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# 6/17/2018

Stability
Abdul Razzaq Touqan
Civil Engineering

Chapter 1. Introduction to
Structural Stability

OUTLINE
Introduction
Concept of stability
Buckling versus stability
Stability analysis
Examples – small deflection analyses
Examples – large deflection analyses
Examples – imperfect systems
Design of steel structures

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Introduction

## • Modern use of steel in engineering structures has

made elastic instability a problem of great importance.
• Problems concerning stability in our region:
– Steel structures
– Long columns in RC bldgs
– Form support
– Any modern high strength small dimensions materials
like aluminum structures
– High rise buildings
– ….

Concept of stability

## Stability of rigid bodies is

clearly illustrated by a ball
on a curved surface:
A small disturbance from
the equilibrium position
classifies structures into:
a. Stable equilibrium
b. Untable equilibrium
c. Neutral equilibrium
Thus, define stability of structures

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## Stability concept is also related to potential energy of the

system: if energy in any infinitesimally adjacent state is
higher than that in the initial state, then the system is
in stable equilibrium …etc
Stability may also be explained by stiffness
considerations. Positive stiffness implies stable state
and at a stability limit, the stiffness vanishes (for static
disturbance produces large displacement.
Stability talks about the equilibrium state of the
structure, and had nothing to do with a change in the
geometry of the structure under compression.
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## -Change in geometry of an ideal structure under

compression determined by the eigenvalue analysis is
called buckling. Buckling occurs at the critical point
which is called bifurcation point of the equilibrium
system.
– The structure deforms and is in stable equilibrium in
state-1.
– As the load increases, the structure suddenly changes to
deformation state-2 at some critical load Pcr.
– The structure buckles from state-1 to state-2, where
state-2 is orthogonal (has nothing to do, or
independent) with state-1.

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## • Thus, there are two topics of importance: buckling and

stability of equilibrium.
is usually smaller than the bifurcation load. However,
knowledge of the bifurcation load is often an important
tool for assessing the real strength of real systems because:
1. Bifurcation load is in general more easily calculated than
2. Bifurcation load is a reliable upper limit for a real system.
When the difference between ideal and real system is
small, the bifurcation load represents a very close
approximation of the stability limit load of a real system.

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STABILITY ANALYSIS

## • FOR ANY KIND OF BUCKLING OR STABILITY ANALYSIS

1. NEED TO DRAW THE FREE BODY DIAGRAM OF THE
DEFORMED STRUCTURE.
2. WRITE THE EQUATION OF STATIC EQUILIBRIUM IN THE
DEFORMED STATE
3. WRITE THE ENERGY EQUATION IN THE DEFORMED
STATE TOO.

## -THIS IS CENTRAL TO THE TOPIC OF STABILITY ANALYSIS.

-NO STABILITY ANALYSIS CAN BE PERFORMED IF THE FREE
BODY DIAGRAM IS IN THE UNDEFORMED STATE

## • Always a small deflection analysis

• To determine Pcr buckling load
• Need to assume buckled shape (state 2) to calculate
Example 1 – Rigid bar supported by rotational spring
k P
Rigid bar subjected to axial force P
L Rotationally restrained at end

## Step 1 - Assume a deformed shape that activates all possible d.o.f.

L P

kq
q

L cosq
L (1-cosq)

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L P

kq L sinq
q

L cosq
L (1-cosq)
• Write the equation of static equilibrium in the deformed state

M o 0  kq  P L sin q  0
kq
P 
L sin q
For small deformatio ns sin q  q
kq k
 Pcr  
Lq L
• Thus, the structure will be in static equilibrium in the deformed state when
P = Pcr = k/L
• When P<Pcr, the structure will not be in the deformed state. The structure
will buckle into the deformed state when P=Pcr

P

k
L

## Assume deformed state that activates all possible d.o.f.

Draw FBD in the deformed state
P
L
L sinq
q
O
k L sinq

L cosq

L (1-cosq)

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P
L
L sinq
q
O
k L sinq

L cosq

L (1-cosq)

