IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. AP30, NO.
3, h4AY 1982 409
Electromagnetic Scattering by Surfaces of Arbitrary Shape
SADASIVA M. RAO, DONALD R. WILTON, SENIOR M E t m E R , IEEE, AND ALLEN w. GLISSON, MEMBER,IEEE
AbstractThe electric field integral equation (EFIE) is used with However, the approach is not well suited for calculating near.
the momentmethod to developasimpleandefficientnumerical field and surface quantities such as surface current and input
procedure for treating problems of scattering by arbitrarily shaped impedance.Some of theproblemsencounteredincludethe
objects. For numerical purposes, the objects are modeled using planar presence of fictitious loop currents in the solution, illcondi
triangular surfaces patches. Because the EFIE formulation is used, tioned moment matrices and incorrect currents at the cavity
the procedure is applicable to both openand closed surfaces. Crucial resonant frequencies of the scatterer[ 2 ] , and difficulties in in
to the numerical formulation is the development of a set of special
terpreting computed wire currents and relating them to equiv
subdomaintype basis functions which are defined on pairs of adjacent
alent surface currents. The accuracy of wiregrid modeling has
triangular patches and yield a current representation free of line or
point charges at subdomain boundaries. The method is applied to the also been questioned on theoretical grounds [ 31. Most of these
scattering problems of a plane wave illuminated flat square plate, bent difficulties can be either wholly or partially overcome by sur
squareplate,circulardisk, and sphere.Excellentcorrespondence face patch approaches, however, which account for much of
between the surface current computed via the present method and the recent activity in this area.
that
obtained via earlier
approaches or exactformulations is Several approaches to surface patch modeling have been re
demonstrated in each case. ported in the literature. Knepp and Goldhirsh [ 4 ] partitioned
aconductingsurfaceintononplanarquadrilateralpatchesand ,
I. INTRODUCTION employed the magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) to solve
theelectromagneticscatteringproblem.Albertsen et al. [5]
E NGINEERS AND researchers in electromagnetics have been
quick to take advantage of the expanding capabilities of
digital computers over the past two decades by developing ef
solvedforthecurrentandcomputedradiationpatternsfor
satellitestructureswithattachedwireantennas,booms,and
solarpanels.Theyemployedahybridformulationinwhich
fectivenumericaltechniquesapplicabletoawidevariety of the MFIE, with planar quadrilateral surface patches, was used
practicalelectromagneticradiationandscatteringproblems. to model the satellite, and the electric field integral equation
As newcomputerdevelopmentsdramaticallyincreasecom (EFIE) was used to treat the wire antennas.Theirapproach
putational capabilities, however, it becomes less cost effective also forms the basis for the arbitrary surface treatment of the
t o develophighlyefficientbutspecializedcodesfortreating widely used numerical electromagnetic code (NEC) developed
certain classes ofgeometriesthantouselessefficientbut at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory [ 61. Wang e t a/. [ 71
existing general purpose codes that can handle a wide variety usedanEFIEformulationandmodeledrelativelycomplex
of problems. For these reasons there has been a growing in surfaces by means of planar rectangular patches. Newman and
terest in theuseanddevelopmentofcomputercodesfor Pozar [ 8 ] extendedtheuseofthewellknownpiecewise
treating scattering by arbitrarily shaped conducting bodies. sinusoidal basis functions of thinwire theory to the treatment
Todate,themostnotableapproachesfortreatingsuch of surfacesintheirEFIEformulationforsurfaceswithat
problemshaveusedintegralequationformulationsincon tached wires. Sankar and Tong [ 91 employed planar triangular
junction with the method of moments. The body surface in patches to model a square plate and pointed out the possibility
these approaches is generally modeled either as a wire mesh of extending their approach to arbitrary bodies. Their formu
the socalled wiregrid modelor as a surface partitioned into lation,based on avariationalformulaforthecurrentmade
smoothorpiecewisesmoothpatchesthe socalled surface stationary with respect t o a set of trial functions, is equivalent
patch model. t o aGalerkinsolution of theEFIE. Wang [ l o ] , [ 1 1 ] em
The wiregrid modeling approach has been remarkably suc ployed planar triangular patches in conjunction with the MFIE,
cessful in treatingmanyproblems,particularly in thosere but used basis functions containing the phase variation of the
quiring the prediction of farfield quantities such as radiation incident field in each patch, which unfortunately yield a mo
patternsandradarcrosssections [ 1 1. Notonly is the con ment matrix dependent on the incident field. Jeng and Wexler
nectivity of a wiregrid model easily specified for computer in [ 121suggestedusingtheMFIEandnonplanartriangles to
put, but the approach also has the advantage that all numerically modelarbitrarysurfaces, whileSingh andAdams [ 131 pro
computed integrals in the moment matrix are one dimensional. posedtheuse of planarquadrilateralpatchesandsinusoidal
basis functions in conjunction with the EFIE for the same pur
Manuscriptreceived May 28,1980; revisedAugust 6,1981.This pose.
work was supportedby theRome AirDevelopment Center, Griffiss In arbitrary surface modeling the EFIE has the advantage of
AFB, NY, under Contract No. F3060278C0148. being applicable to both open and closed bodies, whereas the
S. hi. Rao waswithSyracuseUniversity,Syracuse, NY, on leave
from the Department of Electrical Engineering, Universityof Mississippi, MFIE applies only to closed surfaces. On the other hand, for
University, MS 38677.Heis now with the Department ofElectrical arbitrarily shaped objects the EFIE is considerably more diffi
Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623. cult to apply than the MFIE. In fact, of the above authors,
D. R. Wilton was with Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, on leave only Wang et al. and Newman and Pozar have actually applied
from the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Mississippi, the EFIE to nonplanar structuresand the use of rectangular
University: MS 38677.
