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THE USBO^E ILLUSTRATED

ATLAS ^/WORLD

• SCHOLASTIC
(

Digitized by the Internet Archive


in 2010

http://www.archive.org/details/usborneillustratOOmile
THE USBORNE ILLUSTRATED
ATLAS o/WORLD
HISTORY
LISA MILES

DESIGNED BY RUTH RUSSELL

MAPS BY JANOS MARFFY AND GUY SMITH

ILLUSTRATIONS BY PHILIP ARGENT AND JOHN LAWRENCE

COVER ILLUSTRATION BY )ANOS MARFFY AND IAN JACKSON

CONSULTANTS
ANNE MILLARD, GRAHAM ROBERTS, GRAHAM TINGAY
CHRISTOPHER SMITH AND JIM MORRIS
SCHOLASTIC INC.
New York London Auckland Sydney
Toronto
Mexico City New Delhi Hong Kong
NOTE ON DATES
Some dates used in this
book are marked either "BC"
or "AD". BC means before
the birth of Christ, which is
taken as the year 0,
AD means after his birth

When dates appear with a


"c."before them, this means
that the date is not certain,
but approximate. The "c."
stands for circa, which is
Latin for "about"
CONTENTS
4 THE EARTH BEGINS 46 THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE
6 THE FIRST PEOPLE 48 CHINA - THE MIDDLE KINGDOM
8 CIVILIZATION BEGINS 50 THE SLAVE TRADE
"

10 ANCIENT CITIES 52 THE RISE OF JAPAN


12 LANGUAGES 54 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
14 ANCIENT EGYPT 56 THE AGE OF REVOLUTIONS
16 THE ANCIENT GREEKS 58 THE RIGHT TO VOTE
18 THE ROMAN EMPIRE 60 THE BIRTH OF THE USA
20 THE GREAT INVADERS 62 COLONIAL FEVER
22 WORLD RELIGIONS 64 THE EARLY 1900s
24 GREAT EMPIRES 66 WORLD WAR ONE
26 EUROPE'S NEW AGE 68 BETWEEN THE WARS
28 FEUDAL EUROPE 70 WORLD WAR TWO
30 CLASH OF EMPIRES 72 NEW NATIONS
32 THE CRUSADES 74 THE COLD WAR
34 THE MONGOLS 76 THE DEVELOPING WORLD
36 THE RENAISSANCE 78 THE 20TH CENTURY ENDS
38 EXPLORING THE WORLD 80 WORLD TIME CHART
40 THE NEW WORLD 86 GLOSSARY
42 THE REFORMATION 88 MAP INDEX
44 POWER IN EUROPE 92 INDEX

C](i(fi([i(i]Oe,
Wrat r. TAI.BOTT.
THE EARTH BEGINS
The Milky Way. This is the
Most scientists believe that the universe
group of stars and
planets, called a
began with a huge explosion called the
galaxy, that Big Bang, which took place between
the Earth
belongs 10 and 20 billion years ago. The Big
to.
Bang produced immense clouds Planets revolve around stars.
The Earth revolves around a
of gas and dust. star called the Sun. ^.^

THE SOLAR SYSTEM


Dust and gas from the Big Bang explosion slowly
collected into balls which developed into stars and INSIDE THE EARTH
planets. A star called the Sun became the middle of our This diagram shows
Solar System, with planets revolving around it. There #how the Earth
are nine planets in our Solar System and Earth is was formed,
the third nearest the Sun. All the planets are 4,500 milhon
years ago
very different from one another. Those
nearest the Sun, such as Venus and
Mercury, are hot, heavy and made of
rock. Those farther away, such as
lupiter and Saturn, are colder, The Solar System
lighter and made of ice and gas. formed from the gas
and dust released
during the Big Bang. Inner

THE EARTH Atmosphere.


core
(solid
- Cases escaped metal).
from the Earth to Heavy
At the Earth was probably a glowing ball of
first,
form a layer around metals
molten material. It took millions of years to cool and the planet. sank to
for a rocky crust to form. Many more millions of years the middle,
Crust. to become
passed before the atmosphere and oceans formed. The outer layer the core.
solidified to form the
Earth's rocky surface.
Scientists have tried to calculate the age of the Earth
from rocks in space that have entered the Earth's When In the Earth's
atmosphere, Outer
atmosphere and the ground. These rocks, called
hit
meteorites are called Mantle. core
meteorites, have been dated at around 4,500 million meteors. They make Rock hardened (liquid
a streak as they go. around the core. metal)
years, which is thought to be the age of Earth itself.

THE OCEANS
At first there were no oceans on Earth, because the
planet was too hot. As the Earth cooled, gases
cooled into water and the seas began to form.
Volcanic eruptions poured out more gas and the seas
increased in size to become oceans.

The first living things developed gradually, or A volcano is an This early shark
evolved, in the oceans because it was too hot for opening the
In lived around 395
life
crust to the inside million years ago.
to exist on land. Over millions of years, more of the Earth. Fish were the first

complex animals and plants evolved and some Molten rock and animals that
gases explode evolved with a
emerged from the water to live on land. from it. backbone.

THE CONTINENTS
The Earth's surface is made up of large plates which
move slowly, causing the continents to drift. This idea
Kin
North
is called plate tectonics. Scientists believe that, America: ^ ., ^
around 300 million years ago, the continents were RftN^AEA
Afrif4
joined together in one big land mass. Scientists call South
this land mass Pangaea.

The continents then drifted very slowly apart to where 340


Amerii
1A
Antarctica
arttlca

million years ago.


^ /
stralia

The continents Around 100 million years ago.


they are today. The continents are still moving and in collide,forming one huge land mass, Pangaea has broken up into
called Pangaea. Condwanaland and Laurasia.
the future the world may look different again.
J°6"- I

pleistocene ;

puocene
TIME CHART
THE AGES OF LIFE ON EARTH miloceneI
1 0-20 billion years ago
oligoceneI
The history on Earth
divided into
of Hfe is 1BiH B.jng shoots
lii_'

IdiiiK (if (lust an(d gas


periods, shown by the scale on the right^ Around
'

EOCENE into space.


600 million years ago, huge numbers of
4,500 million years ago
animals with hard skeletons formed. Tlie Solcjr System,
Since then, plants and animals have continued in> loding the Earth ant]
Woolly mammoths lived CRETACEOUS III'' Moon, forms around
evolving, as new species have during the Ice Ages of 1 h(.' Sun
formed and then died out. the Pleistocene period.
2,000 million years ago
Humans evolved around Eohippus, possibly Tiny,simple creatures in
2 million years ago. an early horse, lived the oceans become the
in the Eocene period
first living things

570 million years ago


ANCIEfsrr EARTH Stegosaurus. one of the The number of differenl
last dinosaurs, lived types of plants and
This globe shows during the .animals on Earth
Cretaceous undergoes a massive
Pangaea, the
period. increase.
supercontinent. •

340 million 500 million years ago


years ago The first fish appear in
the ficeans

4 1 million years ago


The first land plants
This piece of land appear
formed part of
(PA^igA'Ej^ modern day Asia. 340 million years ago
Pangaea forms to make a
supercontinent

250 million years ago


Aredaeopteryx,
The first dinosaurs appear
which may
have been the 220 million years ago
first bird,
The first mammals appear
lived in the TRIASSIC
I'LT^yS ST, I urassic period 250 50 million years ago
1

The first birds appear

The Tethys Sea 135 million years ago


separated what later Pangaea splits into twc
became modern day
Asia and the Middle 65 million years ago
East. Dinosaurs die out
suddenly The age of
mammals begins

50 million years ago


290 The continents have
moved to almost where
they are today

CARBONIFEROUS 2 million years ago


This piece of land The first people appear
formed part of
modern day
Australia. 360
FIND OUT MORE
Dinosaurs evolved in the DEVONIAN
Triassic period. At this time,
Early people
pteranodons flew in the air.

410
ce Age
Turn to the above
SILURIAN
Evergreen trees
f4 pages for
information.
more

covered the land


in the Carboniferous
period.
jellyfish lived
440 before the
u.
Cambrian
period, when
ASIA
"""XaLv^
'

' T>
,

creatures had
ASIA r^,j'
wEURpPI
IvAmmcA Trilobites lived
no skeletons.
AMERICA ' : J
in the Cambrian
''>-\.. AFRICA A.FRICA
period. They
SOUTH SOUTH
At^E^A \r AUSTRAtlA AMERICA AUSIlO^LIA
had hard
shells.
ORDOVICIAN
^'
/y4TA RCTICA AAITARCTICA
50 million years ago. By now, the 50 million years in the future. No one is
continents have moved to almost sure, but in the future the continents F-
where they are today. may move to the positions above. 500
(
CAMBRIAN
THE FIRST PEOPLE
Most scientists think that humans are descended
from the same ancestors as apes. It is thought that
these ancestors came from Africa and that they may
Mary Leakey discovered
many early human remains.
have lived 10 million years ago. Tlie chimpanzee, a great
ape, man's near relative is

THE SOUTHERN APES THE FIRST HUMANS UPRIGHT MAN


Around 6 million years ago, the The first true human evolved Around .7 million years ago, a
1

ape-like ancestors of men and around 2.5 million years ago, when new species called Homo erectus
apes began to change gradually, or a different type of creature, or (meaning "upright man")
evolve away from each other. By 4 species, developed. This one had a developed. It made large shelters
million years ago, one group had bigger brain and was able to make from twigs and branches and knew
developed into an early kind of simple objects from stone, pieces how to use fire, though not how to
near-human called AustrabpUhecus. of antler, bone, leather and wood. create it. For food, it hunted in
it was around Im (3ft) tall and it Itis known as Uomo hab'dis. which groups, so it could probably
stooped on two legs. This allowed means "handy man". The time in communicate, though it is unlikely

it to carry things with its hands. Its which he lived marks the start of that it could talk. Unlike earlier
name means "southern ape". what is called the Stone Age, species, it walked fully upright.

'
ARABIA
AFRICA ASIA

ATLANTIC
1^
INDIAN
OCEAN OCEAN
INDIAN INDONESIA
OCEAN "- ^

f AUSTRALIA

\J
• Sites where Ans(ra/opi((ipfUS • Sites where Homo tiabilis • Sites where Homo erectus
remains have been found. remains have been found. remains have been found.

^usIralopHhecus Homo habilis used tools. Homo erectus walked upright.

HOW DO WE KNOW?
We know

'/''\"€v
i^M^^
bones

'^'^^K
about the past from the
and animals
of people
which, over many thousands
of years, are preserved in
rock as fossils. We can
also study the remains of
things such as tools and
^AFRICA ^.
Olduvai
Gorge
m(MZANIA
Many of the
earliest human
fossilshave been
found in the
Olduvai Gorge In
Tanzania, shown
on the left. It was
here in the 1950s
that remains of
Mistralopithecus
were first found.
buildings, which people
leave behind them when The area around
the Olduvai Gorge
they move on or die. Art,
is hot, dry
such as carvings, grassland. In

sculptures and cave .-^ prehistoric times, it

was greener and


paintings, also tells us more fertile. As well
about how people lived.
i'^' as \iiSlriilopithccus.
Homo habilis and
Flint knives, like
Homo erectus also
lived here.
this one,date
from around
}n A 3.6 million year
old footprint of a
ago. human ancestor,
from a trail of
footprints
preserved in
This bronze This bone
volcanic ash. It was
figure of a arrowhead and
found at Laetoli,
shepherd was wooden arrow were
near Olduvai
made around made around
Gorge, by Mary
4,000 years ago 4.000 years ago.
Leakey in 1978.
NEANDERTHAL MAN MODERN MAN
By around one million years ago, a Around 200,000 years ago, Homo w r

new species of human called Homo sapiens sapiens, or fully Modern


sapiens had developed. Uomo sapiens Man, arrived. Scientists think that
means "wise man". One type of like his ancestors, he probably
this species lived around 250,000 evolved in Africa. By around
years ago. It is called Homo sapiens 30,000 years ago, he had spread
Neanderthal Man.
neanderthalis, or out to every continent except
Neanderthals used stone scrapers Antarctica. As man's population
to clean animal skins for clothes increased, the large mammals
and held ceremonies to bury their that he hunted began to die out
dead. Neanderthal people also People needed to find new kinds
looked after their disabled. This is of food.
known from the discovery of a
man's skeleton who had lost his When the climate became warmer,
arm long before he died. It is around 10,000 years ago, people
unlikely that modern people began to grow plants and breed
developed from Neanderthal Man, animals for food. They no longer

^
A prehistoric cave painting ol a bull's head from
but the two probably existed at had to move around to find food. Lascaux in France. It dates from between 20,000
the same time. The age of farming had begun. and 8000BC.

^^ ...•.T^^r-^

^ ; ^=- ^4:-:
EURO)»ft(5
ASIA f- NORTH
AMERICA^ i»

c EUROPE
«OUTH
AMERICA AFRICA \/
AFRICAj/NDWN
f

''

OCEAN AUSTRALIA
-

'
PACIFIC
OCEAN

//]
I.
^^ AUSTRALiA* ^ /
soul
SOUTHERN OCEAN
^^
H \
AFRICA V ARABIA AMERICA

• Neanderthal remains have » Remains of early Modern Man The directions in which Modern Man spread out
mainly been found in Europe. have been found all over the world. from Africa around the world.
Neanderthal IVIan Modern Man

THE ICE AGES


In the last 3 to 4 million years, there
,-,^<c
— ^••

have been nearly 20 ice ages, when


This bone knife ,ir ASIA ,,

has animal skin


the climate has been very cold and NORTH EUROPE , )

wrapped around sheets of ice have covered much of AMERtCA


the handle to
give a good
the world. Ice melted and re-formed
grip again and again. As it did so, the SOUTH^
seas rose and fell. Environments AMERICA;
were created and destroyed, along
with many types of plants and
animals. People adapted well to Continents Extra land. Ice sheets,

changes in their surroundings and


D today D 20,000BC U 20,000BC
This map shows the land when the sea level was
that is why they survived. lower during the last ice age, and as it is now.

TIME CHART FIND OUT MORE


4 million years ago In 250,000 years ago 45,000 years ago
Africa, Auslralopithixui Neanderthal Man People arrive in Evolution <i 4
walks on two legs evolves America
2.3 million years ago 200,000 years ago 35,000 years ago Farming
Hiimii ludntis uses tools Modern M,-ui evolves Neanderthal Man
dies out
1.7 million years ago 100,000 years ago
Homo emlus starnds Modern Man reaches 0,000 years ago
upright Europe
1
See above pages
The last ice age for more
I million years ago 60,000 years ago ends and the age information
Homo S(i('ii'iis develops Man reaches Australia of farnning begins
CIVILIZATION BEGINS
From 8000BC, a few small farming towns, such as Qatal
Huyiik and Jericho, began to arise in Asia Minor and
the Middle East. From around 3500BC, simple
The Standard of Ur - a communities began to develop into bigger and more
monument of the Sumerians, A Sumerian temple,
the first civilization. complex ones, and larger towns and cities arose. called a ziggurat.

HOW DID CIVILIZATION START?


Civilization developed at
different times in different
places around the world. Thie Hijyiik thrived around
very first civilizations 6000BC. Its flat-roofed
houses gave shelter to
appeared in the area of around 6,000 people.
Mesopotamia between the
Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

The region is known as the


Fertile Crescent, because the
land was well watered and
ideal for farming. As people
began to produce more food,
People may have
the population grew and sailed up rivers and
people no longer had to move along coasts in simple
boats.
around in search of food.
^^-ilSP'
A^^ICJ^
Eventually, people learned
how to use metals, especially
bronze (a mixture of tin and
copper), which marked the
start of the Bronze Age. They
also began to do specific jobs,
such as building or making
pots, and society became
organized under leaders such
as kings and priests. Trade
grew between different
communities and then cities
became richer and grew larger.

THE SUMERIANS >.


'*» THE ASSYRIANS
The very first civilization began •?.
Around lOOBC, the Assyrians
1

in Sumer, in or near the area


Nineveh
created an empire in the region ,

of Mesopotamia, around ^\ SUMER


They were a cruel, aggressive
ASSYRIA
•Damascus
3500BC. By 3I00BC, three % people who had many enemies,
Jerusalem Babylon
cities had grown up - Ur, Uruk ARABIA Uruk including the Babylonians.
and Eridu. The Sumerians •.Ur
• After a 100 year struggle, the
Eridu
were very inventive. They were Assyrian Empire finally fell in RED SEA
the first to use writing and 612BC, when the Babylonians
Areas of Sumerian influence The Assyrian Empire at its
they also invented the wheel. around the year 2900BC. destroyed its capital Nineveh. greatest extent in I076BC.

THE BABYLONIANS ANCIENT EGYPT


After Sumer came many BABYLONIA
Civilization in Africa began in
lowefTegypt
empires in Mesopotamia. Egypt, along the Nile River.
Memphis
Around 1790BC, King Around 5000BC, two farming
Hammurabi of Babylon Babylonli- '^
Rish
communities developed, which
conquered the area, creating gradually became organized
a Babylonian Empire. The into the Kingdoms of the
PERSIAN UPPER EGYPT
Babylonians were excellent GULF Lower and Upper Nile. In )

at many skills, including


The Babylonian Empire
3100BC, these kingdoms were
The first Egyptian civilization,
astronomy and mathematics. around I792-1750BC. united by the pharaoh, Menes. around the year 3 OOBC.
1

8
FIND OUT MORE
C.8000BC Farming begins C.5000BC In Mesopotdnii.i C.2500BC Civilization appears C.I200BC Iron istirsl uscl Cities 10
in the Fertile Crescent The copper and tin are mixed to in the Indus Valley in the Middle East,
small town of Jericho make bronze for the first time
C.I800BC Civilization appears c.l lOOBC The Assyrians China
prospers in the Middle East,
create their empire
24
C.3500BC The first in China In Thailand, iron is
C.7000BC People first civilization appears in Sumer first used to make tools,
C.IOOOBC Iron is first usee
begin to use copper in
C.3I00BC Civilization 790BC The Babylonians in the Mediterranean Egypt 14
Qatal HuyiJk in Asia Minor c. 1

They beat it into shaped appears in Egypt The Lower create their empire in C.I000-600BC Civilization .

llini[>': inH lp|^^>r Milf. iinifo


1
M'"^'"'"^p: 't'tmn f'tr-,'!:'' ' Xr-V'n^,"] See above pages
for more
r.~ information.

C AS'PIA9i ST-A
ASIA MlOiO'J{_

THE FERTILE CRESCENT


Farming first began in the
SISI^ Middle East, in the area
known as the Fertile Crescent.
The first farmers adapted wild
crops for cultivation and
MIDDLT, tamed wild animals.
I
•EAST
D
J'E11IC9{0

lericho flourished around


the year 8000BC and
was one of the first towns
It was surrounded by ZAQIiOS 0\4OZl9l1AI0iS
stone walls.

Wild goats and


sheep were tamed
to become the
first farm animals.

THE INDUS VALLEY THE AMERICAS


ASIA
The first great Indian The first civilizations in America began
civilization spread along the {{ft'-^ftarappa
from around lOOOBC. In Central America
Indus Valley, starting around people called the Olmecs and Zapotecs This gold
2550BC. Its leading cities lived in large towns. In the Andes plaque was
ohenjo Daro made by the
were Harappa and Mohenjo- Mountains, another civilization Chavin people.
Daro. These cities had high INDIAN developed around the city of
fortresses, called citadels,
inside them and large, solid
OCEAN
7 Chavin. The Chavin people
were expert workers in
The Indus Valley civilization
houses. around the year 2500BC. gold, silver and copper
SHANG CHINA "
O!"' Central
In China, civilization started .Xingtai "
^- AMERICA
around 1800BC near the . Anyang PACIFIC '\

Huang He River. The first •Huixian OCEAN


Eriitou . «Zhengxhou>,
civilized people were ruled by I^tioyang
SOUTH
Zapotecs AMERICA
a line of kings, now called the CHINA
Shang Dynasty. The people Q
were expert workers in bronze ~% D
Olmecs

Chavin I

and they traded as far away as


Shang Dynasty territory The Olmec, Zapotec and Chavin
Central Asia. around 1600BC. civilizations of America.

9
ANCIENT CITIES
By 4000BC, there were flourishing farming
conn m unities throughout Europe and Asia. New
materials, such as gold, copper, bronze and
precious stones, were being used. People
A Sumerian workman making became prosperous and began to do specific building on the
bricks from mud and straw. The citadel mound Mohenjo-
bricks dried quickly in the sun.
jobs, such as farming or building. at
Daro. where the grain was kept.

THE CITIES GROW UR- A SUMERIAN CITY


The success of farming and the The city of Ur in Sumer was founded around the
learning of new skills meant that year 4500BC. By 2500BC it was a major trading
communities could support a and manufacturing city, with a population of
bigger population. Cities became 20,000. There was a sacred enclosure with
richer and trade grew between temples and a royal palace.
Houses
different areas.
Within the city walls were two artificial ports
CanaHi:.
As the wealth of these big joined by canals to the Euphrates River
communities grew, they became Unpaved streets linked the city's mud brick The city of Ur in Sumer. It had
two man-made ports within the
jealous of other cities. Rivalry led houses, but the streets were too narrow for city walls. Trading ships used

to warfare between different wheeled vehicles. these ports.

groups. To defend themselves,


people built strong walls around
their cities and they began to
MOHENJO-DARO Granary
buildings
mark out their territory. Around 2000BC, there were at least one
hundred cities in northwest India, Most were
Warfare meant that the territory of fairly large, built with defensive walls of baked
some cities grew as they absorbed brick. One of the largest was Mohenjo-Daro. Citadel

the territory of weaker ones. In Like the others, it had a large central area,
this way, powerful cities grew into called a citadel, on a raised mound.
states, wfiich became larger and
largerThe first kingdoms had The citadel contained the religious, ceremonial
developed in this way and later and administrative buildings. It overlooked the The city of Mohenjo-Daro In
the Indus Valley in India. The
they became the first great residential area. This was divided into blocks granaries and the great bath
civilizations and empires. by streets laid out in a criss-cross pattern. house were on the citadel.

The City of the Living THEBES - CAPITAL OF EGYPT Temples


on the eastern
bank of the Thebes was the southern capital of Egypt during
Nile. City of the
the New Kingdom period from 1552-i069BC. It Dead
was divided into two parts by the Nile River The
eastern half was called the City of the Living.
This is where all the people lived and worked. Nile River

City of the
Living
r;- — uBV" On the west bank of the Nile was the City of '

Temples
the Dead. Here were the pharaohs' temples.
The city of Thebes. The City of
Nearby in the Valley of the Kings were the Living, on the east bank,
the tombs of the pharaohs and stretched for 2,500m (2.700yd)
along the front of the river.
nobles.
E CHART FIND OUT MORE
C.4500BC Ur inSumer C.2500BC Civilization c. 700BC ZhenjJzhou. one C.I00BC-AD450 IIk il

lounded
I
Civilizations < 8
is appears in the Indus Valley of the six Shang capitals, is of Rome flourishes in
founded in China Europe
C.3500BC The first C.2000BC The city of
civilization In the world Mohenjo-Daro in the Indus C.I552-I069BC Thebes is C.AD500 The city of
Roman Empire 18 ;,

develops in Sumer Valley is abandoned


Teotihuacan flourishes
the capital of southern in

C.3100BC Civilization c.ISOOBCTheShang Dynasty Egypt during the New Mexico It was the sixth
develops in Egypt develops in China Kingdom largest city in the worM See above pages
for more
information.

ZHENGZHOU IN CHINA Jin Shui River


TRADE ROUTES
In northeast China, the Shang civilization As manufacturing grew, trade
developed from around I600BC. The people kept between distant communities
moving their capital, so that they had six in all. developed. By AD500, there were
One of these was called Zhengzhou. Inside its well established communication
city walls were palaces and religious buildings. routes throughout Europe and
^ Jiang River Asia.
The wall was made
packed earth, 7km (4 miles)
of
long and over 9m (30ft) high. Outside were the The Indus Valley and
residential areas and work areas, with specialist The city of Zhengzhou, one of Mesopotamia in the Middle East
the six Shang capitals. The
shops where people made bone, pottery and residential area was outside traded together, transporting
bronze objects. the walled city enclosure. goods by sea. Seals have been
found in the Indus
Valley from
ROME - THE LARGEST CITY Mesopotamia, and
Rome, the capital of the huge Roman Empire, which
vice versa,
was the largest city in the ancient world. It prove this. There
had a population of over one million people were also well-
between the 1st and the 4th centuries AD. defined trade
routes for bullock
Rome had over 44,000 apartment buildings, carts stretching
1,000 bath houses and ten aqueducts (bridges overland from the
to carry water). The city's boundaries were Indus Valley to
marked by city walls and a short stretch of the Rome in Italy. The Colosseum Afghanistan and
and the Forum were two of the
Tiber River Altogether they measured 7km 1 most important buildings in the Persia. A clay pot, made
city. in Sumer in
(10 miles). Mesopotamia
In South America, around 2500BC.

at the period when


TEOTIHUACAN Teotihuacan flourished, there were
In AD500, Teotihuacan Mexico was the sixthin trading posts throughout Mexico.
largest city in the world. had a population of It These trading posts link cities in
200,000 and was the capital of a Mexican Mexico to the Pacific coast.
empire which controlled central Mexico. It
covered 20 square km (8 square miles). A wide There were
avenue ran from north to south, called the temples on top Smaller
of the pyramids, pyramids
Avenue of the Dead, which was over 5km where people lining the
(3 miles) long. It was lined with over went to worship Avenue of the
The city of their gods. Dead.,
75 pyramids, which were topped with temples.
Teotihuacan in
Mexico, it was
laid out in a
In the middle of the city
grid pattern
there was a huge
ceremonial, military and The largest pyramid in
Teotihuacan is called the
administrative area. The Pyramid of the Sun.
palaces of the rulers were It was 70m (230

feet) high.
also in the same area.

The pyramid were made from


;

soil and rubble and then


covered with stone. They were
then painted red and white.
The Pyramid of the Sun
contained over ,000,000 m'
1

(35,000,000 cubic ft) of


material.
LANGUAGES
Today, there are over 10,000 different
languages. Over the centuries, many have died
out and many more have developed. We know
about some early languages from writing, which
Sumerian writing from began 6,000 years ago. Linear writing, found
about 2800BC. detailing on the island of Crete
lists of fields and crops. about 2000BC.

LANGUAGE FAMILIES
Languages can be grouped into families. All the
languages in one particular family will have ASIA
developed from the same language in the past. For
example, French and Spanish both developed from
Latin around 500 years ago. The maps on this page
I
\y Pilipino

show the largest families and some of the languages l^Hy INDONESIA
which belong to them. In America and Australia lavanese ^^
there were originally thousands of native languages, ; /'Malagasy
AifftkALIA
/MADAGASCAR '^V^ rtMLI** '

but most have died out. In these areas English,


Spanish or Portuguese are the main languages,
taken there by European settlers. ZEALAND
The Hamito-Semitic group. Ancient The Malayo-Polynesian group. This
Egyptian belonged to this group. Experts think that language developed hundreds of covers a vast area of the Pacific.

thousands of years ago. As


^^^VFRI
AFRICA people migrated or
invaded different areas,
Mongd
their language will have
Kongo moved with them.
R\Vanda
Language changes very
Here are Swahill
quickly, so as different
four of the groups came into contact
main
languages u with each other, their The Steppes grasslands in central
Asia. Nomads from here migrated
and where
they are '\jr languages will have
evolved. For example,
west thousands of years ago. Their
language spread into Europe.
spoken.
it is known that as people from the Steppes
The Niger-Congo group. There are The Turkic-IVIongolian-Tungus
thousands of languages in this group. grasslands region migrated across Europe, their group. This has 40 or so languages.
words associated with their knowledge of horses
spread across Europe with them. ASIA

Nd(rt>i /v EOROpf, INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES


JonAetages Asii
One major families is called the Indo-European
of the

SOUTH VafRI^ group. includes


It some Asian languages and many
AMERICA European ones. Experts think that it originated in Kannada
Spanish/ .Afrikaans/ Mesopotamia and spread out into Malayalam
Portugese English
Europe and India. When the Tamil
SRI
Huns and other nomad LANKA
A Hun horseman.
invaders came to Huns were nomads The Dravidian group. This group
The Indo-European languages were
Europe in the 5th who migrated west has over 20 languages.

