PHED, the Jal Sabha, the
Gram Panchayat, the Jai Bhagirathi Foundation and the SHGs. The system contributed
to improved health and hygiene by removal of fluorides, nitrates, and other salts from
Global Social Benefit Incubator (GSBI) and Acumen Fund assisted in setting up a
distribution network. Four outlet stations were set up in different parts of Pachpadra
ensuring RO treated water to all communities within walking distance. To ensure the
affordability of water, an affordable selling price of INR 0.15/litre was decided. The
traditional pots were found very convenient for the rural women to transport water.
The RO plant and the delivery system is managed and coordinated by community
members. The outlets are owned and managed by women from Jal Mandals (SHG),
allowing them to augment family incomes. The outlets, with a storage capacity of 2,000
litres, get water from the RO plant for INR 0.08/litre. With a financial plan that fixed the
selling price at INR 0.15/litre and household delivery of water at INR 0.25/litre, the
outlets managed to generate profits ranging from INR3,500 to 4,500/- per month.

To make the business model successful, all the participating women were regularly
trained in running and maintenance of the plant. They were also trained in financial
dealings, record keeping, marketing and distribution. Women were also made aware
of the importance of safe drinking water and how it leads to a healthy life.
IMPACT : In Pachpadra, the RO-SWE has become an innovative option for the delivery
of safe drinking water. Decrease in the instances of waterborne diseases as well as
improved health has been noticed among families purchasing water from the plant.
This has led to income generation for families. Regular supply of drinking water has
contributed to growth of a micro enterprise. Regular training of women has
contributed to their social and economic empowerment.

(Page 61-68)
(Page 89-92)

8 Transforming rural livelihoods in Odisha

The Western Odisha Rural Livelihoods Project has taken up a livelihoods approach to
their existing watershed management programme. It works to create an enabling
environment for sustainable local employment and income generation.
The Kalahandi Bolangir Koraput (KBK) region of western Odisha is home to people who
are among the poorest in India. The local environment can be difficult to live in as
rainfall is irregular leading to intermittent crop failures, and there is often a shortage
of safe drinking water. The health and education status of the people is very poor, and
hence, they are highly vulnerable to shocks. Inequitable social structures, distorted
land distribution, and indebtedness contribute to the widespread poverty and impede
access to resources by the socially excluded and marginalised. To address these
problems, WORLP has developed a livelihood approach to their existing watershed
WORLP’s livelihoods approach focuses on leveraging the existing strengths and
resources of rural communities. This model, also known as the Watershed Plus
Programme, works to create an enabling environment for empowering people to make
informed choices for their long-term well being. It involves all sectors of rural society
across caste, class, gender and other divides. Many innovative processes and
technologies have been tried under the programme’s directive, and much of the work
has been successful. Lessons have been learned and replicated in other parts of the
9 Water Harvesting Technology : Adilabad District, Andhra Pradesh

Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (CRIDA) has been promoting Farm
Pond Technology in the rainfed areas in the country as a drought proofing measure.
This technology was used in Sithagonthi village, Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh
under NAIP project in 2008. This area receives an average of 1050 mm rainfall annually
and has good potential for run-off harvesting. Considering the slopes of the fields, an
appropriate location was identified for a dug out pond (17m x 17 m x 4.5 m) involving
a group of farmers as stakeholders. Initially there was very strong opposition from the
farmers for losing a part of their land for digging the pond. By highlighting the benefits,
the farmers were persuaded and agreed to the Farm Pond.

Soon after the farm pond was dug (July, 2008), there were good rains leading to
complete filling. Farmers hired diesel engine to irrigate half acre area where they grew
tomatoes. KVK, Adilabad facilitated the release of 2000 fingerlings in the pond. By the
time tomatoes came to harvest, the prices in the market had touched close to
Rs.25/kg. Mr.Namdev made a good profit of over Rs.20,000/- through four good
harvests of tomato. By mid November 2008, there was water still to a depth of two
meters. This encouraged the farmers to sow chickpea on one acre land. Half of the
well grown fishlings were sold for Rs.30,000/-. As a result the amount spent in digging
the pond was recovered within the first year with chickpea crop still to be harvested.

Through enhanced farm income, Namdev cleared all his debts and that restored his
self confidence and dignity. He also started sending his children to the school. Many
farmers from the neighbouring villages are coming to see his farm module. Tribal
farmers have come forward to get farm ponds dug on their lands in convergence with
the ongoing NREGS.

Overwhelmed by this response, the NAIP project has facilitated inclusion of digging
work in the NREGS. Consequently the district authorities of Adilabad had visited this
successful farm module and have allocated an amount of Rs.20.00 lakhs for up scaling
this intervention.


10 Equitable Water Management System, Nagaland

Khonoma village, which fought the British four times, is today also known for how it
protects its ecological heritage. Watch how its indigenous water management system
In the last decade, the village has stood out for its environmentally conscious people
and prominent efforts to maintain its green. As a result, not only does Khonoma
conserve its forests, but it has also banned hunting, which is a way of life for the Nagas.

Like all its natural resources, water, too, is of prime importance, especially in
agriculture. Khonoma practices a modified version of Jhum cultivation with Alder trees
where they aren't felled but pollarded at a certain height. The Alder trees replenish the
soil with nitrogen and prevent soil erosion. They also continue the 600-year old
practice of cultivating paddy at the foothills. Water run-off from the Jhum forests,
which is rich in nutrients, travels all the way down to the paddy fields.

These paddy fields are irrigated through streams. The community works together to
create channels that lead the water up to the fields. The elders of the village have
passed down this legacy and the farmer whose field is located at the end is considered
the sole owner of the water. This farmer ensures that every plot of land has water.

It is considered a shame if one’s neighbour’s plot is left dry - a beautiful system with
inbuilt equity!


11 River Linking Project - Jalgaon, Maharashtra

To equitably distribute water and resolve problems of water scarcity, the local
administration of Jalgaon has linked various water channels across the region. The
initiative has helped to channel water for drinking and irrigation purposes.
Jalgaon, due to its location, receives inadequate rainfall during the monsoon season
and water supply storage facilities are below the minimum storage level. In 2005, when
the district witnessed an almost drought like situation, the local administration felt the
need to look for a long term solution. Given that there was already a network of canals
and reservoirs to channel the water, interlinking of waterways seemed to be an
appropriate solution.
The local administration followed a methodical approach to sustainably implement the
project in a timely manner with minimal costs. It was executed in a innovative way to
overcome the challenge of balancing ecological concerns, human displacement and
high costs. The administration also followed a participatory and proactive approach to
ensure support from local people. This initiative is inspiring as it was conceptualized,
planned and implemented in four months.
By distributing surplus water to deficit areas, the government has successfully made
resources available to 128 villages and 5 municipal corporations. In total, 8.5 lakh
people have benefitted and the total irrigated area has increased from 13,000 hectares
to 30,000 hectares in 2008. The impact of project was assessed through a socio-
economic survey in 2007 and nearly 54 percent of farmers have noticed increases in
the level of water in their wells with 57 percent of people reporting adequate drinking

12 Gujarat Watershed Management Project: Providing a sustainable solution to

water scarcity
The Watershed Management Project of the Government of Gujarat aims to provide a
sustainable solution to the problem of water scarcity in the state by adopting a
participatory approach.
Gujarat is a drought prone state that suffers from water scarcity, a situation that
required a long term sustainable solution. Within this context, the Government of
Gujarat developed the Watershed Management Project (WMP) through an
appropriate mix of technical innovations and participatory approach.
This project was carried out by a five tier authority system - centre, state, district,
project, and village. To get optimum benefits from this project, areas were targeted
and prioritised on the basis of 13 parameters such as moisture index, groundwater
status and drinking water situation in the area. The funds for WMP were also allocated
on a priority basis. The process of watershed management involves data collection,
assessment, area targeting, plan development and implementation. It uses ICT tools
like GIS, MIS and satellite imagery for monitoring and evaluation. The project aims at
sustainable development of the environment, society and human capital. This has
resulted in an increase in income and standard of living.
The success of this project was due to collaborative and concerted efforts of
government departments, research institutes and non government organizations.
Inhabitants have directly and indirectly benefitted from this project in terms of
improved soil and water conservation and an increase in agricultural productivity.
Owing to the large scale of the project, it has faced various challenges to effective
implementation. These were met by the introduction of new common guidelines in
2008 for watershed management and the Integrated Watershed Management
Programme in 2009-10. The project's impact and contribution has widely been
recognised through the Prime Minister's Award for excellence in Public Administration
in 2010-11.
Best Practices In



Water & Sanitation



1. Aarogyam: ICT based Digital Health Mapping Programme, Uttar Pradesh 4

2. e-Mamta: Mother and Child Information Tracking System, Gujarat 5
3. E-Health Point: Transformation of Rural Health Care, Punjab 6
4. Improving Maternal and Child Survival in Tamil Nadu 7
5. Enhancing Access to Affordable Medicines, Rajasthan 8
6. Janamanas: Community Mental Health Service 9
7. Creating Linkages for Blood Donation 10
8. Controlling Sickle Cell Anaemia, Gujarat 11
9. Dr. SMS: Introducing healthcare through mobile technology in Kerala 12
10. Cervical Cancer Early Detection Project, Chennai, Tamilnadu 13
11. Aame Bi Paribu, Mayurbhanj District Orissa 14
12. Indira Bal Swasthya Yojana, Hariyana 15
13. Mitanin –Community Health Worker Programme, Chhattisgarh 17
14. Mo Masari – Malaria Prevention Programme in Orissa 18
15. Improving Access to Health Care through Strategic Incentives, Assam 20
16. Child Disability Screening and Treatment, Madhya Pradesh 21


1. Ghogha Rural Drinking Water Supply Project, Gujarat 24

2. Water supply for informal settlements, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand 25
3. No More Worries for Water, Yavatmal, Maharashtra 26
4. Closing the loop, Banglore Rural District, Karnataka 28
5. Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting at School 30
Reduces Absenteeism, Chhattisgarh
6. From Water Scarcity to Security, Maharashtra 31

7. Women Participation in Swajaldhar Programme, Valsad Gujarat 33

8. All women’s Pani Samitis, Varshamedi village – Kutch, Gujarat 33

9. Sustainable solutions: Recharging aquifers and solar pumps 34

10. Community Mobilisation in a Tribal Community 35

for Sanitation Behaviour Change, Orissa
11. Improving Quality of Life, Bhalui Grampanchayat, Bihar 36
12. Community Surveillance of Water Sources 37
and Sanitation Practices, Uttarakhand
13. From Sanitation to Governance, Gudur Andhra Pradesh 38
14. Model for Community Participation, Andhra Pradesh 39
15. WASMO, Gujarat 40
16. Linking Water Access to Better Hygiene & Dignity, Rajasthan 40
17. Mobile-based Sanitation Monitoring 42
18. Sulabh International Social Service Organization 43
19. Community Led Total Sanitation Campaign in Bhiwani Haryana 43

1 Aarogyam: ICT based Digital Health Mapping Programme, Uttar Pradesh

Aarogyam is a unique community based reproductive and child health related service
delivery programme based on an end-to-end usage of information and
communication technology tools.
Aaarogyam was developed in 2008 to provide a solution to the problem of high rate
of maternal and infant mortality rate in the state of Uttar Pradesh.
Under Aarogyam, a village wise database of all the beneficiaries (pregnant/lactating
women, children up to 5 years) of an area is being maintained. On the basis of the
information provided in the database, the Aarogyam software sends automated alerts
in the form of vernacular voice calls/SMS to the beneficiary informing and reminding
them about their pending antenatal care, postnatal care and immunization
appointments. These alerts are also sent to local level health officials informing them
about due services in the area. Aarogyam also has an in-dial facility where beneficiaries
can call up to inquire about any maternal and infant related health issues and also file
their grievances.
Aarogyam has benefitted more than 1.4 lakh families up to December 2010 in three
districts viz. Baghpat, JP Nagar and GB Nagar of U.P. Two lakh more families will be
benefitted in four other districts where the scheme has been initiated. So far more than
175,000 automated calls and SMS’s have been sent by the system.
Since its development, Aarogyam is bettering not just the reproductive and child
health delivery processes in U.P but is also impacting such processes across the
country. The Aarogyam model became an inspiration behind the implementation of
the Mother and Child Tracking Programme (MCTP) under the NRHM by providing a
workable model to other Indian States for monitoring the delivery of maternal and
child health services.
2 e-Mamta: Mother and Child Information Tracking System, Gujarat

e-Mamta is a citizen-centric service delivery initiative by the Government of Gujarat. It

leverages information and communication technology to track pregnant mothers and
children, and integrates non-recipients of services into the health care system
e-Mamta is a name-based mother and child tracking information management system
designed to facilitate effective citizen-centric service delivery. It was conceived by the
State Rural Health Mission of the Health and Family Welfare department of Gujarat in
January 2010.
The programme adopts an innovative working design that harnesses ICT as a tool to
strengthen primary health care facilities and service delivery in Gujarat. Based on a
case-based tracking software, ‘e-Mamta’ aims at integrating all pregnant mothers and
children as recipients of maternal and child health care services.
The innovative information management tool facilitates the completion and
continuum of health care by identifying the recipients and non recipients of services
and availing necessary services (ante natal care, child birth, post natal care,
immunization, and nutrition, adolescent and family planning services) to the non
recipients on time.
The impact of the initiative has been widespread. Almost 80% of the total population
of Gujarat has been registered into the system. Steps have been adopted by the state
government to converge this information management tool with other national level
policies and programmes with the objective of enhancing their effectiveness.
Moreover, given the success of the programme in Gujarat, NRHM is planning to
implement the project across the country.
The contributions of the initiative to the field public health service delivery has been
recognised and acknowledged nationally. ‘e-Mamta’ has received the NASSCOM
Social Innovation Honour in 2012 and the 15th National e-Governance Award in 2012
for outstanding contributions in citizen-centric delivery.