A. W. Glisson is with the Department of Electrical Engineering,Uni patcheslimitstheirapproachestostructureswithcurvature
versity of Mississippi, .University, MS38677. in one dimension only.
001 8926X/82/0500O409$00.75 O 1982 IEEE
410 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. AP30, NO. 3, MAY 1982
Thedifficuliteswiththe EFIE stemprimarilyfromthe ,HANDLE
presence of derivatives appearing in conjunction with a singu
lar kernel in the integral equation. For example, if the vector
basisfunctionswhichrepresentthesurfacecurrentarenot
constructed so that their normal components are continuous
acrosssurfaceedges,thenthecontinuityequationdemands
the presence of line or point charges at such edges. These fic VERTEX
titious charges, when present, usually cause anomalies or in
consistenciesinthesolution.Althoughtheapproachesof
Wang et al. and Newman and Pozar are free of these difficulties,
their use of rectangular patches, with their consequent limita
tion to surfaces with curvature in one dimension only, is too
restrictive for many applications. Bowmy
For modeling arbitrarily shaped surfaces, planar triangular CUAVE
patch models, an example of which is shown in Fig. 1, are par Fig. 1. Arbitrary surface modeled by triangular patches.
ticularlyappropriate.Someoftheadvantages of triangular
patch surface modeling have been noted by Sankar and Tong E” can be computed from the surface current by
[ 9 I , as well as by Wang [ IO], and are similar to those of wire
grid modeling. For example, triingular patches are capable of
accurately conforming to any geometrical surface or boundary,
ES =  j o A  Q@
the patch scheme is easily specified for computer input, and a with the magnetic vector potential definedas
varying patch density can be used according to the resolution
required in the surface geometry or current. Although planar
quadrilateral(nonrectangular)patchessharesome of these
features, it is difficult to construct basis functions defined on
them which are free of line charges. Furthermore, the vertices
of planar quadrilaterals cannot be independently specifieda
A(r) = 
:4 IJ  dS
and the scalar potentialas
restriction that is a severe inconvenienceto the modeler.
In this paper, a numerical solution of the problem of scat @(r)=2 o ,  i n R dS’. (3)
tering by either open or closed arbitrarily shaped conducting 4 7 ~s~ R
bodies is presented. The approach combines the advantages of
triangular patch modeling and the EFIE formulation, and re A harmonic time dependence exp(jwt) is assumedand sup
sults in an algorithm whichis both simple and efficient. Crucial pressed, and k = L& = 2 7 ~ f i ,where X is the wavelength.
to the approach is the development of special basis functions The permeability and permittivity of the surrounding medium
defined on triangular patches which are free of fictitious line are p and E , respectively, and R = I r  r’ I is the distance be
orpointchargesandwhichareanalogoustothesocalled tween an arbitrarily located observation point r and a source
“rooftop” functions used in rectangular patch models [ 141. point on S. Both r and are defined with respect to a global
In the following section the EFIE formulation is presented, coordinate origin 0. The surface charge density u is related to
the special set of basis functions is developed, and the method the surface divergence ofJ through the equationof continuity,
of moments [ 151 is applied to obtain a linear system of equa
tions for the surface current. In Section 111, numerical results Q , J = jwu. (4)
arepresentedforscattering by a flat squareplate,abent
squareplate,acirculardisk,and a sphere.Section IV sum We derive an integrodifferential equation for J by enforcing
marizes the contents of the paper. +
the boundary condition h X (E’ E,) = 0 on S , obtaining
11. ELECTRIC FIELD FORMULATION Etani = (joA V@)tan, r on S. (5)
In this section an integral equation for the surface current Equation (S), with (2)(4), constitutes the socalled electric
induced on a conducting scatterer is derived from boundary field integral equation. One notes that the presence of deriva
conditions on the electric field. To solve the integral equation tives on the current in (4) and on the scalar potential in (5)
by the method of moments, a set of expansion functions and a suggeststhatcareshould be takeninselectingtheexpan
testing procedure are developed and usedt o derive the elements sionfunctionsandtestingprocedureinthemethodofmo
of the moment matrix. Finally, the numerical computation of ments.
the moment matrix elementsis discussed.
Development of Basis Functions
Electric Field Integral Equation In this section we discuss a setof basis functions introduced
Let S denote the surface of an open or closed perfectly,con by Glisson [ 161 which is suitable for use with the EFIE and
ducting scatterer with unit normal ii. An electric field E‘, de triangular patch modeling. We assume that a suitable triangula
fined to be the field due to an impressed source in the absence tion, defined in terms of an appropriate set of faces,edges,
of the scatterer, is incident on and induces surface currents J vertices, and boundary edges, as illustrated in Fig. 1, has been
on S. If S is open, we regard J as the vector sum of the surface found to approximate S. (Moredetailedconsiderationscon
currents on opposite sides of S ; hence the normal component cerning the mathematical representation and topological prop
of J must vanish on boundaries of S . The scattered electric field erties of triangular patch models may be found in[ 171 .)