^
taken far and wide by Europeans.
from Asia in the
century AD, they 4th and ;th
These are th«s- centuries AD.
three main '
brought their !?=> ASIA
languages in languages with them
thisgrpui'
from northeast Asia. Chinese
This divided the Indo-
_^ CHINA
European group into Tibetan
Ja
east and west.
Ec However, there are
still similarities

^i?
between all the
languages in
O- 1,
/"^C this group
The Uralian group. This group The Sino-Tibetan group. It
originated in Russia, on the borders ncludes Chinese - one of the
of Europe and Asia. most spoken languages.
WRITING BEGINS
The ability to write is one of the ^ •EZIHIOT'E
skills that helped early
The first
civilizations to develop.
writtensymbols were used In
Sumer between 4000 and
3000BC. They were simple
pictures of objects, called
pictograms. Writing was
first used to record the
possessions of kings,
but it was also soon
used to record
Sumerian
writing, on a
block of clay,
called a tablet.
Sumerian pictograms
were drawn with a
sharpened reed.

SUMER EGYPT CHINA THE ROMAN ALPHABET


As time went by, In Ancient Egypt, In China, writing also Around 2000BC, a script
pictograms were replaced pictograms were first developed from simple with only 27 characters
by symbols which stood used to represent objects pictograms, which were was invented in Canaan in
for objects but did not and later used to stand used for objects and the Middle East. It was an
look like them. In Sumer for sounds. Egyptian sounds. In China today, alphabetic script, where
these symbols were symbols are called there are thousands of each symbol stood for a
drawn on clay. This hieroglyphics, which characters, called single consonant. This
wedge-shaped writing is means "sacred carvings". ideograms, in daily use. system was adopted by the
called cuneiform, after Priests controlled what Ideograms are symbols Greeks, who added vowel
the Latin word cuneus. was written, and writing which stand for an idea signs. Later on, the
meaning wedge. It was was mainly used for or a thing. Writing in Romans adapted it and it
also used in Assyria inscriptions on tombs Korea and japan also is now known as the
and Babylonia. and monuments. developed in this way. Roman alphabet.

Wedge-shaped cuneiform An Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol. The Chinese symbol for "tree", A Russian Cyrillic character - a
symbols from Sumer. It stood for a sound. based on the shape of branches. variation of the Roman alphabet.

TIME CHART FIND OUT MORE


c.6000-5000BCIndo C.3200BC Writing begins m C.2000-I400BCTWO C.700BC Alphabetic script
Europeans spread out Egypt forms of picture writing, is adapted by the Romans. 14
from Asia Minor into called Linear A and Linear
Europe C.3000BC Cuneiform writing is C.500BC Cuneiform writing
B. are used on tfie
used in
Babylonia.
Sumer, Assyria and
Mediterranean island of begins to die out Romans
c.4000-IOOOBC[ndo- Crete
Europeans spread out into C.AD300-500 Huns and
C.2000BC Aipfiabetic script is
other Asian nomads invade
Asia and deeper into
mvented in Canaan, in tfie C.I500BC Pictograms are
Europe Indo-European
Shang China •< 9
Europe Middle East used in Cfiina
languages begin to divide
C.4000BC Pictograms lOOBC Phoenicians into two groups - east and
first used in Sumer
are C.2000BC Pictograms
in India
are used C.I
develop an alphabet west
Sumer ^ 8;

^T^SvS^TI^^SS See above


pages for more
information.
ANCIENT EGYPT
The Ancient Egyptian civilization spanned nearly 3,000 An early Egyptian
reed boat.
years, from 3300BC to 332BC. Egyptian society was highly
organized and life was mostly based on farming
settlements around the Nile River. The Egyptians also.
built towns and cities with elaborate monuments.

THE OLD KINGDOM Site of the pyramids

Egyptian history is divided into periods,


depending on which famihes of pharaohs (kingsl ASIA MINOR
ruled Egypt. Over the centuries, times of stable
government, called Kingdoms, were followed by times
of trouble and insecurity. These troubled times are
ASIA
known as the Intermediate Periods. MEDITERRANEAN
SEA

One of the greatest periods of Egyptian history was the


Old Kingdom. This period lasted from around 2649BC Memphis
until 2 50BC. The pyramids (burial monuments of the
1

EGYPT
pharaohs) were built during this time and the empire
was run by a strong central government. Egypt was Thebes '.

ARABIA
divided into 42 areas called nomes. which were ruled by
AFRICA
powerful officials. The officials kept their positions for
ife and passed them on to their sons when they died.
This meant that they enjoyed a strong position in
Queen Nefertiti,
wife of Pharaoh Egyptian society.
Akhenaten who
reigned between
officials became more and more powerful, and
I364 and I347BC. The
eventually they challenged the authority of the
pharaohs. The government collapsed and this Egypt during the Old Kingdom, around 2200BC.
X
At this time the capital was Memphis.
breakdown led to the First Intermediate Period.

THE EMPIRE GROWS


During the First Intermediate Period, Egypt was invaded and
there were bitter disputes over who should rule it. Around
2040BC the government became stronger and the capita
was moved to Thebes. This was the start of the Middle
Kingdom, when Egypt occupied Nubia. Egypt then
grew to its greatest extent under Tuthmosis III
(C.1490-I436BC1 in the New Kingdom.

in 664BC, Egypt entered a new era of peace and


prosperity in the Late Period. Trade was successful
and foreigners were encouraged to settle in Egypt.
Then in 525BC, the pharaoh was defeated by the
Emperor of Persia. The Ancient Egyptian age finally ended
Tutenkhamun reigned when Alexander the Great of Macedon conquered Egypt. He made it A coin showing the
from I347-I337BC. His conqueror Alexander
tomb was famously successful once more and Egypt continued to be ruled by the Great,who reigned
discovered in the 1920s. Macedonian pharaohs until it fell to the Roman Empire in 30BC from 336-323BC.

la^Sea
Sea peoi
peoples
CASPIAN
W
^^^byans Jfc^^Sli
SIA SEA
"^ MINOR ASIA
CYPRUS

/
Memphis
Thebes" EGYI Babylon •Persepolis

Bedouin
NUBIA EGYirr % Persia
ARABIA
attiunk$

Libyan attacks
AFf.CA AFRICA^
f
^. EGYPT lH Empire
Persian
485"

92 BC
atta^ 525

Libyans and Bedouins Egypt and Nubia Egypt's greatest extent Egypt under Rameses II The Persian Invasion in 525BC. The Persians
invaded in the First during the Middle during Tuthmosis Ill's (l289-l224BC)was ruled Egypt until 404BC, and then again from
Intermediate Period. Kingdom. New Kingdom. weakened by invasions. 34I-332BC.

14
C.3I00-2649BC
Tlip Archaic Period -
rjyridsties l-ll

c.2649-2l50BCTheOid
Kingdom - Dynasties lll-VI
C.2150-2040BC The First
Intermediate Period -
Dynasties Vll-X
Maat - goddess of justice and
C.2040-1640BC
truth. She represented harmony
The Middle Kingdom -
and balance in the Universe.
Dynasties XI-XIV

c.l640-l552BCThe
TEMPLES FARMING TRAVEL Second Intermediate
l^. nod -Dynasties XV-XVII
The Egyptians built huge Farming was entirely Most Egyptians lived l552-l069BCTheNew
temples as homes for their dependent on the Nile within easy reach of the Kingdom - Dynasties XVIII-
XX
many gods. Only priests River to provide water and Nile, so they used boats
and priestesses were make the land fertile. Every and ships to travel from c.l490-l436BCReignof
Tut hlTU ISIS III

allowed to go inside the spring, the Nile became place to place. The boats
i069-664BCTheThird
temples. Ordinary people swollen with rain water and ships were built from Intermediate Period -
went to the temple By luly, the river flooded, reeds and wood. Dynasties XXI-XXV

entrances to pray and bring spreading water and rich 664-332BC The Late
Period - Dynasties XXVI-
offerings for the gods. soil over the fields, which To go north, the Egyptians XXXI
helped the next year's allowed their boats to
525BC Egypt is conquered
Many gods were identified crops to grow. drift downstream toward liy Persia
with animals and are often the sea. The wind blew 332BC Egypt is conquered
shown with animal heads in had gone,
After the floods from north to south, so It; Alexander the Great
wall paintings. Each god's seeds were sown. Crops when they wanted to go 30BC Egypt becomes a

animal was kept in his or were watered through long south, they used sails to Roman province
her temple and was treated ditches, called irrigation move against the current.
with great respect by the channels, which brought Ships were steered with a
people. water from the Nile. large oar at the stern.
FIND OUT MORE
Egypt < 8

Amun was Irrigation A New


the King of channels Kingdom Persians ^ 16
the Cods in brought trading
the New water ship.
Kingdom. from the Religion 22
Nile to
the fields.
Writing ^ 13

THE PYRAMIDS
Egyptians believed in life after death and that to survive in the next
world, the body had to stay intact. To achieve this pharaohs and
rich noblemen built huge stone pyramids to house their bodies and
possessions when they died. Bodies were preserved by embalming
them (soaking them in oil) and wrapping them in cloth. These
bodies, called mummies, were then placed in decorated
coffins and entombed inside
the pyramid. The Great
Pyramid of King Cheops was pyramids were bullt from
stone and originally covered
built from over two million in white limestone.
stones.

The dead king was


Pyramids, though, buried in a tomb.
were often robbed by After burial, the
passages were
treasure-hunters. So sealed.
pharaohs in the later
New Kingdom were False tombs
buried in tombs cut might have been
secretly into the built to confuse
grave robbers.
sides of cliffs.
Tutenkhamun's tomb
was one of these.
THE ANCIENT GREEKS
The first Greek civilizations were those of the M
and Mycenaeans. The Minoans lived in Crete
the Mycenaeans in mainland Greece. Successfu
both in warfare and trade, the early Greek
kings built rich palaces. Nearby were
farnns and craftsnnen's workshops.

THE GREEK CITY-STATES


Around lOOBC, some Greeks migrated from mainland
1

Greece to islands in the Aegean Sea and to the coast of Asia Minor.
For 300 years civilization declined and many skills were lost. The The Parthenon - the
temple on the
Greeks were no longer ruled by kings, but by small groups of nobles Acropolis in Athens,
called oligarchies, which ruled their own regions. builtaround 440BC.
It was dedicated to

the goddess Athene


From 800BC conditions improved. Coins were minted and writing was and had a huge
statue of her inside.
rediscovered. Communities became small states called city-states, which
A Greek soldier, had their own laws, armies, money and local gods, but shared the same
called a hoplite, from
the 6th century BC. language and religion. Also, colonists were sent out to found new cities.

EUROPE

ITADT
SPAIN

1 (' , Sft^rta
MEDITERRANEAN ( \
AFRICA MEDITERRANEAN SEA SEA »

By 550BC, the Greeks had colonized new cities around the edge of the The three most powerful city-states were Corinth, Sparta and Athens. A
Mediterranean. city-state consisted of the city and its surrounding countryside.

THE PERSIAN WARS


Around this time, the new power of Persia was growing in Asia.
The empire included the Greek cities of Asia Minor, called the
Ionian cities. In 498BC, Athens helped the Ionian cities in an
attempt to break free from Persia. They were soon defeated, but
the Persian Emperor Darius was determined to punish Athens. In
490BC he sent a fleet of ships to do battle. His forces landed at
Marathon, where the Athenians won a surprise victory. When
Darius died, his son Xerxes sent an even bigger fleet and a
huge army against Athens. The city was destroyed, but Persia
was beaten at Salamis in 480BC and at Plataea in 479BC. An oar-powered boat
"' called a trireme. The Greeks
The Ionian cities were then able to regain their freedom. and the Persians fought in these.

D Darius's Empire ^ EUROPE


m Original Persianlatid
Battle
. BLACK SEA
CASPIAN Sea Invasion 480BC
C GREECE SEA
ASIA
Ja|L «f ASIA Land Invasion 480BC
^^^fei-X- MINOR
" 7 PERSIAN EMPIRE
Plataea y \ Invasion 490BC

MEDITERRANEAN SEA Salamis iX>

GREECE
^-Jkrsia
AFRICA jI^ MEDITEkRANEAN SEA
The Persian Empire in '8580 at Darius's death. The Persians originally The Persian invasion routes and the major battle sites between
came from the area which is now part of modern day Iran. the Greeks and the Persians. The wars lasted from 490-449BC.

16
THE DELIAN LEAGUE Delian League

The Persians continued to threaten the Greeks, so c. 1 450BC Peak of the first
Greek civilization
Athens organized a union against them in 478BC, It was
C.I ODBC Dorian people
made up of the Ionian cities and the Aegean islands, I

from the northwest invade


known together as the Delian League. Over the years, it southern Greece and Crete,
causing many mainland
developed into an Athenian Empire. In 449BC Persia Greeks to migrate
and Athens agreed peace. 11 00-800BC The Dark Age.
when Greek culture
From 508BC a new system of government, called declined.

democracy, developed in Athens. Free male citizens C.850BC The Creeks begin
to colonize Asia Mmor and
were given a right to vote. Slaves, however, were used The Delian League, named after set up cities around the
more and more frequently in trade and farming. Delos, where its treasury was. Mediterranean coast

C.850-750BC The poet


Homer tells the traditional
ATHENS AGAINST SPARTA Allied to
Sparta
Allied to
Athens
story
Ic
about the Trojan War
IIOOBC)

Sparta was also powerful and had its own allies, known MACEDON 522-485BC Reign of the
Persian King Darius I

as the Peloponnesian League. In 43 BC, war broke out 1

THESSALY 498-449BC Persia is at war


between Athens and Sparta. Sparta was eventually the with .Athens
IONIA
victor, but only after abandoning the Ionian cities to
euboea C.460BC Democracy is
Persia. They did this in return for enough funds from established in Athens
Persia to finish the war against Athens. Athens 43 -404BC Athens
1
fights
pecoponKie;
ESE against Sparta in the
• Sparta Peloponnesian War
Sparta's attempts to be the leading city in all Greece
failed. Its arrogance and brutality quickly turned the 37l-362BCThebes
becomes the dominant
other cities against it. Athens then began to recover The two sides in the power in Greece
Peloponnesian War,
some of its former power. named after an area of 359-336BC Reign of Philip
southern Greece. ofMacedon
336BC Philip
ALEXANDER THE GREAT The Pharos lighthouse in assassinated
is

Alexandria, Alexander's
336-323BC Reign of
A new power soon arose in Greece - Macedon, an capital in Egypt.
Alexander the Great
almost barbaric state in the north of Greece. Its Round, third level. A 334BC Alexander sets out
cunning king, Philip, realized that the feuding Greek fire was lit here to to conquer his empire
guide sailors.
cities would be no match for his army. He soon 333BC Alexander defeats
Octagonal,
became the supreme power. Philip was later
second level.
Persian King Darius III.

assassinated, but his son Alexander took over. 330BC Death of King
Darius
He made sure that Greece would not rebel III

Square, 327BC .Mexander


against him by razing the city of Thebes to the reaches
first level.
India
ground. After this, no other city challenged him
The Pharos was built
323BC Alexander dies in

in the 3rd century BC, Babylon


In 334BC, Alexander set out for Persia. He during the reigns 323-28 BC Alexanders1

shattered the forces of Darius III and for the of Alexander's successors fight over
successors, it stood territory
next eleven years, he marched through Africa over 00m (300ft)
1

and Asia, founding many cities, some of which high and was one of 28 BC Three kingdoms
1

the ancient Seven emerge from Alexander's


were called Alexandria. Scientists and Wonders of the former empire - the
surveyors went with him, learning World. Kingdoms of Ptolemy.
Base .Antigonas and Seleucus
about geography, plants and
I47-I46BC Macedon and
animals. When Alexander died in Greece become Roman
Babylon in 323BC his empire was provinces

divided. Areas of it later became part


the Roman Empire.

EUROPE EUROPE ASIA FIND OUT MORE


EUROPE

MACEDONIAN
EMPIRE
^^LACKSEA CASPIAN

MACEDONIAN
A Greek
religion
MACEDON
EMPIRE
^m Roman

\. GREECE
AEGEAN
SEA
^^^£,__-S^
OREE^_ AEGEAN
SEA
.
ASIA
MINOR \
AFRICA
ARABIA
INDIAN
INDIA
I Empire

OCEAN
m: 1
J See ahov
above
for more
IVlacedon, the area in northern Philip of Macedon's Empire in 336BC The extent of Alexander the Great's information
Greece from which Philip originated. at the time of his assassination. Empire at his death in 323BC.

17
THE ROMAN EMPIRE
In Latium, the central plain on Italy's west coast, a group
of villages grew up near an island in the Tiber River. It
was a convenient place to cross the Tiber and it was
here that Rome was built. According to legend, it was
Hannibal the Carthaginian founded In 753BC by Romulus after he killed his twin A glassvessel, from the
3rd century AD, made
used elephants In his army
against the Roman Empire. brother Remus. Romulus became Rome's first king. by Roman craftsmen.

THE REPUBLIC ROME EXPANDS


Rome was governed by kings until By 272BC, Rome controlled all of To attack Rome, a Carthaginian
510BC, when the people banished Italy. War then broke out with the general called Hannibal led an
them. It then became a republic, powerful Carthaginian Empire. army and a troop of elephants
governed by a group of citizens, The Romans pushed Carthage out from Spain across the Alps to Italy.
called the Senate. Rome was the of Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, but There he won many battles against
dominant Latium, defended
city in Carthage managed to gain some the Roman army, but was never
by a city wall and a strong army. territory in Spain. able to attack Rome itself.

V \
.v. ~^
Z'
ITALY Rome •Rbi
Corsica
JTALY / Corsica "»7
CORSICA SPAIN
r Sardinia
Sardinia
Rome SPAIN /
LATIUM Sicily M£DIT£RRAN£AN Sicily
SEA
Carthage .Carthage
s^'^^r.
SARDINIA f-.,
-^ AFRICA Roman territory

MEDITERRANEAN SEA
'B Roman territory Carthaginian territory
'^AFRICA -»- Hannibal's route
II Carthaginian territory

By 338BC, Rome was the leading city in Latium. Roman and Carthaginian territory in 264BC, at The Roman and Carthaginian Empires at the start
It was built on seven hills and surrounded by a the outbreak of the first war between them, of the Second Punic War in 2 I8BC. Hannibal's
strong wall. called the First Punic War. route took him all the way across the Alps.

A Roman foot soldier,


called a legionary, of the s-s^ ^\-A^'^^^
1st century AD.
Built in AD 1 42

Tunic of
"Barbarian "
tribes in
wool or
linen.
central Europe raided
the empire's borders.

Pugio

Groin guard
made of
leather and
metal.

His weapons
Included a
throwing spear
(called a pilum),
a short, stabbing
sword la gladius)
and a dagger (a
pugio).

Heavy sandals
studded with nails.
TIME CHART FIND OUT MORE
800BC LlrubLdiib lioiii 272BC l.iicMliiiii 202BC Ldrthage is AD98-I 17 iLi^.n r.

Asia Minor settle in Italy surrenders and Rome captured. emperor.


controls Italy
753BC The city of Rome 60BC The First ADI 17-138 Hadrian is

is tiiunded 24 BC Rome occupies


1 Triumvirate rules. emperor
Sicily Corsica and
510BC Kingsare Sardinia 44BC lulius Caesar is ADI 38-161 Antoninus Religion 22
banished fronn Rome by murdered on March 1 5 -
l^ius IS emperor Rome's
the people 2 1 SBC Hannibal crosses the Ides of March power is at its peak
the Alps
282BC War breaks out 31BC-ADI4Augustus, ADI93 Throne auctioned
between Rome and 206BC Rome captures the first Roman to Didius lulianus. who is See above pages I
Tarentum Spam Emperor, rules later murdered for more
information

UNREST IN ROME JULIUS CAESAR


By lOOBC, the Roman Ennpire Back home, soldiers found their In 60BC, a group of three men
included Spain, southern Gaul, farms ruined. They had to take took control. One of them was
Greece, Africa (modern Tunisia) work in Rome
their families to find lulius Caesar - a great soldier. In
and Asia Minor. The Senate, where crime and unemployment 49BC, civil war erupted and Caesar
though, found the huge empire were high. People were unhappy gained power. The Senate voted
hard to run and there was unrest and soldiers were loyal to their him ruler for life, but soon after,
at home in Italy. generals, not the Senate. he was stabbed to death by rivals.

EUROPE IRELAND BRITAIN


EUROPE
L
-^lloiw^ '
-f
7
Caesars
EUROPE
ITAUY GREEifcE SPAIN advances
SPAIN GAUL
larthage ATLANTIC
OCEAN
AFRICA
AFRICA SPAIN
The Roman Empire at the outbreak of the Third The Roman Empire in 80BC. By this time the Caesar was best l<nown for the conquest of Gaul
Punic War in I49BC. Only Carthage was left of the Romans had begun to acquire territory in Asia (modern day Francel between 58 and 50BC. He
Carthaginian Empire and Rome destroyed it. Minor. also invaded Britain in both 33 and 34BC.

1 THE EMPIRE AT ITS PEAK


THE GROWTH OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE In 3 1 BC, Caesar's heir, Octavian became the
This map shows the Roman Empire by Roman Emperor, taking the name
first
ADI4 and at its largest extent in ADI 17 It Augustus in 27BC. He set up a military
was the biggest empire the world dictatorship thatwas to last for the next 500
had ever seen. The map uses the
years. The Romans made more conquests
Roman names for its colonies.
until the empire reached its largest extent in
ADI 7, during the rule of Emperor Trajan.
1

KEY
For some time, Rome was peaceful and
I
I Roman Empire MAD wealthy, although many citizens were poor
Territory acquired
and miserable. Also, tribes in central Europe
I
'
I

'
by I I 7AD were jealous of the empire and raided its
(BLACTC borders. Rome had to raise taxes to pay for
"
Fortifications
soldiers to defend it. The mighty Roman
% Major roads Empire then fell into a long, gradual decline.

OAT'PA'DOCI^

s.
;..M'E-5 0'P0TAMIA
.ueSS^ JlllljJ
The Colosseum in Rome. This
building was used to stage
fights and games for the
ka... Roman public to watch.
^^THE GREAT INVADERS
mm From the 3rd century AD, nomadic tribes
central Europe began to attack the frontier
Roman Empire. The Romans called th
uncivilized invaders "barbarians".
As well as barbarian attacks, civil wa
taxation, famine and disease all
weakened the empire.

f THE
II
EMPIRE DIVIDES
To safeguard the frontiers of the SCANDINAVIA
Roman Empire from barbarian
Western Empire
invasions, Emperor Diocletian decided
.r^"' Q Eastern Empire
to make the army bigger He also BRITAIN
decided to split the empire in two to EUROPE
make it easier to rule. Diocletian ruled
the eastern half, while his fellow
This clasp for
soldier, Maximian, ruled the west. Each
GAUL
clothing was made
by barbarians ruler called an Augustus, had a deputy Constantinople ASIA MINOR
around 500AD. called a Caesar
-J > Rome \^ .^

smiN
InAD305, Diocletian abdicated. Four rival leaders
emerged, one of whom was called Constantine. He MEDITERRANEAN SEA
marched from where he was stationed in Britain to
claim a share of the empire. Constantine>
believed that dividing the empire was AFRICA
wrong. He set about becoming the sole ruler'
and uniting east and west by fighting his The division of the Roman Empire around AD293. It was
rivals. He became sole Emperor in AD323. now split into east and west.

CONSTANTINE'S REIGN THE BARBARIANS INVADE


During his fight to become the Far away in central Asia, a
sole ruler of the empire, fearless, tough tribe of nomads
Constantine is said to have seen a called the Huns began to
vision of a cross. This happened conquer new land. As they did
before the Battle of Milvian Bridge so, they drove before them
in AD3 12, which he went on to other Asian tribes. These
win. Constantine believed that the barbarian tribes spread
vision was a sign from Christ and in all directions. They
from then on he encouraged invaded China,
Christianity in the empire. Persia and India,
However, he was not baptized a causing great
Christian until shortly before damage to the
his death. civilizations
there.
While waging his wars,
Constantine used up much of
the wealth of the west. So he In AD367, the barbarians
founded a new capital in the poured across the Rhine
still rich east, at Byzantium.
and the Danube into the
He renamed the city
Roman Empire,Many set
Constantinople after up their own kingdoms as
himself. After his death
Rome's power crumbled.
though, the empire Unable to get rid of
divided again.
them, Emperor
Theodosius made
peace. He offered to make
Gothic invaders from them part of the empire, as
the 4th century AD
ong as they provided workers
and soldiers.
THE NEW KINGDOMS TIME CHAR
in AD45 the Roman general Aetius won
, Britain was now in the hands of the
1
AD200 bdrbdridiib be^in to
the last great Roman victory when he lutes,Angles and Saxons who had dttack Britain

defeated Attila the Hun at Chalons in invaded from Denmark and Germany AD293 Diocletian divides
central France. In AD455, Rome was France was occupied by the Burgundians empire into eastern dnd
western halves.
sacked by Vandal pirates and by AD476, and the Franks, who were also from
AD300 Romans begm to
the western empire was finished. The Germany. Spain had been overrun by the on coasts of
build forts
last emperor of the west was deposed Vandals, who then settled in north southern England and
northern France to keep out
and Europe was now amuch changed Africa. Spain itself was later ruled by the invaders
place. In place of the Roman Empire Visigoths.A related tribe, called the AD306-37 Reign of
were smaller kingdoms, ruled by
lots of Ostrogoths, occupied southeast Europe Emperor Constantine. who
the barbarians. and Italy. reunites the empire

AD330 Constantinople
becomes new capital of the
Roman Empire,
Route ^-
Q Settlement area
I
"X^ EUROPE AD367 Barbarians cross
Rhine and Danube

AD39I Christianity
becomes the official

M£D(T£RR/»S3lN SM religion of the Roman


Empire.
^^i^:/ EUROPE AFRICA^-^r^
AD45I General Aetius
The lutes, Angles and The Franks invaded The Vandals rode The Goths came from The eastern Goths, or defeats Attila the Hun
Saxons invaded Caul (modern day from Asia into Europe. Asia. The western Ostrogoths, invaded AD527-65 Reign of
Britainfrom Denmark France) from their They eventually Goths, or Visigoths, southeastern Europe Byzantine Emperor
and north Germany. home in Germany. settled in Africa. settled in Spain. and settled in Italy.
lustinian

AD535-55 lustinian

THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE captures North Africa, Italy

The eastern half of the Roman Empire


survived to become a new power - the A 6th century mosaic

Byzantine Empire. Like the old empire,


from the Church of
San Vitale in
FIND OUT MORE
it had a strong military system, an orderly Ravenna, Italy,
showing Emperor A Bdrbaridns 26
government and it followed Christianity. lustinian. Ih
Gradually, it gained its own identity. Greek
1 Byzantine
became language and its eastern
its official '"
Empire 30
Orthodox Church developed from the western
Roman Catholic one. The literature of Ancient Greece ;, Roman
and Rome was preserved in its libraries, and art and i Empire < 18
learning also flourished.
']

InAD527, an emperor called lustinian came to the


Byzantine throne. He then set out to conquer the old See above
pages for
western Roman
provinces. He recaptured much of the more
old territories, but his victories cost the Byzantine information.

Empire much wealth. After Justinian died in AD565, his


reconquests were lost again within a century.

_<

rvT-- EUROPE
^. KINGDOM ^•< Mosaics like
OFTHE
^ - FRANKS f^'-^
BLACK SEA
this were
made from
^•—v-' ; tinypieces of
stone of
KINGDOM r'^'
OFTHE ^J Q ^^^^^\ byzantVe EMPIRE different
shades, set in
a cement.

^
SICILY »s.^

(^ MEDITERRANEAN SEA
^ Conquests by ADS65 i
«^ A
CI Byzantine Empire AD527 '
V- Mosaics were
^° common
throughout the
AFRICA \ Roman world.

Justinian's Byzantine Empire on his succession in AD527 and at his


death in AD565. He reconquered part of the old Roman Empire.
WORLD RELIGIONS
developed their own religions.
All civilizations
Religions helped people to explain questions
about how the world was created, birth The Greel< god
and death, good and evil and why Artemis, known
as Diana to the
Figure of an ancient goddess. This
stone carving is 25,000 years old. life is like it is. Romans.