3 e-Health Point: Transformation of Rural Health Care, Punjab

E-Health Points (EHPs) are units that provide rural and peri-urban households across
five districts of Punjab with access to clean drinking water, medicines, diagnostic tools,
and facilities for efficient and timely healthcare.
Healthpoint Services India (HSI) owns and operates E-Health Points (EHP) in the Malwa
region of Punjab. These units provide clean filtered drinking water, generic medicines,
comprehensive diagnostic services, and advanced tele-medical services to the poor at
subsidized rates.

The chief objective of this initiative is to transform rural & peri-urban healthcare
delivery and subsequently contribute to the realization of the Millennium
Development Goals and India’s National Rural Health Mission.

The E-Health Point model is a for pay model, relying on the efficient use of modern
technologies like rural broadband, tele-medical software, low-cost diagnostical
equipment, and economical water treatment methods. The project's local staff has
been adequately trained to adopt these standardized tools for efficiently delivering
healthcare and water facilities to the people.

Since its inauguration in November 2009, these EHPs have provided more than 33,500
tele-medical consultations and performed about 19,500 diagnostic investigations
along with providing safe drinking water to about 5,00,000 users daily. At present there
are 100 such water points and 8 health points in operation.

By providing rural and peri-urban communities with greater access to high quality
health-care and safe drinking water, EHPs are resulting in better health & well-being,
enhanced productivity and improved standard of living among people in the Malwa
region of Punjab.


4 Improving Maternal and Child Survival in Tamil Nadu

The initiative of Department of Health, Tamil Nadu has brought a drastic reduction in
maternal mortality and improved child health through innovative strategies and
programmes on maternal and infant health policies in the state.
The Health Department with the support from the World Bank and Danish
International Development Agency (DANIDA) worked on a phased manner and were
successful in bringing down the maternal mortality ratio from 380 per 10,000 live births
in 1993 to 90 in 2007. The female infanticide death was also reduced from 3000 per
year in 1970 to 70 in 2007. The procedure involved efficiency in reporting and
monitoring of maternal and infant deaths in the state and later the reports were sent
to the Commissioner for Maternal, Child Health and Welfare within 15 days for
investigation called the Maternal Death Audit. Workshops and Programmes were held
at district and state level related to maternal care and chances of survival of pregnant
women. 24 Hour Primary Health Centres (PHS) were established round the clock to
meet emergencies. Other steps included were setting up of Central Emergency
Obstetric Care and New Born Care, and Birth Companion Programme.
5 Enhancing Access to Affordable Medicines, Rajasthan

To improve the healthcare system in Chittorgarh, the district administration

conceptualised a simple yet effective programme to introduce low cost drugs to the
The Eleventh Five Year Plan recognises access to good quality, low cost medicines as
a priority policy concern. In India, at least three-fourths of the total out-of-pocket
expenditure is spent on buying essential medicines. The problem becomes more
significant because of marketing techniques practiced by pharmaceutical companies,
especially towards influencing doctors to prescribe branded medicines. To change this
trend, the Chittorgarh administration took the initiative to make medicines more easily
The programme exploits existing resources to make the system function in favour of
the people. The following three steps summarize the process of implementation : a)
strictly executing state government orders to prescribe the drugs under salt name, b)
procuring good quality medicines for the government co-ops and c) generating
awareness among consumers.
The Chittorgarh model has proved constructive in improving the public healthcare
system. Overall, the cost of medicines has decreased significantly. There is also
increased accessibility to medicines as the government has established additional low
cost drug shops and government co-op medical shops.
6 Janamanas: Community Mental Health Service

Janamanas, a community healthcare service, works in collaboration with municipalities

and local communities to make mental healthcare more accessible and sustainable.
Anjali Mental Health Rights Organization implemented Janamanas programme to
address the concerns of inadequate mental healthcare and to ensure inclusion of
mental health in the mainstream healthcare services of the government. Major
motivation in introducing this programme is to de-institutionalize mental health
services to make it affordable and accessible to the marginalized section of the
To achieve the objectives, programme focuses on a community mental healthcare
model that provides services through a kiosk managed by local resource-poor women
of the community. An extensive need based mental health care training is provided to
the barefoot workers to address the need of the patients. The programme works
closely with the municipalities to ensure optimal use of available resources, to alter
practices of oppressing treatment and to introduce innovative therapies.
Janamanas seeks to create informed and sensitive citizens through a range of
awareness camps and workshops. Dissemination of relevant and updated information
pertaining to mental health queries, rights and service delivery remain the major focus
of these endeavours.
Through creation of a pool of community mental healthcare professionals it is helping
not only in filling the vacuum of mental health professionals but also generating
employment avenues for resource poor women.
7 Creating Linkages for Blood Donation

Indian Blood Donors, a unique SMS-based helpline, connects voluntary blood donors
with patients through use of the most accessible ICT tool in India.
In India, recurrent instances of road accidents and bomb blasts combined with a high
maternal mortality rate escalates the need for blood in health care services. However,
the insufficient number of government and private blood banks, and high prices of
blood units prompt the need for an easily accessible yet cost effective channel of donor
To address these concerns, Indian Blood Donors (IBD) introduced an initiative to create
a network of registered voluntary donors willing to provide blood to patient’s. Initially,
IBD was a completely web-based project that recorded information of blood donors
online at http://www.indianblooddonors.com/default.asp. Subsequently, the concern
of accessibility inspired launch of SMS Now project. It was established that in a country
with 791.38 million mobile phone users against 81 million internet users the SMS
feature stands as the best option to maximise the level of penetration.
With the help of a simple SMS, the donors register themselves with IBD and their
information is saved in the database. Later, when a patient sends a request for blood
through an SMS, the server automatically triggers a message with relevant details of
nearest donor. Simultaneously, the donor is informed about the blood requirement
through automatic SMS.
The major achievements of the project include its innovative use of a mobile phone,
creation of a pool of voluntary donors, free service, and sharing burden of blood banks
across India.
8 Controlling Sickle Cell Anaemia, Gujarat

A comprehensive three-step approach is used to check the spread of sickle cell

anaemia among the tribal population of Gujarat.
In 2006 the Department of Health and Family Welfare, Government of Gujarat initiated
the Sickle Cell Anaemia Control programme to limit the spread of sickle cell anaemia,
a genetic blood disorder, in the tribal belt of the state.
The Sickle Cell Anaemia Control Programme uses a three fold approach to address
sickle-cell disorder. It involves early screening of patients, administration of treatment
and counselling for preventing and managing the disease. The initiative covers all the
12 tribal districts of Gujarat.
From 2006 till March 2011, a total of 13, 96, 904 tribal people have been screened
under the programme. The screening helped in identifying 10, 673 sickle disease
patients and aided in ensuring that adequate treatment and guidance is delivered to
the victims.
Other states in India where the disease is highly prevalent can learn from Gujarat’s
example and follow its foot steps to launch similar disease control programmes.
9 Dr. SMS: Introducing healthcare through mobile technology in Kerala

An innovative m-governance initiative, Dr SMS was launched by the Kerala State IT

Mission in 2008 with the aim to improve people's access to health care related
information through simple and innovative use of mobile telephony.
One of the primary challenges that restricts people's utilisation of medical services is
the lack of reliable and easily available information related to availability of healthcare
in their immediate locality. Recognising this problem, the Kerala State IT Mission
(KSITM), the technology implementation wing of the Government of Kerala in India,
launched Dr. SMS on 29 May 2008 as a pilot project in Kozhikode district of the state.
Drs SMS is an m-health project that was initiated to improve the health of the citizens
of Kerala by delivering timely and authentic information on health related resources
via short message service (SMS).

The primary objective of this project is to make accessible comprehensive information

on medical and diagnostic facilities and to provide informational alerts about
emerging diseases through mobile phones. To avail this service, users have to send
their query in a preformatted fashion by an SMS to a unique short code number
537252 and within a time frame of 2-3 seconds, they get a return SMS with the
information desired. Other than the SMS channel, web portal catering to the internet
users has also been prepared for delivering the health infrastructure information that
is available at the website - www.drsms.kerala.gov.in.

In a little more than a year of initiation of the preliminary project, Dr. SMS was launched
across the state. The project has been especially helpful for the tourists, serving as a
first aid kit for them as the latter are largely unaware of sources to access in case of a
medical emergency. On an average, this project witnesses 200 transactions in a day.
Since the charges accruing to the users are very nominal, everyone who owns a feature
phone is able to take benefits of this facility. Encouraged by the wide gained popularity
of this initiative, this project that initially started in Kozhikode district has now been
expanded to 13 out of 14 districts of Kerala.


10 Cervical Cancer Early Detection Project, Chennai, Tamilnadu

Under the Cervical Cancer Early Detection Project, Chennai, detection of cervical cancer
through visual inspection has been determined to be less time-consuming,
inexpensive and easy to install.
Cervical cancer is the leading cancer amongst women in India; two out of 12 women
in India have cervical cancer. This document highlights the Corporation of Chennai’s
project to screen rural women for cervical cancer through visual inspection methods.
The Corporation of Chennai launched the programme in April 2008 to detect pre
cancerous lesions in the cervix of women above 30 years of age. This Cancer Early
Detection Project (CED) aims to promote simple, less expensive and less time
consuming screening tests for accurate diagnosis and early detection.
The alternate techniques being used under the programme are Visual Inspection Using
Acetic Acid (VIA) and Visual Inspection with Lugol’s Iodine (VILI). To encourage poor
women to go for check-ups , the health scheme, ‘Well Women check-up’ was initiated,
which includes a collection of tests for diabetes, high blood pressure, anaemia,
screening for Reproductive Tract Infections and Sexually Transmitted infections
(RTI/STI). VIA and VILI are also conducted as a part of the check-up process.

11 Aame Bi Paribu, Mayurbhanj District, Orissa

Malnutrition is widespread in India and out of the total malnourished children in the
world, one-third children are from India. As per NFHS-3 (2005-06) survey, Orissa had
44 percent malnourished children in the age group of 0-3 years, slightly less than the
national average (46%). The problem of malnutrition is not only limited to the supply
of nutrition, but also has psycho-social and cultural roots. Internal causes such as
cooking and feeding practices, and hygiene also contribute to malnutrition. Hence,
behaviour change is needed at the individual and community level.
Government of Orissa initiated Aame Bi Paribu (We can do it too) project in
Mayurbhanj district from July 2004. Gradually, the programme was expanded to cover
all blocks of the State.
The Positive Deviance approach is based on the fact that even in the poorest
communities, there are some healthy children (Positively Deviant) with better nutrition
status. The Positive Deviance approach seeks to identify the feeding, health, hygiene
and psycho-social practices of mothers in the community with positively deviant
children and transmit them to other mothers through a community based approach,
using locally available resources.
The main focus of the Positive Deviance approach is on identifying the normal and
malnourished children who belong to the same socio-economic group in a
village/hamlet (positively deviant children). The local community is involved in a survey
for identifying positive deviants and malnourished children.
Nutrition Counseling and Childcare Sessions are conducted in the Anganwadi. The
session camps are used for mobilizing the mothers and caregivers of the malnourished
children. The Positive Deviant behaviour pattern (that is, rearing, caring and feeding
practices of mothers of positively deviant children) is readily found to be acceptable,
affordable and sustainable by the community, as these mothers are already practicing
them. By way of highlighting the rearing and caring practices of positively deviant
children, and by disseminating them to the mothers and caregivers of the
malnourished children, confidence is built in the minds of the parents/caregivers that
‘we too can’ tackle the problem of malnutrition.
Cooking demonstration are given in these Session. Locally available food items are
collected, and mothers and caregivers learn to cook the collected items in different
manners so as to make food which is more nutritious. Following this, the children are
fed in the sessions. This training gives hands- on experience. Discussions are held
about good feeding practices. Through the Nutrition Counseling and Childcare
Sessions, emphasis is also given on health, hygiene and psycho-social care of the
After the training session for 12 days, mothers and caregivers follow the cooking
methods and other health and hygiene practices for the remaining 18 days of the
month at their home. During this period, the AWWs and supervisors do the follow-up
through home visits. The follow-up helps to sustain the gains achieved.
Children are weighed regularly and the cycle of Nutrition Counseling and Childcare
Session is continued until children below one year gain at least 200-300 gm/month for
at least three consecutive months. Children (1-3 years) with malnutrition Grade II, III
and IV gain weight and move up to grade I of malnutrition.
Achievements –
 In September 2007, the programme covered more than 3000 Anganwadi
centres spread across all the districts of Orissa.
 Improvement in the nutritional status of children.
 Reduction in malnutrition levels.

