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A Psychomechanical Study of Rolling Sounds

Christophe N.J. Stoelinga

The work described in this thesis has been carried out under the auspices of the J. F. Schouten School for User-System Interaction Research.

Cover design: R.-P. Kruizinga

CIP-DATA LIBRARY TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITEIT EINDHOVEN

Stoelinga, Christophe N.J.

A psychomechanical study of rolling sounds / by Christophe Norbert Jos Stoelinga. - Eindhoven : Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2007. – Proefschrift. - ISBN 978-90-386-0914-0 NUR 927 Keywords: Acoustics / Psychomechanics / Rolling sounds / Psychophysics / Bouncing balls / Numerical modeling

A Psychomechanical Study of Rolling Sounds

PROEFSCHRIFT

ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, op gezag van de Rector Magnificus, prof.dr.ir. C.J. van Duijn, voor een commissie aangewezen door het College voor Promoties in het openbaar te verdedigen op dinsdag 3 april 2007 om 16.00 uur

door

Christophe Norbert Jos Stoelinga

geboren te Eindhoven

Dit proefschrift is goedgekeurd door de promotoren:

prof.Dr. A.G. Kohlrausch en prof.dr. A. Chaigne

Copromotor:

dr. D.J. Hermes

Acknowledgements

Writing a thesis is a long process in which one can use some support from many sources. The unpredictability of results might be one of the principal reasons to choose a future in research, at some point it seems to be impossible to align these results to tell a logical story that fits in a thesis. It is like inverse spaghetti cooking:

when the results are hot, they are a mess but once they are cold, they should be tightly organized in a package. This process was only successful due to my supervisors, Dik Hermes and Armin Kohlrausch, who always kept overview and helped me sometimes at the cost of their free time. They were not afraid to look a little beyond the scope of their own expertise. Special thanks go to Antoine Chaigne for receiving me at ENSTA. Without the stay at his lab, this work could not have been the interdisci- plinary work which it is now. I am grateful to French embassy in The Netherlands who made this visit possible with a grant. Not listed as my formal supervisors, but very helpful on many occasions was Mico Hirschberg. I was able to share, my own expertise, with some undergraduate students who often, in fact, turned out to be also very helpful to me. Especially Bert Peeters and Koen Steegs, who can find some of their results in this thesis (see references in the footmarks of the chapter titles). The proof that even random processes can result in most preferable results was given by my roommates, who always turned out to be most pleasurable company. Sequentially they were Maxim Scram, Nicolas Quagebeur and Wouter van den Hoogen. Last but not least I want to thank my parents, and two sisters, Mariëlle and Josine, for providing me a pleasurable youth and my first experiences with rolling and bouncing balls.

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vi

Contents

Contents

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v

  • 1. General Introduction

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1

  • 1.1 Motivation

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1

  • 1.2 Everyday sounds

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3

  • 1.3 Information in sound

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5

  • 1.4 Psychomechanics

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Acoustics

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6

  • 1.6 .

Measurement

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  • 1.8 . . . . . . .

Literature

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  • 1.9 Goals and main contributions of this thesis

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1.10 Outline

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15

  • 2. Bouncing of a Ball on a Plate: A Model and Measurements Based Upon

 

the Mechanical Driving-Point Impedance of the Plate

 

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17

  • 2.1 Introduction

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  • 2.2 Theoretical analysis

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20

Measurements

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24

  • 2.4 Discussion and conclusion

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30

  • 3. The Bouncing of Balls: Influences of Spectral and Temporal Variations

 

on Perception

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35

Introduction

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  • 3.2 Mechanical analysis

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36

  • 3.3 General methods .

 

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38

  • 3.4 .

Experiment 1

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42

Experiment 2

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44

  • 3.6 Discussion and conclusion

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48

vii

viii

Contents

  • 4. Temporal Aspects of Rolling Sounds: A Smooth Ball Approaching the

Edge of a Plate

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49

4.1

Introduction

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49

4.2

Measurement setup

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51

4.3

Acoustical analysis

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52

4.4

Reflections

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54

4.5

Wave velocity

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58

4.6

Comb-filter model for reflections at the edge

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60

4.7

Synthesis

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65

4.8

Repetition pitch of echoed noise

 

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4.9

Discussion

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67

  • 5. Influence of Wave Reflections at the Plate Edge on Perceiving the Rolling

 

Direction of a Rolling Ball

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69

5.1

Introduction

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69

5.2

Experiment

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71

5.3

Synthesis .

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71

5.4

Method

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73

5.5

Stimuli

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73

5.6

Results

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5.7

Control experiment

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75

5.8

Results . .

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76

5.9

Discussion

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76

  • 6. Time-domain Modeling and Simulation of Rolling Objects

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79

6.1

Introduction

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80

6.2

Single impact on a damped plate

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6.3

Adaptation of the model for moving sources

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85

6.4

Simulations

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92

6.5

Comparison between measured and simulated plate acceleration

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100

6.6

Conclusion

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106

6.A

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109

Numerical scheme Constant moving force

6.B

. 6.C A simple non-linear system

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110

112

  • 7. Using Psychometric Functions to Determine the Auditory Capability to Perceive the Size and Speed of a Rolling Ball

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121

7.1

Introduction

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122

Contents

ix

7.2

Experiment 1: Paired comparisons

 

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126

7.3

Comparison with other studies

 

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132

7.4

7.5

Experiment 2: Absolute magnitude estimation

Discussion

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137

145

7.A

. Psychological scales

 

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151

  • 8. Using Multidimensional Scaling to Determine Distances in the Percep-

 

tual Space of Rolling Sounds

 

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155

8.1

Introduction

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156

8.2

Stimuli

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158

8.3

Method

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159

8.4

Results

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159

8.5

8.A

Discussion

. Transformation of the MDS space

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165

168

Discussion

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171

9.1

Introduction

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171

9.2

Psychomechanic research scheme

 

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174

Bibliography

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183

Summary . . .

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