ANCIENT GODS GREEKS AND ROMANS


Many ancient religions ASIA MINOR Most ancient religions SCANDINAVIA
,:>n.
have now died out. Some did not spread far Greek
were based upon the ^T. and Roman religion,
worship of many gods however, spread over the EUROPE
and goddesses. The '^^ Greek world and the
Sumerians had hundreds
PERSIAN
Roman Empire. Greek .ROMAN EMPIRW,
of gods, who had to be EGYPT GULF gods were associated
obeyed and given gifts or ARABIA with life and nature. The
sacrifices. The Egyptians Romans then merged
believed that over 2,000 them with their own so AFRICA
gods and goddesses thatmany have two
governed every part of The Sumerian and Egyptian names, a Greek one and The Roman Empire, around the year
Empires around 3000BC. 27BC.
human life. a Roman one.

INDIA, CHINA AND JAPAN


Hinduism, one of the world's great religions, began
in India, around 2500BC. Its followers worship The Hindu ASIA
many gods, who are all believed to be different symbol - ,*^
theword<^ y7\
forms of one great being, called "Brahman", Om, ,
<¥Q)
Hinduism's most important gods are Brahma meaning
god
\^
the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver and Siva the , INDIA
,
Destroyer
\\ ^/
^
INDIAN
OCEAN
A second world Buddhism, also
religion.
f
Buddhism is based on the Origin of \ f
began in India.
teachings of a man called Siddhartha
Hinduism \^ SRI LANKA
Hinduism originated in India, where
Gautama, or the Buddha ("the enlightened itis still the major religion today.

one"), who lived in India in the 6th century


BC. It later spread from India into China
and Southeast Asia.
*
ir
• • • •
Today, Buddhism is still strong in China CHINA
and Southeast Asia, though it has nearly
INDIA
disappeared in India. It is the only major
INDIAN
world religion which does not focus on a \ OCEAN
god or several gods, but on the teachings Origin of
of a philosopher (great thinker). In Buddhism
China, two other religions are also Spread of Buddhism <'

based on the teachings of great Buddhism began in liulid jiid spread


philosophers. These religions are into China.

Taoism and Confucianism. "^"^r:

In lapan, an ancient religion called ASIA


Shintoism dates from before the 7th
Shinto
century BC. It was based on a desire
to be at one with nature and it
demanded obedience to the
emperor, who was believed to be a
'•r ...>

KOREA
r symbo

descendant of the sun goddess. Other


Krishna is
the most
celebrated of
the Hindu gods
important ideas in the Shinto religion are the
worship of traditional lapanese heroes and
people's family ancestors.
Origin af-'^'\^/r
^ShintoisAi
f
Shintoism. which is based solely in
japan, did not spread elsewhere.

22
JUDAISM CHRISTIANITY THE BIRTH OF ISLAM
Traditionally, In the Middle East, around In Mecca in Arabia in AD570, a
ludaism the is AD30, a new religion called man called Muhammad was born.
religion of the Christianity developed. A He preached that his fellow Arabs
lews - first known group of men called the apostles should stop the worship of idols
as the Israelites, who began to spread the teachings of a (false gods) and submit to the will
established themselves lew called lesus Christ. They of God, or Allah During his
in 1274BC in Canaan n preached that Christ had risen lifetime, Muhammad claimed that
in the Middle East. from the dead he received messages from Allah,
They conquered , .,„ .. .
following his which he wrote down word for
•'
T" A candlestick, called a ,

Canaan about menorah, used in levvlsh execution by the word.


religious ceremonies. Romans. They
lOOOBCand
made homeland, with
it their proclaimed Christ Allah's words, known as the
lerusalem as their capital. The to be the Son of Ko'ran, became the guiding
north of Canaan became known as God who had died principles of a new religion -
Israel, while the south was called to save his people. Islam. By Muhammad's death in
ludah. Their message spread AD632, Islam influenced most of
quickly. Arabia. It later spread to Africa
After defeat by the Babylonians in and Asia.
586BC, the Israelites began to During the time of
spread out over Europe and the lesus Christ, the Roman Empire
founder of
Mediterranean. They continued to Christianity.
there were periods
spread out during the time of the when Christianity
Roman Empire. The Israelites was banned. This was because
became known as the lews and the Romans wanted everyone
this movement of people is called to worship the emperor as a
the Diaspora. Although they were god. The Christians refused,
away from home, the jews kept believing that they should
their religion, based on their not worship any other god
belief of their special relationship but theirs.
with the one, true God.
Christians were often killed
The lewish holy scriptures, A tile

the Torah and the Talmud,


or persecuted. Christianity, from a
are written on scrolls. though, was later tolerated and mosque in
Istanbul,
then became the official religion decorated with
^.^^.^jf^MffH of the Roman Empire in AD391 verses from the Ko'ran.

EUROPE

AFRICA
/
V^


-


As
"^/ symbol -the
/i\^^\ Star of Davie

1 •



lewish

•4
, -
EUROPE

'••:•. clq

:

••••'
ASIA
^ -• .-.' -

ARABIA
-
ASIA

Islamic
symbol - the
crescent

INDIA
AFRICA •. % thrjstian
AFRICA
ARABIA •, *. i symbol -

• • '. the cross INDIA INDIAN
OCEAN
Spread of Judaism

<
\ \^ H Islamic areas by AD7,56
• • • • Of Christianity / ^

Over the centuries, the lewish people spread out After Christianity was established in the Middle Islam originated in Arabia and by AD750, it had
in all directions from their homeland in Canaan. East it spread mainly into Africa and Europe. spread into Asia, north Africa and Spain.

TIME CHART FIND OUT MORE


2500BC Hinduism begins 6OOBC By this time, C.0-AD30 Life of lesus AD622 Muhammad and
in India Shintoism has been Christ, founder of his followers arrive in
Christianity 24
established Christianity Medina after being forces
2000BC According to out of Mecca This date
lewish tradition. God 586BC The lewish AD39I Emperor
marks the start of the
Roman Empire -^20
speaks to Abraham, the Diaspora begins. Theodosius makes
Islamic religion
father of ludaism Christianity the official
550-480BCLifeof
Siddhartha Gautama -
religion of the Roman AD750 Islam has spread
1274BC lews settle in Empire See above pages
the Buddha throughout Arabia and
Canaan for more
AD570-632Lifeof north Africa It also
55l-479BCLifeof information.
c.604-53IBCLifeofLao- Muhammad, founder of spread into Asia and int.
Confucius - founder of
Tse, founder of Taoism. Confucianism Islam Spain

23
GREAT EMPIRES
As Europe recovered from the fall of Rome
great empires flourished in Asia, America
-••«

and Africa. In Asia, the T'ang Dynasty was a


golden age for Chinese culture. In America, the
Maya were building great monuments, while in
The Chinese explored in ships lil<e
Africa, great trading empires developed.
this one. called junks.

T'ANG CHINA THE MAYA IN AMERICA


In AD618, China was united under The Maya, who lived in central America,
an imperial family called the T'ang entered their greatest period around
Dynasty. The Tang era became AD250. They believed that their kings were
one of the greatest periods of gods and the kings celebrated their own
Chinese history. It was a time of importance by building cities and monuments
inventions, such as printing, for themselves. Mayan cities had splendid
porcelain, the magnetic compass, palaces for the king, open plazas, and courts
paper money and gunpowder. for playing games with balls Temples stood
on top of stepped pyramids.
Then in 907, the T'ang Dynasty fell

to invaders and a troubled period Around the year 1200, power shifted to the
followed. China was later reunited north and Mayapan and Chichen Itza became
under the Sung Dynasty, until important. Mayapan was sacked in the 5th 1

nomads the north set up the


in century and its people disappeared, but no
Ch'in Empire. China eventually fell one knows why this happened.
to the Mongols by the end of the
I 3th century. The Maya made wonderful pottery
and stonework, and invented a
form of picture writing. They THE MAYA EMPIRE
believed that people should let
map shows the great Maya
y PACIFIC
OCEAN
blood to please the gods. People
let their own blood at births,
This
Empire in central America
and its most important
funeralsand religious occasions. cities.

The Maya were once believed to


be peaceful, but historians
now think that rival
The Tang Empire in China in the 8th century. kingdoms were
From here, the Chinese set out to explore Asia
often at war.

--' The Silk Road">;^K^*7


-MIDDLE
EAST
ARABIA

^M'EXICO
Tafen
'^z-
Much of the Yucatan 100 miles
Peninsula In IMexico was
rJ^^ covered

'Bona mp a ^
in rainforest.

6
df
Cop a n
AFRICAN EMPIRES TIME CHART
During Europe's Middle Ages, fabulously rich
CHINA
empires existed in Africa, Thiere were thiree great
empires which rose and fell during this period. AD6I8-907 Tang Dynast
rules Chind
Ghana was the first, beginning around the year
7th-8th century
AD700. It was then absorbed into the larger Mali Woodblock printing
Empire, which was in turn replaced by the Songhai invented

Empire, lasting until 1600 751 Chinese defeated by


Turks at Battle of Tares,

The African Empires were rich because of 9th century Gunpowder


.ented'

their supply of gold. Arab traders bought


907-960 Cliina is
salt from the Saharan salt mines, unsettled during the
then carried it to towns in the period of the Five
nasties
southern Sahara, where they
sold it for gold and slaves. 960 Sung Dynasty rules
1
hina.
Arab traders also
C.I04I Movable type for
converted many iinting is invented
Africans to Islam. 1 125 i.irthern China
i| red from the Sung b;,
jtu
>mads, who set up Chin
Trade on the east i
i'

mpire
coast of Africa also
1279 Sung Dynasty in
flourished. Gold, southern China is
iron and ivory were conquered by the Mongol

sent from the town AMERICA


of Zimbabwe in the C.AD200-850 Classical
interior to the ports Period of Maya civilization
in southern Yucatan
of Mombassa, Kilwa
750-1250 City of Mayapan
and Mogadishu. Timbuktu, in Mali, was one of the most Impressive flourishes
cities in Africa. It had busy markets, a great palace
and several mosques. It also had a university. c.800-1 100 Growth of
Post-Classical period of
I
Maya civilization in
northern Yucatan

AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA 900-IIOOTheToltecs


Ml lurish in Central
.America
buktu
C.I 460 Mayapan is sacked
Saleh liy unknown warriors

Lake' Lake c. 1550 The Yucatan is

Chad i-iinquered by the


Spaniards

AFRICA
C.AD700-I200 Kingdom of
ATLANTIC ATLANTIC ATLANTIC Ghana m West Africa,
OCEAN OCEAN OCEAN c.800-1800 Kingdom of
Kanem Bornu in West
Africa

The fabulous Empire of Ghana in The Mali Empire, which existed from Later, the Songhai Empire took over C.I 200- 500 Mali Empire
1

West Africa. It thrived from around around 200 to 500, took over from
1 1 from the Mali Empire. It existed thrives in West Africa
ADVOOto 1200. the Empire of Ghana. from around 350 to 1600.
1

c. 1270-1450 Zimbabwe I-

the capital of the Shona


F mpire in East Africa

/ AFRICA c.1350-1600 Songhai


/ mpire thrives In West
1

KANEM ^ ARABlAy ^ Africa

BORNU

zargurn'-j
u.1.J- u
Mbgadishuy-
/'' INDIAN FIND OUT MORE
Chad oc£^^
M^mb^'sa , -Walindi ...» America 40
ATLANTIC (
Zambezi River •.
OCEAN China < 48
ATLANTIC \ AFRICA (
r ,-'.>h<(Adagascar
OCEAN y t-
Mongols 34
u^' Zimbi
The Kingdom of Kanem Bornu Saharan trade routes. Traders bought Traders took gold, iron and ivory to
developed separately. It thrived salt from the Sahara Desert mines east African ports and shipped it to See above pages
from around 800 to 1800. and exchanged it for gold and slaves. the Middle East, India and China. for more
information.

-J

25
EUROPE'S NEW AGE
During the Roman Empire, most citizens in Europe
were Christian. Between AD400 and 500, barbarian
invaders poured into Europe. These invaders were
pagans, who did not beheve in Christ. As they The 1 0th century
German Emperor
conquered Europe, they began to wipe out Christianity. Otto I.

RETURN TO CHRISTIANITY
a,TLAND
The Christian Church had been completely
A farmhouse shaken by the barbarian invasions. By the
LfiftiT^,.' -ENGLAND
from Viking 6th century, the wave of invasions settled
settlements of the
1 0th century. dou/n. The Church reorganized itself and set
about the long, difficult and dangerous task
of converting the barbarians to Christianity.
There were three strongholds of the Church
Missionary routes around Missionaries from the Irish,
in Ireland, Rome and Constantinople. Each Europe. The three different or Celtic, Church spread
stronghold sent out men called strongholds of Christianity Christianity in England and
sent out missionaries. Scotland.
missionaries, whose task it was to preach
Christianity and convert the pagans.
The lOth century
chapel, built for
Charlemagne's By the 8th century, the barbarians had
palace in Aachen. settled down own kingdoms and
into their
gradually they became Christians
Christianity was popular once more
d the Church had succeeded in
reserving the religion in Europe,
was also responsible for keeping
The Pope in Rome sent Missionaries from the
ive the learning and skills that Christian missionaries to Church in Constantinople
had been in danger of being lost spread Christianity spread Christianity in
throughout Europe. southeast Europe.
during the barbarian invasions.

CHARLEMAGNE'S EMPIRE
One of the greatest kings in Europe in
the 8th century was called Charles the
Great, or Charlemagne, who was King
S m
of the Franks, After inheriting much of
modern day France from his father, KINGDOM Territory inherited
OFTHE by Charles
Charles set about fighting the pagans. FRANKS between 768 and
Any captives that he took were forced 771. It included
much of what is
to convert to Christianity and he built now modern day
up the largest empire since the France.

Romans The Pope gave him the title


"Emperor of the Romans".

After Charles's death, his empire was _^ -nCINGDOM


eventually divided into three - the >,n OFTHE , Territory
FRANKS conquered by
Eastern, Middle and Western Frankish Charles from 771
Kingdoms. The Middle Frankish until his death in
814. His empire
Kingdom was eaten up by the others was the biggest in
but in later years, the Eastern Frankish I— I Ch^les's conque Europe since the
Romans.
Kingdom covered what became
modern day Germany, The Western
EASTERN
Frankish Kingdom, which later FRANKISH
developed into modern day France, KINGDOM
was ruled by Charles's family until 987
when Hugh Capet became king. Charles's empire by
843. It had now
A stained glass been split into
image of three - the Eastern.
Charlemagne - Middle and
Emperor of the Western Frankish
Romans ".
Kingdoms.

26
THE VIKING THREAT TIME C^A^^J
Around 790, western The Vikings were Some Vikings decided to 481-51 I 1 King
,l(.-of

Europe began to face a adventurous seafarers. stay in the areas they Clovis, who established
Prankish rule in France.
new pagan enemy - the They sailed across oceans raided and fought to
597 St Augustine, sent
Vikings. The Vikings came and up rivers, going as far conquer territory. Over by the Pope to convert
from Scandinavia. They as Constantinople on the many years, they blended pagans, arrives in Britain.

were fishermen, farmers edge of Europe and in with the local people. 719 The Pope sends St
and merchants. They Baghdad in the Middle In eastern Europe, the Boniface to convert
pagans in Germany
became rich, but their East. They sailed or native Slavs called the
768-8 4 The reign of
numbers grew, so there rowed their boats along Vikings "Rus". The land Charles the Great, or
1

was not enough land for rivers as far as possible. that the Rus settled in is Charlemagne
them all. Many took to Over land, the crew now called Russia. Other 772-804 Charles is at war
ith the Saxons
the seas as pirates and carried thern or roiled Vikings went farther
raided coastal towns in them on logs. The Vikings afield to Iceland and 773-74 Charles conquers
''
lie Lombards in n<
search of loot. These traded with people along Greenland in search of
1 '

i.ily.

raids were especially the way, exchanging iron, new homes. Some even 787 Charles fights the
successful after the furs,bone and ivory for reached North America, Moors in Spain.
breakdown of the goods such as silver, but settlements there 789 Charles fights the
spices and silks I Slavs eastern Europe.
Prankish Empire, failed to survive in

c.790 Viking raids begin.


ICELAND ./-•'
4^rTc%>ir^AvlA'^ i{^^-

^ SCANDINAVIA^
800
1
'

Diptror of the
ii.jrles is crowned
Romans
IRELAFldl I
the Pope.
!)•

^^SS^^
^^^V EUROPE ^^'^'^"^''r'^^Ruts.A
C.830 Viking raids on
i iritain and the Prankish

1 ii^RANCE ^
Normandy
EUROPE
WKiev
I mpire become frequent

860 Vikings set up the


ingdom of Novgorod in
I

I'ussia

^ SPAIN
OCEAN / ^tJ.**"
SPAIN 862 Vikings trade with

^C-=s^
Viking routes across the North Sea
and the sites of the Viking raids.
\ AFRICA
y
Viking trade and exploration routes
across Europe, Asia and to America
Settlements where the Vikings
merged with local people.
-
.-ighdad and
I

iinstantinople

874 Vikings
Iceland
settle on

884The Vikings sail to


^pain, but are beaten by
I'le Moors
FACING THE VIKINGS 936-73 The reign of Otto
1, the Great Otto became
Around this time, a number of events the first Holy Roman
mperor
occurred in Europe which changed
I

955 Otto crushes the


society. To combat the Vikings, I

!.-igyars in Hungary
European nobles began to employ
983-86 The Vikings
well-armed, mounted soldiers. Ionize Greenland
These soldiers could ride to the C.1002 The Vikings reach
scene of a Viking raid quickly to Ni Tth America

defend their territory. Riders c. I 1 00 Viking raids come


also began to use stirrups, whic ; 1 an end.

meant that they could withstanc


the shock of a charge without
Nobles
falling off their horses.
towns and built
fortified their
FIND OUT MORE ,

strongholds made of earth and


wood, where the local people Barbarians -t 20
could shelter in times of danger.
Feudal
About 1 100, Viking raids system 28
came to an end. By that
time, a way of life had The Church 30
developed where people
iH" ili^M
worked for the local lord in See above pages
return for fiis protection. for more
information.
Because of this, many people also
lost their freedom. This became the I
basis of the feudal system of the
The boat
Middle Ages. was made from
A Viking longship, which overlapping planks of
carried Vikings on their raids wood riveted together.
DAL EUROPE
In Europe, the years between 1050 to
1450 are called the Middle Ages. During
the Middle Ages, society was organized
A monk and a nun of the
in a way which we call the feudal systenn. Middle Ages.

THE FEUDAL SYSTEM


n feudal society, the king was tine most SCOTLAND SWEDEN
powerful person. He owned the land, ^MARK
IRELAND
made the laws and led his army in battle ENGLAND •-POLAND
Nobles were given land and in return HOLY 1-^
.ROMAN .-^lih,
they obeyed and fought for him. FRANCE EMPIRE
Under the nobles served knights - HUNGARY
warriors who fought for them or t.. BULGiPlA
CASTli
the king in return for land. The GON I5ER6IA
owliest rank in society belonged PORiTUGAt NAPLES
to the peasants, who farmed the
and in return for protection. Europe in the Middle Ages, shown around the
year 1300.

Costume
styles of the
late 14th
century -
a king and A peasant,
The knight's equipment queen. or serf.
was decorated with his
own emblem, called a
coat of arms.

THE HUNDRED YEARS' WAR


This was the longest of Europe's 13 English 1 387 Margate .^^^fWyf- g English
,-l^H340
many wars in the Middle Ages. It ENGLAND D French
ENGLAND .gincour-t French
began in 339 because Edward
I III \.A.*<?Cailais
O Burgundy Q Burgundy
1-347
of England claimed he had a , r, .Y'
- -^ ) --''Crecy '.
=::^^ea battle Formigny 1413 c;^^'ea battle
better right to the French throne 1^ " 1346
than Philip of Valois. Despite great ^>, FRANCE ;./;;./ ^ Land battle
1450
ia,ort&iifii^---'"
•(^ Land battle

English victories and a couple of


"^*V ';
© Siege
LaRoc)?;slle '«t )
© Siege
'(^ Poitiers' 1372

^
truces, the war dragged on. V . FRANCE
iJSft
<2)Ga*stillon I453,.,>
^:!s
A second successful English
-^^
invasion was led by Henry V in ,.

1415. Thirty years later, the French


-1 ^
By 1360, the English controlled much of By 1429, the English controlled territory in
began pushing the English back southwest France. They won decisive battles at southwest and northern France. Soon after this,
until only Calais was left to them Poitiers and Crecy. they were pushed back.

THE CHURCH
In the Middle Ages, there were many monks and nuns, who devoted
their whole lives to God. They lived in monasteries and nunneries
where they prayed and worked. They gave to the poor, provided
shelter for visitors and cared for the sick. To train churchmen, they
also ran the first schools which later developed into the first
universities in Europe

Kings used priests in government because they


could read and write. Many members of the
Church became very powerful and the Church
itself became rich
Monks hand-decorated books with The first Christian universities and some great
cathedrals that were founded in the Middle Ages.
patterns like this.

28
TOWNS IN THE MIDDLE AGES The seal on
the charter
of Bruges -
TIM^^/VRT
a famous 1088 irst universi;
Trade increased the Middle Ages and as it
in
cloth-
;

urope opens in Bologii i

did so, towns grew up in Europe. Merchants producing i,,IV


town in
and craftsmen banded together to form groups Belgium. I 153 Henry II inherits
called guilds, which looked after their members Bruges is iiglish throne, creating
shown below Xngevin Empire in
and set standards of workmanship. I ngl^^nd and France

12 I ^ nglish barons limr


In some towns, the citizens became richer and power with
„ :
tins m
itjreement called the
wanted to be independent from their local lord. Magna Carta.
They paid him a sum of money for a charter,
282 Danish barons fore
which gave them some self-government. In
I

ng Eric V to sign a
Germany and Italy, some cities became totally iiarter

independent in this way. However, by and large, I 302 Craftsmen of Bruge


Ghent seize power
iiid
the rich still had all the power, which often led ;r>im the merchants
to revolts against them by the poor.
I 339 Edward 111 of
England invades France.
The Hundred Years' War
THE BLACK DEATH 5y^ begins
EUROPE
1347-53 The Black Death
In the 12th and 13th centuries, Europe became sweeps across Europe
Byz3{itJnE
more prosperous. Then, at the start of the 14th 0' -^-.•^^ .Erripire In 1347, the
I'T^XL 1358 French peasants
I

'
plague was
century, bad weather caused harvests to fail. affecting the
revolt in the laquerie
Iprising
More ill luck followed when in 347 a severe Byzantine Empire
'

1
and southern 360 England and France
case of the bubonic plague, called the Black Europe.
1

sign a truce that is broken


Death, arrived.
1381 The Peasants' Revolt
erupts in England.
The plague came to Europe with the crew of a 1396 England and France
Genoese merchant ship returning from the sign a second truce

Crimea in Russia. The crew were infested with Within a year, it


1407 First bank is founded
the disease. It was carried by the fleas of black had spread north
in Genoa
to cover the south
rats and it spread like wildfire across Europe. 1415 Henry V of England
and west of invades France and
Over the next six years, it killed a third of the Europe. restarts The Hundred
entire population, rich and poor alike. Years' War

SCANDINAVIA l453TheHundred Year-


\\'.--,r pnrK
BBJIAIN'

~
EUROPE By 1349, the
plague had FIND OUT MORE
^-^^^Si^f^ spread north
AFRICA. again into The Church -4 26
J3 Scandinavia.

SCANDINAVIA
Italy 37 1
Bp^'t5^lN.v;^
See above pages
for more
EUROPE information.

People called the Flagellant Brotherhood thought that the plague Soon, central
was sent by God to punish them for their sins. They tried to stop Europe and more
the disease by whipping their bodies to punish themselves. AFRVCA of Scandinavia
was affected.
So many people died that the fields were left
unfarmed, as there were not enough workers to SGik|4t>IN

tend the crops. Food prices were high and


BfWI^INl -
landowners kept wages low, which caused great
hardship among the poor ; EUROPE
By 1351, the
I /
plague spread
north again into
These hardships and other complaints against ^FR»CA... - the area around
their masters sometimes led peasants to rebel. the Baltic Sea.
In 358 there was the laquerie Uprising in
1
By 1353, most
France and in 381 the Peasants' Revolt took SCANDINAVIA areas in Europe
1

were affected.
place in England. BRITAIN

EUROPE A merchant
Although some groups of peasants managed to ship of the
gain some freedom from their local lord, most Middle Ages.
Rats from a
revolts were stopped savagely. In most ^^^4i<c;a<«4 ship like this
countries, the peasants still remained tied to brought the
plague to
their lord.
Europe.

29
CLASH OF EMPIRES
After the western half of theRoman Empire collapsed, /7
the eastern half survived for centuries. It became \|;
known as the Byzantine Empire and the city of
Constantinople was its capital. An Ottoman soldier.

EAST MEETS WEST THE GREAT SCHISM EMPIRE IN TROUBLE


Gradually, after the fall of Rome, Relations between the By^zantines Little by the Byzantine
little,

the Byzantine Empire became and Europeans were


their fellow Empire shrank, as it was attacked

more Greek in culture Though not always friendly because of from all sides. Then, a new enemy
constantly attacked by enemies, it differences in their religious swept in from the east - the Seljuk
was fabulously wealthy and held a beliefs. In 1054, the Church Turks. In 1071,
key position at the crossroads of divided into the Roman Catholic they won a
Europe and Asia. The reign of and Orthodox Churches in a split great victory
Basil II was a high point of called the Great Schism. In at Manzikert,
Byzantine expansion. Basil Constantinople, the Patriarchwas capturing muc
managed to reconquer some of head of the Orthodox Church, territory.
the territory that had belonged to while in Rome, the Pope was head
A Byzantine chalice
the old Roman Empire, of the Catholic Church.

Seljuk First
-^^m^^ ,
EUROPE NORVyi^ ,'
advance Seljuk
Catholic province
BLACK SEA EUROPE CASPMN
D
Orthodox
SEA
ITALY
BRITVMK ,, -^ ^ >€ V Manzikert
'
n
Mixed ASIA
ASIA MINOR \ EUROPE MINOR
ASIA
PERSIAN
/V1£D/r£RRANE/»N SE/\ ASIA GULF
MINOR AFRICA
AFRICA RED
AFRICA
D Byzantine Empire 1025 SE4
Basil conquered the Georgians, Armenians,
II From the I above areas were
Ith century, the The Seljuk Turks occupied a large area of Asia
Bulgars and Arabs, bringing the empire to its mainly influenced by the Roman Catholic and the Minor in the 1th century and went on to rule
I

height by 1023. Creek Orthodox Churches. most of the Middle East.

A mosaic of the Virgin Mary from the r,

Byzantine church of Santa Sophia in


Constantinople. When the Ottomans CHANGING EMPIRES 'E'UXOT-L
took over Constantinople (now
Istanbul), the church became a •An:LP^1i^lC
Muslim mosque, as it This map shows the OC-LAOi
I'en ice ,
still is today. Byzantine and Ottoman
Empires. The Seliuk and )
Ottoman Turks nibbled V
away at the Byzantines
until only Constantinople
was left, Constantinople
fell in 1453 and the
Ottomans went on ( S
'7 (^
to capture a
yS huge em pi re
""
r^

lAtgien Tunis
aHUt:aiMliM^:nkihl!n-

TIMECHART^.T FIND OUT MORE


'^ssmMm
976-1025 KL-it;nol 1301 Osman I sets up 1 389 Ottomans win the 15l2-20Ottomans 1534 Ottomans
Byzantine Emperor Battle of Kossova conquer Syria. conquer Persia Byzanliii
the Ottoman Empire
Basil II Arabia and Egypt,
1541 Hungary
1361 Byzantine Empire 1396 Bulgaria falls to
1520-66 Reign of
falls to the Mongols
1054 The Great Schism the Ottomans Ottomans.
is reduced only to the
Ottoman Sultan
1071 Seliuk Turks win city of Constantinople 1453 Constantinople Suleiman 1571 The Battle
I, the See above pages
the Battle of Manzikert by the Ottomans to the Ottomans
falls Magnificent ' it Leiianto for more
information.
1-
THE OTTOMANS SULEIMAN 1 BATTLE OF LEPANTO
In 3th century, groups of
the 1 The Byzantines were no Over the centuries, the Poles, the
nomads fled west from Asia, match for the Ottomans Venetians, the French and the
driven by hordes of warriors called In 1453 Constantinople Hapsburgs, all fought against
the Mongols. these Among was captured
its'elf the Ottomans, but to little
nomads was a group of Muslims, Ottoman territory advantage. Then in 1571 the
known as the Ottoman Turks, who grew and in 520' 1 combined fleet of the Holy
settled in Asia Minor from 243. 1 Sultan Suleiman League (Spain, Venice, Genoa
They carved out a province and in the Magnificent and the Papal States) crushed the
1301 their leader proclaimed
, came to the Ottomans in a sea battle at Lepanto.
himself Sultan Osman From I. throne. His reign This broke their domination of the
then on they advanced, saw the peak in Suleiman the Mediterranean and from then on
conquering a huge empire. Ottoman power. Magnificent the Ottoman Empire slowly declined.