(Page 32-36)

12 Indira Bal Swasthya Yojana, Hariyana

Government of Haryana has initiated Indira Bal Swasthya Yojana (IBSY) under National
Rural Health Mission (NRHM). IHBY aims to provide free preventive and curative
healthcare to the under-18 population, with focus on disease, disability and deficiency.
The scheme seeks to cover all the children in anganwadis (child-and mother care
centres) and government schools.
Screenings are conducted in Anganwadi centres and Schools (1-12 Standards). School
teachers have been engaged in screening activity in schools because they know their
students very well. In the initial phase, to build capacity of Anganwadi workers and
Teachers trainings were carried out. Registers were given for documentation. Thus
students requiring referral were identified.
After the screenings, health check-up camps, involving medical and paramedical staff,
were organised. Parents were informed in advance about the date and time of the
health camps and also about the ailments their children were suffering from. Owing to
the shortage of doctors, dental surgeons were made part of check-up teams. The
children requiring further treatment were referred to the relevant health facility, such
as the Primary Health Centre (PHC), Community Health Centre (CHC) or the district

ISBY covered population of 38 lakh and made huge impact through preventive
diseases. Children with diseases like skin diseases, tuberculosis, heart disease, juvenile
diabetes etc. were identified and were referred for further treatment. Screening also
helped to take corrective measures like Iron and Folic Acid tablet , distribution,
deworming, assistance for children with disability.

(Page 161-165)
13 Mitanin –Community Health Worker Programme, Chhattisgarh

The Mitanin programme was born out of this dialogue between the State Government
and civil society. Mitanin in Chhattisgarhi language means a female friend. The
programme is aimed at, improving the community health through preventive and
promotive measures, generating demand for health services from peoples’ side by way
of sensitizing community that ‘Health is a Right’.
Different mass communication strategies such as performances by local kalajathas (art
groups), radio serials and other communication channels were used to mobilise the
local communities. In all, 292 kalajathas from the State participated in community
mobilisation, with each kalajatha performing awareness programmes in about 90
villages/hamlets. The local communities were sensitized about the Mitanin programme
as well as on various health issues. Since kalajathas used local art forms and performed
in local dialects, these programmes proved effective in giving the messages to rural
masses. A 14-part radio serial with Mitanin as the central theme was beamed at peak
hours from all five radio stations in the State. The programmes were initially made in
Chhattisgarhi language and later in the local tribal dialects.
Selection of Mitanin was done in the Gram Sabha. The hamlet/village communities
were well informed about the programme, the expected role of the Mitanin, and the
role of community in the selection process.
The main responsibility of a Mitanin was to provide preventive and promotive
healthcare by generating awareness in the community by way of organizing meetings,
training and counseling sessions on various issues related to health. The curative care
was only limited to treatment of minor ailments. Mitanins were given residential
training for 18 to 25 days that spread over the period of 18 months along with on-the-
job training for 30 days. In total, 10 modules of training had been prepared.
Mitanins worked purely on voluntary basis. They were not paid any honorarium either
by the Government or by the community. However, to compensate for the loss of
livelihood during the training sessions, they were paid honorarium on training days.
Achievements :
 About 60,092 Mitanins had been selected in the entire state and have
undergone training for
different modules.
 About 2,920 Mitanin trainers and 427 District Resource Persons (most of whom
are women) were providing training and guidance to the Mitanins, and also
monitoring their activities at the grassroots level.
 There was increased outreach, as Mitanins were functioning in a large number
of hamlets covering the entire State.
 The Mitanins were sensitizing community about healthcare as their right.
 The Mitanins provide preventive care, antenatal care, postnatal care, child care
and first contact curative care along with health counseling. They also made
referrals of emergency cases to appropriate health facilities within public health
set up.
 The awareness created by Mitanin has resulted in generating demand for health
 Mitanins sensitized Gram Panchayats on health issues and low health
attainments as reflected in health indicators, and ensured their participation in
development of Swasthya Panchayat Yojana.
 Some Mitanins have also taken initiatives in the area of education, PDS and
other development activities.

(Page 18-23)

14 Mo Masari – Malaria Prevention Programme in Orissa

Mo Masari is a successful malaria prevention initiative implemented by the
Government of Odisha to protect pregnant women and children in malaria endemic
districts of Odisha.
Malaria is rampant in Odisha. It is high endemic state and has had a higher Annual
Parisitic Incidence (API) of 9.3 compared to the rest of India. In 2010 the state
accounted for 20% of malaria cases, 33% of falciparum malaria (a more dangerous
type of the disease) cases and 25% of all malaria deaths reported in the country.
Intervention : To prevent the spread of malaria especially among pregnant women and
children under 5 years of age following measures were taken –
 Promoting use of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) by pregnant women
and children
 LLINs distributed through Gaon Kalyan Samitis (GKS) using the cluster approach
 Promoting use of insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITMNs)
 Early diagnosis and complete treatment (EDCT) through establishment of fever
treatment depots (FTDs) and sentinel surveillance
 Indoor residual spray (IRS)
 Anti-larval measures, including source reduction measures
As part of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), Seventeen clusters across 26
high-endemic districts of Odisha were identified and approximately 19 lakh LLINs were
distributed in 2009–2010. Under the scheme, pregnant women received family sized
LLINs, in which the mother, the new-born child and at least one other child can sleep.
The nets distributed to pregnant women were blue in colour so that families could
easily distinguish these from the household’s other LLINs, which were milk white in
colour. The residents at tribal schools and orphanages received individual-sized nets.
Cost of each LLIN for pregnant women was Rs. 217/-.

Robust Information Education Communication (IEC) and Behaviour Change

Communication (BCC) campaigns were organised to promote the use of LLINs and
their maintenance. Handmade posters and pamphlets were distributed to promote the
use of LLINs. Van campaign (chariot called Nidhi Ratha) and folk theatre were also used
to promote the message. In tribal areas, traditional methods such as drum beating,
Interpersonal Communication (IPC) were used. Teachers and students at tribal schools
were sensitized. A comic booklet in Odiya language was also prepared specifically for
Impact : Almost 84% women received LLINs during the distribution phase, and 89%
reported sleeping under LLINs during pregnancy. Following the distribution, up to
99.5% pregnant women had retained the LLINs with them.
(Page 173-178)

15 Improving Access to Health Care through Strategic Incentives, Assam

Mamata has been initiated to address the issue of high maternal mortality rate (MMR).
An estimated 21.5% of Assam’s maternal population does not undergo delivery in
health facilities, which increases their vulnerability to disease and death. There are also
barriers to receiving postpartum care.
Mamata incentivizes mothers to remain at the health facility for 48 hours after delivery
to receive postpartum care. The initiative, thus, has two positive consequences Firstly,
it provides direct health benefits to the newborn, and secondly, it serves as a
conditional reward that empowers mothers to insist that they remain in the hospital
for at least 48 hours, thereby receiving the requisite postpartum care.
The mother is entitled to the baby kit only after she completes the stipulated 48-hour
stay at the health facility after delivery. Entries are made in hospital records when the
mothers come in. After discharge, the baby kit, containing mosquito nets, blankets,
baby cream, baby oil, soap, cotton cloth and baby powder can be obtained from the
hospital store after showing the discharge certificate and signing in the Mamata
Morom has been initiated for the poorer sections of society in general and daily wage
workers in particular weaker sections of society. Particularly casual labourers, avoid
seeking healthcare as it costs them their daily wages. Ailments are ignored, causing a
negative impact on overall health. Morom seeks to compensate for the wage loss
suffered during the period of hospitalization. The incentive amount varies depending
on the type of public health facility. For example, while an indoor patient admitted to
any of the medical colleges in Assam would receive Rs. 75/day for a maximum of seven
days, the patients admitted to district hospitals and CHCs/PHCs receive an amount of
Rs. 50/day and Rs. 30/ day, respectively, for a maximum of five days.When patients are
discharged, their discharge slip is cross verified with hospital records and the relevant
amount is disbursed through cash and cheque. A total of 117,181 patients have
benefitted in 2013–2014, with approximately Rs. 3.5 crore being disbursed.

(Page 179-183)

16 Child Disability Screening and Treatment, Hoshangabad, Madhya Pradesh

Samarpan, in Madhya Pradesh, is a unique intervention conceptualized for the early

identification, screening, treatment and rehabilitation of children with developmental
delay or physically disability.
Globally, birth defects occur in six to seven out of every 100 babies born annually. In
the Indian context, birth defects account for 9.6% of all new born deaths. There is a
clearly visible policy gap in addressing issues of disability among children in India.
Trainings were organized for ASHAs and AWWs. in September 2011, AWWs and ASHAs
conducted door-to-door survey for identifying children with development delays.
Apart from the above mentioned activities, the survey data was fed into a software
called Vatsalya, which was developed through the resources of the WCD Department
in 2009-10.

The Vatsalya software enables collation of a monthly measurement history of each and
every child of the district and calculates Age-To-Weight, Wasting, Stunting and Mid-
Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) grading automatically. This data is very useful for
any clinical examination
The Samarpan facility was set up to provide a comprehensive range of services
including medical services for preventive health and immunization to women, along
with child services for ensuring proper nutrition and development of children. The
facility also provided services such as neurological assessment, physiotherapy,
occupational therapy, psychological services, and cognitive development support for
socialization, vision, speech, language and hearing.
After the survey potential cases of development delay were identified. In order to
enable the children and their parents to visit the Samarpan facility, transportation for
children and their parents was also arranged. The identified children were then
recommended for specialised intervention with training given to their care-givers, as
well as mothers and AWWs as required, for ensuring that home-based interventions
are also provided.

As of March 2014, a total of 1,05,550 children were screened by AWWs using the
Samarpan screening test in Hoshangabad. The process helped identify 2,311 children
with delay in attaining development milestones. Under this programme, 941 children
were examined in the Samarpan facility out of which 599 children were identified as
requiring intervention by the specialists.
(Page 239-245)

1 Ghogha Rural Drinking Water Supply Project, Gujarat

The Ghogha Rural Drinking Water Supply Project is a demand driven initiative to
develop a sustainable water supply and improve sanitation in the rural areas of the
coastal Ghogha Region of Gujarat.
This project was the first ever participatory sector reform model of the government of
Gujarat. The objective of the project was to achieve sustainability in rural water supply
and sanitation through decentralisation and community involvement in conception,
operation and maintenance of the project.
Ghogha Project was started in the year 1997. It was implemented in Bhavnagar,
Ghogha and Talaja blocks of Bhavnagar district covering an area of about 614 sq. km.
82 villages were included in the project with an estimated population of 2, 00,000
according to 2001 census.
The project was successful in facilitating dual source of water supply in villages,
enhancing the quality of water, providing household piped water connection and also
managing water resources for sustainable use. Other important components of the
project were to improve sanitation and hygiene practices in the region. Waste water
disposal system, latrines and sanitation units were constructed for the purpose.
The project was unique in its approach as it institutionalised the decentralised
participatory model in development projects in Gujarat. Active participation of NGOs,
formation of community mandated pani samitis and inclusion of women ensured
meaningful participation and effective decentralisation of resources and
responsibilities in the project. The project was a success as it was built on mutual trust
and invoked a strong sense of ownership among the community.
Ghogha experience resulted in the formation of Water and Sanitation Management
Organisation (WASMO), a crucial organisation of the government of Gujarat that is
promoting community participation in the water sector beyond Ghogha.

2 Water supply for informal settlements, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand

JUSCO's initiative, in Jamshedpur, aims to connect the urban poor residing in the
informal settlements to adequate water supply network at an affordable cost.
The Jamshedpur Utilities and Services Company (JUSCO) was set up in the industrial
city of Jamshedpur as a wholly owned subsidiary of Tata Steel in 2004. JUSCO is a one-
stop utility service provider in water sector and waste water management,
construction, municipal solid waste management, horticulture, integrated facility
management and power sector. JUSCO's initiative in slum areas was selected as a best
practice because of its unique model of a private sector undertaking providing citizen
centric services to the urban poor while ensuring profitability and sustainability of the
This initiative was triggered when the community expressed their disagreement at the
state government’s decision to constitute a municipal corporation in the industrial
township. In response to the local preference, JUSCO started its pilot project in two
slum areas on citizen corporate partnership basis. After successful completion of the
pilot project JUSCO utilised its learning to upscale the project in all other informal
settlements across the township. Keeping in mind the feasibility of low income
households a unique shared cost model was developed by the organisation. While
JUSCO at its own cost undertook the back-end investment, the customers paid the
connection charges in installments. Though initially a flat rate system was introduced,
the metered tariff regime took over the operation subsequently.
For continuous improvement of service delivery standards JUSCO undertook several
measures such as periodic free chlorine test, following ISO 9001 and 14001,
implementation of Total Productive Maintenance, technical tie up with world’s largest
supplier of water services- Veolia Water, and establishment of a round the clock
customer complaint centre etc. The success of this initiative is largely based on its
bottom up approach as a part of which JUSCO has involved the communities in every
step of planning, implementation, financing and monitoring. Another highlight of this
initiative is its success in reducing the huge volume of non revenue water and
redistribution of these in the unserved areas.
This initiative has provided close to 13,000 water connections since 2005–2009
covering a population of 90,000 people across slum pockets of the city that have been
deprived of such service for more than 50 years. In the year 2008 JUSCO won the
prestigious Global Water Intelligence Award and in 2009 the Japan Institute of Plant
Management (JIPM) Award for TPM excellence.