RAO e t al.: ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 41 1
Fig. 2. Trianglepairandgeometricalparametersassociatedwithin
terior edge. 2 A'
2 
4
7
It is convenient to start our development by noting that Fig. 3. Geometry for construction of component of basis function
each basis function is t o be associated with an interior edge normal to edge.
(Le., nonboundary edge (cf Fig. 1)) of the patch model and is
to vanish everywhere on S except in the two triangles attached with the aid of Fig. 3, which shows thatthe normal com
to that edge. Fig. 2 shows two such triangles, Tn+ and T,, ponent of p,' along edge n is just the height of triangle
corresponding to the nth edge of a triangulated surface model T,' with edge n as the base and the height expressed as
ing a scatterer. Points in T,+ may be designated either by the ( 2 A n ' ) / l n . This latter factor normalizes f, in ( 6 ) such
position vector r defined with respect t o 0, or by the position that its flux density normal to edge n is unity, ensuring
vector p n + definedwithrespect tothefreevertexof Tn+. continuity of current normal to the edge. Thisresult,
Similar remarks applyto the position vectorp n  except that it together with l), implies that all edges of T,' and Tn
is directed toward the free vertex of T,. The plus or minus are free of line charges.
designation of t h e triangles is determined by the choice of a 3) The surface divergence of f,, which is proportional to
positive current reference direction for the nth edge, the ref the surface charge density associated with the basis ele
erence for which is assumed t o be from T,+ to T,.' We de ment, is
fine the vectorbasis function associated with the nth edgeas
t
(6)
otherwise,
since the surface divergence in T,' is (+1 /p,')a(pRtfn)/
whereZ, is the length of the edge and A,' is the area of triangle d p n f . Thechargedensity is thus constant in eachtri
Tn'. (Note that we use the convention, followed throughout angle, the total charge associated with the triangle pair
the paper, that subscripts refer to edges while superscripts re T,' and T, is zero,andthe basis functionsforthe
fer to faces.) The basis function f, is used to approximately charge evidently have the formof pulse doublets [ 141.

representthesurfacecurrent,and we listanddiscussbelow 4) The moment off,] is given by (A,' f A , )fnavg where
some properties which make it uniquely suited to this role.
1) The current has no component normal to the boundary
(which excludes the common edge) of the surface formed
(A,]+ + An)fnavg = fn dS
T,++T,
bythetrianglepair Tn+ and T ,  , andhence no line
charges exist along this boundary.
2) The component of current normal to the nth edgeis con
stantandcontinuousacrosstheedgeasmaybeseen
1 For orientable surfaces, the current reference direction may be ob
tainedfrom theconnection matrix used to describe the triangulation
scheme. This matrix merelylists the vertices linked by each edge, the and pnC' is the vector between the free vertex and the
order of appearance of the vertices for each edge effectively assigning centroid of T,' with p n C  directedtowardand pnC+
an orientation to the edge. The direction of the cross product of this
edge orientation vector with the surfacenormalineach adjacent tri directed away from the vertex, as shown inFig. 2, and
angle may be taken as the positive current reference direction in that r," is the vector from 0 to the centroid of T,'. Equa
triangle for the basis function associated with the edge. tion (8) maybemost easily derivedbyexpressing the
412 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNASAND PROPAGATION, VOL. AP30, NO. 3, MAY 1982
integralinterms of areacoordinates,tobediscussed
below.
The current onS may be approximated in termsof the f, as
’ \I
J = I,f,(r) (9)
n= 1
where N is the number of interior (nonboundary)edges. Since
a basis function is associated with each nonboundary edge of
thetriangulatedstructure,uptothree basis functionsmay
have nonzero values within each triangular face. But at a given
edge only the basis function associated with that edge has a
current component normal to the edge since, according to l),
all otherbasis currents in adjacent faces are parallel to the edge.
Furthermore,sincethenormalcomponentof f, at the nth
edge is unity, each coefficient Z, in ( 9 ) may be interpreted as
the normal component o f current density flowing past the nth
edge. Also, we see that the basis functions are independent in
each triangle since the current normal t o t h e n t h edge, I , in
(9), is an independent quantity. At surface boundary edges, Fig. 4 . Local coordinates and edges for source triangle T4 with obser
thesumofthenormalcomponents of currentonopposite vation point in triangle TP.
sides of thesurfacecancelbecause of currentcontinuity.
Therefore we neither define nor include in (9) contributions be rewritten as
from basis functions associated with such edges.