BLACK SEA D Ottoman Empire 1 566 '^ 'W OTTOMAN EMPIRE


7
EUROPE
^"^ EUROPE CASPIAN
SEA
, AEGEAN,,

ASIA MINOR ASIA


Q Ottoman ; ,., MINOR ASIA
Lepanto'"'
province
'V--^"-^ Ottoman MEDITERkANEAN SEA
'•^-v
advance PERSIAN
MEDITERRANEAN SEA GULF
AFRICA RED
SEA
The Ottoman Turks originally came from around The Ottoman Empire reached Its greatest The Battle of Lepanto, between the Holy League
the region of Turkestan in west Asia. Their first extent by the death of Suleiman the and the Ottoman Turks took place off the coast of
province was In Asia Minor. Magnificent in 1566. Greece, in an inlet of the Mediterranean Sea.

'Uienna

'Sulfa The Battle of


Lepanto was the last
great battle to be fought
at sea using oar-powered galleys,
^ •'SeCgr adc like the one shown below.

This plan shows how the


fleets of the Holy League
V Xosj and the Ottoman Turks
lined up for battle at the
Battle of Lepanto.
Hlf Holy League
fleet
^ Ottoman fleet
;

ASIJi
^'E'DIT'E}(^-JlAi>i£Jij^i_(;£^ 'Damascus

'Bag H dad
J erusa Cem

Sile!(_andria •
Cairo*
THE CRUSADES
Palestine, or the Holy Land, had been ruled by
Muslims since the 7th century. Christians had been
able to go on pilgrimages there to visit the area where
Christ lived, but in the Ith century Seljuk Turks
I

Pope Urban II, who


urged people of Europe
first
to
conquered the Holy Land and made it difficult and The Krak de Chevaliers -
a Crusader castle
go on a crusade. dangerous for Christians to enter. guarding the Holy Land.

THE CALL TO ARMS


In 1095, Pope Urban preached a sermon at
II

Saladin - the Muslim Clermont in France^ He urged people to go on a


leader who beat back the
Third Crusade. crusade, or holy war, to free the Holy Land from
the Turks. Urban said that if they died on the way,
their sins would be forgiven and they would go to
heaven. Ordinary people from all over Europe
swore to go, crying "God wills it!" Soon after this, a
disorganized band of peasants and adventurers
set out on the People's Crusade. However, they
were killed or died of disease
and hunger long before Europe and the Middle East at the time of the
Crusade in the late Ith century.
First I

they got there.

TO THE HOLY LAND


The First Crusade of noblemen and
soldiers set out in 1096. It took three years
for them to reach Jerusalem, but in an
all-out attack in 1099, they captured the
city. The area captured by the Crusaders
was called Outremer. Many Crusaders
returned to Europe, which left
Outremer short of soldiers to protect it
The Christians were now outnumbered,
and the Muslims united to drive them out.

The Muslims captured Edessa and a


Second Crusade failed. Then the Muslims
became even stronger under a leader
called Saladin, who recaptured lerusalem
A Third Crusade then set out led by the
English, German and French Kings. The
The Muslims, Crusaders won many battles, but not
alsoknown as
Saracens, rode lerusalem. A Fourth Crusade only got as
lightweight, fast
far as Constantinople, where its members
horses for a
Muslim fighters quick attack. sacked the city, stealing its treasures.
wore fabric- Many knights went on the Crusades to
covered chainmail
to protect them. become rich, as well as for religious
reasons.

5rn ANTIOCH YJ^j EUROPE .j^-l EUROPE EUROPE


.Pans .Regensburg
S CYPRUS
TRIPOLI
1
Paris / '

5
Constantinople
z Constantinople
5 JERUSALEM
z
MEDITERRANEAN SEA
Jerusalem • 5 •
Jerusalem Jerusalem
AFRICA AFRICA
AFRICA ^ AFRICA
The Crusade of 1096-
First The Crusader kingdoms, The Second Crusade of 147-I The Third Crusade of I 189- The Fourth Crusade of
99. Knights rode to the Holy known as Outremer, in the 49. From Constantinople, the 92, led by the English, 1202-04. The knights
Land via Constantinople. 12th century. Crusaders sailed to Acre. French and German kings. sacked Constantinople.

32
THE KNIGHTS MORE CRUSADES
During the Crusades, new In 1212, thousands of European 1071 ,'l|iik Turks defeat
religious orderswere founded. children followed a shepherd boy ihe Byzantines at the Battle
(if Manzikert
Members took the same vows on a crusade that became known
085- 492 The Reconq uest
as monks - poverty, chastity as the Children's Crusade. They
1 1

ol Spain by Christians
and obedience. That is, they The emblem of the believed that God would perform
Knights of St. lohn.
1095 Byzantine Emperor
agreed to give up their miracles so they could recapture appeals to Pope Urban I

possessions, never to marry lerusalem. Merchants at 1096 Pope Urban II

and to obey their superiors. Marseilles in France offered to launches First Crusade
Peter the Hermit sets oui
These men were also knights, take the children in their ships to on the Peoples Crusade
who promised to fight to the Holy Land. Instead, however,
1096-99 First Crusade.
defend the Holy Land. The they took them to Alexandria in
1099 Christians capture
leading orders were the Egypt and sold them as slaves. lerusalem
Knights Templars, the Knights ^***iw;j»iw»»^' 1 144 Muslims capture
of St. John and the Teutonic The emblem of the During the rest of the 3th 1 Edessa.
Knights Templar.
Knights. century, the Fifth, Sixth and 1 147-49 Second Crusade
Seventh Crusades all set out for 1 187 Saladin defeats
Even were driven
after they the Holy Land. Holy Roman Christians at Hattin and
captures lerusalem
out of the Holy Land by Emperor Frederick II managed to
Muslims, some orders of win back lerusalem by treaty, but 1189-92 Third Crusade

crusader knights survived. The this was only temporarily. The 1202-04 Fourth Crusade
Knights of St. lohn still Muslims continued to reconquer
occupied Rhodes until 1523, the Christian states and at last in
when they transferred to the The emblem of the 29 Acre, the last Christian
1
1 ,

island of Malta. Teutonic Knights. stronghold, fell.

CRUSADES OUTSIDE THE HOLY LAND


The idea of a crusade spread from the Holy The King of Engia
Richard I, the
Land to other areas. The Pope encouraged Lionheart. He
crusades against political enemies and was one of the
leaders of the
heretics. Among these was a group called Third Crusade
the Albigensians southern France,
in
The Albigensians were heretics, which
means that they disagreed with some of
the teachings of the Catholic Church,
French nobles wiped them out
in a religious war.

In Spain and Portugal,


Christians fought a crusade
against Muslims from North
Africa, called the Moors, who had
occupied nearly all of Spain and
Portugal since the 8th century. From
1085, Christians spread slowly south
during a period which is known as the
Reconquest. Eventually, in 1492, the
lastMoorish kingdom was captured by
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of
Spain. This kingdom, Granada, is still a
province of Spain today.

Dijon •

k FRANCE '
-i SPAIN J

/:.Toulouse
1^ Christian areas 1150^
D Reconquest by 1275
Reconquest by 1492
The crusade against the The Reconquest of Spain
Albigensians in France and Portugal from the
from 1209-29. Moors, 1085-1492.
THE MONGOLS
The Mongols lived in the Steppes of Central
Asia - great grassy plains between Hungary
and Mongolia. They were nomads, who
herded horses and sheep for their living.
They were always on the move, in search of ^^*aSSEsB,
A large, decorated
Mongols were
new grazing land for their animals. They lived Mongol yurt.
fierce soldiers. Men were in movable, felt tents, called yurts.
trained to fight on horseback.

GENGHIS KHAN "<,\


Around 162, a boy called Temujin was born into a
1
. Karakoru m
noble Mongol family. Temujin meant "blacksmith".
MONGOLIA The Mongol
When he was nine, his father was murdered by rivals homeland,
4jtL<. JAPAN northwest of
and Temujin had to be very quick-witted to survive his ASIA China. In the I th
father's enemies. century, the
CHINA Mongols had not
PACIFIC
conquered any
When he grew up, Temujin made daring raids on other OCEAN territory farther
INDIA
tribes, and he began to attract many followers. Men afield.

from other tribes swore oaths to be his loyal


companion or noker.

Temujin became more and more successful and


gradually brought all the different Mongol tribes under
A-^^
EUROPE
.Kiev
ASIA

MONGOL
1 ^ flarakorum
The Mongol
his control. In 206, the tribes met together and made
1
EMPIRE Empire at the
death of Genghis
him the Supreme Ruler or "Genghis Khan". He was the Khanbalik
'^Iflr-
- Khan in 1227.
(Peking)
first to unite the Mongol tribes under one leader. As During his
CHINA lifetime. Genghis
leader, Genghis Khan controlled all the armies of the ARABIA INDIA had occupied
AFRICA parts of China and
other tribes.
most of Asia.

THE MAKING OF AN EMPIRE Batu's route

Batu, who was a


Genghis invaded northern China and also took grandson of

Khwarazm-Shah (modern Iran and Afghanistan). To Karakorum Genghis, swept


west through
rule his empire, he is said to have issued the Great Russia. He nearly
reached Vienna,
Yasa - laws for his subjects to obey. The Mongols but then the
had no alphabet, so he adopted that of the Uighur Great Khan
Turks. Genghis also set up a network of stage posts, Ogedei died and
the army was
so that relay riders could take messages swiftly called back to
Mongolia.
across the empire.

Genghis returned home to Mongolia


in 1223 and died four years later. The
empire he created survived. By 225,
1

the Mongols ruled most of Asia. In


their conquests, the Mongols gained Hulegu. another
grandson of
an evil reputation. They massacred Genghis.
Genghis Khan, the people and destroyed whole cities. If conquered Persia
first great Mongol and Syria in 253.
people submitted instantly, however, This territory
I

ruler.
the Mongols spared them. became known as
II Khanate.

KUBLAl KHAN'S EMPIRE


The empire continued to grow under Ghengis's sons
and grandsons In the west, the Mongols advanced
almost to Vienna In the east, the conquest of China The Mongols
captured Sung
was completed b^y Kublai Khan, Genghis's grandson, China in 279? The
I

when the Sung Empire fell in 1279. Kublai Khan empire was now at
its greatest extent.
settled in China with his capital in Peking (Beijing). It was split into
His court was magnificent, but after his death, the Khanates, ruled by
Kublai s deputies.
Chinese drove out the Mongols in 368. I

34
MARCO POLO TIME CHART
In the 3th century, trade routes in Asia were controlled
1 I \t2 itJIIIIJIIM [)( till Ml
'vlungolla
by the Mongols. In 1271 two Venetians, Nicolo and
,

Maffeo Polo, went on their second journey to Asia, 1 206 Temujin becomes
hengis Khan and attacks
tal<ing Nicolo's son Marco. They visited Kublai Khans lima
court, and stayed in Asia for 20 years. 1225 Genghis Khan
iidsters most of Asia.

Marco later told the story of his travels around Kublai 1227 Genghis Khan
^-^^1^^ dies,

Khan's empire. The story was written down and became 235 Mongols begin
1 to
The Polos meeting Kublai Khan.
one of the most popular of the Middle Ages. They presented him with gifts.
invade Russia and
listern Europe
I

1241 Mongols withdraw


m%a ra^o rum iiMiTi Western Europe

S fianjj hu 1260-94 Kublai Khan is

'D'ES'EVT *'Kihanbalik
1 I he Mongol Emperor
1260 Mongols advance
intoMiddle East Halted
liy Battle of Ain lalut
'*':$('£ hi ail
1271-95 Marco Polo
travels in Asia

MARCO POLO'S TRAVELS 1274 Mongols fail to


invade lapan.
Tins iiidp shciws the Mtint;( A jAOilA'BISA 279 Conquest
1 of China
I 111 pi re in the time of r~^^ completed
i'libiai Khan and the JVia
1281 Second Mongol
invasion of lapan fails

1297 Marco Polo is


nptured and imprisoned
KEY i

li\ the Genoese He


liegins to tell the story of
The Polos' route out Ins travels, which is
written down by a fellow
The Polos' route back prisoner

Mongol Empire 1369-1405 Tamerlane is

JJiVji ---,„,^_ ^. ,
in power

1398 Tamerlane attacks


Delhi in India

TAMERLANE EUROPE The extent of the I


1504-30 Babur founds
he Mogul Empire
Mongol Empire
ASIA
After Kublai Khan died, the at the death of
BLACK SEA Samarkand Tamerlane in
empire fell apart. Then in 1360,
a descendant of his, known as
Tamerlane, conquered a new MEDITERRANEAN
PBaghdad MONGOL
EMPIRE
1405. Tamerlane
was the last
great Mongol
Emperor.
FIND OUT MORE
Mongol Empire. He took land iddleAges •< 28
in Persia, Russia and India. \
INDIA
1

However, after he died in 1405, AFRICA


ARABIA PERSIAN China ^24
GULf
his empire did not last long.

Russia
THE MOGUL EMPIRE *m. Delfil
In the late 15th century, part of ASIA
MOGli^^ tt20»^9f£i,U£flk.T^:Af^V.:/^- :

the Mongol Empire was taken


over by the Turks. A Mongol
I EMPIRE See above pages
for more
Bombay information
prince called Babur was forced INDIA^
to flee from the Turks to
INDIAN
OCEAN
/
Afghanistan.

Babur soon began to conquer


new territory and by 504, he I
The Mogul
Empire in
was in control of Kabul. He the early
then captured Delhi in 1526. He 18th century.

and his descendants, known as


the Moguls, created a fabulous
The Taj
empire in India. It survived until Mahal,
the 18th century, when conflicts completed in
1654, was
between the Muslim Moguls built by Shah
and their Hindu subjects |ahan,a ^ Qo caEa raEaenncniicsicaciDCiitainncacaarac
Mogul 23? E3 n3 ED CUD [13 ca Ea cn EI3
helped the empire to collapse. Emperor.
H^i« li^'il 1:H1

35
.

THE RENAISSANCE
InEurope, in the late 14th to 16th centuries,
there was a revival of interest in the art, pauUntnn pnibiiecum
architecture and learning of Ancient Greece iuinehiUtmelUnries
and Rome. This movement is known as the
Renaissance, which means "rebirth".

THE RENAISSANCE BEGINS


In the Middle Ages, art and literature were intended to
make people think about God. In Italy in the 14th
century, these ideas began to change. The rebirth of
Gutenberg's
press was interest in Ancient Greece and Ronne changed the way
adapted from people saw the world. Religion continued to be vital,
a cheese or
wine press. It but artists and thinkers now began to base their work
Part of a page from
could print up on human life and the events around them. A new spirit Gutenberg's printed
to 300 sheets
a day. of learning and questioning was born. Bible.
Decorated patterns
were painted on by
PRINTING hand.

In 1453, a German goldsmith, lohannes Gutenberg, EUROPE BRITAIN .EUROPE


BRITAIN
invented the printing press. Until then, all books • O .:: o • ;
•.m
were painstakingly hand-copied, so they were rare
and expensive. Now, using movable metal letters to Mainz •Z
••>
make blocks of type, printers produced hundreds of FRANCE Z
¥hAN<X- <-..
identical copies quickly and cheaply. Paper was ITALY
fywBf
becoming cheaper too, and so the price of books fell.
SPAIN SPAlSl
ITALY
At most books were printed in Latin, and many
first,
MEDITERRANEAN MEDITERRANEAN
were on religious subjects. But soon many books on SEA SEA
other topics were printed as well. Printed materials
carried the ideas of the Reformation Print shops in 1471. The first press By 500 there were 226 presses
1

quickly throughout Europe. was set up in Mainz in Germany. throughout Europe.

SCULPTURE SCIENCE
Studying the statues of Greece and People became curious about the world. Scientists
Rome, sculptors studied the human studied medicine, physics, chemistry and biology.
body. They carved religious subjects, Astronomers Copernicus and Galileo challenged the
scenes from stories and the famous belief that the Earth was at the heart of the universe,
men and women of their day. and showed that the Earth revolves around the Sun.

These two sculptures show the change ARCHITECTURE


in art during the Renaissance.
Architects also copied the style of Ancient Greece
Medieval carvings were often
full of character and charm,
and Rome. They designed churches, public buildings,
palaces and houses with columns, rounded arches
but they lacked the realism
of later works, like the
and central domes. Two important architects of the
time were Andrea Palladio and Donato Bramante.
Pietfl by Michelangelo. ^SJUl^^K^ Medieval carving
(above) of a
crusader PAINTING
and his wife.
During the Renaissance, artists studied the human
body and how it moved, as well as the use of
The Pieta, or
"Devotion",
perspective. They began to paint life-like people in
shows Mar>' realistic backgrounds They painted pictures of recent
cradling the
body of her
events, scenes from the legends of Ancient Greece
son, jesus. and Rome, and portraits of rich people.

LITERATURE
Scholars studied Greek and Roman literature and
used classical ideas when writing in their own
anguages. There was a flowering of poetry and
drama. In England, people flocked to see
Shakespeare's plays at the new Globe Theatre.
RENAISSANCE MEN AND WOMEN TIME CHART
During the Renaissance, men from rich famiNes received a magnificent education 1418 Bn;i,i'i:' .
n-, in.-

(Ii.ime of Florence Cddiedrdl-


in the arts and sciences. They had to be well-mannered and brave, and
they were expected to be good swordsmen, riders, poets and 1453 Cutenburg invents the
first printing press in Mainz,
musicians. Unsurprisingly, not many men could live up Germany
to this ideal. Rich women, like Queen Elizabeth I of 1 467-1 536 Life of Erasmus,

England and Marguerite of Navarre, sister of the greatest scholar of the


Renaissance
French king, received a good education too.
1 468-92 Lorenzo de Medici.
(iriifon of the arts, rules
Popes, kings and men and women of the I hir.-tite

nobility were interested in the new arts. 1 503-07 Leonardo da VIncI


They became patrons, winning fame and [)aints the Mona Lisa

glory by paying for work by great artists 1475-1564 Life of


Michelangelo Buonarroti
and scholars. The Medici family of
1 509 Venice suffers defeat by
Florence, for instance, paid for a great
the French and Genoese
library, chapels and
5 9-56 Reign of Holy Roman
palaces, as we
1
helangelo
iigned this Fmperor Charles V
paintings and graceful dome 1 543 Copernicus publishes his
sculptures by to tower over
theories of the unlverse.
Rome's
Michelangelo skyline. 1564-1642 Life of astronomer
and many other Galileo Galilei

artists. 1564-1616 Life of playwright


William Shakespeare.
I
In 1506 Pope lulius II

commissioned St.
Peters cathedral FIND OUT MORE
in Rome.

Middle Ages < 28


An engraving
of Copernicus's theory Reformation 42
of the universe. The Sun is in the middle.
The Church disapproved of scientists like
Copernicus who questioned its teachings.
See above pages
It tried to stop him publishing his ideas.
for more
information.

ITALY AND THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE


The Pope, the powerful During the Renaissance, In 1519, Charles V was Some cities had grown

head of the Catholic Italy was a place of great elected Holy Roman rich through trade and
Church, ruled the Papal turmoil, it was split up Emperor. He was a became independent
States in Italy. The into several kingdoms member of the Hapsburg states. Strong cities,
Popes and the Holy and many smaller family,which dominated such as Venice,
Roman Emperors had independent states. Part Europe. swallowed up weaker
often clashed over of northern Italy also ones around them.
power. This sometimes belonged to the Holy Charles had inherited
led to war. Roman Empire. the throne of Spain, As a result these cities,
already immensely known as city-states,
The power of the Popes Rulers struggled wealthy because of its often fought over
was weakened during ruthlessly for power. New World colonies. territory. Vicious

the Renaissance by the Machiavelli's famous Under his rule, the Holy mercenary soldiers,
new religious ideas of book, The Prince, tells of Roman Empire became called condotUeri. fought
the Reformation. the politics of the day. united and powerful. for whoever paid them.

BologiSa-.....,, ....\ ADRIATIC SEA EUROPE Q Venetian


Ravenna territory
. . •

.: REPUBLIC •Urbino
OF
\" FLORENCE
THE PAPAL •^*s'%
REPUBUC
OF
STATES ^
_^^^B itALY OtTOiwi
SIENAr di^HH^
if
'"^i
• Rome^l^l MEDITERRANEAN SEA

The Papal States around the year the year 500. By then, the
Italy in 1 Charles V ruled both the Holy Roman Venetian territory around 500. Its I

1500. The Pope's capital was Rome. Renaissance was well under way. Empire and the Spanish Empire. empire had spread as far as Crete.

37
I
EXPLORING THE WORLD
From very early times, people had always
explored new places to find homes, to meet
people for trading purposes, or simply out of
curiosity for the unknown. From the 1450s,
European sailors set out on the first great
voyages to India and also to America. Over the
Ibn Battuta. coming centuries, these journeys were to Cook's chronometer - an important
the 14th aid to navigation. It was the first
century Arab
lead to explorations of clock that could keep going for the
time of an around-the-world voyage.
explorer.
the whole world.

EARLY EXPLORERS
The Polynesians explored around the Pacific Ocean, ;OPE.
ASIA
colonizing many of the islands there by the 1th century AD.
By the 15th century, Arab traders had explored the east
1

^^V'
coast of Africa and had journeyed to India and China. Ibn
Battuta was the most famous Arab explorer, undertaking 7 ° ^Oz
''
INDIAN '-^..
several journeys across Asia. The Chinese also explored and
tt'V ' -'1 OCEAN
had been sailing to Africa since the 9th century.
C
Hsuan Tsaftg^ .
In the Middle East, European traders bought luxury goods
, ,

Fa Hsien /» i,
/f .
which originally came from the East, such as silks and Ibn Battuta's travels in the The journeys of Chinese
spices. However, this trade became increasingly difficult 14th century. Ibn Battuta explorers Fa Hsien (4th century
was born in Tangiers, ADI and Hsuan Tsang (7th
because of the hostility of the Turks. By the 5th century, 1
Africa, but spent most of century ADI.They improved
Europeans were wondering if it was possible to reach the his life on his travels or Chinese knowledge of India
living in distant places. and Asia.
east by sea and they began to try to find a route.

HENRY THE NAVIGATOR Sagrejs


rtuRdPi
L^^VCT <^ ASIA
In the early 5th century, Prince
1

o r ^ '^
Henry of Portugal, known as '
Cape Bojador AFRICA ^f^«'* AFRICA l^lf
IN
J
"Henry the Navigator" was sure
INDIAN
that ships could sail around Africa AFRICA ATLANTIC) OCEAN
to reach Asia. So, he set up a ATLANTIC > '
OCEAN I

community in Sagres to build EQUATOR OCEAN \ "i


.
,^
'
better shipsand make better maps L
v yap^ of Good
Vi-^' Hope ^J
and navigation equipment.
At first sailors would not go In 1487, Bartholomeu Dias led In 1497, another Portuguese
around Cape Bojador in Africa. an expedition from Portugal captain, called Vasco da
Henry's captains sailed from They thought that at the to sail around the southern tip Gama, set off around Africa.
Equator, the Sun was so close of Africa. By luck they He sailed up the East African
Sagres along the African coast, to the Earth that the sea managed it and on their coast, where he stopped to
going farther and farther south boiled and the land was on return, the King of Portugal pick up supplies. He then
fire. Gil Eannes was the first to named it the Cape of Good sailed across the Indian Ocean
each time. sail around It in 434. 1 Hope. to India.

THE WAY WEST B


Cartier (France)
Frobisher (England)
Some people believed that the ID »•
world was flat, but others thought
differently.One of them,
Christopher Columbus, believed
that the world was round and that it
'm
i\ NORTH
would be quicker to reach the east ATLANTIC
El,

by sailing west across the Atlantic. OCEAN


He did not realize that America lay Other nations took no notice of
After two and a half months at The Spaniards and the
in the way Other sailors kept trying sea, Columbus landed in the Portuguese became great the Treaty of Tordesillas, or the
rivals for new land. In 1494 the claims of Spain and Portugal.
the eastern route. Then in 1492 West Indies, off the coast of
America. He thought that he Pope fixed a treaty line The Dutch, English and French
King Ferdinand and Oueen Isabella had reached islands in the between them - the Treaty of all claimed land for

of Spain agreed to pay for Indian Ocean and that is why Tordesillas. The Portuguese themselves. Ships from both
they became known as the were to own land discovered France and England sailed
Columbus to try his plan. He set Indies. He did not know he east of the line and the west also to find a passage to
had discovered America. Spaniards to the west of the east.
out to prove his theory. it.

38
INTO THE UNKNOWN
Sailing into unknown seas was dangerous
Sailors risked death from shipwreck or
illness, caused by poor food and appa
conditions. As well as believing that t
boiled near the Equator, people
imagined that huge monsters lurked
beneath the waves and that the
people in lands far away would look
like strange freaks. People drew
pictures of the natives and monsters
they imagined lived in foreign lands.

AROUND THE WORLD


Exploring America (known as the
New World) soon led to the first trip SOUTH
AMERICA ATLANTIC
all the way around the world, or OCEAN
circumnavigation. This was
achieved by a Portuguese captain,
called Ferdinand Magellan, who
was in the service of the King of TIERRA
DEL
Spain. He believed that he could PACIFIC
FMEGO
OCEAN
reach the east by sailing around the - Magellan Strait
tip of South America. In 5 9 he set 1 1
At the tip of South America, At the tip of South America, in 577, Francis Drake was
1

out to prove it. Magellan found a passage to Magellan's crew had sighted sent out by the Elizabeth of I

the Pacific Ocean, now called land which they called Tierra England to find out if Tierra del
the Straits of Magellan. His del Fuego "land of fire "I.
( Fuego was a new continent.
The second circumnavigation was party sailed around the world They were not sure whether Drake proved that Tierra del
not achieved until 58 years later by home to Spain, but Magellan this was an island or the tip of Fuego was an island and then
was killed in the Philippines. a great southern continent. sailed on around the world.
the Englishman Francis Drake.

THE SOUTHERN SEAS •- 2nd. _


voyage
3rd
voyage
ASIA NORTH
The Dutch were the first Europeans ,

AMERICA ^ NORTH
EUROPE *^'* PAOFIC AMERICA
to reach Australia. The first, Willem PACIFIC \ V ,
OCEAN .
'
OCEAN V)
lantszoon, reached the north coast '
' Sandwtch ..

in 1606. In 1642, another Dutchman, AFRICA Islands ,' "i_^

SOUTH
Abel Tasman, sighted the island
now known as Tasmania.
;,%,. auCt?a).ia1 ",

AUSTRAUa/
'T^v ;r,'--Trs
^AMEWPA
Wi 1
'
AUS-^m\U^
- Tasqjania^ '?- -'
y
-^NEW
tEALAND \

Interest in Australia then stopped.


Itwas another hundred years before Between 1642 and 1643, Abel Cook's first voyage took place On Cook's third voyage,
Tasman sighted Tasmania from 768 to 77 On board he became involved in
Englishman lames Cook made three (which he named Van Dieman's were
1

scientists
I I

and
.

artists to a dispute and was


great voyages to Australia and Land) and sailed on to New record his findings. He named killed by natives on
Zealand. He also stopped at his landing spot, on the east the Sandwich Islands
around the Pacific Ocean. the islands of Tonga and Fiji. coast of Australia, Botany Bay. (now Hawaiil.