3 No More Worries for Water, Yavatmal, Maharashtra

The residents of Yavatmal come together to solve their drinking water problem. With
crowd funding to aid their effort, the result is inspiring.
Nilona dam, Yavatmal
Located 10 km from the Yavatmal city in Maharashtra, the Nilona reservoir has been
the primary drinking water source for its residents since 1972. In 1990s city growth led
to acute drinking water shortage. In 2014, household water supply brought down from
64 million litres to 32 million litres per week.

Due to soil washing into the lake, capacity of the lake was reduced to just one third.
To resolve this crisis, residents of Yavatmal came together and mobilized people to
work for the revival of the dam.

In 2014, the motivated residents, along with Prayas, an NGO, decided to repair the
check dams connected to the Nilona dam as the first step to cleaning up the dam. In
April 2015, government departments like the PWD, the district council, the municipal
council, the forest department, Maharashtra Jeevan Pradhikaran and more joined
hands with the Prayas group to desilt the dam. After the repair work, the storage
capacity of the check dams improved. The group also motivated people to plant trees
in the catchment areas to stop soil erosion. Survey of farmers who were interested in
procuring the silt from the Nilona dam was carried out. Silt was provided to more than
300 farmers free of cost.

By 2015, about 35,000 cubic metres of the 6.3 million cubic metres of silt clogging
Nilona was removed. The work was crowd funded. Help also came in the form of
dredgers, trucks and labour that were given for free. Result? The government
estimated the cost of digging canals was Rs 25 million but MDN managed to dig the
canal at just Rs 3.8 million. More than 12,000 people volunteered to clear grass, weeds,
pebbles and mud. In 2016, the MDN had removed another 2,46,000 cubic meters of

The efforts have been successful in mobilizing students, residents of Yavatmal, the
NGOs in the region and the government departments for conserving water and
environment. This initiative has also successful in bridging the gap between the
government departments and the people.

After the initiation of MDN’s work two years ago, residents are getting water supply
till May. The frequency of water supply, the quality of water has also improved to some

4 Closing the loop, Banglore Rural District, Karnataka

A village near Bengaluru sets an example of waste water use by innovatively using the
reject water from a community RO plant installed to eliminate fluoride contamination.

The RO plant in Sonnahallipura village.

With a total population of 1200, Sonnahallipura village in Hoskote taluk of Bangalore
rural district has 250 homes. This village was chosen by the Rotary Club of Bangalore,
Indiranagar to start a micro-credit programme for 10 women’s self-help groups (SHG)
and a low-cost sanitary napkin manufacturing unit.

Local representatives were appointed in many areas like water, waste management
and health to encourage participation and ownership from the community. These local
champions worked as coordinators and also leveraged public funding and schemes as
much as possible.

The water in this village tested positive for fluoride, with levels found to be above
permissible limits for human consumption. Fluoride in water causes a health condition
called fluorosis, of which there are two types-- dental and skeletal. Fluoride-
contaminated water needs treatment to avoid the adverse health impacts from
prolonged consumption.

The local MLA agreed to fund a borewell in Sonnahallipura, which fortunately struck
water at the first drilling attempt. A Reverse Osmosis (RO) plant was also set up under
the S. K. Patil scheme to purify water from the borewell. Thus, public funds and systems
were used to put the hardware in place to ensure a safe, secure source of water for the

What remained to be addressed was the issue of wastewater management. About 30%
of the output from RO plants is reject water, which is a challenge to deal with safely.
The quantity of reject water is much more that if let into the ground or storm water
drains, it can contaminate soil and groundwater, causing other long-term problems.

Innovative use of wastewater

In Sonnahallipura, the RO plant was conveniently located across, not one, but two brick
kilns. Following advice from water experts, it was a simple process to divert the
wastewater to the brick kiln and prevent the concentrated-fluoride wastewater from
compromising the groundwater quality. In this case, the brick kiln utilised the
wastewater from the RO to make bricks.
The villagers set up the system with the involvement of the two brick kiln owners. They
took a pipe across the pond and attached it to a tank, and then pumped it up to the
brick factory's Sintex water storage tank which was on a slightly higher ground. From
there, the water is now utilised in making bricks. The villagers are happy with the
system and to have saved their drinking water.

For now, Sonnahallipura is one village that is responsibly managing its RO wastewater.
The (fluoride-concentrated) wastewater from the new community water purification
plant is piped, pumped and collected to supply water to make bricks at the nearby kiln.
Zero contamination. Zero wastage.

5 Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting at School Reduces Absenteeism, Chhattisgarh

The film “Rainwater Harvesting: From books to fields”, showcases how rooftop
rainwater harvesting can also bring about social and economic change.

Rainwater harvesting tank at Madiya Kachar village school

Chhattisgarh ranked number 1 in the country for providing domestic water
connections in 2014-15 under the National Rural Drinking Water Programme
(NRDWP). Despite this, the government has failed to provide safe and clean drinking
water to many who are still affected by fluoride, arsenic and iron contamination. 17
out of 27 districts, which includes 592 villages, show fluorosis as one of the major
public health problems. 1700 government schools in Chhattisgarh don't even have
basic water facilities in the villages.

Rooftop rainwater harvesting is the technique through which rainwater is captured

from the roof and stored for use later. Harvested rainwater can be stored in sub-surface
groundwater reservoirs or in storage tanks. The system has many advantages.

Rooftop rainwater harvesting in Chhattisgarh

A rooftop rainwater harvesting model was constructed by Samerth at Madiya Kachar
village in Bilaspur district to combat the contaminated water that the community,
which was predominantly the Baiga tribe, had access to. The model structure had a
capacity of 66,000 litres and was set up at the primary school building at Madiya
Kachar. The school was chosen for the following reasons:
 The number of school going children at Madiya Kachar was higher than those
at nearby schools.

 Iron contamination was highest in the village.

 The dropout rate of school going children was rising rapidly due to the non-
availability of drinking water within the school premises.

 The drinking water source was 1km away from the school building.

A village committee was formed and the school and Anganwadi staff were trained in
order to maintain and monitor this rainwater harvesting structure. The villagers now
have access to clean and safe drinking water, and are also not dealing as much with
scarcity. Neighbouring villages are trying to replicate this model due to it being
The film “Rainwater Harvesting: From books to field”, provides an overview of how
rooftop rainwater harvesting when implemented properly can also bring about social
and economic change.

6 From Water Scarcity to Security, Maharashtra

Manayali village in Maharashtra not only became water secure but also managed to
provide a solution to a small Banjara community that lives 3 km away from it – through
community participation.

Manyali residents testing water from their well

Santosh Gavale, a resident of Manyali village in Umarkhed tehsil of Yavatmal district,
is a happy man now. The village, which has faced an increasing water crisis over the
years, is now water sufficient because it manages its water resources well and shares it
Manyali village experienced severe drinking water scarcity with depleting water
resources. Every year, the Gram Panchayat had to intervene and manage the water
availability in the village by taking control of wells and restricting excessive withdrawal
of water from the wells.

Santosh realized that there was a need to find a solution to the water crisis in the
village, a need also acutely felt by the other residents in the village. After some village
meetings, the community agreed to contribute in terms of labour for digging the well.
A 30 feet deep dug-well was constructed in 2011. Initial water tests revealed the safe
quality of water for drinking and domestic use.

In order to set up equitable water distribution system of pump and pipes, a voluntary
contribution of Rs. 1000 was collected from the families. A pipe was put up across the
village and about 9 valves were fitted. Each valve had about 12 to 15 faucets and the
water was supplied through these valves.

Manyali residents with the installed water supply pipe system

Today, the water is supplied though these 135 faucets in the village, which is then
used for drinking, domestic and livestock use. Each year, every family contributes Rs.
500 towards the operation and maintenance cost of the water supply system. As a
result of this, very few people have taken private borewells. Hand-pumps provided by
the government are not used anymore.

Although the problem of water supply for the village was resolved, that for the tanda
was not. The tanda being 3 km away from the village, it was very costly to cover it
under the water supply from the same well. The tanda currently had one community
drinking water well, but it was not sufficient for year long supply of drinking and
domestic water.

It was decided that a new well would be constructed near the boundary of the village
and the forest, and the work would be taken up through MGNREGA. The residents
contributed to this initiative as labourers and the new well was taken up. For the past
three years, the government has stopped giving grants to the village to address the
drinking water situation since the village has become self-sufficient.


7 Women Participation in Swajaldhar Programme, Valsad District, Gujarat

Village Dungri in Valsad district was facing acute shortage of water. Water system
constructed in village had worn out, pipelines were damaged and some areas were not
getting water due to uneven pressure.

Village Sarpanch Pravinaben decided to take help under Swajaldhara Programme. She
called Gramsabha and explained the programme. Gramsabha gave approval and Pani
Samiti was formed comprising 9 women and 4 elderly members. She created
confidence among women and pursued them to get community contribution. Scheme
was also extended to neighbouring faliya (hamlet)

Today water scheme is running successfully and water is provided to 15000 population
two times in a day with even pressure.

Pravinaben has earned respect for her and her family from the villagers. Given a chance
women could do the development with great efficiency and enthusiasm.


8 All women’s Pani Samitis, Varshamedi village – Kutch, Gujarat

After lot of consultations in Gram Sabha the Sarpanch Shri Sajubha Jadeja expressed
that if women of the village were ready to take up decentralised water supply
programme in the village, he would hand it over to them. Few of the active women
offered to be the members of the Pani Samiti, constituted an all women members Pani
Samiti in the village and elected Sitaben as chairperson. Each hamlet had a
representative and took up the responsibilities of collecting contribution from each
household. The difficult task gradually moulded them in to an efficient team, and they
not only collected contribution from each household but efficiently managed the office
work including dealing with bank. They grew in confidence as the work progressed
and ensured quality construction work, by active supervision. They are proud of their
achievements, and enthusiastically show their work to Pani Samitis members visiting
from other villages. Their example has motivated others. Sitaben says, “We have learnt
to take lead in other development work, we are confident that we are building our
children’s future. We have changed the behaviour of men towards us. ”


9 Sustainable solutions: Recharging aquifers and solar pumps

Dadamapar, a small village in Abdasa taluka of Kutch district has a population of 70

and the total number of households is 50. The daily water requirement of the village
is 5000 liters. The village is connected with the Koniyari water supply scheme, a fairly
regular source and an old open well that yields sufficient water of potable quality for
drinking purposes also serves as a source of water. Each household is connected with
the storage tank. As a common facility, the village has a storage tank of 10,000 liters
capacity connected with stand post and cattle trough. The Pani Samiti of the village
efficiently manages the distribution system. The present pumping system consists of a
10 HP diesel pump lifting water from dynamic head of 17 meters. The committee
collects Rs.40/- per month from each household and recovers the expense of fuel,
maintenance and salary of the operator through this tariff.
However, in drought years the yield of the source reduces. Given this situation,
recharging of the aquifer was taken up under in order to make the source sustainable.
A pond, which serves as the recharging area for the well was observed to retain water
for only a couple of months. The pit had thick layer of clay, which did not allow water
to percolate and most of the rainwater collected in pond used to get evaporated,
leaving the well dry. This layer of clay was broken to expose a layer of coarse-grained
sandstone below, which allowed rapid percolation of water. After the rains in 2006,
although it took only a few days for the pond to dry up, the positive side was that all
the water collected got percolated into the aquifer below, recharging it completely.
To overcome the problem of erratic water supply, the village community has also gone
in for the installation of solar pump and has made a ten per cent community
contribution towards this as per the guidelines of the ERR programme. The system
consists of a solar PV of capacity 640 Wp and a submersible pump of 0.75 HP, with a
water discharge capacity of 20,000 litres. The system was installed at a total cost of Rs.
4.23 lakhs. The training provided by ISAs to villagers is proving to be effective as the
villagers now easily operate the solar water pump, and also find it convenient and time
saving as compared to diesel pumps.
Dinesh Bhanushali, a member of Pani Samiti in Dadampar, says, “Earlier, in summer we
had to ensure that some one constantly monitors the pump near the well. Also,
running the pump for long meant heavy expenditure. But now, after 271 families in the
village contributed to get a solar pump, we will not have to worry about supply of
water or rising price of diesel.”


