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Fluid & Electrolytes

HYPO HYPER
(135-145) Causes S&S Causes S&S

Na
A - Adrenal Tachycardia D - Fluid Normo/↓ HR
insufficiency Normo/↓/↑ BP deprivation Normo/↓/↑ BP
I - Intoxication of I - IV hypertonic
Headache Irregular HR
water solution excess
D - Diuretics Personality change V - Vitamins BS
Salt S - SIADH Weakness “Sodium” Thirst
Soy sauce Hyperactive BS supplement Restlessness
Seizures A - Amount of Na
Pork Dyspnea
intake excess
Cott/amer Muscle weakness
Cheese D - Diet, cheese, milk, soy sauce, salt, M - Monitor sodium intake/ Labs
Spinach bacon, beef broth A - Alka-Seltzer, aspirin , and cough preps
R - Restrict fluids and NPO shouldn’t be administered
Pickles
G - gravity of urine monitoring
W - Weights daily I - I&O
A - Administer Iv hypertonic solutions C - Cardiac monitoring
I-I&O
T -Thiazide diuretics
(3.5-5.0) G - GI loss (Vomiting) Tachydysrhythmias M- medications Ace, Bradydysrhythmias
O – Osmotic Diuresis spironolactone, NSAIDS
Ortho hypotension Tall “T” waves on

K
T – Thiazides and Loop A- Acidosis: metabolic and
diuretics Lethargy/fatigue respiratory EKG
 BS, constipation C- Cell destruction (burn, Cardiac arrest
trauma, Injury)
S – Severe Acid Anorexia H- Hypoaldosteronism BS Diarrhea
Imbalance Muscle weakness I- intake excess K Paresthesias
Avocados H - Hyperaldosteronism N- nephrons/ renal failure
“U” waves on EKG
Raisins O - Other meds such as E- excretion : impaired
Corticosteroids
Cantaloupe
T- Transcellular Shift
Bananas A- Assess EKG and ABG M - Monitor EKG
Skim milk I - IV Potassium Chloride D - Diet, limit green leafy veggies and avocado
Spinach D - Diet: green leafy veggies K - Kayexalate administration
***NEVER IV PUSH*** I - IV sodium Bicarb, Calcium Gluconate,
D - Dialysis
(9-11) A - Antibiotics Hypotension H- Dysrhythmias
C - Corticosteroids Hyperparathyroidism
Bradycardia Pallor

Ca
I - Insulin A - Antacids
D - Diuretics Tetany muscle spasm M - Malignancies HTN
Laryngospasm/stridor cancer cells release  LOC Disorientation
 DTR,  BS diarrhea excess ca+  DTR
+ Trousseau sign  BS, constipation
Yogurt
+ Chvostek sign
Cheese/milk D - Diuretics F - sodium containing fluids
Sardines I - I&O I - IV phosphate
C - Calcium channel blockers /Calcium Gluconate L - Lasix
Rhubarb M - Monitor Labs and I&O
HYPO: seizures, tetany, anorexia, HYPO: muscle pain & weakness, bone
(1.3-2.1) tachycardia, HTN, mood changes (2.5-4.5) pain, confusion

Mg
HYPER:  DTR, N/V, bradycardia, HYPER: circomoral & peripheral

Ph
hypotension, coma parenthesis, muscle spasms, tetany
FOODS: spinach, avocado, tuna, oatmeal FOODS: tuna, beef liver, pork, milk and
and milk yogurt.