TIME CHART
1304-77 Lifeof Ibn 1499-1 502 Amerigo 1580 Portugal is united
Bdttuta Vespucci, after whom with Spain Europe -i 36
America is named, sails
1419 Henry the Navigator 1642 Tasman sails around
around America
sets up a community in Australia, The Americas 40
Sagres. Portugal 1519-21 Cortes conquers
1768-71 Cooks first voyage
1434 Gil Eannes Aztec Empire in Central
sails past to Australia
Cape Bojador America
1770 Cook lands in Botany
1492 Columbus reaches 1519-22 Magellan leads
Bay. Australia See above pages
the West Ind es voyage around the
first
for more
world 772-75 Cook's second
1

1494 Treaty of Tordesi lias information.


voyage He reaches Easter
1531-34 PIzarro conquers Island - the farthest south
1497 Da Game sails from Inca Empire in South yet reached by a European
Portugal to India lohn
America
Cabot in the service of the 1776-79 Cook's third Columbus's ship was a
King of England reaches 1577-80 Drake sails voyage He is killed in Portuguese caravel called
Newfoundland around the world Hawaii the SflHdi Maria. The first
voyages of discovery were
made in caravels.

39
5

THE NEW WORLD


Inthe 16th century, when Europeans first
ourneyed to the Americas, the lives of the
native Americans were soon to change
forever. Europeans were eager to make the
most of this new continent - the New World. A Spanish
conquistador.

THE AZTECS
III the 15th century, the Aztecs in Central
America expanded from their capital, CENTRAL GULF OF
Tenochtitlan. They created an empire by AMERICA MEXICO
conquering surrounding tribes. The Aztecs
built glorious cities with temples, open
squares or plazas, and courts where they
played a ritual ball game.

The Aztecs were continually war to find


at
victims for human sacrifice.They believed that
without this sacrifice, the sun god would die. The Aztec Empire, around 1519.
Tenochtitlan was founded in the
early 14th century.

THE INCAS
n the i^th century, the Incas in South America began to
expand from their capital of Cuzco. Believed by his people
The Aztec god Tonatiuh.
to be half-god, half-human, the ninth king Pachacuti
conquered a huge empire. Everyone in the empire had to
work in accordance with their rank and ability. In return, the
The Incas
did not
orphans, the sick and the elderly were cared for.
ATLANTIC
write, but OCEAN
tied l<nots
in strings,
The Incas built good roads across the rough land
difficult,
called of their empire. They were expert stonemasons, and also The inca Empire in 1525,
quipu, to during the reign of the god-
built impressive public buildings Most people earned their king Huayna Capac.
make
messages. living by farming.

THE ARRIVAL OF THE SPANIARDS


After the arrival of Columbus in America, the first
Europeans to explore were the Spaniards. The Spanish
conquerors, known as conquistadors, were greedy for the
immense riches of the Aztec and Inca Empires. Between
1519 and 1522, an expedition led by Hernan Cortes
conquered the Aztecs and killed their god-king
Montezuma 11. The Spaniards were helped by local tribes The gold
handle of a
who hated the Aztecs for their cruelty. Then in 533, 1

ceremonial
anish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro overthrew the knife from
^___^ called
,

the Andes.
a doubloon, made Incas too. Spain became the richest nation in Europe.
from South American gold. An Aztec chest ornament, made from turquoise,
in the shape of a serpent.

NORTH
AMERICA
/gulf of
f /MEXICO
AZTEC 'i SOUTH ^X
EUHIftE .'^ AMERICA )
Tenochtitlan

XENTRAL
AMERICA

Cortess route from the West Pizarro s route from the coast
Indies to the Aztec Empire, 1 to the Inca Empire, 1 532 to
to 1522. 1533.

40
NORTH AMERICA NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS TIME CHART
In North America, there were dozens of Indian Before Luropeans arrived, there 1437-7 I i'.-itti.3tiiii fvi.-n:i

tribes, living varied lifestyles. The Indians of were dozens of Indian tribes. the Inca Empire

the southwest were farnners, living


villages, or pueblos. Farther north there
in stone
too
Thismap shows the
main ones ¥ 1

rle
492 Columbus
West Indies
arrives in

were farmers, and people who hunted and 1497-98 An Italian, called
Cobot, reaches
gathered their food, and fishermen. Tribes Newfoundland In North
had their own languages and cultures, America on behalf of the
English,
and were often at war with
1502-20 Reign of Aztec
one another god-king Montezuma II

1519-21 Cortes conquers


Before Europeans the .Aztecs,

arrived, Indians did 1532-33 Pizarro conquers


the Incas
not ride horses.
Horses were brought 1540-41 New Mexico is
)'.
.1
colonized for the
to America by the Spaniards by Francisco
Spaniards. Vazquez de Coronado,

1542-45 Laws are


Indians from the introduced by the
Great Plains area of Spaniards to protect
North America, as ,American Indians
seen by a 19th
century artist.
1584 Roanoke in Virginia
becomes the first English
colony to beset up in
North America It fails

1603 First French governor


arrives in Canada,

1604 Acadia, the first


French colony, is set up

1607 lamestown. the first


permanent British
settlement, is set up

1616 The Dutch set up a


colony called New
Netherlands,

1620 A group called the


Pilgrims from England

THE COLONIES land at Plymouth Rock in


Massachusetts,

1625 New Amsterdam


In the late 16th century, Europeans arrived Some Indians resisted the new settlers founded by the Dutch
is

in North America. They settled in colonies and Europeans offered rewards in return
1632 English Catholics
and fought each other to gain territory. for killing them. At other times, both the seeking religious freedom
Soon there were Spanish, English, French French and the English used Indians to set up the colony of
Maryland
and Dutch colonies. fight their wars against each other.
1667 The Dutch lose their
W 7^
Ife^HISPANIOLA
colonies to the English
NEWFOIJItfbLA^ New Amsterdam becomes
RIDA V^ New York

CARIBBEAN SEA% 1680 Spanish farmers are


NORTH massacred by Pueblo
- . ^-" \ ^:P*iERICA
ATLANTIC l,"i:lians in New Mexico
HISPANIOLA CMracao
CARIBBEAN SEA OCEAN 1682 The French set up
' •-\ the Louisiana Territory
CENTRAL Englishman William Penn
TJyjamestown DUTCH
AMES SOUTH founds the city of
AMERICA GUIANA'-
Philadelphia and the
Quaker colony of
Spanish colonies around English colonies in America French colonies in America Dutch colonies in the
Pennsylvania,
the Caribbean in the 7th
1 inthe 17th century. Their in the 17th century. Their Americas in the 7th
I

century. first colony was lamestown. first settlement was Acadia. century.

FREEDOM IN AMERICA FIND OUT MORE


Not Europeans came to America to seek their fortunes.
all Explorers < 38
Many came to escape from the religious troubles that tore
Europe apart in the 16th and 17th centuries. Some of the first Religion 42
English settlers to arrive in America were a group of
Protestants called the Pilgrims. They arrived in Massachusetts USA 60
in 1620 aboard their ship The Mayflower. They came to America
so that they could worship freely and run their lives how they Wars in 44
wished. Europe
Members of the Pilgrims.
See above
pages for mort
information.
41
THE REFORMATION
In early 16th century Europe, many people felt that
the Roman Catholic Church was in urgent need of
reform. Popes were criticized for their interest
in wealth, pleasure and power and many
priests were greedy and lazy. As a result,
Leo X who was Pope Martin Luther - his
during the start of the some people began to criticize the Church. criticisms led to a split in
Reformation. the Christian Church.

MARTIN LUTHER
In 1 51 7, a young monk named Martin ^^I^^F FINLAND

Luther pinned a document to a church


door in Wittenburg in Germany. Called SCOtTaND SWEDEN
the Ninety Five Theses, it called for a
discussion about the Church. Luther
IR^ND
^ DEMf*Aj?K r

particularly objected to the sale of


indulgences - certificates which 1 Protestant
ENGLAND
pardoned people's sins. The Pope _ >?
^^^^^fc POLAND
Luther ideas were
s
g Catholic/
^V^^^^^^^B^
made public when condemned Luther, but many Germans Protestant
HOLY ROMAN
he pinned them to a supported him. g Orthodox/ *^ EMPIRE
church door. Islam ^^^^Hr'
FRANCE
People whose beliefs went against D Catholic *^f
those of the Church were known as r'
M^\» * HUNGARY
4

heretics and could be burned at the


^
^*^ ^^ \ % Ov
stake. However Luther had powerful TUSCANY '
JT^
friends who protected him from the « PAPAL ^^'V
Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor,
SPAIN STATES \\
Charles V. The followers of Luther and NAPLES
other reformers became known as ':m^
MEDITERRANEAN SEA "'m^
Luther's ideas spread Protestants. This movement is called ^18
quickly, helped by
the Reformation because of people's
new printing presses By 1570, Protestantism had spread across Europe and soon separated
like the one above. desire to reform the Catholic Church.
Spain and Italy remained Catholic strongholds.
into different branches.

THE CHURCH IN ENGLAND


In 1 Henry Vill of England decided to ask the Pope
528, King
for a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon, Henry
The Holy Roman
wanted a new wife because Catherine had only given him a Emperor Charles V
daughter and Henry believed that he needed a son to be (also Charles I of
Spainl. He was a
king after him The Pope refused to do this because he was Catholic and the
in an awkward position - a divorce would offend Catherine's nephew of Henry
Vllls wife Catherine
nephew, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. In order to get his of Aragon.
divorce, Henry made himself head of the Church in England
and closed down the monasteries. The Church of England
later became fully Protestant in the reign of Henry's son.

Here, Charles

CATHOLICS FIGHT BACK is

his
dressed
imperial
in

regalia as the
in 534, a powerful religious order, called the Society of
1 Holy Roman
Emperor
jesus, or the lesuits, was set up to convert people in
America and Asia to Christianity and to win Protestants
back to the Catholic Church Then in 545, the Catholic1

Church, realizing that it was still under attack from


Protestantism, called the Council of Trent to establish
its beliefs and find ways to reconvert Protestants. This
revival of Catholicism is called the Counter
Reformation.

Both Protestants and Catholics were fully prepared to


persecute, torture and execute each other in the name
of their religion.

42
TIME CHART
RELIGIOUS WARS 1478 The Spdniardb
the Inquisition to persecute
revive

In Europe in the 16th century, people believed lews and Muslims who
pretended to be Christians
passionately that they would only go to heaven if for safety, but secrectly

they followed what they believed was the true faith followed their own religions

As a result, for over 50 years Europe was torn apa


1 1483-1546 Life of fvlartin
Luther, Protestant reformer
by religious wars. Political alliances tended to be
made between countries that followed the same 1517 Luther issues his
Minety Five Theses,
religion (though not always) and differences in protesting against the
nglish playing
religious belief was often the major cause of wars,
(
fdilingsof the Church
I7th century, telling the story of the
including civil wars. English defeat of the Spanish fleet. 15 9-56 Reign of Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor

1 522-25 A series of
FRANCE THE NETHERLANDS DEFEAT FOR SPAIN Protestant rebellions takes
place in the Holy Roman
Empire
France had a large In the 16th century, the Though he once thought
1534 Henry becomes
number of Protestants Netherlands were part of of marrying Protestant
Supreme Head
VIII
of the
known as the Huguenots, the Spanish Empire. Elizabeth of Engand,
i English Church
among whom were many Philip 11 of Spain tried to Philip of Spain came to
II 1 545-63 The Council of
of France's nobility. From impose absolute rule over see her as one of his Trent defines the doctrines
of the Catholic Church, in
1562 to 1598, bitter civil the Dutch and he greatest enemies. So, in response to the rise in
wars were fought and in persecuted Protestants. i 588, he tried to invade Protestantism

1572, 20,000 Huguenots In 1566 the Dutch rebelled England. He sent a fleet 1555 Emperor Charles V
gives tolerance to Lutherans
were killed by Catholics at and two years later, war of ships, called the in the Religious Peace of
the Massacre of St. broke out. It seemed an Armada, to carry his Augsburg, which allows
them to follow their own
Bartholomew's Eve. The impossible task - a few soldiers from the religion.
civil wars ended when the tiny provinces against Netherlands to England.
1556-98 Reign of Philip II.

Huguenot Henry IV of Spain, the mightiest However, Philip's plan King of Spain.
Navarre became King of nation in Europe. failedwhen the skill of the 1558-1603 Reign of
France. Henry was However in 1648, seven English navy and bad Elizabeth I. Queen of
England
converted to Catholicism provinces did gain weather combined to
1562-98 A series of
but he granted Huguenots independence and they wreck the fleet. Many of wars takes place in
civil
France
the freedom of worship. became known as the the ships sank in British
1568- 1648 Dutch War of
This was later withdrawn. United Provinces. waters. Independence against Spain

1572 Massacre of
• Paris Huguenots on St.
Bartholomews Eve.
M

^
Huguenot
areas 1588 England's navy defeats
UNITED the Spanish Armada
FRANCE PROVJJSJCES
1598 Henry IV of France
ATLANTld^M SPANISH
grants tolerance to the
Huguenots in the Edict of

^ —^HF**
OCEAN fJ^M

SPAIN '^'
NETHERMVNCis: >

FRANCE
Nantes

1618-48 The Thirty Years-


War ravages Germany
1685 Toleration for
Areas under Huguenot control in In 1648. part of the Netherlands The route of the Spanish Armada in
Huguenots in France is
France in the late 16th century. became independent from Spain 1588.
ended by Louis XIV

THE WORST WAR


The Thirty Years' 'War was the most vicious religious
war of the time. It began in 1618 when Bohemia, which
was part of the Holy Roman Empire, chose a
Protestant king instead of one from the Catholic
Hapsburg family. 'War broke out with Catholic
Spain and Austria on one side and German
Protestants, supported by Denmark, Sweden
and later France, on the other side.

The French were Catholic, but they backed the


Protestants because the Hapsburgs were their
enemies. For thirty years, foreign armies ravaged
Germany. The population fell dramatically as
people were driven away or killed. The war ended
in 648 with the Treaty of Westphalia, which
1

greatly reduced the Hapsburg Emperor's


control over the German princes.
POWER IN EUROPE
During the 16th century, many bitter wars had
been caused by differences in religious belief.
Now inthe 17th century, countries waged wars to
increase their territory, for power and glory
and to win trade.

KING AND PARLIAMENT An English


War helmet.
Civil

In the early 7th century, a theory,


1

called the Divine Right of Kings,


stated that kings and queens In 1642, This map shows which
many Scots areas mainly supported
were appointed by God and were supported Parliament and which
answerable only to Him. Like Parliament.
supported the King, at
other monarchs, Charles of I
SCOTLATiT) the outbreak of the
England believed in this and Civil War in 1642. f
'

rl_
thought that no one should
criticize him or take over his
powers. However, some Tdinburgh • X> KEY
members of the English iSunbar
Parliament began to
In 1651, the Scots
helped Charles II to
^ Battle sites
A Civil War pikeman in Under control
Cromwell s New Model Army. demand a greater say invade England but
n^
.
of Parliament
were defeated.
The soldiers all wore red coats. in government.
Under control
LyijAl

r^-^ of the King


I
K3UM1
This clash of ideas led to the l%T.LA<Ji'D
Civil War. Thanks to the !Adu)atton
leadership of Oliver Cromwell 'Moor X ^
and "New Model
his efficient 'Drogheda
^ X, 'M.arston
Army", Parliament won and
Charles was beheaded.
^ Ihibtin ,
'Preston

Cromwell took the title Lord Uprisings Ireland in


in
'L'JiQLAIi'D
Protector and set up a republic. support of the King were -^
. savagely stopped by .^
Vn
j

Cromwell. / ;>{?
^9\(ase6y
The English people,
'Worcester 'EdgehUl
though, began to dislike
the new regime. On >~ ^^^^^
Cromwell's death, they %ord
invited Charles's son to
become Charles II. From
)
X
'Hpundioay
^9iew6unj
.
,
London 2
then on, the power of 2)^^
100 200 km XangfortV.
Parliament increased.
100 miles
^s/Lostmtf
tkieC

THE RISE OF THE GERMAN PRINCES 'X.J

At this time, there were more than


SWEDEN ->' ~»w-:
/A
300 separate states in Germany
Some were ruled by princes and ^t^^
^'v^
others by Catholic bishops. :t
All the states formed the
Holy Roman Empire, but the
Emperor had little real contro
After the Thirty Years' War,
hS
many princes controlled ^HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE
own states. Some
their By 1740, Brandenburg-Prussia,
became much stronger, now known as Prussia, was an
important state. It dominated
especially Prussia. Its Germany In the 18th century.
ruler was crowned King
of Prussia in 1701 and it Prussian Giant
became a European Grenadiers. To be a
Giant Grenadier", men
power. had to be enormously tall.
THE SUN KING
France, the reign of King Louis XIV was a
In 1642-48 English Civil Wdr
glorious period. His court was glamorous 1643-1715 Reign of Louis
XIV of France
and he was known as the Sun King. He had
total authority and during his long reign l649Cfiarles I of England
IS executed.
the French parliament, called the Estates
1649-60 England is a
General, did not meet at all. To help him republic, called the
govern, Louis employed ministers who were Commonwealth.
talented, loyal and efficient. They were often from 660 Charles II becomes
1

King of England
the middle classes. France became rich, and
Louis XIV loved
ballet. Here, he French style and fashions were copied 1652-74 Britain fights
three wars against Holland
is dressed in a throughout Europe (the United Provinces)
ballet costume
as the Rising 1672- 702 William of
1

Sun. Louis saw himself as Europe's leader. He Orange reigns in the Dutch
United Provinces
wanted to gain military glory and to
extend his eastern frontiers. Louis's 1 672-78 War between the
French and the Dutch
ambitions caused several wars.
1 684 Louis XIV occupies

Luxembourg
V •
In one war with Holland (the
1688-97 The Nine Years
United Provinces), Louis War. during which France
\ ..;_^ was defeated by its King, invades Germany
/t •"j^
"
William of Orange. William 1689-1702 William of
Orange reigns in England,
ordered canal dams to be opened, in iointly with his wife Mary II

order to flood the flat Dutch land. This until her death in 1694. and
then alone
prevented the French from capturing it.
170l-l3The Warofthe
Eventually several European powers Spanish Succession
banded together to stop Louis in the Nine
1713 The Peace of Utrecht
Years' War of Augsburg. treatyends the War of the
Spanish Succession

SCOTLAND i SWEDEN
League of
Augsburg

French
IRELAND L England < 42
territory
ENGLAND f~
HOLtAND
French
SPANISH Netherlands ^ 43
pTHERLANDS
attacks HOLY
ROMAN Spain < 43
EMPIRE
SAVOY Thirty Years'
SPAIN War < 43
j'—%^
A drummer in Nine Years' War of Augsburg, Catholic and Protestant states
Louis XlVs army against France to thwart Louis's ambitions.

WAR OF THFSPANISH SUCCESSION


In 1701, the sickly Charles II of
Spain died. He had no son or tEAT TS^ -
r
'^-—t
J* ^
United Austrian
NetherlanJ
HOLY
ROMAN
^VdBJAIN,/^-
[TAIN, '^ FRANCE
brothers, but there were several ^9
^^^,
/,^ HOLY
ROMAN
EMPIRE

candidates for the throne. Even r^ EMPIRE ,...,J

FRANCE 'S-
though Louis XIV's Spanish wife
had given up her right to the
"

) / PAPAL
STATES
!N
Spanish throne, Louis claimed it for SPAIN -.^ Cy^
fl NAPLES
his grandson, Philip of Anjou. MEDITERRANEAN SEA
Minoi^ca |Sicily
Gibraltar '=3
Other European nations declared 1.
After the Peace of Utrecht, Austriawon the Spanish Savoy, a principality between
war, forming a Grand Alliance Britain gained Gibraltar Netherlands, plus Milan, Sardinia France and Italy, gained the
against France. Eventually France and Minorca from Spain and Naples from island of Sicily

was exhausted and a treaty was


drawn up, called the Peace of A 7th century
I

naval battle.
Utrecht. Philip of Anjou became England, France,
King of Spain, but the Spanish Spain and
Holland all had
Empire was broken up. strong navies.
THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE
Inthe 14th century, nnuch of Russia was ruled by a
group of Mongols called the Tartars. The Russian
princes were forced to pay a tribute to the Tartars so
that they would not attack Russia. Soon, though, a new
Russian Empire was to ennerge under the
III, the Great - Tsar of
leadership of the Moscow princes. Ivan IV, the Terrible -
Ivan
Russia from 1462-1505. Tsar from 1533-84,

RUSSIAN INDEPENDENCE
In 328. the Tartars gave the ruler of
1

Moscow, Ivan I, the job of collecting the


tribute from the other Russian princes.
This earned him the title "Moneybags".
,
\

~
^J^
CM
aNovgorod
^ RUSSIA
Moscow's importance now began to grow. •Moscow •Moscow c ^Moscow
Then, during the rule of Ivan III, the Great, X Kulikovo 4.*

the city itself began to grow. He married a TARTARS


TARTARS
Byzantine princess from Constantinople
\.- !
and declared that Moscow was to be the Moscow territory in 1389. Moscow territory in 1462 at Moscow territory in I 505 at
third Rome (after Romeand itself From I 300 to the second the start of Ivan the Great's the end of Ivan the Greats
half of the century, the reign. By this time, it had reign. Ivan conquered
Constantinople). He then conquered the IVloscow princes expanded expanded again. In 1480, Novgorod in 1478 and
territory of Novgorod and refused to pay their territory. In 1380, they Ivan stopped paying the extended his control in all
won a spectacular victory Tartars their tribute and other directions. In 500, he
his tribute to the Tartars. Russia was now
1

over the Tartars at the now Russia was fully began attacking and taking
at last independent. Battle of Kulikovo. independent. territory from Lithuania.

IVAN IV ARCTIC OCEAN


^f
*W'
Russia continued to
expand during the reign
of Ivan IV, the Terrible. He
RUSSIA > SIBERIA
came to the throne in [is

1533 at age three and •Novgorod Q


BERING

Ivan IVs crown,


grew into a ruthless,
clever man. He reformed EUROPE
•Moscow £
?
Z
A SEA

made in the
the government to make ^^v.zv-^wa.'-V
Byzantine style.
himself absolute ruler Russian territory in 1581 . It was in this year that Ivan the Terrible ordered the exploration
He also ordered the of Siberia to the east.

conquest of Siberia - the


ARCTIC OCEAN
great area of forest and ^^-
frozen land stretching to
the east.
7^
Ivan also issued a law
! ^ SIBERIA (
The Russian RUSSIA
emblem - the
3
which took rights away •Novgorod
double-headed 2
eagle. from peasants. They •Moscow 5 BERING
became serfs - people
who could not leave their
EUROPE 2
'-, f SEA.

master's land. Ivan


S!!^^ '^'i^^^ /^lJ^H^B ^H
Russian territory in 1618. The Russians had now advanced from the Ural Mountains as far
destroyed everyone as the Yenisey River.
t*|p' who opposed him.
ARCTIC OCEAN
-»^

C
St. Basils
Cathedral in
1> SIBERIA
Moscow, built by RUSSIA 2
Ivan the Terrible
in 1552.
• Novgorod c
• Moscow 5
r >
EUROPE

Russian territory in1689, By the start of Peter the Great's reign in this year, Russia had
expanded across Siberia.

46
THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE
From early in its history, all the land in Russia 1328 Htddot \u<.a[
was owned by noble families. Between the ( .irthodox Church moves to
ivUiSCOW
0th and the 12th centuries, a group of
1328-40 Ivan nicknamed
noblemen emerged called the Boyars. These VKineybags. rules
I.

Moscow
were important men who owned very large
1 380 Moscow princes win
estates. They had a great deal of victory over Tartars at
ndependence, and this often brought Kulikovo

them into conflict with the Tsars. 1462-1505 Reign of Ivan


III, the Great

Russian peasants were tied to the 1478 Ivan the Great


umquers Novgorod
land and had to work for their local
480 Ivan refuses to pay
gave them a
1

lord. In return, their lord tribute to Tartars


certain amount of protection, but
1533-84 Reign of Ivan IV
their lives were very hard. the Terrible

1 558-82 Russia and Poland


One group Russians who were
of dfe rit war

ndependent from the noblemen were the 1581 Ivan the Terrible
orders first explorations of
Cossacks. The Cossacks lived in military Siberia
communities on the frontiers of Russia,
1613-45 Reign ol Michael
around the rivers Don and Dnieper. They Romanov - the first of the
were splendid horsemen and the Moscow Romanov Tsars
princes used them to protect their 1689-1725 Reign of Peter
the Great
frontiers against invaders such as the
Tartars, Turks and Poles. 1700-1721 The Great
Northern War

1703 Peter the Great


In Russia used
later years, the Tsars of founds St Petersburg
the Cossacks to help them explore and 1721 Treaty of Nystadt
colonize Siberia i;i\es Baltic States and part
•M Finland to Russia

PETER THE GREAT


In 1689, Peter the Great became Tsar (or
Emperor) at age 17. He was determined to
modernize Russia and began a system of
reforms. Although these reforms had an
enormous effect, many were unpopular.

In order to learn as much as possible, Peter


went to Europe, training in navigation and
shipbuilding. He brought foreign craftsmen
to modernize Russia, and built ports and
canals. He also founded a new capital, St.
Petersburg, on the Baltic coast. To do this,
he had to advance into Swedish territory.
The Winter Palace In St. Petersburg,
built by Peter's daughter Elizabeth.

THE GREAT NORTHERN WAR


Peter's expansion led to a war with
Sweden's King Charles Xll This war, called
The Great Northern War, began in 1700.

Although the Swedes started well, in 70Q 1

they were heavily defeated at Poltava.


Their army was eventually forced to flee to
the Ottoman Empire. Russia then invaded
Sweden itself in 1719. In 1721 the war
Charles Xll of Sweden As a result of the war,
ended with a treaty called the Peace of advanced into Russia in Peter gained more
Nystadt. Peter the Great kept his newly 1709. He was defeated at territory around the Baltic
the Battle of Poltava. from Sweden.
acquired territory in the Baltic.
CHINA - THE MIDDLE KINGDOM
For many centuries, China enjoyed a brilliant and
highly developed culture, although at times it
was politically very unstable. For much of this
time, the Chinese had little or nothing at all to do
with foreigners, believing that there was nothing
that they could gain from them. They called their A Chinese printing block
and inks. The Chinese
land the Middle Kingdom. invented printing.

THE MING DYNASTY


In 1

a revolt in
monk called Chu Yuan-chang led
368, a Buddhist
China against the Mongols, who ruled in
China at that time. His revolt succeeded and Chu
Yuan-chang founded a new family of Chinese rulers
ASIA
m
W^ JAPAN
called the Ming Dynasty.

The early Ming rulers extended the Great Wall of


China, which had originally been built to keep the
#" EMPIRE
Mongols out. They also brought the province of / PACIflC
Yunnan under their control and forced Korea to pay a -^ OCEAN
tribute to China. Soon, though, the Chinese decided
One of the marble statues which The Ming Empire in the 5th
to withdraw from foreign contacts altogether. They
I

guards the entrance to the tombs century. The Ming took control over
of the Ming Emperors. were self-sufficient and did not want anything from the whole of China, including the
southwest, which was not
abroad. They regarded foreigners as barbarians - traditionally part of China.
uncivilized people,

MING CULTURE
Under the Ming Dynasty, China enjoyed 50 years of
I

peace. During this time, the Chinese made many ASIA >-\

discoveries in medicine and craftsmen CHINA \


PiRStAh
produced wonderful porcelain. They . GULP
^ir«(DIA INDOCHINA
planted beautiful gardens and the
Ming emperors were buried in AFRIC^
1 INDONESIA
magnificent tombs, guarded by huge
(NDMN
statues. They were also great explorers. OCEAN
;

The most famous explorer was Admiral


AUSTRALIA
Cheng Ho, who made seven great voyages.
^
/' -- Cheng Hos voyages ^ ^

Eventually the state started to fall apart. The voyages of Admiral Cheng Ho
between 1405 and 1433. Among
There were many rebellions and one million other places, he sailed to
people died in one rebellion alone. Bandits Indochina, Indonesia, the Persian
Gulf, Arabia and the east coast of
occupied the capital Peking (Beijing) and Africa.
the Ming government collapsed.

THE MANCHU DYNASTY


To the northeast of China lay the province of
Manchuria, which was dependent on China ASIA
for protection. Its people were nomads but
around the year 1600, the tribes united, in
the mid 1640s, the Chinese invited Manchu
warriors into China to help them deal with Great Wallj\0^^
the bandits. The Manchus soon established
themselves as the new rulers, in control of of China KOREA
the army. CHINA
Manchu homeland
Marriage between Chinese and Manchus
was forbidden and they lived in separate Manchuria, the Manchus
homeland, northeast of China
areas of the cities. Chinese men had to wear around IbOO, the
itself. Until

their hair in pigtails to identify them. Manchus were tribes of nomads.