10 Community Mobilisation in a Tribal Community for Sanitation Behaviour

Change, Orissa
Bagchema is a small revenue village with 32 households, all of whom belong to the
Mudli and Jani tribes. Their main source of income is agriculture or construction labour.
More than 90 per cent of the community lives below the poverty line (BPL), with an
overall daily income per household of not more than Rs 100. The village was taken up
as a demonstration site for Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) on behaviour
change among the tribal community. The initiative was started on November 10, 2009,
by the facilitating agency, along with the village Sarpanch. Open defecation was found
to be the norm among everybody, including women and children. Water borne
diseases were common due to water contamination.
After some initial rapport-building, triggering was undertaken on November 12 in the
presence of all households, using various trigger tools (defecation mapping,
demonstration of oral faecal transmission, faeces ingested by people, calculation of
faeces, cost/expenditure of illness, and respect of women). The triggering led to the
villagers realizing and acknowledging their situation, and collectively vowing to stop
open defecation. Natural leaders emerged from among the villagers, declaring that
nobody would leave open their faeces. The excited natural leaders came forward
spontaneously to dig leach pits and line it with clay, in only three-and-a-half hours,
helped enthusiastically by their friends.
Intensive Follow-up : Four of the natural leaders were ready the next day at 4 am. Two
teams (‘Nigrani Committees’) were formed to monitor the two main defecation sites.
On the first day of field visits, the teams met with 50 per cent success. Within six days,
the entire village had stopped open defecation; in the next 10 days, all the villagers
constructed their own no-cost leach pit toilets, without any external support. Since the
natural leaders had already demonstrated how to build the no-cost toilet with good
superstructure, it served as a model for others to follow suit. There was a ceremonious
‘launch’ of the new toilets with a ribbon-cutting ceremony, where all villagers promised
to stop their current practices and start a civilized existence.
The intervention was started in November 2009. Following the promises made during
the triggering phase, everyone, including children, is now using their self-built toilets
for defecation. ‘Nigrani Committees’ persisted with the early morning follow-ups for
one month afterwards, armed with their whistles. The whistle served as a reminder to
those who still went for open defecation to cover their excreta and start digging pits
in their house.
(Page 15-16)

11 Improving Quality of Life, Bhalui Grampanchayat, Bihar

The Bhalui Panchayat, under the Rajapakar block of Vaishali district in Bihar, is a village
with 1,915 households. The strategy to motivate the community included meetings
with households; Panchayati Raj Institutions’ (PRI) training; Village Water and
Sanitation Committee (VWSC) orientation; formation and orientation of Child
Cabinet/Bal Sansad and Meena Manch; and orientation of anganwadi and Accredited
Social Health Activists (ASHA) and workers. Other participatory activities such as
sanitation mapping, village contact drive, rallies, mass awareness campaigns and video
shows were also undertaken.
This has made the village free from open defecation, with all families using their toilet;
led to an improvement in hand washing; and resulted in school toilets being used by
children and maintained by Child Cabinet and Vidyalay Shiksha Samiti; and
improvement in safe garbage management and liquid waste management.
The achievement of open defecation free status has made the Panchayat take the
initiative and pass the resolution that, from the 12th Finance Commission Fund, the
Panchayat will maintain the water supply system and repair and maintain hand pumps
for the regular supply of safe drinking water. The Panchayat has continued with other
developmental activities, such as using the National Rural
Employment Guarantee Act to desilt and improve embankment of the village pond to
create 2,000 man days, test 100 per cent drinking water sources, and get all the village
wells cleaned up and disinfected by bleaching powder, with community effort.

(Page 12)
12 Community Surveillance of Water Sources and Sanitation Practices,
Sunderkhal gram panchayat (GP) in Uttarakhand is an excellent example of community
ownership in water quality monitoring and surveillance, as also sanitation behaviour
change. The following practices are practiced by the villagers –
 Water Source in the Grampanchayat are tested for bacteriological
contamination. Necessary remedial measures are undertaken as per
requirement using bleaching powder/chlorine tablets, etc.
 Once a year sanitary survey is conducted by the community. Based on the
survey findings, protection measures like repair, white wash, cleaning or
protection of various structures of water sources are undertaken. The
community contributes Rs 10/month/household. At times, community
members also contribute voluntary labour.
 To prevent waterborne diseases, almost all the households drink boiled or
filtered water.
 Ladles are used for taking out water from pitchers.
 Proper drainage has been constructed for disposing wastewater.
 Village became Open Defecation free in 13 days. Nobody defecates in the open
in Sunderkhal. The GP imposes Rs. 50/- fine on defaulters.
 All the schools1, anganwadi centre and other community buildings (Panchayat
Bhawan, sub-centre of health department) have toilets that are properly
maintained. To solve the problem of water shortage (for use in toilets) in the
inter college, a rule has been formed, with the consent of students/parents, that
every student would bring half-a-litre extra water which would be poured in a
big container put near the toilets in the school.
 Hand washing with soap/ash and water after defecation and before meals is
being practiced by students and community members.
 Four garbage bins have been installed by the GP at main locations.
 There are about 75 compost or vermi-compost pits in the village for safe
disposal of cow-dung and other biodegradable waste. Non-biodegradable
waste is either sold to rag pickers or buried in pits.
 A user water supply and sanitation committee (UWSSC), which is responsible
for overseeing water and sanitation in the village, has been formed in the

(Page 26-28)
13 From Sanitation to Governance, Gudur Grampanchayat, Andhra Pradesh
Gudur is a small gram panchayat (GP) in Musthabad Mandal of Karimnagar district of
Andhra Pradesh, with 256 households and a population of 1,013. The majority of the
people are agriculturists and agricultural labour. Triggered by the motivational efforts
of the district authorities, the village eradicated open defecation in the village during
2007 and marched towards achieving many other goals. Some of these achievements
by the GP, in partnership with women’s self help groups, youth clubs and informal
leaders are:
• Achieving open defecation free status by 2007.
• Banning smoking, as well as consumption of gutka and liquor, in the village.
• Proper management of solid and liquid management in the village.
• Water purification plant with public contribution. It has been maintained by
women’s self help groups – 20 litres of purified water is available to the people
only for Re 1.
• Conducting gram sabhas every month with more than 90 per cent attendance.

Awards : Gudur’s GP was honoured with the Nirmal Gram Puraskar, for promoting
good sanitation and hygiene practices, by the Department of Drinking Water Supply,
Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India, in 2008. It was also selected for
Shubram 2008 Award. District level 1st prize, which is presented by the state
government of Andhra Pradesh.
(Page 29-30)
14 Model for Community Participation, Andhra Pradesh

Ramachandrapur is a gram panchayat (GP), in Karimnagar district of Andhra Pradesh,

with 447 households. It has achieved the distinction of being the first GP in the state
that has received the Nirmal Gram Puraskar (NGP ). Each and every house has a safe
toilet; more than 90 per cent households have access to individual tap connections.
By ensuring the convergence of various programmes, the GP has ensured that every
family has a pucca (permanent) house, and the village has been declared as a ‘hut
free’ village. Achieving total sanitation was the first step towards development. A few
of the other achievements made by the community, are:
• The entire population has consented to donate their eyes after death – 21
people’s eyes have been collected and sight given to 42 persons.
• There is proper management of solid waste in the village. The GP has
procured necessary equipment such as tricycles and dust bins, and manages a
vermicompost unit.
• Every household has either a leach pit or kitchen garden to maintain liquid
waste (wastewater treatment).
• Every individual (who is eligible) in the village is insured.
• There are well-maintained roads with gardens on either side of the road and
proper street lighting.

The village has adopted ‘Mini Cabinet’ style of administration. It was in tune with the
Gandhian model of rural development that the GP introduced the mini cabinet
concept. Under this, ward members were made “ministers” responsible for particular
portfolios. The strategy worked and each minister worked hard for the success of the
projects given to him or her. The village also created a record when all of its 2,100
residents volunteered to donate their eyes.
Supply chain for sanitation programme: The GP coordinated with the suppliers of
sanitary materials – like pans, pipes, pre-fabricated doors, etc – in the market and
ensured bulk supply delivered to the village at reasonable prices. Some of the
materials, like sand, were collected from sand quarries collectively by the community
using their tractors and voluntary labour. Everybody participated in the activities.
Most households manufactured or moulded the bricks themselves, which helped in
further reducing the cost of the materials.

(Page 31-32)
15 WASMO, Gujarat
The persistent and pervasive scarcity of potable water necessitated augmentation of
Gujarat’s water supply system. Aiming to replenish water resources in Gujarat and
achieve sustainability in rural water supply, the Government of Gujarat established an
autonomous organisation known as WASMO in 2002. WASMO was tasked with
facilitating a community-managed water supply programme in all 26 districts of the
WASMO took a demand-driven decentralised approach and worked closely with the
village communities and their representatives to identify needs and design the
programme and its implementation process. While the village community contributed
to the planning, implementation and maintenance of the village water supply system,
the government took up the responsibility for policy formation, monitoring and
evaluation and financial support.
WASMO adopted a community-managed, demand driven, decentralized approach for
the rural water supply programme. The programme has been implemented in three
cycles. The first cycle, lasting three to six months, involved mobilizing the community;
the second cycle involved execution and completion of the project, which takes 12
months; and the third cycle is the post implementation and follow-up phase, lasting
12 months. Pani Samitis at village level are formed who look after planning and
implementation of the water supply programme. Pani Samitis comprise of 10-12
members who are trained for financial and technical matters. Water tariff is decided by
the Pani Samiti. These Pani Samitis are answerable to Gram Sabhas.
The programme has successfully met its objective of bringing drinking water supply to
the doorstep of rural Gujarat. WASMO has established a financially sustainable model
for water provision that is successful in providing reliable, efficient and regular
operations, by facilitating the development of in village water supply systems. The
programme has been successful in maintaining good quality of water, providing
household-level tap water connection and promoting sustainable use of water

(Pages 249-254)

16 Linking Water Access to Better Hygiene & Dignity, Rajasthan

Inspired by the WASH campaign10, the Jai Bhagirathi Foundation with the support of
Wells for India, a UK-based organisation, adopted a multi-pronged strategy: creating
supportive arrangements for households to make decisions around sanitation;
promoting demand for sanitation; initiating behaviour change and stimulating systems
of local supply; and management to provide better facilities for waste disposal at
household-level. This approach comprised three inter-related activities: a) Revival and
construction of traditional rainwater harvesting systems to ensure availability of water;
b) Construction of sanitation facilities; and
c) Promoting hygienic practices.
To initiate this, a baseline household survey was conducted in Janadesar village to
assess the health of the people and the kind of health problems faced by them. The
Jal Sabha initiated a campaign to boost awareness on sanitation, health and hygiene
through various community initiatives such as wall paintings, street plays, slogans and
foot-walks. In conjunction with these, in-house production films were made by the
Foundation and the Community Video Unit. This video unit was led by people
identified from the community itself who were trained on video documenting social
programmes and problems. Screening of films around better sanitation encouraged
local people to take action and individuals approached the Jal Sabha with written
applications for construction of toilets. The toilets were constructed with community
interventions. This initiative in Janadesar spread around to other nearby villages and
people came to witness the newly built sanitation facilities in Janadesar village. They
were motivated to seek Panchayat support for replicating the same in their villages.

IMPACT : The biggest impact has been that it has motivated a large portion of the
community to ponder over the benefits of having individual sanitation facilities.
Individual sanitation facilities have led to improved personal hygiene and waste
disposal in the area thus reducing health hazards. Through the awareness campaign,
many others have learnt about the issues related to poor sanitation and hygiene as
well as ways to address them. For women and older girls, in particular, having a toilet
at home meant privacy and saved them from the dangers of going out before dawn
or after dark for defecation. Fear of anti-social elements lurking in the shadows was a
source of constant anxiety for the women.
(Page 82-84)

17 Mobile-based Sanitation Monitoring

OneWorld Foundation India,in collaboration with Water and Sanitation Program, has
developed a mobile innovation to capture sanitation data directly from the rural areas.
Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) is a comprehensive programme to accelerate
sanitation coverage in rural areas with access to toilets to all by 2012. The main
objective is to eradicate the practice of open defecation, and bring about an
improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas. Since 1999, government
made several attempts to improve the sanitation monitoring policy however it still
lacks effective implementation of sanitation campaign in most rural areas and requires
Presently, the emphasis is to capture the nature of sanitation behavior rather than just
counting the number of toilets constructed in households. The number of toilets
provides information on toilet accessibility however it does not tell us the actual usage
of toilets as most households continue to openly defecate irrespective of having toilets
or not. Secondly, the process of collecting data on toilet construction and sanitation
behaviour is cumbersome because development practitioners collect data manually at
the village level and as a result; the data collected is inaccurate and not verified.
To address these two main challenges, Water Sanitation Program of World Bank
approached OneWorld Foundation to design an IT enabled sanitation monitoring
strategy to strengthen TSC by conducting a pilot project in two blocks- Rajir in Bihar
and Kandaghat in Himachal Pradesh. The strategy involved training 11 surveyors in
each block to collect data from every household via mobile phones with GPS
coordinates of location based on a survey questionnaire and the data was sent to the
server on real time basis. All sent data were uploaded on the MIS directly in the form
of reports. At the completion of data collection, total of 12,842 and 5,664 households
were surveyed in Rajgir and Kandaghat, respectively. Despite few challenges, this pilot
project was completed in six months and was successful in capturing information
based on sanitation behaviour and toilet usage. Owing to its success, it is now ready
to be scaled up in other states as well.

18 Sulabh International Social Service Organization

Sulabh International, an NGO founded in 1970, addresses sanitation problems faced

by low-caste and low-income groups in India.
Sulabh International works towards the improvement of sanitation and scavengers in
India. They developed toilet facilities, which do not require scavenging to clean. Pay-
and-use public toilets with bath, laundry and toilet facilities were installed known as
Sulabh Complexes.
It has pioneered the production of biogas and bio fertilizer from excreta-based plants
thereby showing that human waste can be disposed off in an affordable and a socially
acceptable manner.
Most importantly, it has been successful in restoring and promoting human rights of
the most disadvantaged community called the bhangis (scavengers in hindi). Overall,
it has contributed immensely to the socio-economic liberation of scavenging
community from their subhuman occupation.