## M o 0  (k L sin q )  L  P L sin q  0

k L2 sin q
P 
L sin q
For small deformatio ns sin q  q
k L2q
 Pcr  kL
Lq

## • Thus, the structure will be in static equilibrium in the deformed state

when P = Pcr = k L. When P<Pcr, the structure will not be in the deformed
state. The structure will buckle into the deformed state when P=Pcr

P k k P
A D
B C
L L L

## Assume deformed state that activates all possible d.o.f.

Draw FBD in the deformed state

P k k P
q1 q2
A L sin q2 D
L sin q1 (q1 – q2) L
L
C
B (q1 – q2)

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## Write equations of static equilibrium in deformed state

P k k P
q1 q2
A L sin q2 D
L sin q1 (q1 – q2) L
L
C
B (q1 – q2)

k P
P q2
q2(q1 – q2) L sin q2 D
L
A q1 C
L sin q1
L k(2q2-q1)

B q1+(q1-q2)
k(2q1-q2)

## • Equations of Static Equilibrium

k (2q1  q 2 )  P L q1  0 2k  PL  k  q1  0
   
 k (2q 2  q1 )  P L q 2  0  k 2k  PL  q 2  0
• Therefore either q1 and q2 are equal to zero or the determinant of the
coefficient matrix is equal to zero.
• When q1 and q2 are not equal to zero – that is when buckling occurs – the
coefficient matrix determinant has to be equal to zero for equilibrium.
• Take a look at the matrix equation. It is of the form [A] {x}={0}. It can also be
rewritten as ([K]-l[I]){x}={0}

  2k k 
   1 0  q  0
  L L P
0 1 q   0
1

  k 2k     2   
 
 L L  

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## • This is the classical eigenvalue problem. ([K]-l[I]){x}={0}.

• We are searching for the eigenvalues (l) of the stiffness matrix [K]. These
eigenvalues cause the stiffness matrix to become singular
– Singular stiffness matrix means that it has a zero value, which means that the
determinant of the matrix is equal to zero.

2k  PL k
0
k 2k  PL
 (2k  PL ) 2  k 2  0
 (2k  PL  k )  (2k  PL  k )  0
 (3k  PL )  (k  PL )  0
3k k
 Pcr  or
L L
– Smallest value of Pcr will govern. Therefore, Pcr=k/L

• Each eigenvalue or critical buckling load (Pcr) corresponds to a buckling shape that
can be determined as follows
• Pcr=k/L. Therefore substitute in the equations to determine q1 and q2
k (2q1  q 2 )  P L q1  0  k (2q 2  q1 )  P L q 2  0
Let P  Pcr  k Let P  Pcr  k
L L
 k (2q1  q 2 )  kq1  0  k (2q 2  q1 )  kq 2  0
 kq1  kq 2  0  kq1  kq 2  0
q1  q 2 q1  q 2

• All we could find is the relationship between q1 and q2. Not their specific values.
Remember that this is a small deflection analysis. So, the values are negligible. What
we have found is the buckling shape – not its magnitude.
• The buckling mode is such that q1=q2  Symmetric buckling mode

P k k P
A q1 q2=q1 D
L
L

B C

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BIFURCATION ANALYSIS
• Second eigenvalue was Pcr=3k/L. Therefore substitute in the equations to determine
q1 and q2
k (2q1  q 2 )  P L q1  0  k (2q 2  q1 )  P L q 2  0
Let P  Pcr  3k Let P  Pcr  3k
L L
 k (2q1  q 2 )  3kq1  0  k (2q 2  q1 )  3kq 2  0
 kq1  kq 2  0  kq1  kq 2  0
q1  q 2 q1  q 2

L
P k k q2=-q1 P
A q1 D
L

ENERGY METHOD

## • We will currently look at the use of the energy method

for an elastic system subjected to conservative forces.
• Total potential energy of the system – P – depends on
the work done by the external forces (We) and the
strain energy stored in the system (U).
• P = U - We.
• For the system to be in equilibrium, its total potential
energy P must be stationary. That is, the first
derivative of P must be equal to zero.
• Investigate higher order derivatives of the total
potential energy to examine the stability of the
equilibrium state, i.e., whether the equilibrium is
stable or unstable

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## • The energy method is the best for establishing the

equilibrium equation and examining its stability
– The deformations can be small or large.
– The system can have imperfections.
– It provides information regarding the post-buckling
path if large deformations are assumed
– The major limitation is that it requires the
assumption of the deformation state, and it should
include all possible degrees of freedom.