They went on to conquer China.

48
THE EMPIRE EXPANDS! TIM^HART
The Manchu Empire grew as China ^ 1368-1644 Ming Dynasty
prospered. Taiwan, MongoHa, Tibet and
1 405-33 Voyages of
Turkestan all came under its rule. Trade liiiiral Cheng Ho
increased, especially in tea, and the 1 5 1 7 The Portuguese
Chinese style became very fashionable become the first
Europeans to trade in
in 18th century Europe. China

1 557 The Portuguese are


By the late 18th century, however, given Macao on the
dislike of foreigners was steadily Chinese coast as a tradint
settlement
rowing again. The Chinese prevented
1581 lesuit missionaries
Christian missionaries from arrive in China.
preaching in China. Attempts by
Europeans to increase trade were
/ /l^\^ 1644-1912 Manchu
Dynasty
J-
soundly snubbed. 1834-1908 Life of Tzu-
ASIA Dowager Empress of
hsi,
Chma
When the British diplomat Lord Peking. KOREA
1839-42 The first
McCartney visited Peking on a Opium War betweei
trading mission in 793, he was 1
MANCHU Britam and China

told very firmly by Chinese officials EMPIRE 1842 Treaty of Nankiiit;

that there was nothing at all that gives Hong Kong and fiv

other ports as trading


China needed to buy from settlements to Britain
barbarians like him. 1850-64 The Taiping
Rebellion -a civil war
during which millions
An 18th century European The Manchu Empire at its greatest
died
ornament, made in the Chinese extent around the year 760. Korea
I

style. Europeans copied Chinese art had at one time been under 1856-60 The second
styles in furniture, ornaments and China's protection but was by now Opium War
wall hangings. Independent.
1860 Treaty of Peking
givesmore trading
powers to Britain
THE OPIUM WARS 1866-1935 Life of Sun
Yat-sen
In the 19th century, Europeans were anxious to buy tea KOREA C.1870 Dislike of
from China, but the Chinese did not want European JAPAN foreigners grows in China

goods. Europeans had to pay for tea in silver. There was 1894-95 Sino-lapanese
• Shanghai
one thing, however, that the Chinese merchants did War - china and lapan
CHINA * Ningpo fight over control of •
/
want - a drug from India called opium. Korea China loses
EAST
1899-1900 The Boxer
At this time, the British ruled India and supplied opium Foochow. ^^^'^ Rebellion

to China although it was banned there. The Chinese '''"'"'•


TAIWAN
t
government was very angry about this and two wars Canton
broke out between Britain and China. China was — - Hong Kong .^i&^r
defeated twice. As a result of the wars, called the Opium
Wars, Hong Kong plus five other ports were given to The six British Treaty
Ports of 1842. Other
Britain for trading purposes. Other European nations European nations also
were also able to use trading ports. The Manchus were had influence over
different areas of
humiliated by this and the Europeans' influence China, which they used
weakened their rule. for trade purposes.

THE BOXER REBELLION


In the late 19th century, China was dominated by a very
powerful woman called Tz'u-hsi. When the Emperor died in
1862, her baby, the Emperor's only son, came to the throne.
She ruled for him and then held on to power when he died.
She was determined not to accept any change in China.

In 1899 a secret society, known as the Boxers, rebelled


against foreigners in Peking. Christians were attacked
and for nearly two months, foreign embassies were
put under siege, supported by Tz'u-hsi. Concern in
Europe led to an international force being sent to
rescue the foreign traders. They defeated the Tz'u-hsi, the

Boxers and from then on foreigners were able wh^ruied ainT


to enter China much more freely. from 1862-1908.

49
THE SLAVE TRADE
slavery had been part of life since very early times.
A slave Between the 7th to the 19th centuries a massive
1

driver, A female
whose job it trade existed between Africa and the Americas, as slavewho
was to make may have
slaves work millions of Africans were sent to work in worked on a
hard.
the New World. plantation.

THE AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE BEGINS


When Europeans began to arrive in the •
. .. -<i^

S1300 Americas, they opened mines and large


farms, called plantations, for producing
LOUISIANA
TO goods to send back to Europe. The
^'"-^J

mo niuiis! Europeans forced the native Americans to


work for them, but many died due to the
%.
II
harsh working conditions and European
diseases. slavery areas
tm tari Bin ^, mwrr M* lUrlr f^
I

NEW <^,
French territory ittANADA ^"
As a result, the plantations and mines were \^
short of workers. To solve this problem, a B Spanish territory
^' BRAZIL^

JUilMlTiM. «|:|.t- a,
WM.
ln«&
F. TAI.BOTT.
regular trade was set up to transport
Africans to the Americas so that they could
n British territory

Portuguese territory
>.ERU ^
work for the Europeans there. Over past Dutch territory
This American poster of 1853 offers up
to $ ,250 for a group of African slaves.
1
centuries, Mediterranean people had used
The slave trade was a big business. European colonies in the Americas, where
Africans as slaves. However, this new slave African slaves worked.
trade was bigger than any earlier ones.

SLAVE TRIANGLE
In the mid-18th century, at THE SLAVE TRIANGLE
^ 1. From Europe,
ships sailed to gfr
,^^^^
Africa with ianc^f
the peak of the trade, slave This map shows the triangular trade and goods, such
cloth and ^^
aa^ ^
M^ &
ships left Europe with the goods exchanged between the three
continents, A separate slave trade in
guns, cloth and goods,
East Africa supplied the ,Arah world
such as beads and mirrors.
These were produced \^^F^'EU%.0<P'E
cheaply in Europe.
3. Inthe Americas,
The ships sailed to West slaves were sold for
cash or exchanged for
Africa or Madagascar,
metals and
where the goods were sold foodstuffs
to local chiefs in exchange
for slaves. Some were
criminals or prisoners of
war, but others were simply
kidnapped from their
and sold.
villages

"-^^&%:L-<^Uin^-~:: -.U^^ZiX
THE SLAVES' FATE TIME CHART
NORTH AMERICA^ [lllll(U>

Most African slaves landed in c. I 450 /\U\c,in sirivcs


ATLANTIC ' be taken to
South America or the Caribbean OCEAN EUROPE
'
>

and the rest went to North _0.S million C.I 520 African slaves
America. the early years, as
In Ijegin to be taken to
/
many as a quarter of the slaves »riWff-mMU-
America by Europeans,
AFRICA
died during the two month 't-5"mmran- 1522 The first slave
rebellion takes place in
voyage. Conditions were ,V ./", llispaniola
cramped, unhealthy and hot, ttfti X. — -

Mttt 0.5 million C.I 750 The slave trade is


and the people were chained. at its peak
0.5 million".'.-.v.-.-. ,

PACC \ "'"« 1772 Slavery is declared


In later years, some captains OCEAN -\ 3.5 million
illegal in England

gave slaves exercise, washed out SOUTH AMERICA 1792 Slavery is banned in
Danish colonies,
their quarters and gave them African slaves were sent mainly to the
better food and care. They did Caribbean islands, but also to Europe, North 1 794 Slavery is banned in
America and South America. I rench colonies,
this to keep more slaves alive in
1804 A slave rebellion
order to make more money. succeeds in Haiti,

1807 Wilberforces law


Slaves who survived the voyage bans British ships from
were sold at auctions, if they fdking part in slavery

were lucky, they might be 1 808 The US government


lidns slaves from being
bought by someone who would Ijrought into the country
treat them kindly. Most, though,
1822 The USA founds
were forced to work hard in the Liberia in Africa as a
A diagram of a slave colony for freed slaves
ship, showing how
fields. In all, it is thought that
A slave branding iron. Slaves were burned, or
people were packed between 10 and 12 million branded, with a hot iron like this one, showing C.1830 Spanish colonies
in tightly together. their new owner's gam mdependence and
Africans were enslaved like this. initials.
slavery starts to die out

1 833 Slavery is abolished


in the British Empire
REBELLIONS AND ESCAPES c.1850-61 The
Underground Railroad in
Some slaves rebelled. Most North America helps
rebellions were stopped savagely,
slave states
CANADA
y slaves to freedom

but one succeeded brilliantly. In 1861-65 The American


Civil War The northern
1804, the slaves of Haiti, led by states are victorious
Toussaint L'Ouverture, fought the 1863 Lincoln declares all
French and won Haiti's freedom. <;laves in the United
UNITED STAT States of America free

1888 Slavery is abolished


Other slaves ran away. In North
America, there was an organized > . AMERICA in Brazil

escape route to Canada, where J^'


sy
slaves would be free, nicknamed
Toussaint the Underground Railroad. One
FIND OUT MORE
LOuverture was PACIFIC ) 't'f^.,
of the bravest to help escapers .'Xmericdn
made Governor-
OCEAN V -7 \
Ji CARIB^EAN^
General of Haiti for was an ex-slave named Harriet i;| Civil War 6!
life,but was later
betrayed and died
Tubman. In all, she helped 19 The United States of America. Slavery was legal
Africa -4 25
in a French prison. groups of people to freedom. in the southern states.

New
THE ANTI-SLAVERY CAMPAIGN World
'..IvU -^hii See above
In 1807, a politician called William Wilberforce pages for more
information.
persuaded the British government to pass a law
which banned British ships from taking part in
slavery. In 1823, he helped to found the Anti-
Slavery Society, which tried to abolish slavery in
the British Empire. In 1833, this happened at last.
The Wedgwood
Medallion - a
In 1808 a laW was passed banning the import of popular symbol
of the Anti-
slaves to the United States. However, it was still Slavery Society.
legal for people to own slaves. In the northern
states, many people wanted slavery abolished,
but people in southern states relied upon slaves
to work. This difference in opinion was one of the
causes of the American Civil War.

51
THE RISE OF JAPAN
Japan is a chain of mountainous islands off the
eastern coast of Asia. The Japanese are an ancient
people, who developed their own traditions and
religion over the centuries. Though Japan's culture
was greatly influenced by China, until the 19th
century it had little contact with the
^OXX^I'DO
rest of the world.
The Temple of the Golden Pavilion
near Kyoto, built in the 14th century.
arumae

JAPAN IN ANCIENT TIMES flsu ^1


lapan was, and still is, a place with many natural hazards. The Nowadays, the
Ainu people live
Islands are very prone to earthquakes, which can be followed by In areas created
terrible firesand tsunami - giant waves in the sea caused by /Specially for
them in
earthquakes. Nevertheless, people kept migrating to the islands Hokkaido.
from southeast Asia over a very long period of time. As more
and more people arrived, they began to dominate lapan's Northern The climate of
original inhabitants, who were called the Ainu. The Ainu came Honshu has north lapan is
always been cool, like the
to hold a very low position in lapanese society after their defeat a major rice European
in their great uprising in 81 2AD. growing climate.
area.
50 km
-II
V
JAPANESE CULTURE 50 miles

lapan became heavily influenced by China,


mostly due to a 7th century prince, called THE ISLANDS OF JAPAN
Prince Shotuku. In 604, he introduced the lapan is made up of 4,223
Chinese calendar, civil service and the separate islands. The four
Chinese government to japan.
style of largest islands, Hokkaido,

He in Chinese artists and


also brought Honshu, Shikoku
and Kyushu make
craftsmen and encouraged Buddhism up nearly all of
(which had come to China from India). lapan's territory
However, Shintoism, the Japanese religion,
remained strong.

The south of lapan is


warm and almost
tropical.

W 9^0 unt
Laie T
(Biwa

9iiros'fiima
\y

EMPERORS AND SHOGUNS


'^^^ /_*^ '^0 unt
TiiliJ 1 u llnzen According to legend, the first Emperor was limmu
Tenno, who came to the throne around 660BC. The
lapanese believed that emperors were gods and that
they were all-powerful.

In the 9th century, a family called Fujiwara gained


Sal^uTaJima control over the court. Other families challenged
them, causing years of feuding. In 192, 1

A I7'h Minamoto Yoritomo won and took the title


centUi '
shogun Shogun. This was a military title, but the holder
drawn in ran the government too. From then on, the
the
lapanes Emperor had little power, although he was still
style.
a god to his people.

52
THE MONGOL INVASIONS
Due to Japan's strong island position, it was very safe from
invasions by other nations. However in both 1274 and i28i
the Mongol rulers of China attempted to invade japan. On
both occasions, the Mongols failed when they were forced
^ back by violent winds that wrecked and scattered the

Mongol fleet, in lapan, these winds are known as


*•
^^mifeaze or "divine winds".

^
SAMURAI WARRIORS
By the 2th century, a group of warriors, called the
1

samurai, had emerged during lapan's many wars. The


samurai were highly skilled and had a strict code of
conduct.

From 339 to 573, called the Ashikaga Period, the


1 1

shoguns gradually lost control over the landowners


who were known as the daimyos. The daimyos were
very powerful and continually fought each other.
They employed huge armies of samurai and built
massive castles. By the 16th century, the title of
samurai was handed down from father to son.
Only samurai were allowed to carry weapons.

After the Ashikaga Period, rival leaders fought for


control of lapan. Following a great victory at the
battle of Sekigahara in 1600, an important daimyo
called Tokugawa leyasu became Shogun. He
limited the powers of the other daimyos and his
descendants kept the title until 1868. lapan was
peaceful and prosperous under their reign.

TRADE WITH JAPAN


The lapanese were suspicious of
foreigners and in 1639, all foreign
traders were banned, except for a few
Dutch and Chinese, who were only
allowed to trade in Nagasaki.

However, in 1853, an American officer,


called Commodore Perry, arrived in
lapan on a trade mission. By this time,
lapan was facing economic problems A samurai warrior
of the 16th century
and Perry was able to force japan to allow
in traditional
Europeans and Americans to trade there. costume.

JAPAN MODERNIZES
The arrival of foreigners caused a lot of MANCHURIA,^
Kwangtung
confusion in japan. In 1868, the emperor Peninsi^
^
'
p
A^^
^y
FIND OUT MORE
took advantage of this and grabbed '2
vi^^-mREA
power back for himself in a surprise
KOREA
J^^ China < 48
move. He then began to modernize the
country and took control of the CHIt4A
EAST PACIFIC
governmerit. CHINA OCEAN
SEA TAIWAN
(
Tokyo became the capital and the
In 1894, Japanese troops China lost the war in 1895.
lapanese quickly adopted western landed in Korea, which was Itwas forced to give Korea
science and technology. As a result of a separate state, but independence and hand
protected by China. They over Taiwan and the
this modernization effort, lapan soon then advanced further north Kwangtung Peninsula to
became the dominant power in Asia. into Manuchuria. Japan.

53
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
During the 18th and 19th centuries, Britain was
transformed from a nation of farmers to an industrial
giant - "the wori<shop of the world". From Britain, the
Industrial Revolution spread across Europe stephensons
Locomotion steam engine - the
and the world. first to pull a passenger train.

AGRICULTURAL CHANGE STEAM POWER


in 1 much of Britain was still farmed in medieva
700, Late the 17th century, lames
in
styleopen fields. But in the 18th century, scientific Watt patented the steam
first
developments helped farmers to improve their so engine. At first many
with natural and chemical fertilizers. The late 18th ndustrialists were wary, but soon
century saw improvements too in breeding farm they saw that steam could free
animals. Farmers produced plenty of food to keep them from the seasonal changes
pace with the growing population. of water power Factories could
also be built at more convenient
To from the new farming methods
profit places. Steam soon overtook
richlandowners ended the open field water as a key energy source.
system and did away with the
common land. They enclosed ate 18th century, steam-
their land into large private driven machinery was
farms, ignoring opposition powering mine shaft
from small landowners. pumps, iron foundries,
This picture shows a homeless cotton mills. Later, it also
farmer and his family. Many small powered the trains and
farmers could not survive In the
new system. Some found work on ships which carried all the
rich landowners' farms. Many went
new manufactured goods.
to the cities to work in factories.

THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION


The 18th and 19th centuries in Britain ""/SCOTLAND
A Light
saw dramatic changes in the way people industry
worked and where they lived.
Manufacturing shifted rapidly from small ENGLAND NORTH
SEA
CLOTH
cottage industries to huge mills and
Towns and cities grew up
factories. New inventions like the Flying
around factories to house the workers. Shuttle and the Spinning lenny,
produced woven cloth far more
New machines were invented to do the A rjL
quickly and cheaply than by hand.
jobs of spinners, weavers and other
skilled workers. Fewer people could now As the technology developed, larger
ENGLISH
produce more goods. Some machines CHANNEL and larger machines were driven by
worked so simply that children could in 700, areas of light industry were
I
huge water wheels and then by
mind them - for much lower rates of pay. scattered all over Britain. At this time, steam power Great mills were built
three quarters of the population
worked on the land. deep in river valleys to house the
Skilled workers now received vastly power looms. Crowded towns and
reduced wages, or were put out of work cities grew up quickly alongside so
altogether. Many could no longer afford that the thousands of factory
to feed their families. Whole families workers could live nearby. Children
were forced to work longer and longer worked the same long hours as
hours, often in dark, dirty and adults, and orphans and homeless
sometimes dangerous conditions. children were often apprenticed as
cheap workers.
Angry and violent protests broke out
The Spinning lenny, invented by
regularly over the early decades of the lames Hargreaves in1 764. One
19th century One
group, called the operator could
spin
Luddites, protested against the situation ENGLISH several
by breaking up the new machinery CHANNEL threads
at once.
responsible for taking their jobs. Revolts By 1851, giant industrial cities had
such as these were crushed harshly by sprung up around the mills, factories
and coalfields. Millions came to the
the authorities. cities to find work.

54
TIME CHART
1733 Kay invents the Flying 1812 The first gas light 1851 The Great Exhibition 1871 Trade unions become
Shuttle weaving machine company established in displays to the world legal in Britain.

1761 The Bridgewater Canal London Britain's technological


1876 Alexander Graham
opens achievements
1825 The first passenger Bell invents the telephone.
1782 lames Watt patents his opens in the USA.
railway service 1870s Regular crossings of
rotary steam engine. between Stocl^ton and the Atlantic, and other long 1885 First internal
1811-12 Luddite rebels Darlington in northeast distance routes by steam combustion engine is
break industrial machinery England ship, begin invented in Germany

COAL, IRON AND STEEL EFFECTS OF THE REVOLUTION


In 1709 Abraham Darby discovered By the 1870s, Britain was responsible for
a new, cheap way to use coal to producing one third of the world's industria
smelt top-quality iron. Iron output. Some people became fantastically
foundries sprang up near the rich from the profits. But for many more
coalfields. "King Coal", as it was people, the changes brought misery. The
called, powered the new iron age, new cities were overcrowded, dirty and full
with a bewildering The miners' of disease. Men, women and children
goods
variety of iron safety lamp worked up to 16 hours a day for low wages
reduced the
from knives and forks risk of and in dangerous conditions.
to machines, bridges explosions.

and steam ships. Workers who tried to form trade unions to


Cheap steel came protect their rights were severely punished.
much later Unions had become legal only in 1871. Slowly
Parliament began to pass laws to force
The iron and stee] industries
employers to improve conditions in factories.
flourished making weapons
for the many wars of the age.
New laws also made sure These young women,
all children went to matchmakers at Bryant
steam trains brought .<,' ' and May, won safer
, T,

fresh food into the c\\:\&s.'M"l/}/yi}jj//Ji'i^


school, and improved working conditions
and up-to-date news and public health and housing after a strike in 1888.
goods to the remote
lountryside.
Metal goods, like
became
scissors,
a major export. THE SPREAD OF THE REVOLUTION
Soon other European nations, led by
BRHAIN I
Belgium, Germany, France and
Switzerland, as well as the United States,
49
TRANSPORT HTLANTI&\ -"
'
f
began to challenge Britain's lead in i
^m^^
Until the
century
mid-18th
in Britain,
°f^J EUROPE. industrialization. These other countries
developed steel and electrical industries,
in which Britain never achieved the same
It.
»*"""'
^M^
horse-drawn travel on
poor roads was slow The
MEDITERRANEAN SEA]

first railways, built


supremacy. Iw
Alexander Graham Bell
and expensive, in 1761 by 1840. in the USA, the modern world began to invented the telephone
in 1876. It went on to
the first canal halved take shape with inventions like the revolutionize
the cost of carrying typewriter, telephone, the electric lamp communications around
the world.
coal into Manchester bulb and the sewing machine. Germany
pioneered the car industry with the internal
George Stephenson combustion engine in 1885.
opened the first
passenger steam
railway in the world in
1825, and "Railway
Mania" set in soon
afterwards.

Within 35 years over


16,000km (10,000
miles) of track were
built, carrying nearly 80
million passengers AUSTRALIlT
each year. Freight MEDITERRANEAN SEA
trains transported Railways by 1880. A vast Iron steamships started to cross the Atlantic regularly from the. 1870s. Railways and
manufactured goods new network of railway steamships carried manufactured goods around the world, transforming world trade and
lines now covered much bringing industrial expansion to the United States of America, Canada, South America,
across the nation. of Europe. Siberia (in Russia) and Australia.

55
- ,

THE AGE OF REVOLUTIONS


In Europe in the 18th century, new ideas began to spring
up about governnnent and the rights of all people.
People becanne more self-conhdent, especially the
prosperous middle classes. They began to believe in
freedom of thought and became more tolerant of
different religions. For this reason, this time was known
as the Age of Reason or "The Enlightenment".

THE ENLIGHTENED DESPOTS


Many 18th century monarchs had absolute power. Sonne did not rule
very well or care about their subjects. Other nnonarchs, called the
Enlightened Despots, were different. They were still "despots" (in
that they had absolute power), but they worked hard to improve their
countries. Maria Theresa of Austria, Frederick the Great of Prussia
and Catherine the Great of Russia were all Enlightened Despots.

A French
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION revolutionary.

In 789 a revolution broke out in France. It began simply as a


I

movement which wanted to introduce a constitutional monarchy


one in which the king or queen is guided by a government elected
by the people. Soon however, the lower classes were swept along
The victim lay on
the bench. His or with this movement, which became a full-scale revolution
her head was
against the nobility. The king and queen were executed, Although badiy armed
severed by a blade
"'^
from above and along with many other nobles, during a period of a few fevljUaionrrles
dumped in the
months known as the Reign of Terror. succeeded by sheer numbers
basltet.

NAPOLEON'S EMPIRE THE FALL OF NAPOLEON


After the Revolution, France became In 1812, Napoleon made a great mistake. He invaded
dominated by Napoleon Bonaparte. Russia and advanced all the way to Moscow. The
In 789 he was a poor, young officer
1 fleeing Russians burned Moscow and destroyed
but he rose to command the supplies. In the middle of the severe Russian winter,
French army and then joined the French troops had to retreat from the city, without
government. He later took it over enough provisions or equipment. Of the 610,000
completely and made himself men who invaded Russia, only 30,000 returned.
Emperor in 1804. Napoleon
Bonaparte
Prussia and Austria joined the fight with Britain
In a series of brilliant campaigns. against Napoleon, who was forced to abdicate in
Napoleon conquered most of Europe. 1814. He was exiled to the island of Elba in the
He appeared to be unbeatable. Then, Mediterranean Sea. In 1815, however, he escaped to
in 1805 the French navy was beaten at lead France once more, though he was finally beaten
sea by the British under the command at the Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon was exiled again
of Lord Nelson at the Battle of to the island of St. Helena, where he died in 1821
Trafalgar.From then on Britain ruled Following the collapse of the French Empire, the
the seas, although the French army Congress of Vienna restored to the throne the
was still dominant on land monarchs who had been deposed by Napoleon.

\ J."^?l—'-"*' GRAND

I J
'^
SPAIN ^ Battle BRITAIN /v^,j„^;^j^. ,^ DUCHY OF Moscow
ITUGAL
''J/VJestpHalia
WARSAW lorodlno\^ ^
"^ WatM-Mo Underdirect
confederation 13 French control
Optrto
>p4rtc .^Salamanca pFTHE RHINE RUSSIA
Battle of \ ^p<**-- ^Ciudad Rod/lgo \
PRANCE O
Ruled by ^^
-<y
Trafalgar
^)^ <VK1.
Tal iNen
. I IALT.^uflrv.-
Napolea(P*(
re\at\viis

ATLANTIC f ^*tai^.^
SPAIN ^ n Satellite
OCEAN AFRICA SPAIN
'!T'\^
The Battle of Trafalgar in The Peninsular War of 1808- Europe in 1812 at the height of Napoleon's power in Napoleon's invasion of
1805. It took place off the 14. Britain fought France in Europe. Some areas were controlled directly by his Russia in 1812. The French
coasts of southern Spain Spain and Portugal. The government in Paris. Some states were satellites of France - army reached Moscow but
and north Africa. The French army began to lose that is they were heavily influenced by it. Others were ruled had to retreat when the
British were victorious. its dominance. by members of Napoleon's family. Russians set it on fire.

56
INDEPENDENCE FOR TIME CHART

846-48
SOUTH AMERICA 1740-80 Reign of Maria
1
Theresa of Austria, an
Mexico is at Inthe 18th century, South Annerica was tnligtitened Despot.
war with the OT SlO^'EJilCA
^ ' still in the hands of Spain and Portugal 740-86 Reign of
USA. 1

StTXAS who had set up colonies there in the Fredericl< tlie Great of
Prussia, an Enligfitened
16th century. Despot

1762-96 Reign of
1836 Texas
Now, the revolutionary spirit which had Catherine the Great of
Russia, an Enlightened
Mexican border *. becomes swept Europe was affecting the people Despot.
i848 After the wa'r. independent from
with the USA, in South and Central America too. They
Mexico. It joins the 1768-1821 Life of
Mexico loses USA in 1848. began to want independence. Little Napoleon Bonaparte
40% of its
by little, each country in South
territory. CWB!^ 1789-92 The French
and Central Annerica gained Revolution
^.=-^. .. independence. An 1 793-94 The Reign of
/, .

Terror during which


O i '/BtilTISJi unhappy time many of the French
1811 Venezuela followed, though, nobility are executed
becomes independent. -
with many civil wars
Simon Bolivar becomes, 1800-15 The Napoleonic
and also conflicts Wars, during which
?iicajicA.guPi dictator in 1813.
Napoleon builds his
between the newly empire and is finally
1838 Guatemala, Honduras, defeated
ElSalvador, Nicaragua and
COSTi^ XICSl created states.
Costa Rica become ^A!>i.^M}l V'EH.'E-Zll'ELA 5 1804 Napoleon beconnes
independent. Panama .»;
5 s Emperor of France
remains part of Colombia p ; o;
U3>
until 1903. 1830 New Granada gains : a s 1805 The British win the
• K.- y> Battle of Trafalgar
independence. From 1861 .«o
it is called Colombia.

COLOO^'BIA ...|. • SI •••-IS


mi
\ against the French

1808-14 The Peninsular


1830 Ecuador gains War
independence.
1809 Arthur Wellesley
(later Duke of

A NEW SOUTH AMERICA •ECUADOX Wellington)


takes control
aataz/x of the British
This map shows central and South
America in the mid 19th century
^ army in the
Peninsular
By this time, all nations had War
gained their independence 1810-30 South
1822 Brazil gains American
from Spain and Portugal.
independence.
TEXU nations become
independent from
Spain and
1821 s^ .•BOLIVIA Portugal
^-,\
Peru gains ^.
BRAZIL independence. 82?
1812 France invades
865 Paraguay is at war i Russia
Bolivia gains 1

In 1822, Brazil gained independence from independence. with Brazil, Argentina


1813 From Spain,
Portugal. It was the only nation to achieve and Uraguay. 70% of its
Britain invades

independence without armed conflict. It just


separated from Portugal and became an
population dies
or leaves. ^ southern France
Peninsular War
in the

independent empire under King Pedro


The empire lasted until 1889 when, having
I.
1810
Paraguay
declares
\ 1814 Napoleon
to the island of Elba.
is exiled

independence. 1815 Napoleon escapes


abolished slavery, Pedro II was deposed by and leads the French in
plantation owners and a republic was set up. / the Battle of Waterloo
1816 He is finally defeated
Argentina gains %. and exiled to the island
MEXICO ,
independence.
V
(-1828
/Uruguay gains
independence.
of St Helena

In 1821, Mexico declared independence


from Spain and became a republic two A!K,g •EH.I'I OiA FIND OUT MORE
years later. Its leader, General Santa Ana,
defeated a Spanish invasion in 1829. In r- The Americas -^40
1855 Santa Ana was overthrown and
Mexico came under control of a man it' Europe < 44
called Benito luarez.
r France A 45
Civil war followed from 1858-61. France,
Britain and Spain became involved and in Russia ^ 46
)
1863, France made Prince Maximillian of
AustriaEmperor of Mexico. Maximillian, '";
H?
though, lost power once French troops S^^ See above pages
for more
were withdrawn and he was shot on the •-i^C information.
orders of luarez.
'?^'

57
THE RIGHT TO VOTE
/During the 19th century, there was a growing
call in Europe for greater democracy - the
right to vote (or the franchise). People
demanded free elections to choose their Women throughout society
governments. For others the priority was to called for the vote. This
badge Is from the Actresses'
unite and form their own nation. Franchise League in Britain.