19 Community Led Total Sanitation Campaign in Bhiwani District, Haryana

This practice termed as Community Led Total Sanitation Campaign (CLTS) addresses
the problem of sanitation in rural areas of Bhiwani district in Haryana.
The practice has taken an initiative to solve the issue of defecation by creating
awareness on health and hygiene to the village communities. Measures have been
taken to educate the economically and socially backwards inhabitants on issues related
to sanitation.
Besides open defecation, other concerns addressed were collection, storage and use
of drinking water, disposal of waste, and maintenance of clean environment.
Other efforts included participation by community members in sanitation
programmes, training sessions for inhabitants on health and hygiene matters; and
campaigns organized on similar concerns.

Best Practices In






1. Women Water Managers of Chopriali, Uttarakhand 4

2. Women's Cooperative in Diversification of Agriculture Activities 5

3. Udyogini: Building Microenterprises 6

4. Ashwini - Urban services in rural areas 7

5. Village Information Kiosks for the Warna Co-operatives in Maharashtra 7

6. RUDI - Rural Distribution Network, Gujarat 8

7. Financial Inclusion Through Micro Pension, Gujarat 9

8. Women Video Bloggers 10

9. Networking Rural Women and Knowledge, NABANNA, West Bengal 11

10. Collective Procurement by Self Help Groups, Andhra Pradesh 12

11. Enhancing Food Security through Self Help Groups, Andhra Pradesh 13

12. Radio as a Tool for Gender Mainstreaming , Kutch, Gujarat 14

13. Empowering Single Women, Rajasthan 14

14. Empowering Women Through Literacy, Uttarakhand 15

15. Community Based Livelihood for Women, Himachal Pradesh 16


1. Girls's School Dropout Program (GSDP), Delhi 17

2. Twin E-Learning Programme: Manipur 18

3. Social Work & Research Centre (The Barefoot College),Tilonia, 18

4. Lifelines - Mobile query system for education, Rajasthan 19

5. TARA Akshar Plus: Educating Rural Women, North India 20

6. Paschimbanga Rajya Shishu Shiksha Mission, West Bengal 21

7. Pratibha Parv : Madhya Pradesh 21


1. AGRISNET - Information Network For Farmers, Tamilnadu 24

2. Fisher Friend Mobile Advisory, Tamilnadu 25

3. GRAMSAT: Connecting government with people in Orissa 26

4. Change Initiatives 26

5. Mobile-Based Management Information System for SHGs,


6. Radio Ujjas- Giving voice to the women of Kutch, Gujarat 28

7. Leveraging Technology for Financial Inclusion 29


1. Smokeless Stoves for Rural Homes, Karnataka 30

2. Husk Power Systems: Electrifying Rural Bihar 31

3. Bachat Lamp Yojana - CFLs for electrification 32


1 Women Water Managers of Chopriali, Uttarakhand

Mahila Mangal Dal (Womens Group) in village Chopriali, Uttarakhand have solved
the water problem and are looking after the operation and maintenance of the water
scheme. HIMCON, an organisation working in the area, organized and trained
women in the technical matters.

The women cleaned out the tank having capacity of 72 cubic metres and excavated
another one leading to the total storage of 2,00,000 litres. They planned and assisted
in the construction of a canal to bring water to a convenient spot. Here another tank,
three 'dharas' or water spouts, and space for washing were created. Overflow from the
storage tank was directed to another tank used for irrigation. A sand filter was
constructed at a spring in Channi Gad and the piped water brought down to the village.
The sustainability of this supply was ensured by applying appropriate recharge and
soil conservation measures in the recharge area of the spring.

Simultaneously, the villagers were given training in off-season vegetable cultivation,

composting, and agricultural techniques. A revolving fund was established solely for
the purpose of buying seed. Saplings and seed were distributed among interested

The villagers now boast of a standpost for every two households. Several families own
rainwater harvesting tanks. The village has built up a reputation for itself as a producer
of fine vegetables and some farmers have begun supplying the Delhi market.

Today, the Mahila Mangal Dal has taken over the responsibility of managing these
diverse systems. They have regular monthly meetings where they plan for maintenance
of the sand filter and piped system. They organise regular cleanups of the tanks, and
are now planning to build loose boulder structures. The seed fund has increased from
Rs. 40,000 to Rs 60,000. Rabi and summer cultivation has increased from a net 5
hectares to a net 17 hectares.


2 Women's Cooperative in Diversification of Agriculture Activities

NCUI has encouraged and empowered women to start managing a cooperative on

their own, and also started to address the issues that the poor farmers in the village
were facing.
The intensive training support of the NCUI project staff, not only mobilized the
community members in to the cooperative movement, but also intensively trained the
members who could barely read write to maintain accounts and documents of the
society without any glitch.
The activities of the society also have helped many individual women members to gain
their status economically and socially. The women now have become the pride of the
village. Since the women members are able to generate income in the family, they are
treated with due respect, engaging them in all decision making process of the family,
which was not the case before.
3 Udyogini: Building Microenterprises

Udyogini provides training to poor women and NGOs in remote and backward areas
of India build microenterprises and become entrepreneurs.
In order to deal with the challenges confronting poor women’s livelihoods today,
Udyogini- meaning woman entrepreneur- came into existence in 1992 with a focus on
microenterprise management training. Udyogini started by enabling smaller NGOs,
through a program of support comprising training for enterprise awareness,
management and counseling, to move into developing microenterprise programs and
having staff with orientation to microenterprise.
Udyogini works in regions that are backward and ‘enterprise starved’ and mainly in
sectors where there is a concentration of women workers. The focus areas of
Udyogini’s work are gender and poverty, market-oriented capacity building for
producers, catering to both subsector and multi-sector business service requirements,
bringing about innovation, learning and change in business services content and
delivery mechanism, and knowledge-sharing through documentation. It provides
business development services to NGOs, government, donors etc. These services
include three core products- microenterprise training and handholding, value chain
development (with special emphasis on gender inclusion), and market linkages.
By 2010, Udyogini had trained over 1500 enterprise promoting staff from NGOs and
government in 7 Indian states with a combined GMT eligible base of almost 50,000
4 Ashwini - Urban services in rural areas

In 2004, Byrraju Foundation piloted a virtual platform for provision of urban services
in rural areas which became known as Ashwini. Today, there are 32 centres covering
116 villages in the East Godavari and West Godavari districts.
Ashwini was designed according to a ‘hub and spoke’ model, where a trainer conducts
its lessons from one studio and communicates with two to three surrounding villages
through a two-way video conference. Prior to Ashwini, service provision required
trainers located in cities to physically visit those in remote localities, a costly method
in terms of both time and money.

Ashwini provides four types of virtual services: telemedicine, education, livelihoods

training, and agricultural expert advice. According to Byrraju Foundation, the most
successful initiative to date, based on number of people availing the service, is
education. Users are willing to pay for this service and the foundation has also
adequately spread awareness about its existence. Telemedicine is the most successful
in terms of real impact value.

5 Village Information Kiosks for the Warna Co-operatives in Maharashtra

This project aims to increase the efficiency and productivity of the sugar cane co-
operative through access to information in local language about crops, agricultural
market prices, government employment schemes and educational opportunities.
The Warna Wired; Villages Project has provided with an ICT-driven system to bring
efficiency and transparency to its main economic activity, sugar cane production, in
the region.
This project provides computerized facilitation booths that give information on various
socio-economic aspects of sugar cane cultivation, including tele-medicine and
redressal of public grievances at nominal cost.
This initiative has brought about increased efficiency in the growth of sugar cane
cultivation and harvesting process, both in terms of saving time on administrative
transactions as well as monetary gains. Through computerization, there has been an
improvement in the management of fertilizer stocks and farmers savings, thereby
improving the standard of living in the community

6 RUDI - Rural Distribution Network, Gujarat

RUDI was launched to raise the economic status of women farmers within the SEWA
network in a sustainable, scalable and systematic manner by nurturing livelihoods at
all levels of the rural supply chain.
Supply chain management of farming activities in rural India is often disadvantageous
for marginal farmers. Surplus grown and sold may be minimal, and middlemen buy
from farmers at very low prices, resulting in profit margins on production that barely
allow for survival. Poor access to both preservation units for bulk storage and a wide
network of suppliers leave many farmers with little choice but to sell small quantities
to the middlemen.
RUDI Multi Trading Company aims to generate funds, internal to the SEWA network,
that would enhance the quality, capacity and efficiency of rural production. By
leveraging their large-scale membership for nurturing local skilled businesswomen
along the rural production value chain, SEWA piloted the RUDI initiative in Sabarkantha
district of Gujarat.
Today, there are five RUDI processing centres catering to 14 districts in Gujarat. Each
centre is comprised of technical teams that nurtures rural business women at all levels
of the supply chain – from purchasing to marketing. The sales turnover has been
doubling year over year and aims to reach 6 crores in 2010-2011. The profit margin
has already reached 12 percent.

7 Financial Inclusion Through Micro Pension, Gujarat

In Ahmedabad,Gujarat,SEWA Bank has introduced a micro-pension scheme to extend

old-age retirement benefits to women employed in the unorganised sector.
Sri Mahila SEWA Sahakari Bank was established in 1974 by a group of self employed
women with the objective of "strengthening its members' bargaining power to
improve income, employment and access to social security." The bank currently
operates in 10 districts of Gujarat, and has also offered its services in a few other states.
Besides offering basic financial services, the bank has gradually expanded its activities
to include housing loans, insurance and pensions to women employed in the
unorganised sector. The Micro-Pension scheme offered by SEWA in partnership with
UTI is a pioneering initiative in India. SEWA Bank works with Unit Trust of India Asset
Management Company (UTI-AMC), who are responsible for the investment aspect of
the programme.
At present, any women up to age of 55, having a savings account with SEWA, can enrol
in the scheme. This way, SEWA Bank deducts the monthly contribution from the
individual’s savings account in the form of a systematic investment plan. The minimum
contribution is Rs. 50 monthly or Rs. 500 annually. SEWA Bank then transfers the
money to UTI twice a month through cheque transfer. UTI opens individual retirement
accounts to facilitate investment UTI mutual funds, which is 60 percent debt and 40
percent equity. As a pension fund, members are eligible to withdraw money on
attaining the age of 58. At that time, a member can either take the entire amount or
opt to receive periodic payments through the bank.
In past five year, more than 60000 women from unorganised sector have enrolled in
the scheme in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. SEWA Bank is currently promoting the initiative
by organizing financial literacy camps in its operational areas.

8 Women Video Bloggers

Women Aloud Video Blogging for Empowerment (WAVE) is an initiative that trains
women who lack access to a 'voice' in video production and blogging to spread
awareness about certain issues and to facilitate pertinent information exchange.
WAVE aims to empower women by providing them access to a medium of technology
for expressing their opinions online through video or written blogs.
The women participants are given video equipment, training on ideating, research
writing and shooting videos for 10 days, followed by mentoring for nine months. They
are required to submit one video per month and in turn, they receive a stipend.
WAVE addresses the problem of educated urban women’s unemployment, which is
higher than other demographic groups, and provides them with the financial security
they require to make their own choices.

9 Networking Rural Women and Knowledge, NABANNA, West Bengal

Project explores innovative uses of databases, intranet portals and web‐based

partnerships in the local language for the benefit of poor women. The project puts
emphasis on building a framework for information sharing, content creation, off‐line
information dissemination and web‐based partnership with organizations located
outside the region.

The purpose of the project is building women’s local information networks by

providing simple facilities and training at five ICT centers. Through this project a core
group of 60 ‘Information Agents’ aged 20‐40 years were taught basic computer skills
and how to use MS Office and desktop publishing (DTP) applications. They learned
data input and how to search for content in eNRICH, a programme with archival and
retrieval properties. Nabanna's ultimate goal was to build knowledge modules that will
be a database of localised best practices to help women solve local problems.

These ‘Information Agents’ then discussed and exchanged it with other women
through a range of media that included computers, the internet, face-to-face
meetings, and a print newspaper. Each information agent set up and managed the
group of 10 women in her own neighbourhood. These groups met once a week to
discuss issues that impact their own lives and communities (such as livelihood,
agriculture, health, education, and wisdom) and to assess the information and skills
they already possess and those they wish to acquire and develop. The network is
animated in part by a regular tabloid newspaper with local features and excerpts from
the participant's diaries, increasingly run by the women themselves. Key achievements
of the programme were –

 Women gained more respect in their family and community as a result of ICT skills
acquired. Younger women felt they were able to approach the job market with
greater confidence than before. ICT skills helped them to find jobs and increase
their income.
 Women became more creative after learning a program like Paintbrush in

 Women achieved an increase in income as well as enhancement of solidarity

among women in the community.




10 Collective Procurement by Self Help Groups, Andhra Pradesh

Conventionally procurement was done by Government agencies or private traders.

Government procurement was done through the designated centres mostly located at
taluk or district places. Farmers had to bear the transportation cost and fetched them
Minimum Support Price (MSP). They were subjected to inefficient service and apathy
by the government machinery. Though private traders offered higher rates than MSP,
fluctuation in the market rate were very high.

