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REMOVAL OF DYE BY USING ACTIVATED CARBON

(USING SUGAR CANE BAGASSE)


OBJECTIVE: Activated carbon is utilized as an adsorbent to
remove color from the solution .This treatment efficiently removes
several colored impurities such as colloidal matter, pigments
(natural and formed during the process), and inorganic constituents
(ash). Powdered and granular types of carbons are employed
depending upon the particular purpose.

LITERATURE REVIEW:
Adequate researches have been carried out regarding the
usefulness of activated carbon from the perspective of adsorbent,
synthesized from source such as fluted pumpkin seed, groundnut
shell, palm oil waste, karanja oil seed, rubber wood saw dust etc.

K Mallick, 2004, used Mahogany sawdust to develop an effective


carbon adsorbent. This adsorbent was employed for the removal of
dyes from spent textile dyeing wastewater. The experimental data
were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. There
are many cheap, easily available materials such as wheat husk, straw,
palm fiber, rubber wood saw dust, bamboo dust, date pits, palm
fiber, coconut shell, groundnut shell, oil cake etc which have been
used as the source for the synthesis of activated carbon. They are
used in the abatement of hazardous contaminants, treatment of
municipal and industrial wastewater, as catalyst or catalyst support
in medicine and the recovery of valuable metals. Thus the aim of this
research is to look for a good adsorbent based on their surface
characteristics. It also explores the adsorption capacity of the
adsorbent for methylene blue dye removal.

M.M.Nourouzi and T.G.Chuah in 2009, studied the adsorption


behavior on Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Red 3 using Palm Kernel
Shell Activated carbon. Applications of batch kinetic data to pore and
film surface diffusion models were explored.

Jun –jieGao et al., 2013, produced activated carbon from tea seed
shells. They obtained activated carbon of BET surface area 1530
m2/g. The precursor was chemically activated using zinc chloride and
pyrolysed in a tubular furnace at 500°C for one hour duration at a
heating rate 5°C/min. Methylene blue dye has been used in most of
the industries and its removal is a matter of great concern. Low cost
adsorbents such as coir pith, sawdust, fruit shell, banana pith, peanut
hull, wheat barn etc has been employed [Vadiyelan et al, 2005;
Chandran et al, 2002; Bhattacharya et al, 2005; Kumar et al, 2005;
Garg et al, 2003; Hamdaoui et al, 2007]. However, due to its less
adsorption capacity use of activated carbon as an adsorbent is
greatly sorted. Activated carbon is a special type of carbonaceous
substance. It has a highly crystalline form and extensively developed
internal pore structure. Due to activation, internal pore network is
created which imparts certain surface chemistries (functional groups)
inside each particle. Thus carbon gets its unique characteristics
leading to high surface area, porosity and greater strength. The
absorptivity of the adsorbent depends on both the size of the
molecule being adsorbed and the pore size of the adsorbent. The
organic material, which has high carbon content, is used as the raw
material for the synthesis of activated carbon.

Halandemiral et al., 2008, prepared activated carbon from


Hazelnut bagasse through chemical activation technique. The surface
area developed was significant 1489 m2/g. It was employed to
remove Sandolan blue from the water bodies. Increase in population
has boosted the growth of different industries leading to discharge
of pollutants into the water bodies. Among those industries textile,
food, cosmetic and paper industries lead to discharge of dye that
needs immediate attention. Color in the water results from various
organic chemicals that prevent the sunlight to penetrate affecting
the aquatic system. Aquatic organisms and plants are affected due to
the release of toxic organic chemicals. Various methods to address
this issue has been published by many researchers such as
sedimentation with clarification, coagulation and flocculation,
chemical oxidation, filtration using membranes, adsorption,
biodegradation etc . Among these adsorption is a well-established
technology to deal with dye removal.
Wei Li et al., 2008, prepared activated carbon from coconut shells
using microwave heating and reported that microwave heating due
to its internal and volumetric effects can greatly reduce heating time,
reaction temperature and costs. Carbonization of the samples were
done using conventional heating at 500°C under nitrogen purging at
a heating rate of 10k/min, with further cooling for 2h under nitrogen
blanket conditions. The char particles were then subjected to
microwave heating at temperatures between 860-867°C with a
microwave power of 60kW combined with steam activation for
30min. The iodine number of the samples was found to be between
1073 and 1085 mg/g, while the BET isotherm revealed that the
internal structure was of mesoporous type with plenty of mesopores
and micropores.

WHY WE CHOOSE SUGARCANE BAGASSE:


1. Sugarcane bagasse contains 84% of carbon content so it is very
obvious to use that type of material for our purpose. Basically
due to high carbon content it helps us in our purpose for making
activated carbon.
2. It is very cheap.
3. Easily obtainable in market.
PROPERTIES OF ADSORBENT:
1. High adsorption capacity and long effective adsorbent life .
2. Ability to attain ultra-low contaminant levels in treated stream .
3. Low reactivity, minimized side reactions and reduced coke
deposition.
4. Optimum physical properties (high crush strength, low attrition
and the ability to handle process upsets or non-ideal operating
conditions).

PREPARATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM SUGAR


CANE:
There are two ways by which we can prepare activated carbon.

1. Thermal activation.
2. Chemical activation.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
The experiments consisted of three steps: producing the
carbon, determining its physical properties and evaluating
its effectiveness as a color adsorbent. In the first step the
bagasse was passed through a Riley mill Model 3, 16-mesh. The
resulting powder was placed in a tubular container adapted to a
laboratory furnace for 60-75 min at 500-550°C.The carbon
obtained was washed with distilled water and dried in a
laboratory oven a t 100°C for 12 hr finally, it was ground with the
Wiley mill, 60-mesh. Three types of carbons were obtained by use
of this method, three activated with the addition of various
chemicals and the other without activated. The chemicals used
were those sulfuric and phosphoric acids in the proportion of 65%
by weight of the original bagasse.

DESCRIPTION OF HOT AIR OVEN: Hot air ovens are


electrical devices which use dry heat to sterilize. They were
originally developed by Pasteur.] Generally, they can be operated
from 50 to 300 °C, using a thermostat to control the temperature.
Their double walled insulation keeps the heat in and conserves
energy, the inner layer being a poor conductor and outer layer
being metallic. There is also an air filled space in between to aid
insulation. An air circulating fan helps in uniform distribution of
the heat. These are fitted with the adjustable wire mesh plated
trays or aluminium trays and may have an on/off rocker switch, as
well as indicators and controls for temperature and holding time.
The capacities of these ovens vary. Power supply needs vary from
country to country, depending on the voltage and frequency
(hertz) used.

FIG: HOT AIR OVEN


DESCRIPTION OF MUFFLE FURNACE:
A muffle furnace (sometimes retort furnace in historical usage) is a
furnace in which the subject material is isolated from the fuel and all
of the products of combustion, including gases and flying ash. After
the development of high-temperature electric heating elements and
widespread electrification in developed countries, new muffle
furnaces quickly moved to electric designs.

Today, a muffle furnace is (usually) a front-loading box-type oven or


kiln for high-temperature applications such as fusing glass, creating
enamel coatings, ceramics and soldering and brazing articles. They
are also used in many research facilities, for example by chemists in
order to determine what proportion of a sample is non-combustible
and non-volatile (i.e., ash).

FIG: MUFFLE FURNACE


WHAT IS CARBONIZATION: Carbonization is a process in
which a fuel is heated without air to leave solid porous carbon.
Coke is produced commercially by carbonization of coal, either at
high or low temperatures. The main purpose in the carbonization of
coal is to produce coke, and any chemicals produced are of secondary
importance. Carbonization is a process in which a fuel is heated
without air to leave solid porous carbon.

FIG: CARBON RESIDUE FROM SUGAR CANE


Preparation of silica/AC (2:3) composite:
The surface modification of SiO2 with (3-Aminopropyl)
triethoxysilane (APS) coupling agent was carried out in
liquid phase. SiO2 powder (10 g) was firstly added to 150 mL ethanol,
premixed and stirred for 30 min to get well dispersed SiO2
suspension. After the addition of another 150 mL ethanol, 0.5 mL
silane coupling agent APS was added into the suspension. The
mixture was stirred, heated up to 50°C for 12 hrs, the obtained
particles were filtered from the mixture, washed with ethanol and
deionized water five times and dried under vacuum [1 1 ]. AC coated
silica composite (SiO2/AC) was prepared as silica/AC (2:3 W/W) ratio.
Under mild magnetic stirring for 1 hr till the solutions became
transparent, and AC precipitated with SiO2-NH2. The precipitate
(SiO2/AC) was collected and washed with water for several times to
remove the unbound AC and afterwards dried under 60°C and
ground before use.

STEPS FOR FURTHER EXPERIMENT:


1. FITTING OF LANGMUIR ISOTHERM:
V/VM =KAEq pA/(1+KA pA)
2. FITTING OF FREUNDLICH ISOTHERM:
Conclusion:
In the present study, AC showed the greatest affinity
towards nickel with 90 % removal percentage; the
shifts in
IR wave numbers reflected the bondings between AC
and the adsorbed metals as presented by Freundlich
isotherm.
Silica/AC (2:3) composite showed the greatest removal
percentage for 30 & 200 ppm nickel. SEM images
revealed
that AC was a microparticle with an average size of 25
μm, while silica were nanoparticles having an average
size
of 12 nm. Silica/AC (2:3) composite was the most
effective microparticle for nickel removal and it is
highly
recommended to be used in water treatment for its
high adsorptive capacity followed by AC and silica
nanoparticles