## • Example 1 – Rigid bar supported by rotational spring

• Assume small deflection theory

## k P Rigid bar subjected to axial force P

L
Rotationally restrained at end
Step 1 - Assume a deformed shape that activates all possible d.o.f.

L P

kq
q

L cosq
L (1-cosq)

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## ENERGY METHOD – SMALL DEFLECTIONS

L P

kq L sinq
q

L cosq
• Write the equation representing the total potential
L (1-cosq) energy of system

1
U kq2
2
We  P L (1  cos q )
1
  U W  k q 2  P L (1  cos q )
2
d d
 k q  P L sin q , For equilibriu m; 0
dq dq
Therefore, k q  P L sin q  0
k
For small deflection s; kq  P Lq  0, Therefore, Pcr 
L

• The energy method predicts that buckling will occur at the same load Pcr as
the bifurcation analysis method.
• At Pcr, the system will be in equilibrium in the deformed.
• Examine the stability by considering further derivatives of the total potential
energy
– This is a small deflection analysis. Hence q will be  zero.
– In this type of analysis, the further derivatives of P examine the stability of the
initial state-1 (when q =0)

1
 k q 2  P L (1  cos q ) d2 
2 When P  Pcr  0 Stable equilibriu m
d dq 2
 k q  P L sin q  k q  P L q d2 
dq When P  Pcr  0 Unstable equilibriu m
d2  dq 2
 k  PL d2 
dq 2 When P  Pcr  0  Not sure
dq 2

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## • In state-1, stable when P<Pcr, unstable when P>Pcr

• No idea about state during buckling.
• No idea about post-buckling equilibrium path or its
stability. P
Unstable
Indeterminate
Pcr

Stable

## ENERGY METHOD – LARGE DEFLECTIONS

• Example 1 – Large deflection analysis (rigid bar with rotational spring)

  U  We
1
U  kq2 L P
2
We  P L (1  cos q ) kq
q L sinq
1
  k q  P L (1  cos q )
2

2 L cosq
d L (1-cosq)
 k q  P L sin q
dq
d
For equilibriu m; 0
dq
Therefore, k q  P L sin q  0
kq
Therefore, P for equilibriu m
L sin q
The post  buckling P  q relationsh ip is given above

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## • Large deflection analysis

– See the post-buckling load-displacement path shown below
– The load carrying capacity increases after buckling at Pcr
– Pcr is where q  0
Rigid bar with rotational spring
1.2

1 kq
P for equilibriu m
L sin q
0.8 P q
 
Pcr sin q

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
End rotation q
q00

## • Large deflection analysis – Examine the stability of equilibrium using higher

order derivatives of P
1
 k q 2  P L (1  cos q )
2
d
 k q  P L sin q
dq
d2 
 k  P L cos q
dq 2
kq d2  kq q
But , P  , k L cos q  k (1  )
L sin q dq 2 L sin q tan q
d2 
  0 Always (i.e., all values of q ), Always STABLE
dq 2
d2 
But ,  0 for q  0
dq 2

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## • At q =0, the second derivative of P=0. Therefore, inconclusive.

• Consider the Taylor series expansion of P at q=0

d 1 d2  1 d3  1 d4  1 dn 
   q 0  q q2  q3  q 4  .....  qn
dq q 0 2! dq q 0
2
3! dq q 0
3
4! dq q 0
4
n! dq n q 0

## • Determine the first non-zero term of P,

1  q 0  0 1 d4  1
 k q 2  P L (1  cos q )  q4  kq4 0
2 d 4! dq 4 q 0 24
d 0
 k q  P L sin q dq q  0
dq d 
2

d2  0
 k  P L cos q dq 2 q  0
dq 2
d3  d3 
 P L sin q  P L sin q  0
dq 3 dq 3 q  0
d 
4
d4 
 P L cos q  P L cos q  PL  k
dq 4 dq 4 q  0