Because of the considerable variation in the direction of the
flow lines of f, within a triangle, it is not at first obvious that
a linear superposition of basis functions is capable of repre
senting, say, a constant current flowing in an arbitrary direc
With ( 7 ) , the integral in ( 1 2) may now be written and approxi
tion within a triangle. That this is possible,however,canbe mated as follows:
seen with the aid of Fig. 4, whichshowsatriangle p with
edges arbitrarily labeled 1 , 2, and 3 (in effect, we employ here
a “local indexing scheme,” in contrast to the “global indexing
scheme”usedearlier).Withthevectors p , , p 2 , and p 3 as
shown, the basis functions in T4 are fi = (Ii/2Aq)pi, i = 1, 2,
3, where A q is the triangle area and where, for simplicity, the
current reference directions are assumed to be out of the tri
angleforeachedge.It is apparentfromthefigureandthe
definition of f i that the linear combinations Z2fl  l l f 2 and
13f,  I i f 3 are constant vectors for every point r in 74 and are
parallel t o sides 3 and 2, respectively. Since the two composite In (1 3) the average of over each triangle is approximated by
formsarelinearlyindependent(i.e.,nonparallel),aconstant the value of @ at the triangle centroid. With similar approxima
vector of arbitrary magnitude and direction within 79 may be tions, the vector potential and incident field terms in (1 1) may
synthesized by an appropriate linear combination of the two
be written as
forms, as asserted.
Testing Procedure
The next step in the method of moments is to select a test
ing procedure. We choose as testing functions the expansion
functions f, developedin theprevioussection.Withasym
metric product defined as
(f, g> E
I f g dS, (1 0 )
(5) is tested with f,E, yielding
(E’, fm)= io(A,f,, + (V@, f,). ( 1 1)
If one makes use of a surface vector calculus identity[ 181 and
the properties offm at the edges of S, the last term in (11 ) can
RAO e t al.: ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING
integral
where
the
triangle
each
over
mating E' (or A) ineachtriangle
is eliminated
approxi
by
by itsvalueatthetriangle V, = I, ( E r n +  Pm

2
C+
+ E, %)
.
centroid and carrying out integrations similar to those used to
obtain (8). With (12)( 14), ( 1 1 ) now becomes
where
Pm
2
C+
+ A(rmC) pmcl

2
L J
which is the equation enforced at each triangle edge, rn = 1, 2,
' 0 . ) N. and
We remark that another interpretation of the testing pro
cedure arriving at ( 1 5) is also possible. One may equate line in ',E = Ei(r,n ").
tegrals of the form Jc,F.dr, where F represents the right and
For plane wave incidence, we set
left sides of (5), and C, is the piecewise linear path from the
point rmC+to the midpoint of edge m and thence to rmC. E'
and A can be approximated along each portion of the path by
their respective values at the triangle centroids. The resulting
where the propagation vectork is
equality, apart from the factor I,, is (1 5 ) . Under either inter
pretation,thetestingprocedurereducesthedifferentiability
requirement on @ in (5) by integrating V@ first, the procedure
having been constructed with this goal in mind. The purpose
of approximations (1 3) and (14) is to eliminate surface inte
grals of the potential quantities, allowing a double surface in and , (i, io)
defines the angle of arrival of the plane wave in
tegral t o be approximated by a quantity involving a single sur terms of the usual spherical coordinate convention. Unit vec
face integral in the numerical computationof the moment ma tors B o and @o are constant vectors which coincide with the
trix elements. These approximations are justified by observing usual spherical coordinate unit vectors only at points on the
that the potentials are locally smooth within each subdomain, line from 0 in the direction of k.
as follows from their integral definitions and the locally smooth Once the elements of the moment matrix and the forcing
nature of the source representation in terms of the basis func vector V are determined, one may solve the resulting system
tions [ 141 .* w of linear equations (16) for the unknown column vector I.
The elements of Z in ( 1 6) may be evaluated by naively com
Matris Equation Derivation
puting Z,nn directly by (17) (with aid of (19) and (20)) for
Substitution of the current expansion (9) into (1 5) yields each index combination m and n. However, as shown in the
an A' X h7 system of linear equations which may be written in next section, this procedure is extremely inefficient since the
matrix form as integrals required for each combinationof m and n are generally
required for a number of other combinations as well.
ZI= v (1 6 )
where Z = [Z,,] is an N X N matrix and I = [Z, ] and V = Efficient Kurnerical Evaluation o f Matrix Elements
[ V,] are column vectors of length 117. Elements of Z and V
are given by Evaluationofeachmatrixelement Z,, associatedwith
edges rn and n involves integrationsovertriangles Tn' with
observation points located at the centroids of triangles T,'.