Velugu / Indira Kranthi Patham programme introduced the concept of ‘commodity

procurement through SHGs’. The collective procurement of agriculture produce,
horticulture produce, and non-timber forest produce by establishing procurement
centres under the aegis of village organizations was promoted to eliminate
disadvantages of the conventional mechanisms. It increased the bargaining power of
women producers (members of the SHGs) and enhanced their incomes by fetching
remunerative prices

The Andhra Pradesh State Marketing Federation and the Andhra Pradesh State Civil
Supplies Corporation Limited initiated maize procurement through village
organizations consisting of SHGs. This was done in districts where maize production
was predominant. The agricultural produce was picked up at the village level at
minimum support price. This saved the farmer from the cost and effort of transporting
it to the Government procurement centre.

Village organizations set up procurement centres in villages with all the necessary
equipment, such as weights and moisture metres. They were given detailed training
on planning, value chains, record keeping, commodity grading, value addition and
quality aspects. Interactions with the traders and processors were also organized.
Village Advisory Committees were set up consisting of Sarpanch and progressive
farmers to guide the women and marginal farmers.

During the year 2006-07, the turnover of these operations grew to Rs. 126.38 crore
from Rs. 16 crore achieved in the year 2004-05. Eighty-one different commodities had
been handled by SHGs for procurement and more than 18 lakh families benefitted
from the collective procurement.

(page 94-96)
11 Enhancing Food Security and Income for Poor Households through Self Help
Groups, Andhra Pradesh

Poor households, which are members of the SHGs, are financially helped by the SHG
through short loans to overcome gaps in financing the purchase of food (especially
from PDS) as well as other essential items from the open market. Further, the grains
required for filling up the gap between total consumption needs and PDS quota of
grain are purchased by SHGs in bulk and supplied to members, if necessary, on credit.
The SHG assesses the demand for rice from its members, and files an indent with the
village organization (this is over and above what is purchased from the ration shop).
The village organization collects the indents of all SHGs in the village and forwards
them to the Joint Collector or to the competent authority, which signs the release
order. This release order is sent to the Civil Supplies Corporation and it delivers the
rice to various mandal level stockiest points. From this point, the rice is distributed to
various SHGs, which have placed order, and the SHGs in turn distribute it to the
members as per requirement. The village organizations are responsible for payment.
The SHGs ensure that their members lift their entitlement of rice under the PDS
promptly when stocks are available. If the poor families are not able to lift their PDS
allotment due to shortage of cash, the SHG pays directly to the FPS owner, and enables
the member families to lift their quota of foodgrains and other items. The member
families repay the SHG in weekly installments, as their income schedule permits.
The shortfall/gap between the PDS allotment of rice to a family, and its total monthly
consumption is filled up by providing the required grains to the members on credit by
the village federation of SHGs, if necessary.
The village organizations make bulk purchase of commodities (other than PDS) from
open market, and distribute them to the members, with a convenient repayment
schedule. These commodities include: fertilizers, pulses, edible oil and salt. When these
purchases are made by the village organization in bulk for and on behalf of its
members, they obtain better bargain in terms of price, quality and reduced
transportation costs. In many cases, they even manage to get free delivery of the goods
at their doorstep.

(page 97-99)
12 Radio as a Tool for Gender Mainstreaming , Kutch, Gujarat

Kutch Mahila Vikas Sangathan (KMVS) used radio as the medium to disseminate
information and awareness on gender issues to create a demand for literacy.

Kutch region in Gujarat is geographically remote and socially secluded. This region has
high illiteracy rate especially among women. It was difficult to reach out to women in
remote villages and address their issues. Elected women representatives also faced
hurdles while attending trainings at taluk and district places.

KMVS reached to the women through the radio programmes. Capacity building of
staff, Programmes in Kutchi language, community participation (especially of women),
programmes on development and gender issues, involvement of religious leaders,
portrayal of women as protagonist / heroes / leaders helped to reach out large

Due to these initiatives, women have been mobilized and now women are accepted as
social leaders, approached for advice on gender issues.

Community radio has the potential to incorporate culture and language of the area.
Local people are empowered through the programmes and it becomes easier to
highlight social issues and concerns.


(Page 41-44)

13 Empowering Single Women, Rajasthan

In India according to one estimate, there are 33 million widows accounting for about
8% of the female population. . In patriarchal society of Rajasthan, women have low
social status. Women are the worst sufferers. The reason are many – low literacy rate
among women, extreme poverty, traditions like sati, purdah, child marriage,
restrictions on widows, female foeticide etc. Being widow is painful and humiliating
and involves additional discrimination and ritual sanctions.

Ekal Nari Shakti Sanghatan (ENSS) has helped organize single women (largely widowed
or separated women and also older unmarried women) to fight for their rights and to
live with the dignity. ENSS helped these women though various interventions.
Livelihood – Building women capacities and enhancing their livelihood s by helping
them claim / access their entitlements under various government schemes (such as
drought relief work, employment guarantee schemes, pensions, BPL cards etc.
Education – Helping the children of single women to access free educational facilities.
Health – Working towards policy changes for issuance of health cards for single
women, pension scheme benefits etc.
Property – Rectifying practices that take away a single womens right to own and have
possession of land, housing or other property.
Political Participation – Encouraging ENSS members to contest local self government
elections, to participate in gramsabhas, to vote
Human Dignity – Working towards social norms that dehumanize single women, such
as not allowing them to dress / eat / celebrate festive occasions or subjecting them to
other forms of physical and verbal violence.

(Page 55-59)

14 Empowering Women Through Literacy, Uttarakhand

The Mahila Samakhya (MS) programme focuses on empowering women through

collective organization and educational process that challenge gender and other forms
of discrimination and thus bring about a change in gender relations and the status of

Meetings of women are organized to voice their concerns. Village level ‘Sanghas’ are
formed. Sahayoginis cover 10 villages and give support to Sangha. Literacy classes are
run by facilitators called ‘Anudeshikas’ and guides are called ‘Sahelis’ promote and give
directions to youth groups (kishori Sanghs) at the village level.

Women share their experiences of domestic violence in Sangha and support each
other. They seek ways to confronting it and identify methods of overcoming violence
through collective action. Selected women have been trained in legal provisions and
frameworks related to crimes against women. It is called as ‘Apni Adalat’. Panchayats
are seeking women’s opinions; women are now increasingly being recognized as
actors and decision makers at the community and societal level.

Women are provided with information about panchayats and associated processes.
Women are encouraged to participate in political process, campaign for political
parties and inclusion of women’s issues in the political agenda.

Women run women’s health centres have been set up at the village and cluster levels
which acknowledge the importance of traditional health care system based on local
resources and medicine. In addition to providing literacy skills, women are also
provided with knowledge about women issues.
(Page 79-84)

15 Community Based Livelihood in Non-Farm Sector for Women, Himachal


Chinmaya Organisation for Rural Development (CORD), Sidhbari (Himachal Pradesh)

has promoted Mahila Mandals, and is working for Community Based Livelihoods.
These activities could be carried from the home or surroundings and are mostly
seasonal. Women could carry out these activities after working in households as well
as on farms.
CORD used different approach for training. Demand for training came from women.
Participants paid the costs for raw material and other expenses from their own pocket.
Poor women were encouraged to take loan from SHG for the training. Strong support
system for women trainees was developed. SHGs supported them throughout. From
the beginning of the training stress was given on raw material purchase, market
linkages, capacity building for operational and organizational skills, book keeping and
record maintenance.
Skills of women are upgraded through the training. Regular guidance and support was
provided. Activities were selected in such a way that women were doing it traditionally
or had potential because of the locally available resources which had remained
untapped. Some of the non-farm sector activities promoted by CORD are:
● Sewing, hand/machine embroidery, tilla embroidery,
● Knitting, crochet work
● Handloom weaving, cotton and wool
● Food products & spices, honey, and medicinal products
● Miniature Kangra painting and greeting cards
● Paper bags/jute bags
● Artificial jewelry
● Soap and phenyl making
● Candle and agarbatti making
● Bamboo products
Women are encouraged to take loan from the SHG for the training.

(Page 82-86)

1 Girls's School Dropout Program (GSDP), Delhi

The Girls's School Dropout Program (GSDP) is undertaken as part of the Vikasini
activity. 'VIKASINI' literally means Developing and Empowering Women. It aims to
empower women especially those belonging to the disadvantaged section of t
The project centre is located in west Delhi covering a wide area sprawled with over
more than one hundred thousand population amidst several slums. From among 300
colleges 137 colleges have already replicated the model in Innovative Education as
developed by AIACHE. About 60 colleges have replicated the National Service Scheme
on Child Labor.
It is partly supported by the Ministry of Convergence Government of NCR, Delhi in
reaching out to vulnerable groups in the society. The All India Association for Christian
Higher Education (AIACHE) in 2006, entered into a partnership with the Canadian
Teachers' Federation (CTF) and the Ontario English Catholic Teachers' Association
(OECTA) to support the project "Girls' School Dropout Program (GSDP)" for a period
of three years.
2 Twin E-Learning Programme: Skills for Employability of the Underprivileged
Youth in Manipur
The Twin E-Learning Programme has solved the issue of unemployment among the
youth in Manipur by preparing them with skills in English Proficiency, Basic Computer
Education and other related soft skills.
The main issue addressed by the Twin E-Learning Programme is increasing
unemployment among the youth through introducing and developing their IT skills in
emerging sectors of the state. The Center enables the users access to knowledge, trade
related support and economic opportunities through online facilities.
The programme has helped the youth to earn a livelihood by focusing on developing
their skills for employability such as English, Retail Management and basic computer
knowledge. Students from a lower economic background can avail services free of cost
including Computer basics, Gender issues, and have interactive sessions with experts.
This practice has enhanced the capacity building of the youth and empowered them
to face challenges in the future.

3 Social Work & Research Centre (The Barefoot College),Tilonia, Rajasthan

This project has enabled all the facilities and gadgets in 'Barefoot College' including
the library, office, computers, soil testing labs, primary health centres, etc to be
operated with solar energy in Tilonia village of Rajasthan.
The Barefoot College is a model that has taken years of experience, local culture and
traditions, commitment and dedication to achieve development at the grass root level.
The organization has adopted a methodology, which minimizes waste and maximizes
effectiveness through several activities such as Education, Health, Agriculture, Eco-
Volunteerism, and Women’s Empowerment.
Major objectives of this programme include creating awareness about rights and
duties, improvising the economic resources by implementing NREGA, and bring about
a transformation in the lives of the village community through education and health
The project has been replicated in 14 states of India and several countries in abroad
through education workshops for improvising knowledge and income for citizens. It
has been successful in uplifting the self-esteem of the village community in Tilonia.

4 Lifelines - Mobile query system for education, Rajasthan

LifeLines Education is a digital inclusion initiative aimed at enabling academic-

pedagogic support for rural school teachers in Rajasthan through mobile.
OneWorld, the Government of Rajasthan and UNICEF have partnered to launch the
programme, which reaches over 4.5 lakh teachers in over 100,000 schools in the State.
Accessible on a toll-free number, the service is mediated in the local language whereby
the telephone serves as the medium of user interface. High-end communication
technology and custom-made computing applications are configured at the backend
to support integrated call handling and management of a very large audio and text
Enabling continued academic guidance and didactic advisory to teachers, via phone
and in their local language, LifeLines has established itself as an effective support
platform in rural Rajasthan. Teachers today recognise LifeLines-Education for providing
them with access to curricular instruction and teaching guidance from experts, which
they acknowledge is having a positive impact on the standard of qualitative learning.
This recognition of LifeLines is reflected in its increasing demand and usage by

5 TARA Akshar Plus: Educating Rural Women, North India

Source: http://taraakshar.com
TARA Akshar Plus (+) is an innovative computer based functional literacy programme
that trains rural women to read and write in Hindi, and carry out basic mathematical
TARA Akshar+ was developed in 2004 by TARAhaat Information and Marketing
Services Ltd. - the ICT arm of the non-profit organisation, Development Alternative
The software application uses a unique visual memory technique that links every letter
of the Hindi alphabet to an object that the female students use in their daily lives. This
linkage helps rural women to learn the alphabets quickly without forgetting what they
have learned later on.
A TARA Akshar+ instructor uses software, flash cards and playing cards to train the
students in just 49 days through 2 hour classes every day. Students alternate between
reading and writing lessons.
A well-structured programme design and a thorough implementation plan have
resulted in a very high degree of efficiency. Covering the entire Hindi speaking belt of
the country, TARA Akshar+ has succeeded in educating approximately 58,000 rural
women with a drop out rate of only 1%. Its integration with the National Literacy
Mission is underway.

6 Paschimbanga Rajya Shishu Shiksha Mission, West Bengal

The main objective of this project is to ensure success and 100 percent enrolment
retainment of children for quality education.
The Government of Bengal introduced an alternative education programme at the
primary level as part of the universalization of primary education goal.
This project has been funded by the UNICEF, which provided financial support towards
Capacity Building Measures and training programme in Education. The National
Council of Education, Research and Training (NCERT) and the West Bengal Board of
Primary and Secondary Education provide the textbooks under the Sarva Shiksha
Abhiyan to the primary schools. In addition, a routine health check up for the children
along with their mothers is undertaken by the Health Department.
The Teachers, mostly women in rural areas, employed on a contractual basis are the
resource persons. It aims to meet the Millennium Development Goal for achieving
Education for All by 2015 in terms of spread and quality of education for children.