REVOLTS AND REPRESSION


Monarchs and emperors with absolute power were reluctant to give it up. Some
tried to divert their people by improving living conditions. But revolts erupted
throughout this period against regimes which allowed little real change.

Many revolts were crushed fiercely. In response, some people turned to


violence as a way of achieving their goals. In Russia, for instance, terrorists
assassinated the Tsar in 88 Only at the end of the 9th century did the
1 1 . 1

right to vote become widespread for men in Europe.

SCANDINAVIA
^:<^ ALASKA
RUSSIA

\
Russian Empire

Austrian Empire

Ottoman Empire

OCEAN
AFRICA

Most of 19th century Europe was ruled by these three great empires. Britain and France were wary of
Russia's desire to expand, and tried to shore up the Ottoman Empire to keep the balance of power.

MOVEMENTS FOR CHANGE


Two new movements were developing in the 19th
century Workers' organizations, like the Chartists in
1840s Britain, paved the way for socialism and the
international trade union movement. Socialism
called for a just distribution of wealth, with equal
rights and decent working conditions for all.

The aims ofcommunism were also to achieve social


justice, butby means of revolution. The state would
take over running all factories and farms on behalf
of the people. In 1848 the Communist Manifesto
proclaimed "Workers of the world, unite!"
K iWll«l,"f'&««ltlf IftJP
The British blacksmiths union protected all members rights.
9th century Europe, nationalism Its motto was "By hammer and hand all arts do stand".

became a great force. Nationalism is


the feeling shared by people of one REVOLTS IN FRANCE
area that they are bound together
by a common language, religion, After Napoleon's defeat in 1815, France was
culture and history. People wished far from stable. The Bourbon King Louis

to govern themselves, especially if XVIll had been restored to the throne but
they were under foreign rule. This revolutions followed in 1830 and again in
posed a great threat to each empire. 1848, at the same time as nationalist
rebellions right across Europe. A Prussian
This medal celebrates the elevation of victory in 1870 caused the collapse of
the Prussian King to German Emperor in
1 849 with the nationalist words, "For Napoleon 111 and the Second Empire. France
freedom, truth and German glory". faced a period of turmoil once more.

58
UNIFICATION OF ITALY TIME CHART
Italy consisted of several kingdoms 1815 1
'III'. ...', ii;. I!-

and states under different rulers. A lurbon king, is re'-.i h'l


''

1' the French thronn .ilit-i


movement
'

called 1/ Risorgimenlo called ilii- M i|)oleonic Wars.

for unification - the joining together 1830 Revolution in


of separate states. In 1861 Giuseppe I rdnce Louis PhiHppe of
'
)rleans becomes l<ing,
Garibaldi led his red-shirted
In 1859 Italy was made By 186! Italy was a
volunteers in a revolt against the 1830 Belgium becomes
up of many states. single nation. Venetia
independent of Dutch rule
Austrian Empire. Italy was born. France supported her and the Papal States
quest for unification. joined by 1870. 1832 Greece becomes
independent of Turkish
Ottoman rule

POLAND AND HUNGARY RUSSIA d^^ 1832 Great Reform Act


v.... extends voting rights to
Poland revolted several times against AUSTRIAN more men in Britain.
ay EMPIRH
its Russian rulers, who crushed the 1846-49 Rebellions in
HUNGARY France, Poland, Germany,
rebellions, and tried to stamp out
Italy and Hungary
Polish culture and nationalist POLAND
1861 Italy is unified The
feelings. In 1867 the Austrian Empire I

I'npe stillrules the Vatictn


_i=_
defeated Hungary's revolt too, but at Strategically vital, Hungary did not
'!-, an independent state

least her people were still free to Poland was the achieve independence 1871 Germany achieves
westernmost point of from Austria until after unification
follow their own culture and language. the Russian Empire. World War One.
1881 Tsar Alexander II is
I assassinated

THE BALKANS AUSTRIAN


EMPIRE
t,

-j^\^
>
1893 Women
Zealand are the first to
in New
.^^" achieve the right to vote
The great Ottoman Empire was in ^Nr; OTTOMAN \ C »•"

decline. -Christians in the Balkans


N EMPIRE ^ 1906 First Labour
members of Parliament
wanted to break free, and Russia ; OTTOMAN 'lected in Britain
EMpilfE -«
supported them, to undermine the C|tlE<iE
"" '

1917 RusMan Revlutior


Ottomans. In1832 Greece achieved .b.'
'A
self-rule, but other regions like Serbia,
Bosnia, Romania and Bulgaria had to
Only Greece managed
to break away from
Many Balkan nations
faced a long struggle
FIND OUT MORE
wait until 1878 for indepedence. Ottoman rule early in for self rule. Conflict
the 19th century. still dogs this region. Ottoman
Empire
GERMANY BALTIC
SEA :
'
' BALTIC
SEA Russian
impire
In 1815, Germany consisted of 39
RUSSIA Balkan crisis 65
states.The Prussian Chancellor, GERMANY
Bismarck, encouraged the nationalists' r '•'..J''"
desire to join these states together. AUSTRIAN
EMPIRE IkUSTRIAN
Already trade links were being fostered. ..

"'EMPIRE See above


Prussia won victories over Denmark, Prussia dominated the By 1871, Germany was
pages for
more
Austria and France. In 1871 William I many small states on united.Her military information.
its borders
in central power was to
became Kaiser of the united Germany. Europe after 1815. overshadow Europe.

RUSSIAN REVOLUTION VOTES FOR WOMEN


One of the most dramatic revolutions Only late in the 19th century were
against the state was in Russia. By women's calls for the vote considered.
1917 the people were weary of their Even the French Revolution, with its cry
involvement in World War One. Sheer excluded
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity",
hunger led to strikes, and troops sent women from its demands.
to quell the unrest mutinied instead.
Tsar Nicholas abdicated. New Zealand women were the first to achieve
the vote in 1893, followed in 1907 by Norway
The Bolshevik revolutionaries were led and by Denmark, Luxembourg and the
later
by Lenin, a follower of Karl Marx. They Netherlands. In Britain and the USA, the
had wide support, promising peace, Suffragette movement campaigned for
land and bread. In just five days in women's right to vote. Their struggle was
November 1917, they seized St blocked until 1921. Then at last most
Petersburg and set up a communist women over the age Women organized
government. The new regime had to of 30 were granted protests and got
themselves arrested
grant independence to Poland, Finland the right to vote, in
to draw public
and the Baltic states, but it crushed the return for women's •^.
attention to their
cause.
nationalists in Armenia and Ukraine. work during the war.
59
— 3

THE BIRTH OF THE USA


By the start of the 8th century, many people were
1

Afurtrapper. leavipg Europe to settle in colonies in North America.


Jmo''ng^'he*fir?t
The BHtish, French and Spaniards all owned colonies
in^the^ast. Much territory was still occupied by the
native North American Indians.

An American Indian chief.


Indians gradually lost their
land to European settlers.
THE ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE
The British colonists on the east coast of North NOtRTH '^
America were surrounded by French, Spanish and ;- AMERICA / %^
a'
American Indian territories. Britain gradually
gained more territory by treaties, as wars were
fought both in America and in Europe. Although
OCEAN
British victories helped their colonists gain wealth
and territory, many of them began to want
Territories
independence from Britain.
D Indian
French
The colonists resented the fact that Britain controlled their iO Spanish
trade. They also felt bitter because they had no say in the ^$ritish
British parliament, yet they still had to pay taxes. The British European colonies in North
Fur trappers were
America by 1713. Britain had
also known as government was not interested in exploring further west than
1

colonies on the east coast of North


"mountain men".
the Appalachian Mountains. This disappointed the colonists, America. By 763 Britain was also
1
They went west of
in control of Canada, which it had
the Appalachian
as many of them were eager to expand their territory. won from France.
mountains to
make their
fortunes.

THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE


The first armed clash between British troops and American XT'

colonists came at Lexington in April 1 775. The War of a Battles


George Washington
(1732-991 became the Independence had now begun. In July 1776, the 13 colonies TH.British colonies

first President of the made their Declaration of Independence and became known
United States. Here he
is shown in his uniform
as the United States.
as Colonel of the ew York
Virginia Militia.
The colonists, led by George Washington, lacked trained
men, money and weapons. In contrast, the British army NORTH y> ':.

AMERICA ^
included mercenary soldiers and American Indians. The
ATLANTIC
colonists, though, had an advantage, because they knew OCEAN
the countryside, which the British did not. The British _il
also had problems with supplying men, arms and Battles between British troops and
American colonists in the American
provisions, because they were so far from home. At last, the War of Independence, 1775-83. All
colonists were victorious and American independence was of the fighting took place in the
former British colonies. The first
recognized at the Peace of Paris in 1783. battle was at Lexington.

THE USA GROWS


The United States soon began to grow. The
population increased as more people arrived
from Europe. People settled farther and farther
west and these new territories were
incorporated into the United States.

1803 Louisiana was bought from France


In
and
in 1819, Florida was bought from Spain.
After a war with Mexico, the United States
gained California, Texas and the Southwest
Territories in 1848. Alaska was bought from
Russia in 1867 and another war, this time with The United States of America in
1867. By this time it had acquired
Spain, led to the United States gaining the more territory - Louisiana from
islands of Puerto Rico and Guam in 1898. France, Texas from Mexico, Florida
from Spain and Alaska from
Hawaii also came under US control. Russia. Canada was British.

60
THE GOLD RUSH TIME CHART ^ a

At first, only trappers, hunters and CANADA I 730 A track to the west
explorers ventured west of the !
'
lied up through the
.[ il.ichian Mountains
Mississippi. Then in 1848 gold was |.

S^n-Epantisco Philade lp;-a 755-63 French-Indian


discovered in California, and a manic 1

War Britain gains


hunt for gold began. Canada and land west of

Settlers journeyed ^^--^usV- I the Mississippi

Gold miners set out to travel over west in covered wagons, 1775-83 American War
like this one. 1 Independence
3,000km (2,000 miles) of wilderness.
I

MEXICO'
1776 Declaration of
They faced great danger with lack of food and water, ..'1 )uly
Independence.
deserts, mountains and attacks by Indians. The gold rush Trails leading west to new
territories. Thousands followed 1803 France sells
soon died down, but farmers and their families now came these trails throughout the 19th Louisiana to the United
in search of land. century in search of land on which States
to settle and farm.
1804 Lewis and Clarke
set out to explore west ul
the Mississippi River

THE VANISHING INDIANS 1819 Spain


to the United States
sells Florida

The native American Indians of the great grassy areas of NORTH \


846-48 Mexican-
1

American War
the West, known as the Great Plains, depended on DAKOTA I

l848Calilornian Cold
hunting buffalo for their livelihood. As the settlers spread
Rush
across the West, they killed off the buffalo and began to SOUTH DAKOTA ^

Great Sioux 1861-65 The American


fence off the Indians' land. Not surprisingly the Indians Livil War
Reser i^ation
fought to keep their land, but the settlers were protected ^ Wounded~ ^ 1863 Abraham Lincoln
by the US Army. Knee I leclares all slaves in the
rebel southern states to
I

The Indians were few and poorly armed compared with


\ l)e free

NEBRASKA 1865 Lincoln is


the US Army and in the long run they could not win the issassinated
war for their homeland. Many died in battles with the
^ Battle
1867 Russia sells Alaskci
army and also of hunger and disease. Survivors were The Battle of Wounded Knee In to the United States
1890. This was the last battle
made to live in enclosed areas, called reservations. The between US forces and the 1898 Hawaii is annexetl
Indians. Many Indians were killed,
last Indian battle was fought at Wounded Knee in South l)y the United States
including women and children.
?
Dakota in 1890.

THE CIVIL WAR FIND OUT MORE


In the mid- 19th century, tension arose between the states
Colonizing
of the North and the South. One of the many issues that
CANADA America A 40
divided them was slavery, which the North
disagreed with but which the South relied upon.
American
The South decided to leave the Union and form UNION
STATES Indians < 41
the Confederate States of America.

Slavery < 50
Under President Abraham Lincoln, the North CONFEDERATr'
resisted this move and war broke out in 1861 STATES
The four-year Civil War that followed divided
families and inflicted terrible casualties. In
MEyxx.
See above pages
1865, the North was victorious. The South The United States for more
of America in information.
had lost all its wealth and was now 1861 at the
A Union soldier
(from the northern ruined and resentful. The slaves were outbreak of the
war between
states in the Civil
I
freed and the Union was preserved. North and South.
War.

THE END OF THE 19TH CENTURY


Although bitterness deepened between the
North and the South, the second half of the 19th
A 19th century
century was prosperous for the United States. railroad engine.
Railroads were
The huge rrea of the West was settled and built across
immigrants from Europe swelled the population America, helping
the population to
from 31.3 million to 91 .9 million. Fortunes were
spread across
made banking, manufacturing, railways,
in the West.
mining and steel, so that many individuals
became very rich. The United States entered the
20th century as a major industrial power

61
COLONIAL FEVER
Following the great voyages of the late 5th and 1

16th centuries, European nations had set up


colonies in the Americas, in Africa and Asia,
they had been content just to set up trading
British officers
Colonists introduced their
money and stamps.
own
this
posts on the coasts. In later centuries, they in 18th century India.
Iil<e India was Britain's most
British one from South Africa. extended their control over the interiors. valuable territory.

AUSTRALIA
Early in the 18th century,
Europeans could not see any
value in owning colonies abroad.
This attitude was shown by the
British government, which used
Australia as a place to send its
criminals. Between 1788 and 1868,
167,000 convicts were sent to
Australia, After this, a change in
policy brought other settlers •=',£] ....
,
)

seeking their fortunes and a better


^TLiAJillC OCEA^ <v ^(paiQ.cco ... ^~^ 7*"—-"^ AWll'Ag
life in a new land.

XI O £>% O'K.C fEgypT


J'EJL'JiC'H
EMPIRES ABROAD 'WEST
'A7XICA
As the 18th century progressed, gXViCB :l
Europeans realized that having pXi^'EHi
colonies around the globe was an
S'
advantage. Colonies could act as
•"-fti*-\
^
bases for navies and they could
^^wmi
also supply Europe with goods
and the raw materials that it
needed for manufacturing in the \9igOLA'-

new factories in Europe. sownH


People explored the unknown
9ij% '
^'
V-
and also

interiors of Africa
I \IO\OJ
Australia. By the 19th century, a so inn
scramble began to capture
^'
colonies abroad. Soldiers, sailors
and administrators all became
involved in conquering and
running huge empires.

European-style buildings were set up


in the African and Asian colonies. This
is a Dutch colonial house in the West
Indies SETTLERS AND NATIVES
After the Industrial Revolution, Europe's population
increased rapidly. Some people made huge fortunes
but most were very poor. Going to the colonies
was one way that the poor could make a new
life. Cheap or free land was available in Africa,

Australia,New Zealand and Canada, which


umil had small native populations.

Some natives resented the new arrivals.


This led to wars, such as the Zulu Wars
in Africa in 1879. Europeans often tried
A Zulu
to change the natives' customs and shield. The
convert them to Christianity, leading to Zulus defeated
the British
outbreaks of violence such as the Indian 879, in
Mutiny in 18=57-^8, southeast Africa.

62
These British officers
are attended by Indian 1788 llie liiotgiuuiJwl
servants and ride British convicts is sent to
importantly on the
- ,dnev Australia
backs of elephants.
1831 Founding of the
French Foreign Legion - a
People rode on regiment of foreign
elephants in soldiers set up to protect
baskets, called French colonies in Africa

howdahs.
1 840 The
British annex
Zealand as part of
.ev.

their empire abroad

1 853-56 The Crimean

1 857-58 The Indian


'J<^ us SI .'5 ;\ '£ CVi-p I X£ Mutiny East India
..--.
Company is abolished
/y
.

COLONIAL POWERS and a Viceroy is


appointed to govern India
This map shows the world in for the British.

1914, Most of Africa and Asia


I 859-79 Russia conquers
r A were European colonies By this
1

the Cducasus and


time, the Americas expands in central Asia
C9il'?iA had become 1 867 The British Queen
independent Victoria is proclaimed
of Europe Empress of India

^ ,
TACrjIC
J I8b9 firth of
^;,j;i,iJion of
nationalism.
Gandhi
Indian

^^MIMk Belgian
1879TheZulu Warin
East .Africa,

1881 Outbreak of the first

British
c;>:ier War
1914 European colonies
H Dutch

Ottoman
ere at their height.
Outbreak of World War
One
French

n Russian

German
FIND OUT MORE
«
Spanish Industrial
",

Revolution A 54

JlZlST'Jl^^Lril
u Portuguese

Italian
500 1000 km New
Independent Nations 72
300 600 miles L nations

\f: _
World War
One 66
w it
9i'E'W Zt'iMA'Ji'D
H rJ/' See above pages
for more
information.

ITALY AND GERMANY THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE ABROAD


In the mid- 19th century, Italy and Germany were both In the 19th century, Russia extended its

made up of lots of separate states. Then in 1861 the ,


territory too.It did not gain colonies

Italian states united together to become one country, overseas, but pushed forward its
in 1871 the German states united too. By this time, existing borders. It expanded
the other European nations had acquired much south into the Khanates - regions
territory abroad. Germany and Italy, however, had controlled by Muslim Turks.
fallen behind in the race to gain colonies and wealth.
Russia also wanted influence in Christian
Both and Germany very much resented the fact
Italy lands within the Turkish Empire. This
that they had fallen behind. This created tension in resulted in the outbreak of the Crimean
Europe, especially between Germany and its two War of 1854-56. The British and the
main rivals, Britain and France. The major European French fought as allies of the Turks
powers became very competitive and this led to an against the Russians, who lost.
arms race between them. This was one of the causes A nurse In the Crimean War - one of the first
which led to the outbreak of World War One in 1914. wars in which women officially served as nurses.

63
THE EARLY 1900s
At the turn of the century, European powers were
^y
still colonizing the world and were conripeting with

each other for wealth and territory. Their rivalry


led to tensions, both abroad in the colonies and
in Europe. At this time, both the United States &
and Japan were keen to gain territory and
lapanese soldiers of
the Russo-lapanese influence with other nations.
War of 1904-05.

^ THE BOER WAR JAPAN EXPANDS


^
K'Cr-.

In the early years of the 20th In 1904, a war broke out between
century, Cape Colony and Natal Russia and lapan called the
in southern Africa were British
colonies. Many Europeans lived
there. Annong them were the
Russo-lapanese War. lapan won,
which was the first time in
centuries that an Asian power
wm^
t
Boers, descendants of Dutch had beaten a European one.
colonists, who were fiercely Encouraged by its success, lapan
independent. In 1899 a war had then invaded China.
'broken out between the Boers
and the British, who had The Chinese could do little to stop
expanded into Boer territory. lapanese expansion. China itself
was in turmoil. The government
The Queen's South
Africa Medal.
was very weak and warlords
The Emperor
awarded to British commanded their own territories.
China, Pu
last
Yi, who was
of
soldiers who fought
in the Boer War.
To stabilize China, rebels wanted deposed in 1911.

to get rid of the Manchu Emperor


Pu Yi, whose family had ruled for
In 1902, after brutal fighting, RUSSIAN
centuries. He was only six years TERRITORY
Britain declared victory. A new old and his government was near i
statewas created called the to collapse. In 191 Pu Yi was
1
,
MANCHURIA
Union of South Africa, which deposed and China became a
aimed to reconcile the British republic, led by
, CAPE
COLONY NAmL and the Boers. Dr. Sun Yat Sen. u. KOREA '^
JAPAN
t^gpeJb.
Boer farmers who
Cape Colony and Natal in fought the British in Russian territory in
1830. Europeans settled 1899-1902. This 1904. The Russians
here when they first picture shows three occupied parts of
arrived to colonize generations of Manchuria in China and
southern Africa. the same also, briefly. Korea.
family.

MANCHURIA
AFRICA
T^RANSVAAL
-'i£^
•PortfArthur,//

INA
The Boers created In the Russo-Japanese
Transvaal and the Orange War, lapan took Port
Free State in the 1850s. Arthur and south
The British later expanded Sakhalin, and gained
into these areas. influence over Korea.

MANCHURf/C X

•^•AN
OHINAy
PACIFIC
OCEAN
'SapeTaWii '/mFORMOSA
f FORh
The Union of South lapanese territory
Africa. This newstate in 910. By this time
1

was created after lapan was in control of


peace was declared in Korea and Formosa
1902. (now Taiwan I.

64
THE USA ^ STAfES^OF .
DOMINICAN TIME CHART
Like other world powers, the USA also had ambitions to AMERICA- -»
,
.REPUBLIC

influence world affairs. In 1903, the USA encouraged


Panama to rebel against its rulers, Colombia, It invested
i^fSi^'^y ^^ " 1899-1902 The Boer Wd

903 The USA signs an


I

<^" s^rT
I

^7 " 'verldsting lease for the


money in Panama to buy land and help build the „/— -V
^ i)
,iic i>( the Panama Canjl
Panama Canal, The USA hoped to benefit from the extra
trade that the canal would bring to the region. c ^jJnIcaragua
N;:^:. ,
1
":
1904-05 The Russo-

1
.ip.iiiese War
904- 4 The building
1 o(

The rest of Central America was unstable too. By S " PAISteMk


SOUTH
'he Panama Canal,

promising economic and military support, the USA r AMERICA 1905 Widespread
ns against the Tsar
managed to bring Nicaragua, Cuba, the Dominican
'

Areas of US political influence in idl.L |jldce in Russia,


Republic and Haiti under its influence. Central America and the Caribbean Kaiser Wilhelm II of
in the early 1900s. Germany protests against I
French control of
I Morocco
EUROPE IN TURMOIL "r--
1906 Nations debate the
Morocco problem at a
(" AUSTRO-
In 1904, France and Germany had a dispute This '
inference in Algegiras,
HUNGARIAN
'

Spain
arose because Britain and France had agreed that .^. EMPIRE
France should have control over the African country
ROMANIA 1908 Army officers revolt
111 the Ottoman Empire
of Morocco. The German Kaiser Wilhelm was II
SERBIA^-— ^.^^^^ The Austro-Hungarian
l.mpire takes Bosnia from
furious that he had not been consulted and ONTENeGBOj) ....
I
he Ottomans,
demanded a conference on the subject. At the 1 9 10 The Union of South
conference, other nations supported France. Germany Alrica becomes a British
began to feel that Europe was against it. Europe was • liiminion

becoming dangerously unstable when more trouble 1911 French forces take
The Balkan countries at the outbreak the city of Fez in Morocci
followed in the Balkan Wars of 1912-13. of the Balkan Wars in 1912. Germans send a gun boat
to Morocco to threaten
the French Emperor Pu Y
During the Balkan Wars, Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria and of China is deposed and a
Montenegro banded together to push the weak • AUSTRO-
republic is setup there
Ottoman Empire out of Europe. However, the victors HUNGARIAN 1912 The Italians take
EMPIRE Libya from the Ottomans
then fought over the control of their new territory.
The First Balkan War
Bulgaria lost and Serbia gained more territory. Serbia
1913 The Second Balkan
became a strong power, which made Austria and War
Germany nervous. Meanwhile, France promised to NONTENEGR
1913-14 European
back Russia, Serbia's ally, against any German ALBANl nations build up their
nrmed forrps
aggression. European powers split into two camps
"ALY
and the stage was set for war
The new borders of the

THE ARMS RACE Balkan countries on the eve


of World War One in 1914.

Germany and Britain were great rivals. Both had


strong industries and Britain wanted to maintain
its position as a dominant world power After the
Morocco crisis, Germany decided to build a great
navy and Britain began to modernize its fleet. They
tried to outdo each other by building bigger and
better ships.

The result was a race in which both nations built


up their navies and arms supplies. They were
deeply suspicious of one another This arms race
was one of the causes of World War One.

The Dreadnought was


heavily built with a double
bottom to withstand
attacks from torpedoes.

WEXSOi'
WORLD WAR ONE
In 1914, tensions were high between the dominant
European nations of Gernnany, France, Britain
and Russia. At this time, Serbia wanted
independence for Serb people who were
George V. King of England
part of the Austria-Hungary Empire, but
Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany
during World War One. He Austria would not allow it. was George Vs first cousin. He
reigned from 1910-36. reigned from 1888-1918.

HOW THE WAR BEGAN


On lune 28, 1914, the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir Next, Russia moved its troops towards Austria.
to the Austrian Empire, was on a royal visit to Germany then saw its chance to declare war on
Sarajevo in Bosnia. A Serbian terrorist gang was Russia and also on Russia's ally, France. The German
waiting for him and as he drove through the streets, army's first move in the war was to invade France.
the Archduke was suddenly shot dead. Austria, with Their route took them into Belgium, which outraged
Germany's backing, ordered Serbia to bring the the British, who had promised to defend Belgian
murderers to justice. Serbia refused to agree with all neutrality.So Britain declared war on Germany.
of Austria's demands, so on July 28, Austria declared Europe was now divided: Britain, France and Russia,
war on Serbia. Serbia, however, had a powerful friend called the Allies, against Germany and Austria, called
to support it - Russia. the Central Powers.

ITALY ,

AUSTRIA-
., BELGIUM "^M I,

GERMANY HUNGARY GREAT


AUSTRIA- C\.-^....... BRITAIN, RUSSIAN
HUNGARY FRANCE /^B
\ BOSNIA-' T dERMANY EMPIRE
HERZEGOVINA i <•'"-'-'

Sarajevo •
'-•.
,.-
i/i

5
$ fixe^"^^ ;^
™ FRANCE -v- AUSTRIA
VMUNGABY
'''
'bosni*.' •'•'••..
-..,.
7i
}
HE(^EGOV(NA i/i ..
-. m
V^^
.:

ITALY MONTENtGRd g :
10 MON.TENEGRO
5 \ ^ 4
' .

"^
ADRIATIC . <..

SEA '^/ Frontline Invasion B Central Powers -^ D Allies


Austria had recently annexed Sarajevo was the capital of Bosnia Germany took the opportunity to Europe was now split in two camps
Bosnia and Herzegovina. This and Herzegovina. It was here that invade old enemy, France. The
its - Austriaand Germany, the Central
infuriated the Serbians in Bosnia, the heir to the throne of Austria- invasion route took German forces Powers, versus Britain, France and
who wanted to be independent. Hungary was shot in 1914. through neutral Belgium. Russia - the Allies.

FIGHTING AT THE FRONTS


The area of fighting in France and Belgium was called Germany's plan was to defeat France quickly and
the Western Front. Both sides expected a quick then the Russian army after that. This plan
fight
victory, but the German attack was stopped at the failed and Germany could not crack French resistance
Marne River, and the Allies were stopped at Ypres. to their attack. So it was now forced to fight Russia in
Soldiers on both sides dug trenches for protection the east at the same time as France in the west. The
against bombardment from heavy guns and machine area where fighting between the Germans and the
gun fire. They attacked by charging across muddy Russians took place is called the Eastern Front. The
open ground, through barbed wire entanglements German attack was stopped in 1915, creating another
Poison gas was also used as a weapon hopeless stalemate.

BRITAIN
AUSTRIA- FRANCE FINLAND
^P^"^
HUNGARY BALTIC SEA
:
BELGIUM SWITZERLAND • Arras

:' * \
* "«">»,
GERMANY ^^oLAND
*}.: •'^e TERRITOinr ^
FRANCE
ITALY
LUX^MBOukc Amiens • v..-'

ADRIATIC
;{: Battle
GERMANY SEA
Allied attacks \
-- Frontline at start of battl^> ^ ^ Battle AUSTRIA-
Aa/ Frontline ;}c Battle '
-
' Frontline at end of battle AA/ Frontline HUNGARY
The Western Front in 1915. Heavy In May 1915, Italy joined the Allies. In 1916, the Allies attacked across The Eastern Front in 1915. Troops
fighting took place along the However, fighting near the border the Somme River. This battle raged fought along a line that stretched
French borders throughout the First between Italy and Austria-Hungary for six months, but ended with the from the Baltic Sea in the north to
World War developed into another stalemate. Allies gaining little ground. the Ukraine in the south.