One is easily convincedthatsome of thesameintegrals re
quiredforanelement Z,, arealsoneeded to computean
element Z,,, r # nz, s # n , if edge r happens to be an edge of
T,,' or T ,  while edge s is an edge of T,+ or T ,  . Indeed,
if one focuses attention on a single pair of faces rather than
on a pair of edges, one observes that the integrals evaluated for
2 Note that it' the approximations(13) and (14) had not been made,
a source face with scalar and vector potentials observed at the
the procedure leading to (15) wsouldhave been identical to Galerkin's
method since the basis and testing functions chosen are identical [ 1 5 ] . centroid of another face are involved in all the elements Z , ,
For the EFIE, the matrixwould then satisfy the symmetryproperty having edges n as (nonboundary) edges of the source triangle
Z,n, = Z n m , but thisdesirablepropertyislost duetothe approxi andedges m as the (nonboundary) edges of the observation
mat~onsmade. SinceZ,n, andZ,, are different approximations to the triangle. Thus, the total number of matrix elements requiring
same quantity, however, then their averagealsoapproximates the
quantity. andonetemptingpossibilityis to average Z with its trans evaluation of the same potential integrals can be as large as
pose, thus restoring the symmetry property to the moment matrix. nine. Clearly then, it is far more efficient to compute the re
This approach, however, hasnot to date been tested. quiredpotentialintegrals by facepaircombinations,rather
414 IEEE TRANSACTIONS
ANTENNAS
ON AND PROPAGATION, VOL. AP30, NO. 3, MAY 1982
than directly compute single elements of Z by edgepair com beshownthatsurfaceintegralsovertransformasfollows:
binations. For each facepair combination, the potential inte
grals may be multiplied by the appropriate coefficients (cf (1 7))
andtheircontributionsaccumulatedintheappropriate
ments of Z as they are computed.
ele lq dS = 2Aq i l  q g [ t r l + 77r2
In accordance with the above discussion, consider the eval
uation of the vector and scalar potential integrals for a given
sourceandobservationfacecombination. Fig. 4illustrates
such a face pair with an observation point in face p and with
source currents residing in face 4 . Each of the three basis func
tionswhichmayexistsimultaneouslyin is proportionalto
one of the vectors p l , p 2 , or p 3 defined in the figure. Each
vector pi, i = 1, 2, 3, is shown directed away from its associated
vertex in the figure, but would be directed toward the vertex if
and
the current reference direction for the associated edge were
into the triangle. Consequently,
where the positive sign is used if the positive current reference where
direction is outofandthenegative signisused otherwise.
. We wish t o evaluate the magnetic vector potential,
(344
and the electric scalar potential,
associated with the ith basis function on face q observed at
the centroid of facep . In (25) and (26), Thus only three independent integrals, (34a)(34c), must be
numericallyevaluatedforeachcombinationoffacepairs p
and q . The three integrals, in turn, contribute t o u p to nine
elements of Z in (16). For a closed object with N edges t h e
where rcp is the position vector of the centroid of face p. number of independent integrals computed is 4N2/3. By con
Integrals (25) and (26) are most conveniently evaluated b y trast, the edgebyedge approach would require the evaluation
transforming from the global coordinate system to a local sys of 1 2 ~ integrals7 ~ or nine times as many. Numerical eva1u.ation
tem of coordinates defined within F.To define these coor of the integrals (34a)(34c) may be accomplished by using nu
dinates,notethatthevectors p i in Fig. 4divideintothree merical quadrature techniques specially developed for triangu
subtriangles of areas A A 2 , and A 3 , with I , , 1 2 , and 1 3 , re lar domains [ 201. However, for the terms in which p = 4 the
spectively, as one of theirsides. The areas are not independent, integrands are singular, and for these cases the singular portion
however, since they must satisfy A + A 2 + A = A'. We now of each integrand must be removed and integrated analytically
introduce the socalled normalized area coordinates [ 191 1171.
E=, A I l?=2,
A <=,
'43
111. NUMERICAL RESULTS
A4 A4 In this section numerical results are presented for surface
currentdistributionsinducedonselectedscatterersunder
which, because of the area constraint, must satisfy plane wave illumination. Although one radar crosssection ex
ample is given, emphasis in the examples is on the calculation
E+??+<= 1. (2% of currentdistributions,notonlybecause of theirpractical
value in problems such as electromagnetic compatibility and
Note that all three coordinates vary between zero and unity in nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) penetration, but also be
F and that at the triangle corners r l , r2, and r3, the triplet cause we believe that the calculation of accurate surface cur
r)
( E , 71, takes on the values (1, 0, O ) , (0, 1, O ) , and (0, 0, l ) , rents is a much more stringent test of a numerical approach
respectively. The transformation from Cartesian to normalized than is ultimate calculation of farfield quantities. The geom
area coordinates may be written in vector form as etries considered are a conducting square plate, a bent plate, a
circulardisk,andasphere.Theplateanddiskproblems in
r' = trl + 77r2 + <r3, (30) volve open surfaces and therefore are a test of the EFIE ap
proach when edges are present. The disk also serves as an ex
where t , 77, and care subject to the constraint (29). It can
easily ample of a structure with a curved boundary, while the sphere
RAO e t al.: ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 415
exemplifiesbothaclosedsurfaceandadoublycurvedsur 3.0
I I
face. Both problems are examples of surfaces not amenable to 90 RECTANGULAR PATCHES (GLISSON)
rectangular patch modeling. A summary of the computational 00 60 TRIANGULAR PATCHES
resourcesrequiredtocalculateresultsforseveraloftheex
amples is given at the end of the section. I\
Flat Plate
Figs. 5 and 6 show the dominant component current dis
tributions along the two principal cuts on a square plate il
luminatedbyanormallyincidentplane wave. For compari
son, the solution of Glisson [ 161, obtained using rectangular
patches, is also given. The number of patches listed in the fig I / CUT AT BB~\ I
ures refers to the number of charge patches in the earlier solu
tion of Glisson and to the number of triangles (also equal to
the number of charge patches) in the present solution. Note
0.0 0.1 5
that these quantities play similar roles in the two approaches.