7 Pratibha Parv : Strengthening Quality of Education in Government Schools,

Madhya Pradesh

The Pratibha Parv initiative in Madhya Pradesh evolved as a response to address key
education issues and shortcomings in facilities provided in government schools Even
as the government is making efforts to address problems related to infrastructural
shortages and student dropouts by implementing schemes such as Sarva Shiksha
Abhiyan and the Mid-day Meal programme, it is equally important to concentrate on
aspects of teaching and learning to improve the performance of students in schools.
The Pratibha Parva assessment is carried out in two phases spread over two days. The
first phase is a self appraisal based evaluation involving primary and middle school
students. This is undertaken in the presence of officials from a number of government
departments at the district level. The second phase of Pratibha Parva relates to the
evaluation of various aspects including the schools’ academic achievements and
teaching arrangements, school management and amenities as well as community
participation. This phase takes place in the presence of Class I and Class II officers from
all departments in the district.
Students appear for the test and the evaluation of the answer sheets is undertaken
school-wise by the teachers, after which answer sheets are attested by district level
officials, principals and higher faculty authorities. Once the evaluation process is over,
school-wise data is compiled at the level of the Block Resource Centre for further
analysis by school authorities and teachers before the report is uploaded on the state
education portal to be accessed by all stakeholders.
The results of the Pratibha Parv create the foundation for developing school
improvement plans attending to areas of academic and curriculum activities that
require special attention. The initiative provides feedback on different aspects such as
school infrastructure, teaching and learning processes, achievement levels of students
in different subjects, identification of weak students, teacher training and meeting
other needs and requirements.
Information on weak schools, blocks, districts, state-wide rankings and identified areas
of school improvement (specific to each school) are made available to decision makers
to further enhance the process for improving the performance of schools and students,
by looking into factors that are negatively impacting performance. Information
generated by the evaluation is online and is available for public access, thereby
enhancing transparency. Pratibha Parv is regarded as a unique model of system
reengineering in schools.
The initiative has improved the attendance of students at the primary level from 71%
to 78% while at the middle level it has gone up from 79.1% to 84%.
As of March 2014, the initiative has been able to cover approximately one crore
students and 47,650 assessors, and monitored 1,12,788 schools.

Information & Communication Technologies

1 AGRISNET - Information Network For Farmers, Tamilnadu

Tamil Nadu’s Department of Agriculture has successfully created an internet based

information network for 80 lakh farmers in the state.
Agriculture Resources Information System Network (AGRISNET) is a mission mode
project funded by the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India to develop a
comprehensive online knowledge portal to disseminate relevant information to
farmers. The goal of the project is to follow an all-inclusive approach in terms of
ensuring technological connectivity, development of system software and provision of
hardware at agriculture department offices up to the block level in all states and union
This best practice documentation focuses on the successful state-wide implementation
in Tamil Nadu. The government leveraged available resources to innovatively tackle
financial and technical complexities. A separate and dedicated technical team of
officers was established to avoid bureaucratic delays. Funds from multiple government
schemes were used to set up basic infrastructure in agricultural offices.
Presently, the portal caters to 80 lakh farmers and provides them with information on
agriculture related information. Within one year of its launch, at least 33 percent of the
farmers have utilized the services offered through AGRISNET. This initiative in Tamil
Nadu is also remarkable because of G2G services incorporated in the back-end
network. The government uses this feature to generate customizable reports to
improve their service delivery to farmers.
2 Fisher Friend Mobile Advisory, Tamilnadu
The Fisher Friend project of the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF) in
Tamil Nadu and Puducherry leverages mobile technology to provide vital livelihood
information to fisher folk.
MSSRF partnered with Qualcomm, Tata Teleservices and Astute Technology Systems
for developing the Fisher Friend Mobile Application. The tool was designed after a
thorough needs assessment of the fisher communities and incorporation of feedback
from central stakeholders.
Upon sending a single-button-click request from an icon-based software module on
mobile, fishermen gain access to vital updates on wave height, wind speed and
direction, potential fishing zones, news, government schemes and market prices. All
content is displayed in the local language - Tamil.
This unique application is helping fisher folk make better choices and avoid hazardous
situations. It is enabling them to conduct their livelihood operations in a safe and
profitable manner.
3 GRAMSAT: Connecting government with people in Orissa

'GRAMSAT' is an e-governance tool used by government development programmes

to communicate to the people and provide information about self-development in
Orissa. It has been replicated in many parts of the country because of its sustainabi
The GRAMSAT project is an e-governance strategy to ensure government’s
developmental and social welfare programmes are communicated to the people by
trained government officials, The officials address the developmental requirements at
the local Panchayat and Block levels, making relevant information available in a
responsive manner. Through broadcast of various government developmental
schemes and social well-being programmes, the project has helped in maintaining
transparency, increasing efficiency and fixing accountability of Orissa administration.
The interactive training programme through ‘GRAMSAT’ has facilitated various
government departments - such as: revenue, commerce, transport, law, rural
development, health and family welfare, water resource, SC/ST development,
Panchayati Raj, fishery and animal resource, in reaching out to the people and to
various NGOs engaged in developmental projects. This has facilitated the participation
of the local people in the programmes initiated by the government.

4 Change Initiatives
This initiative has been taken by an NGO called Changed Initiatives in 2003 and it uses
ICT to promote gender development.
The aim of this NGO is to bring together women's groups and enable a virtual
interaction amongst them on sustainable development through the use of information
and technology.
Through the innovation known as Telecentre on Wheels, which is a customized tricycle
equipped with solar panel, laptop. printer and power wheels to provide information in
the fields. In addition, it answered to the queries of farmers, trained youths, imparted
knowledge in areas of health, education, and human rights etc. It also built a group of
e-literate volunteers in villages who could respond to questions on the forum.
Therefore, with the help of this innovation, information is reached to the grass roots
without any problem of electricity, connectivity and road network.

5 Mobile-Based Management Information System for SHGs, Rajasthan

MITRA is a MIS system that utilises SMS based technology and web-based software to
facilitate financial management of Self-Help Group (SHG) micro-finance activities in
Dungarpur district, Rajasthan.
To improve the lives of the local community in Dungarpur, Rajasthan, a voluntary
group called People’s Education and Development Organisation (PEDO) encourages
local women to form SHGs and to take responsibility of their own savings and credit.
PEDO’s key role in the district is to offer capacity building training and enable steering
of these SHGs, including financial monitoring. Considering PEDO works with more than
2,000 tribal SHGs, consisting of 40,000 members in the district, the task of manually
maintaining records and processing information became complicated over time.

To overcome this challenge, in December 2008, PEDO introduced a mobile based

management information system known as Mobile Information Technology for Rural
Advancement (MITRA) – a technology-ledl intervention to assist with recording of
financial data at the grassroots level. The application uses SMS technology to transfer
transactional information to a central server that can be accessed with the help of web-
based software to generate financial and accounting statements at either the
federation office or PEDO headquarters.
The introduction of MITRA has reduced the amount of time spent on processing
financial data for bookkeeping. Now, there is no need to write account statements.
This has not only saved time but has also facilitated transparency at the grassroots
level as information from SHGs is now sent in the presence of the account holder and
a receipt is provided immediately.

6 Radio Ujjas- Giving voice to the women of Kutch, Gujarat

Radio Ujjas is a successful community radio initiative that works to sensitize the people
of Kutch on local issues, particularly on matters related to women.
Started by the Kutch Mahila Vikas Sangathan (KMVS) in 1999, Radio Ujjas arose out of
the need to overcome the barrier that illiteracy poses to people's access to information.
Moreover, Kutch is a large and disaster prone area that makes it difficult for any
constant and reliable source of information and entertainment to be available to the
people. Combined with the fact that approximately 90 per cent of households in Kutch
own a radio set, KMVS's idea of using the medium of radio for development holds
immense potential.
Radio Ujjas works at the grassroots to identify concerns specific to the people of Kutch,
and involves the community members extensively in mobilising resources and in
programme production. The programme themes are very diverse and include
education, handicrafts, fishing, panchayat, girls' rights, environment, natural resource
management and such like. The overarching aim of all these programmes is to give a
space to women to voice their concerns related to these issues.

For its first radio show aired in 1999, titled 'Kunjal Paanje Kutchi', Radio Ujjas was
awarded the Chameli Devi Jain Award in 2000. Currently, Radio Ujjas operates from
the Bhuj and Rajkot AIR stations and enjoys a listenership of over 75 per cent. It has
acquired government clearance for a radio station of its own. The proposed radio
station will reach over 7000 people within a 10 km area.

7 Leveraging Technology for Financial Inclusion

Punjab National Bank's ICT for Financial Inclusion programme utilises a confluence of
simple technologies to extend benefits of formal credit to the unbanked poor masses
in India.
Nearly 65 per cent of households in India borrow money from non-institutional
sources. The lower the asset class or income of the people, the higher is their degree
of exclusion. Based on the Reserve Bank of India's guidelines for use of entities like
NGOs and SHGs to reach rural populations, Punjab National Bank (PNB) adopted an
ICT-based branchless banking solution that relies on Business Correspondents.
The solution entails use of smart cards, hand held terminals, biometric devices and
simple ICT tools like laptops, webcams and battery back up devices to provide for easy
enrolment of new customers. 'No frills' (zero balance) accounts are opened for
customers with relaxed Know Your Customer norms and an overdraft facility of INR
2,500. PNB Mitra ATM cards are provided with a daily withdrawal limit of INR 5,000/-.
As of March 2011, under both its ICT-based and branch-based FI models, the bank has
opened nearly 74 lacs accounts, amounting to a business of INR 1,00,342 lacs. It
currently runs 39 ICT projects across 14 states in India, expanding over 5400 villages.
The initiative has proven than provision of banking and financial services to the
unbanked can prove to be a profitable business model.
1 Smokeless Stoves for Rural Homes, Karnataka

TIDE, a Karnataka based NGO, disseminates smokeless stoves among rural women in
the state using a gender sensitive market driven approach.
In 2002, Technology Informatics Design Endeavour (TIDE) launched the smokeless
stove dissemination programme in Tumkur district of Karnataka to address the
concerns of livelihoods and environment preservation. After the initial needs
assessment, TIDE identified the Sarla stove, designed by the Centre of Science and
Technology, to be the most effective as it was easy to build, use and maintain.
Moreover, it required only agro waste as fuel, which is very accessible to the rural
TIDE designed the programme such that it acts as an income generating opportunity
for rural women but also promotes use of better stoves. With the assistance of local
NGOs, rural women were trained in the construction of the stoves and spreading
awareness among the community about the new technology. Today, some of these
trained women work as stove entrepreneurs who construct and supply smokeless
stoves in the region.TIDE’s greatest achievement lies in the fact that it has transformed
rural women into green-energy entrepreneurs, giving these women a confident and
independent existence. These women have created an alternative livelihood option for
themselves by overcoming the constraints of mobility.
Furthermore, TIDE has made available effective smokeless stoves to reduce the
drudgery that rural women face while using traditional stoves and also to protect the
rural environment. Till date, the stove entrepreneurs have collectively built about
20,000- 22,000 Sarala stoves in villages of Karnataka, enabling rural households to lead
safer and healthier lives.
In January 2011, the Forest Department of the Government of Karnataka included the
Sarla Stove in their "Hasiru Gram Yojane"(Green Village Program) and is now placing
orders with TIDE’s stove entrepreneurs to create smokeless villages. These women
travel across the state on behalf of the Forest Department to construct smokeless

2 Husk Power Systems: Electrifying Rural Bihar

Husk Power Systems (HPS) is a rural electrification company that uses a renewable
energy source to produce and supply electricity at a low cost and in an environmentally
friendly way.
HPS has emerged as a role model in the renewable energy sector by revolutionising
rural electrification in India. HPS is an innovative social enterprise that promotes
decentralised power generation and distribution to remote villages of India. The
platform is a biomass gasification technology that converts rice husks into combustible
gases that can drive generators to produce electricity. Running on an environmentally
friendly model, HPS ensures sustainable electricity to even the most remote parts of
the country.
To date, HPS has installed 60 power plants that reach more than 250 villages and
approximately 1,50,000 people in rural Bihar. By using a renewable energy source, the
electricity is supplied at a much lower cost than that of conventional modes such as
kerosene lanterns for households and diesel generators for commercial use. Through
its generation of employment, reduction in carbon emissions, and overall contribution
to improved well-being of Indians, HPS is drastically changing the landscape of rural

3 Bachat Lamp Yojana - CFLs for electrification

Bachat Lamp Yojana process/ Source: Bureau of Energy Efficiency

The Bachat Lamp Yojana is a scheme developed by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency
that replaces incandescent bulbs with Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) to avoid
carbon dioxide emissions, overheating and overconsumption of electricity in
The Bachat Lamp Yojana envisages the provision of Compact Flourescent Lamps (CFLs)
to residential households at the same cost as that of an incandescent lamp (ICL). To
make the CFL available at a cost equivalent to ICL, the funds from the Clean
Development Mechanism (CDM) are leveraged. Once the CFLs have reached their end
of life, suppliers arrange for the collection and scrapping of CFLs in an environment
friendly manner. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) coordinates the implementation
of the Bachat Lamp Yojana in various states by supporting CFL manufacturers, traders
and investors and through collaboration with Electricity Distribution Companies
(DISCOMs). It also takes on the responsibility of providing monitoring services through
2012. CFL use is monitored in groups of sample households in selected areas to
provide data on usage and to verify carbon dioxide emission reductions under the
CDM project.