66
THE WAR SPREADS
During the war, other nations
decided to join either the
Allies or the Central Powers,
British territory

German
territory
BRITISH
EAST
D Ottoman

TURKEY
territory
^TCASPIAN
Iune28, 1914 Archduke
I

dead
rdnz Ferdinand
In Sarajevo
is shot

according to which side they AFRICA OTTOMAN SEJi July 28, 1914 Austria

2 EMPIRE declares war on Serbia


thought might benefit them. GERMAN
As well as Italy, japan joined : EAST INDIAN August 1914 Germany
AFRIC OCEAN -I declares war on Russia
the Allies, while Turkey z and France. Britain
MESOPOTAMIA declares war on Germany
joined the Central Powers. AFRICA IcHpan joins the Allies
The war involved more ARABIA
PEKSIMI
November 1914 The
nations than any war before. REO GULF OttiiMian Empire joins the
Fighting also spread outside MADAGASCAR SEJ)>
Centr,il Powers

Europe to German colonies Fighting tool< place in the European Allied troops fought the Turks in May 1915 I Idly joins the

in Africa and to the Turkish colonies of British and German East Palestine and Mesopotamia. The Allies
Africa. At the end of the war, Britain Arabs revolted against Ottoman rule
Empire. gained German East Africa. and also fought the Turks.
September 1915 Bulgaria
loins the Central Powers.

March 1916 Portugal

USA IN, RUSSIA OUT joins the Allies

August 1916 Romania


loins the Allies
Germany began
submarines, or U-Boats, to
torpedo supply ships in the
to use
? U-Boat sinkings
oSCANDINAVIA March 15,
Russian Tsar abdicates,
1917 The

NORTH EUROPE April 6, 1917 USA


Atlantic. American ships AMERICA:
were sunk, which angered
.

tV'GI'EAT ^ declares war on Germany

June 1917 Greece joins


the USA. It joined the Allies the Allies
g^^C?^ EUROPE
in 1917 Russia, however,
found that it could fight no
longer. A group called the
SOUTH
AMERICA
\ INDIAN
OCEAN b^
October 24-25, 1917
Bolsheviks seize power
the Russian Revolution.
in

Bolsheviks took power and March 3,1918 Russia and


AFRICA 0. ^^J^j Germany sign a peace
made peace with Germany. -, Supply route treaty of Brest-Litovsk.

Germany now had to crush British supply routes the Atlantic.


in Hundreds of U-Boats were also November 9, 1918 Kaiser
Britain and France before the German IJ-Boats torpedoed ships sunk around the coast of Britain VVilhelm II abdicates
to prevent Britain getting food and and northern France throughout
Americans arrived. supplies from other countries. the duration of the war. November 11, 1918
Armistice declared

THE FIGHTING STOPS


In 1918, the German army made another attack on the Western Front. However, now
they were fighting against fresh American troops and also against tanks - a new
weapon. A defeat at Amiens led to Germans calling for the war to end. On November Germany 68
9, the Kaiser abdicated and on November an end to the fighting,
I 1

or armistice, was agreed. At last, fighting stopped on Cause of war < 65


the Western Front. In all, 65 million
men fought, of whom Inside early tanks like this Serbia
one was an eight man crew -
were killed and 20 m the commander, four See above pages
injured. gunners, a driver and two for more
gearsmen, who helped information.
operate the tank.
A British Mark IV tank,
as used in World War As well as being used as
One. This was the first weapons, tanks also
war ever in which carried ammunition to the
tanks were used. front and brought the
wounded back to
Caterpillar tracks safety.
helped the tank
move across muddy
fields.
;

BETWEEN THE WARS


In 1919, a peace conference in Paris tried to
fornri a peace settlement after World War
One.took six months to make a treaty,
It

called the Treaty of Versailles. Germany had


to hand over territory and efforts were made
to make it pay for the damage caused.
The flag of the
communist Soviet Austria and Turkey both lost their empires.
Union. Northern Ireland
(or Ulster)
remained part of
THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS HITLER'S GERMANY Great Britain.

The US president, Woodrow Wilson, in 1929 the US stock market crashed,


HK.'EL
suggested that an international which meant that many people lost
organization should be set up to prevent money and businesses went
war. This organization was called the bankrupt. During the 1930s,
League of Nations. many people were poor and
lO£Sr of Re/^£
unemployment was high.
-^f V(_£S

The USA itself, however, did not join the The Irish Free State
This period was known as became independent ^^
League of Nations. This was because its the Great Depression. from Great Britain in
government did not want to be involved 1922.

in Europe's affairs. The Soviet Union did Germany was badly affected
not attend the conference in Paris and 500 km
by the Great Depression and
neither did it join the League at first. So, by the aftermath of World
two of the most important powers in the War One. Adolf Hitler, the 300 miles
world were not members, which made the head of the National
League of Nations weak. Socialist German Workers
Party, or Nazi Party,
From 1936-39, ^. SfPSilS
persuaded the German
COMMUNIST RUSSIA people that their troubles
Communists
fought Fascists
V9
O
for control of t^
After the Russian Revolution in 1917, An were caused by foreigners, Spain. The
^
^
the Bolsheviks took over the old Russian
unemployed
man from
USA. The
the
especially lews. As a result,
during the 1930s, German
Fascists won
under General *^ \
Empire. They set up a communist Franco. ^
unemployed lews were persecuted.
government, which was based on protested
providing equality and state control of about the lack Hitler's party won popular
of work.
people's everyday lives. support. He was a
persuasive speaker and soon
This new state was called the Soviet Union, he became a powerful
or USSR. When its leader Lenin died, losef politician.
Stalin took power. He wanted to make the
In 1933 the German
Soviet Union great and he did this by (^THor^enroth
building railways and factories. To do this,
,
: juiinia: President made Hitler
he took much land away from the peasants the Chancellor. He later
and many people died of starvation or were became the outright
leader, or Fijhrer Hitler
- --—.„. sent to harsh
work planned to dominate
camps. Europe and in 1938, his
troops marched into
Austria to achieve the
Anschluss - the joining
of Austria and Germany.

losef Stalin, the


became part of
Austria a
Soviet leader. He German Empire which
ruled from 1929
until his death in
became known as the
1953. Third Reich. Before long,
Germany's attempts to
extend this empire led to
World War Two.
A 1930s German propaganda
booklet, designed to persuade
people to follow Hitler. The
words on the cover mean
Children, what do you know
about your Fiihrer?"

68
See above pages
for more
information.

FASCIST ITALY TENSIONS IN ASIA COiVWlUNIST CHINA


In the 1920s, a man called Benito In 1926 Emperor Hirohito came to Founded in 1921 the Chinese
,

Mussolini became powerful in the throne in lapan. After this Communist Party wanted to improve
Italy. He belonged to a political lapan became more aggressive to conditions and free China from
group called the Fascists which, other countries. The emperor took Japanese domination. After the war
like the Nazi Party and the advice from military leaders, with lapan, it grabbed power, causing
Communists, also believed in a including the Prime Minister, a civil war. The communists were
strong government. Mussolini General Tanaka, who wanted to eventually victorious and China
became a dictator, ruling Italy by build a Japanese Empire in Asia. became a
force and by his ideas alone. communist
In 1931, lapan invaded Manchuria state in
By the mid-1930s, his ideas in China and set up a new state 1949.
were clearly not working. called Manchukuo. Manchukuo
So, in a bid for popularity was controlled directly by japan.
with the Italian people, The League of Nations was
his army invaded against the invasion, but lapan
Ethiopia in Africa. The responded by leaving the League.
League of Nations
could do very little The It then signed a pact with Nazi Mao
Fascist Zedong,
to stop him. Its symbol - Germany and started a war with leader of
actions irritated the fasces China. This left lapan ruling part the Chinese
("bundle of Communist
Mussolini, rods"). It was of China Tensions grew
itself. Party from
bringing him originally an steadily and the world sank 1936 until
Ancient Roman 1976, when he
closer to Hitler. symbol of authority. deeper into a crisis. died.

69
. .

ORLD WAR TWO


the 1930s, Hitler, the German Nazi leader,
In
wanted
to create one state for all Gernnan people.
Germany had forced Austria into a union, in an
German bombers, called event called the Anschluss. Now Germany and
Heinkel One-Elevens.
its allies, called the Axis Powers, set out to

'^ * create a German empire in Europe. Nazi salute.

THE INVASIONS BEGIN


*-c— '^P^SIA ^7 _^AST ;

was the Sudetenland - THE .

PRUSSIA
Hitler's first target NETHERLANDS
POLAND
an area of Czechoslovakia. Britain and 3ELCIUM jWHtdlwil i

France, anxious to avoid war, agreed that UNGART


swiTznu;am> CZECHOSLOVAKIA
this area should join with Germany. Soon /6BIMANV

though, the Nazis occupied the whole of YUGOSLAVIA.- ..'


SVVITZEf?V*WD HUNGARY j;:,ZECHosLdvAKiA v,

Czechoslovakia. Hitler then invaded "%. BUMbARIA


ITALY YUGOSLAVIA '

Poland on September 1939. This time,


1 ,

Before the war began, Germany had occupied the By September 28. 1939,
Britain and France had no choice but to Germany s were
allies Sudetenland by October Poland was beaten.
Bulgaria, Hungary and 1938. By March 1939, the German and Russian troops
declare war. On September 17 the Soviets,
Romania. Together they rest of Czechoslovakia was met in Poland on the line
allied with Hitler, invaded Poland too. were called the Axis Powers. under German occupation. agreed by their leaders.

E WAR IN EUROPE
n 1940, Germany occupied
Norway and Denmark, then
stormed across the
Netherlands, Belgium and
France, using a tactic called
Blitzkrieg ("lightning war").
France had to surrender but Norway and Denmark held The German army moved Vichy-France was run by a
Britainand the Allies (New important positions on the east and the British forces French government based
North Atlantic coast. In escaped by sea from at Vichy under orders from
Zealand, Australia, Canada, April 1940, both countries Dunkirk. In lune, France the Nazis. Northern France
and South Africa) fought on. were invaded by Germany. made peace with Germany. was occupied by Germany.

AIR AND SEA m


jMa.
Tt^ NITED
TkJ ^GDOM
. Allied bases'
Axis bases S
t] Belfast
"
'^Glasgow

f '^^^Sunderland
<msL«t
»Beriln
"f
Although Allied troops were j -
defeated in Europe, Hitler failed to J REPUBLtC
UNI'^D KINGDOM
S^
• nethcrlaMos ^
win supremacy in an air battle, IRELAND
W
.

y—^ . Bim>mglWm
•FnnMurt
\_^
i BELGIUM
'
-i;;iKCo,entr, GERMAN
called the Battle of Britain, which
,1^
', TERRITORY "^
y. MCardKf
t '
nj» W London
.S<unt>rt
took place over southern England. \ -y.

^A Hitler also tried to break Britain's


N ..
FRANCE
BrKtol
IPortwtiouth f
J

1
^^''
A" supply routes across the sea, but Allied fighter planes were Germany began to lose the Throughout the war
'^ Nhis submarines (or U-Boats) stationed all over southern Battle of Britain, so Hitler German cities were also
were eventually defeated in the Britain. Axis fighters were began to bomb British bombed by the Allies. The
stationed in northern cities, shown above, in an above cities were very
'
long Battle of the Atlantic. France. attack called the Blitz. severely damaged.

THE WAR SPREADS *'CO,tf,


laSS!«Vj£, '1^
y^k,_
In mid 1940, Italy's leader Vv *•<

Mussolini, joined the Axis ALGERIA^ ^ ,,


ALGERIA EGYPT EIA& h*m
LIBYA
Powers. Italy's first move was to LIBYA
EGYPT
invade Greece. It then attacked
the British in Egypt from its own
.^Allied atta^
^_^ Axis attack
i
colony of Libya. However, the
Axis att^k — tj.«s —» Axis attack ..^ Axis retreat
were pushed back and
talians
The Germans and their German troops landed in After an important battle at
German forces had to rescue Bulgarian allies staged a Libya in February 94 1 1 El Alamein, the Axis Powers
them by invading Greece, joint invasion ofYugoslavia They attacked toward the retreated to Tunis.
and Greece on April 6, British in Egypt who were Surrounded by the Allies,
Yugoslavia and North Africa. 1941. defending the Suez Canal. they surrendered in 1943.

70
—-Frontline 1941
THE SOVIET UNION Er^NUkN Extent or
jCerman advance
LATVIA >
,

Although Germany and the LITHUANIA / floSCOW


Soviets had signed a pact, in SWEDEN USSR
1941 German troops made a .
> POLAND \ / ^^

surprise attack on the Soviet FINLAND


USSR HUNOARY (
Union They moved quickly
ROMANIA- _/
but the harsh winter was ESTONIA —)
> ..•
aiACKSU
beginning and Soviet On lune 22. 1941. In 1939. the Soviet Union By December 94 the 1 I ,

resistance was fierce. some Axis troops attacked had occupied territory in Germans had advanced
Germany many the Soviet Union from Finland. Now the Finns almost to Moscow. Soviet
-'
lost •' !r™°T»H
were equipped ^i^h
with Poland, Hungary. Romania fought back on Germany's resistance stopped them
men and morale was low. skis in the winter. and Prussia. side. from advancing any more.

PEARL HARBOR PACIFIC OCEAN CHINA y


T"
y^ lAPAN

Midway

In1940, tension between lapan and the


USA was high, due to lapan's recent BURMA '
i ^ \. VvPhilippio«

gains in the Pacific. Worse still,


territorial INDQ- J PACIFIC OCEAN
. --~\ ^ V^Cof^ Sm
lapan signed a pact with the Axis Powers.
AUSTRALIA| OCEAN
Suddenly in December 1941 , it made a
;- ^ Jir. DUTCH p^^lflC

devastating air attack on the US naval Japanese air attack ^' Naval battles/
base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. In
Many US warships were in Japanese territory in luly The naval fleets of lapan
outrage, the USA joined the Allies in the Pearl Harbor on the 1942. By this time, lapan and the USA fought the
war, but not before lapan had managed to Hawaiian Island of Oahu had occupied territory in above battles in the Pacific.
when the Japanese Burma, China, Indo-China By the end of 1942. lapan
conquer a lot of territory in the Pacific. attacked on December 7. and the Dutch East Indies. was losing.

THE WAR ENDS- 1945 ^J ENGLISH CHANNEL


Utah
iTAtr '
\ / Omaha
In 1943 and 1944, the Allies landed
YUGOSLAVIA Gold
troops in Italy and France. As they r/
S; Juno

advanced, the Soviets attacked Germany


from the east. Facing certain defeat. Hitler
^\h,V
^-^ Ji^ I ALBANIA
t -7 j
Swort
/

J Normandy
killed himself and Germany surrendered.
-Allied _
In the Pacific, though the Allies gradually mvasion FRANCE

won back lost territory, lapan did not The Allied invasion of Italy In France, Allied troops As the war drew to an end,
surrender until atomic bombs had been began in |uly 1943 and invaded Normandy. The five the Soviets and the Allies
Mussolini fell from power beaches where they landed closed in on Berlin. The
dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima, shortly after, in lune944, 1 were given the above Soviets reached the
causing terrible destruction and loss of life. the Allies entered Rome. codenames. German capital first.

THE HOLOCAUST '


" -I

GEIUUNV These buildings,


As the war ended, it became A A •A=r' like those in many
German cities,
clear that something evil had were almost
A A ^.
happened. Hitler had hated ^.-
destroyed
totally

'^^S^» HUNGARY by bombs.


lews, blaming them for
A lewish child
Germany's problems. He had surrenders to a ITALY rf ,
"I
^BULGARIA

set up concentration camps, German soldier. A (Joncefltration camfi


where millions of lews and other people
Concentration camps
classed as undesirable by the Nazis, were where mass murders -
This event is called the Holocaust,
killed. took place, were |
situated in the Jj
meaning a total destruction of life. above places in ,'Jf.,

central Europe.

TIME CHART
March l939Germanv May 1940 Allies evacuate June 6, 1944 Allied
gams control of 300.000 troops from Dunkirk invasion of Normandy,
Czechoslovakia in France codenamed D-Day

September 1, 1939 April 1941 Germany May 8, 1945 Germany


Germany invades Poland occupies Greece and surrenders
Yugoslavia Fighting starts
Septembers, 1939 in North Africa
August 1945 Hiroshima
Britainand France and Nagasaki are
declare war on Germany lune 22, 1941 Germany devastated by atomic
invades the Soviet Union bombs
April-May 1940 Germany
stages invasions across September 1943 Italy August 14, 1945 lapan
western Europe "surrenders to the .Allies surrenders ending the war
NEW NATIONS
After World War Two, Europe was nearly
bankrupt and could no longer maintain its
colonial empires.The colonies wanted self-
The symbol of the United
government and a period began when many
The
Nations - formed in 1945 to of them gained independence. - the first new nation
tackle world problems.
created after World War Two.

ISRAEL IS BORN LEBANON LEBANON


After the war, a new organization called the United medit£rranean sea MEDITERRANEAN SEA
Nations was set up to settle disagreements between
Tel-Aviv
nations and to prevent war breaking out again. One Tel-Aviv •; _^
'
Jerusalebt* Jerusati
of the first problems it had to tackle was a crisis in
Palestine in the Middle East. During the 20th
% ISRAELI
century, great numbers of lews had arrived in
EGYPT EGYPT \VTERRITOI
Palestine, which they saw as their traditional
)\
homeland. However, the Arab Palestinians resisted
the arrival of lews in the area that was their ARABIA
homeland too. In 1948, the United Nations came up RED RED
with a solution - the creation of a new lewish state of SEA

Israel in Palestine The Palestinians soon became a Israel in 1949, after a War of' War broke out in 1967 and Israel
nation without a home and years of violence between Independence with the surrounding gained more territory. It returned
Arab countries. the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt in 1982.
lews and Arabs followed.

INDIAN INDEPENDENCE A WAR IN INDOCHINA

w
Before World War Two, groups in India
political .^'^«*.^ During World War Two, French Indochina had
campaigned for independence from Britain A been occupied by lapan. A resistance group
group called Congress, led by Mahatma Gandhi had been formed to fight them and now
was the main group. However, a second that the war was over, they were reluctant
group, called the Muslim League, wanted a to let the French govern. As demands for
separate state for Muslims. Another group, \N*" independence spread across Asia,
called the Sikhs, wanted a state too. i v resistance fighters began a guerilla
war against the French.
In 1947, the British made India
independent, but also created a By 1 954, it was all-out war After a bad
separate Muslim state - defeat at Dien Bien Phu, France
Pakistan. Thousands died in decided to pull out. Laos and
violence as Muslims moved Cambodia became independent, but
from Hindu areas and vice- Vietnam was temporarily split into two
versa. Among all this / zones. Communists dominated the
turmoil, no state was north, while a government friendly to
created for the Sikhs. the USA ran the south.

PAKISTAN

• Karachi
m
Delhi .
^^
^^_..ar-
6^^

y
BURMA
/

'
.

LAOS
. NORTH
VIETNAM
CHINA

•Hanoi'Cc^
Lj
BHUTAN
• Vientiane
EAST PAKISTAN
INDIA Dhaka
*
THAILAND

INDIAN J I ^( CAMBODIA i
',

INDIAN OCEAN OCEAN \ V- Phnom ^ SOUTH


V f •
4
.4
Penh .

• Saigon
VIETNAM

CfcYLON ?
KJ
ill.
"V
»
The Indian contineni m H East Pakistan becdmc
I i In1953-54. French Indochina split into Cambodia, Laos
Bangladesh in 1971 and Ceylon became Sri Lanka in 1972 and North and South Vietnam.

72
NEW AFRICAN NATIONS INDEPENDENCE IN AFRICA TIME CHART
Thib nidpshows the newly
rican countries began to demand their freedonn too. 1947 lllfll.l licr.,!,.,--,

independent countries am le country after another becanne successful, including in. I' [.. ml-! I
I
,1 ,1 .mil
W'-' h, .lie
Nigeria, which was the richest colony. On
I I',, I. ill I
rr.iff.'ii
their new flags at the _
_
time of their independence, nnany new states joined the 1948 Israel becomes a
nation The first Arab-Israeli
ndependence British Comnnonwealth or the French war takes place Gandhi is
Connmunity - assassinated in India The
National Party comes to
\ associations of power in South Africa
states that were 1 949 The Dutchgive tjp
once British or ccmtrol of Indonesia

French colonies. 1954 Indochina wins


independence from France

1958-62 Algerian War of


Independence against
France takes place

1960 Nigeria becomes


independent

1960-64 Fighting takes


jilace in the Congo
1961 Angola rebels against
Portugal South Africa
leaves the British
Commonwealth.
Liberia
was never colonized. 1962 Mozambique rebels
it was created by the USA as a
igainst Poitugal

state for free slaves in 1 82 1


1964 Army mutinies take
l.ildce in Kenya and Uganda

KEY TO INDEPENDENCE DATES 1965 Rhodesia declares


independence
Algeria 1962 25. Malawi 1964
Angola 1975 26. Mali I960 1975 Angola and
Botswana 1966 27. Mauritania I960
Mozambique become
Burundi 1962 28. Morocco 1956
independent Civil war
Cameroon I960 29. Mozambique 1975
Central African Rep I960 30. Namibia 1990 Inllows
Chad I960 31. Niger I960
Congo I960 32. Nigeria I960 1980 Rhodesia becomes
Dahomey I960 33. Rhodesia 1965
Diibouti 1977 34. Rwanda 1962
Egypt- not colonized 35. Senegal I960
Equatorial Guinea 1968 36. SierraLeone 196
Ethiopia 1941 37. Somalia I960
Gabon I960 38. South Africa 196
Gambia 1965 39. Sudan 1956
Ghana 1957 40. Swaziland 1968
Guinea 1958 41. Tanzania 196
Guinea Bissau 1973 42. Togo I960
Ivory Coast I960 43. Tunisia 1956
Kenya 1963 44. Uganda 1962
Lesotho 1966 45. Upper Volta I960
Liberia - not colonized 46. Zaire I960
Libya 1951 47. Zambia 1964
Madai;,)',! .ir 19fi{)

South Africa was


/ part of the British
Commonwealth until
1961 when it became an
APARTHEID
i'
,

independent republic.

In 1948, the National Party came to


power South Africa. It set up a systenn which kept
in
advantages for white people, while nonwhite people had
few rights. This system was called apartheid. As more
African countries joined the British Commonwealth, they
put pressure on Britain to force South Africa to give
everyone the same rights. South Africa refused to change
and responded by leaving the Commonwealth in 1961.

NEW STATES IN TROUBLE


Tension between rival groups and lack of political experience
made some states unstable. In the Belgian Congo, anger over
former ill-treatment led to attacks against whites, in Angola
and Mozambique, independence led to civil wars. In Rhodesia
a white government refused to hand over power to the black
majority, which led to years of protest.
Finally in 1980, Rhodesia became During the dvii war in
'7 „,u u i Mozambique, this boy is
Zimbabwe -a new state -i-i.
with a
4-

being taught how to use a


black majority government. rocket launcher.

73
,

THE COLD WAR


After World War Two, the Soviet Union and the USA
were very suspicious of each other. Their relationship
became so bad that it developed into a cold war - a
Built in 1961, the Berlin wall war of economics and politics, rather than actual In 1989, the Berlin Wall was
split the city into communist taken down. Here, joyous
East and the free West. fighting. Both sides stockpiled nuclear weapons. Berliners help to dismantle it.

TAKING SIDES
World War Two, the USA and
After
the Soviet Union became known
NORWAY ^
as the superpowers, because they ICELAND
were the strongest countries in CANADA SOVIET UNION
EASTERN
the world. During the Cold War, EURORE AFGHANISTAN
USA WESTERN MONGOLIA
/
communist countries tended to EUROPE
be backed and influenced by the CHINA
ALBANIA^
Soviet Union Other countries, -nCUBA AND VIETNAM,
YUGOSLAVIA / LAOS AND
such as those in Western Europe, PAKISTAN
were backed by the USA. This
Aligned
with USA AFRICA
THAILAND
/ r.CAMBODIA
division caused great suspicion SOUTH
Communist, but AMERICA IRAN
between communist and non- not aligned with AND
communist countries. Soviet Union IRAQ
AUSTRALIA
China was an exception. Although
it had a communist government,

it was not friendly with either the

Soviet Union or the USA.


Aligned with
Soviet Union

/
During the Cold War, many countries of the world had treaties with either the
Thismap shows which parts of the world were allies of which superpower.
NEW ZEALAND
USA or the Soviet Union.

THE IRON CURTAIN


After the war, communist parties came to power in
Czechoslovakia, Hungary. Poland and other Eastern
European countries. To help Europe recover from
.EAST POLANI
jGERMANY J SOVIET
the war, the USA offered money in a scheme called rti UNION
(A

the Marshall Plan. However, while Western Europe tt\


f/4
71
accepted aid, the Soviet Union did not allow Z HUNGARY .«!.

Eastern Europe to do so. m

As the two halves of Europe grew apart, the ex-


Prime Minister of Britain, Winston Churchill,
C
3)
O
TJ
m
\V ROMANIA

BULGARIA

\T
<» API'
described this separation as an "iron Curtain"
coming down to divide Europe. This phrase came to
A German "Marshall Plan" poster. describe the division between the two sides in the Eastern Europe in 949. By this time,
1

all nations in Eastern Europe were


This scheme gave US economic Cold War. Communist and most were influenced
help to Europe.
by the Soviet Union.

GERMANY DIVIDES
After the war, Germany had been divided into
four zones - Soviet, American, British and
French. The capital Berlin, in the middle of the
Soviet zone, was itself split into east and west.
By 1947, Germany was operating as two
countries. In October 1949, it officially became
two countries - East and West Germany.
People began to try to leave the East for the
West and the easiest route was between East
and West Berlin. This was embarrassing for the
Soviet Union, so in 1961 soldiers built a wall
almost overnight, dividing the city. The Berlin
Wall became a symbol of the Cold War. Germany after the war. Both it and its
capital Berlin were divided into four
One of the many observation towers zones. The Soviet zone later became
which guarded the Berlin Wall. East Germany.

74
CUBA Washington
,,J
USA TIM£,£HARi„
1947 The USA helps to
As the Cold War rebuild Europe with the
UNITED STATES Marshall Plan
progressed, each side OF AMERICA FLORIDA
March 1948 West Berlin is
began to build up their ( ut olf from East Berlin
weapons. In 1962, a Miami
April 1949 The western
serious threat to peace Miami
nnfnnnrf nations become allied by
I
Tniliiiiii^
setting up an organization
erupted over Cuba.
.-^CAfHaBEAN SEA >:^ . called NATO (the North
Cuba's leader, Fidel \

Atlantic Treaty
^o
Castro, was friendly with Organization!

the Soviet Union, which ATLANTIC


now announced that it
OCEAN .i-
US b ocUodo
l
Ma^ October 949 The
Ciimmunist Party comes
to power in China.
1

planned to use Cuba as a 1950-53 The Korean War


Cuba, a Caribbean island just off the The USA began a naval blockade of
base nuclear
for its coast of Florida, USA. When the Soviet Cuba, refusing to let Soviet ships 955 West Germany joins
1

missiles. This move Union wanted to base nuclear missiles approach it. For days the world was on NATO Eastern European
here in 962, the security of the USA
1 the brink of nuclear war, but eventually
greatly alarmed the USA, was threatened. the Soviet Union backed down.
nations set up an
organization called the
which felt threatened. Warsaw Pact
December 1958 Castro
KOREA AND VIETNAM comes to power in Cuba
August 1961 The Berlin
Tensions between Wall IS built

communist groups and


ASIA
HknoU October 1962 Cuban
their opponents caused CHINA Missile Crisis

many around the


conflicts
NORTH Jr^
1964-74 The Vietnam War
VIETMM
world during the Cold War. y% NOITTH KOREA 1 979-89 Soviet Union
These included two major SOUTHEAST ;
occupies Afghanistan
ASIA 1985 Gorbachev comes to
wars in East Asia.