No comparison of the convergence rate of the two approaches
Fig. 5. Distribution of dominant component of current on 0.15
should be inferred from the figures since both solutions are square flat plate.
alreadywellconvergedforthenumberofunknownsused.
Note also that the density of data points appearing in the fig
ures for the triangular patch solution is not truly indicative of
the linear density of the subdomains. Thisis because, in effect,
we show data points only for every other edge, i.e., only for
thoseedgeswherethecurrentreferencedirectionvector is
parallel to the current component wewish to observe.
Fig. 5 shows the current induced on a plate 0.15 h on each
side. At this low frequency the current distribution is largely
determined by the edge conditions and hence this case pro
vides a good test of the technique's capacity for handling sur
face edges. We note the absence of any anomalies in the com
puteddistributionneartheplateedges.Theelimination of
such anomalies is attributed to the use ofbasis functions in
which the expansion coefficients are not associated with cur 0.0
.. 0.5 1.0
.
rent components parallel to plate edges and to a testing pro x/X , Y/X
cedure in which potentials are not evaluated at edges [ 141. Fig. 6. Distribution of dominant component of current on 1.0 h
Fig. 6 shows corresponding results for a 1.0 h square plate. square flat plate.
From the figure, one observes that the edge behavior of the
current distribution is confined t o a relatively smaller region
near the edges than for the 0.15 h plate and that the current
on the interior portion of the plate has begun to exhibit the
physicalopticsplusstanding wave distributioncharacteristic 10.0 
of the higher frequencies. Also shown for comparison are the
corresponding results reported in [ 2 1 ] . 3 Note that because of
the placement of subdomains, the component of current nor
mal to the plate edge in the solution
maturely in the subdomain nearest the edge.
of [ 21 I vanishespre
1.0 
Fig. 7 compares the calculated radar cross section (RCS) AKOUYOWAN(MEASURED1
X RLWMATSAMI and MITTRA
with the thin plate measurements of Kouyoumjian [22] and
u/x'
thecomputations ofRahmatSamiiandMittra [23] fora
square plate. In the latter case, we suspect that the premature 0.1  
EMPIRICAL FORMULA
72 TRIANGULAR PATCHES
'm
vanishing of the current near the plate edge causes the under
estimation in the RCS observedinthefigureforlowerfre
quencies.Kouyoumjianhasalsocomputedthe RCS froma EINC
variational formula and we find no discernable difference
tween his computations and our results for square plates whose
be
0.01  f 
sides are smaller than 0.4 X, the range for which his formula
should be most accurate. Also shown in Fig. 7 is a plot of the J
I
I
0.001 I 1 I I 1 I
3 The data reported in [21] is actually for the electric field in
square aperture in a ground plane but has been converted to an equiv
a 0 0.2 0.4
cq6ix 0.8 1.0 1.2
alent electric current on a square conducting plate via the duality of the Fig. 7. Monostatic radar cross section versus frequency for square plate,
plate and aperture problems. normal incidence. Measurements arefor plate of thickness 0.0001 27 h.
416 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION,VOL. AP30, NO. 3, MAY 1982
RCS for a square plate given by an empirical formula derived
from measurements [ 241.
While there is generally very good agreement between the
various results reported in Figs. 6 and 7, we have not been able 6.0
I I
to obtain a favorable comparison with the corresponding cur  96 RECTANGULAR PATCHES (GLISSON)
rentdistributionandRCScalculationsof Wang et al. [ 7 ] . 5.0 00 7 2 TRIANGULAR PATCHES
There are several reasons to suspect their calculations. First,
they employ a set of
causespuriousoscillations
basis functionswhichwouldgenerally
in thecurrentdistributionalong
4.0 I!.
the direction of current flow, and which would hence be ex
pected to adversely affect the solution for the current distribu
tion and, ultimately, the RCS. Secondly, their model ignores
the presence of crosspolarized components of surface current
on the plate. Finally, in the RCS case, the excellent agreement
whichtheyobtainbetweencomputedandmeasuredradar
cross section is unfortunately based on a comparison to the
thick plate rather than the thin plate measurements of Kou
youmjian [ 221 for which their theory more appropriately ap
plies and which we have shown inFig. 7.
Fig. 8. Distribution of dominant component of current on 1.0 h bent
Bent Plate square plate.
Fig. 8 shows the dominant component current distribution
along a cut through the symmetry plane of a bent square plate.
The bend is parallel to and located a distance of onethird the
plate width from one edge, and a plane wave with the electric
field polarized parallel to the bend is incident normal to the
larger section of the bent plate. The smaller plate section is
I  QUASISTATIC
El El El 56 TRIANGULAR PATCHES
I
bent through an angle of SO" toward the shadow side of the
plate. Other frequencies, polarizations, and angles of incidence
0.8
havebeenexamined,andtheresultingcurrentdistributions
show good correspondence with those of Glisson [ 161.
Circular Disk
Fig. 9 shows the computed current distribution on a circu 0.41
lar disk illuminatedbyanormallyincidentplane wave. The
component J@ is shown along adiameter cut orientedper 0.2
Tx
0.1
pendicular to theincidentelectricfieldvector. Also shown
forcomparison is the quasistaticsolution valid atlowfre I #
1 I
quencies [ 25 1 .  I .o 0.0 I .o
P/"
Sp h ere Fig. 9. Distribution of current on 0.05 h radius circular disk.
Fig. 10 shows the computed current distribution along the
principal cuts on a 0.2 X radius conducting sphere. The cases
of axial and equatorial incidence are both considered in order
t o observe the influence of the triangulation scheme on the
solution. Also shown for comparison is the exact eigenfunc
tion solution. Results for both illuminations are in very good 88 EQUATORIAL INCIDENCE
agreement with the exact solution. 96 TRIANGULAR PATCHES
Although we have not attempted to solve the sphere prob
. lematfrequenciesnearitscavityresonances,weexpectthe
usual difficulties associated with the EFIE formulation at the
internalresonancefrequencies of closedbodies t o arise. To
alleviate the problem, one might make use of the present treat
ment of the EFIE operator in a formulation which combines
it with the MFIE operator in such a way as to eliminate the
singularity
which is present in both
operators
alone [ 261. 0
45 90 0
e (DEGREES1
Computational Aspects
Fig. 10. Distribution of current components on 0.2 h radiuscon
Table I summarizesdataonthenumber of triangular ductinp sphcrc.
patches, number of unknowns, and the computation time re
quired on a Univac 1100/83 computer to generate the results
of Figs, 5, 6, 8, and 10. The timing data for Fig. 6 were not re
RAO e t U L : ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING 417
TABLE I
SUMMARY O F COMPUTATION DATA FOR SELECTED EXAMPLE PROBLEMS
Matrix Matrix of Number Total
Case Number of Number
Boundary ofInversion Fill CPU
(Figure Patches Edges
Time Unknowns
Time Time
Number) 3 f Ivb 2 v T (s) (S) (S)
~ ~ ~~ ~
5 79 60 22 65 20 92
26
6 84 113 127* 57* 195*
8 72 24 96 94 35 139
10 96 0 144 163 118 294
* Estimated from convergence study.
f N = (3Nf Nb)/2.
corded during computation but are estimated from the con thinwire modeling,” in Numerical and Asymprotic Techniques in
vergencestudydiscussedbelow.Thepresentversionofthe Electromagnerics. R. Mittra, Ed.
New York: SpringerVerlag.
1975, ch. 4.
computercodehasnotbeencompletelyoptimizedwith re K . S . H. Lee, L. Marin, and J. P. Castillo, “Limitations ofwire
spect to computation speed, and it should be possible to in gridmodelingof a closed surface,” IEEE Trans.Elecrromagn.
creasethisspeedbyatleastafactoroftwoorthreeby 1) Compat., vol.EMC18, no. 3, pp. 123129,Aug. 1976.
decreasing the order of integration used to calculate the po D.L. Kneppand J. Goldhirsh,“Numericalanalysis of electro
tential integrals when R P in (34) is large compared to source magneticradiationproperties of smoothconductingbodiesof
arbitrary shape,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. AP20.
patchsize,and 2) replacingthematrixinversionprocedure, no. 3, pp. 383388, May 1972.
used primarilyfordiagnosticpurposes, by alinearequation N . C. Albertsen. J. E. Hansen, and N. E. Jensen, ”Computation of
solving procedure. radiation from wire antennas on conducting bodies,” IEEE Trans.
Aconvergencestudyofthecurrentdistributiononthe Antennas Propagat., vol. AP22, no. 2, pp. 20CL206, Mar. 1974.
1.0 h square plate of Fig. 6 was carried out using 18, 32, 50, G. J . Burke and A. J. Poggio, “Numerical Electromagnetic Code
(NEC)  method of moments,“ Naval Ocean Systems Center, San
and 72 patchescorrespondingto21, 40, 65, and 96 un Diego, CA, Tech. Document116. July 1977.
knowns, respectively. It was found that, except for the nearly N. N. Wang, J. H.Richmond, and M . C. Gilreath, “Sinusoidal
singularcomponent of currentnearesttheplateedge,the reaction formulation for radiation and scattering from conducting
computed currents in the sequence of computations differed surfaces,’’ IEEE Trans.AntennasPropagat., vol. AP23, no. 3,
pp. 37L382, May 1975.
fromtheresultsofGlisson (cfFig. 6) by no more than 10 E. H. NewmanandD. M. Pozar,“Electromagneticmodeling of
percent. composite wireand surface geometries,” IEEE Trans.Antennas
Propagat. vol. AP26, no. 6, pp. 784789, Nov. 1978.
I
IV. SUMMARY A. Sankar and T. C.Tong,“Currentcomputation oncomplex
structures by finite element method,“ Elecrron. Lett., vol. 1 I , no.
In this paper, the electric field integral equation (EFIE) is 20: pp. 481482. Oct. 1975.
used with the method of moments to develop a .simple and J. J. H. Wang. “Numerical analysis of threedimensional ar
efficient numerical procedure for treating problems of scatter bitrarilyshapedconductingscatterers by trilateralsurfacecell
ing by arbitrarily shaped objects. For numerical purposes the modelling,” Radio Sci., vol. 13, no. 6, pp.947952,Nov.Dec.
objects are modeled by planar triangular surface patch models. 1978.
J. J. H . Wang and C. Papanicolopulos, “Surface patch modeling of
Because the EFIE formulation is used, the procedure is applic scatterers of arbitrary shapes,” Antennas Propagar. Soc.Int. Spmp.
able to both open and closed bodies. Crucial to the formula Digesr. Univ. Washington, Seattle, W A , June 1979, pp. 159362.
tion is thedevelopmentofasetofspecialsubdomain basis G. Jeng and A. Wexler, “Finite element, boundary integral
functionswhicharedefinedonpairsofadjacenttriangular equation analysis of scattering problems.” URSI Synzp. on
Elecrromagnetic U’a1.e TheorJ, Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA. June
patches and yield a current representation free of line or point 1977,pp. 179181.
charges at subdomain boundaries. J. SinghandA. T. Adams, “A non rectangular patch model for
The approach is applied to the scattering problemsof plane scattering from surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Anrennas Propagat., vol.
wave illumination of a flat square plate, a bent square plate, a AP27, no. 4, pp. 531535, July 1979.
circulardisk,andasphere.Comparisonsofsurfacecurrent A. W. Glisson and D. R . Wilton, “Simple and efficient numerical
methods for problems of electromagnetic radiation and scattering
densitywithpreviouscomputationsorexactformulations from surfaces.” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagar., vol. AP28. no.
show good correspondencein each case. 5 , pp.593603, Sept. 1980.
A listing of the computer codeis available from the authors. R. F. Harrington. FieldComputarion bJ Monlent Methods. New
York: Macmillan,1968.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT A. W . Glisson, “On the development of numerical techniques for
treatingarbitrarilyshaped surfaces,” Ph.D. dissertation! Univ.
Theauthorsaregratefulto Mr. RobertBaxterandDr. Mississippi, 1978.
Deanne Pecora of the Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, D. R. Wilton, S. S. M .Rao, and A. W. Glisson, “Electromagnetic
Inc., fcr providing us with the results of their timing and con scattering by arbitraq surfaces,” Rome Air Development Center,
vergence study summarized in Table I. Griffiss AFB, NY, Tech. Rep. RADCTR79325, Mar. 1980.
J. Van Bladel, Elecrromagneric Fields. New York: McGrawHill,
1964, p. 502.
REFERENCES 0.C. Zienkiewicz. TheFiniteElementMethod in Engineering
[ I ] J. H. Richmond. “A wiregrid modelfor scattering by conducting Science. NewYork: McGrawHill,1971.
bodies,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat.. vol. AP14, no. 6, pp. P. C. Hammer, 0. P. Marlowe,and A. H. Stroud, “Numerical
782786, Nov. 1966. integration over simplexes and cones,“ Math. Tables Aids Comp.,
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c. M.Butler, y . RahmatSamii,andR.Mittra,“Electromagneticelectromagnetictheoryandnumericalmetho&appliedto antenna and
penetration
through
apertures
in
conducting
surfaces,” IEEE scattering.
Trans. Anrennas Propagat., vol.AP26, no. 1, pp. 8293, Jan.
1978.
R. G . Kouyoumjian, “The calculation of the echo areas of perfectly
conducting objects by the variational method,” Ph.D. dissertation,
The Ohio State Univ., 1953. Donald R. Wilton (S’63M’65M’7CLSM’80), foraphotographand
Y. RahmatSamiiand R. Mittra, “Integral equation solution and
RCS computation of a h i n rectangular IEEE Trans. biography
please
see
page 835 of
the
November 1981 issue
of
this
TRANSACTION.
Antennas Propagar.. vol. AP22, no. 4, pp. 608610, July 1974.
C. T. Ruck,Ed., Radar Cross SectionHandbook. NewYork:
Plenum, 1970, p. 523.
J. J. Bowman, T. B.A. Senior,andP. L. E. Uslenghi, Elec
tromagnetic and Acoustic Scattering by Simple Shapes. Amster
dam: NorthHolland, 1969, pp. 576577. Men W. Glisson (S’71M’78) was born in
J . R. Mautz and R. F. Harrington, “Hfield, Efield, and combined Meridian, MS, on June 26,1951. He received the
field solutions for conducting bodies of revolution,” AEV, vol. 32, B.S., M.S.,andPh.D.degreesinelectrical
no. 4, pp. 157164, Apr. 1978. engineering from the University of Mississippi,
University,in 1973,1975, and 1978, respec
tively.
From 1973 to 1978 he served as aResearch
AssistantintheElectricalEngineeringLkpart
ment of the University of Mississippi. In 1978,
he joinedthefaculty
of
the
Universityof
Mississippi,
where he
is
currentlyAssistant
Professor.of Electrical Engineering. His current research interests include
thedevelopmentandapplication ofnumericaltechniquesfortreating
electromagnetic radiation and scattering problems.
Dr. Glisson is a member of Sigma Xi, Tau Beta Pi, Phi Kappa Phi, Eta
Kappa Nu, and an associate memberof Commission B of the International
Union of Radio Science.