• Since the first non-zero term is > 0, the state is stable at P=Pcr and q=0

## Rigid bar with rotational spring

1.2

1
STABLE
STABLE
0.8

0.6
STABLE
0.4

0.2

0
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
End rotation q
q00

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## • Consider example 1 – but as a system with

imperfections: The initial imperfection given by q0
k q0 L P

L cos(q0)

## – The free body diagram of the deformed system is

shown below
L P

k(qq0) L sinq
q

q0

L cosq
L (cosq0-cosq)

L P

k(qq0) L sinq
q
1
U  k (q  q 0 ) 2 q0
2
We  P L (cos q 0  cos q ) L cosq
L (cosq0-cosq)

1
 k (q  q 0 ) 2  P L (cos q 0  cos q )
2
d
 k (q  q 0 )  P L sin q
dq
d
For equilibriu m;  0, Therefore, k (q  q 0 )  P L sin q  0
dq
k (q  q 0 )
P for equilibriu m
L sin q
The equilibriu m P  q relationsh ip is given above

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k (q  q 0 ) P q  q0
P  
L sin q Pcr sin q
P  q relationsh ips for different values of q 0 shown below :
Rigid bar with rotational spring
1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
End rotation q
q00 q00.05 q00.1 q00.2 q00.3

## • As shown, deflection starts as soon as loads are applied. There is no

bifurcation of load-deformation path for imperfect systems.
• The smaller the imperfection magnitude, the close the load-
deformation paths to the perfect system load –deformation path
• All real systems have imperfections. They may be very small but
will be there
• The magnitude of imperfection is not easy to know or guess. Hence
if a perfect system analysis is done, the results will be close for an
imperfect system with small imperfections

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## • Examine the stability of the imperfect system

1
 k (q  q 0 ) 2  P L (cos q 0  cos q )
2
d
 k (q  q 0 )  P L sin q
dq
d2 
 k  P L cos q
dq 2

EQUILIBRIUM

## Write the equation representing the total potential energy of system

P
  U  We L

L sinq
1
U k ( L sin q ) 2 O
q
2
We  P L (1  cos q )
1
 k L2 sin 2 q  P L (1  cos q ) L cosq
2
d L (1-cosq)
 k L2 sin q cos q  P L sin q
dq
d
For equilibriu m; 0
dq
Therefore, k L2 sin q cos q  P L sin q  0
Therefore, P  k L cos q for equilibriu m
The post  buckling P  q relationsh ip is given above

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## • Large deflection analysis

– See the post-buckling load-displacement path shown below
– The load carrying capacity decreases after buckling at Pcr
– Pcr is where q  0
Rigid bar with translational spring
1.2
P  k L cos q for equilibriu m
P
  cos q
1 Pcr

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
End rotation q
q00

## • Large deflection analysis – Examine the stability of equilibrium using higher

order derivatives of P
1
 k L2 sin 2 q  P L (1  cos q )
2
d
 k L2 sin q cos q  P L sin q
dq
d2 
 k L2 cos 2q  P L cos q
dq 2
For equilibriu m P  k L cos q
d2 
  k L2 cos 2q  k L2 cos 2 q
dq 2
d2 
  k L2 (cos 2 q  sin 2 q )  k L2 cos 2 q
dq 2
d2 
  k L2 sin 2 q
dq 2
d2 
 0 ALWAYS . HENCE UNSTABLE
dq 2

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## • At q =0, the second derivative of P=0. Therefore, inconclusive.

• Consider the Taylor series expansion of P at q=0
d 1 d2  1 d3  1 d4  1 dn 
   q 0  q q2  q3  q 4  .....  qn
dq q 0 2! dq q 0
2
3! dq q 0
3
4! dq q 0
4
n! dq n q 0

## • Determine the first non-zero term of P,

1 2 2 d4 
 k L sin q  P L (1  cos q )  0  4k L2 cos 2q  P L cos q
2 dq 4
d 1 2
 k L sin 2q  P L sin q  0 d4 
dq 2   4k L2  k L2  3k L2
dq 4
d 
2
 k L2 cos 2q  P L cos q  0 d4 
dq 2  0
dq 4
d3  UNSTABLE at q  0 when buckling occurs
 2k L2 sin 2q  P L sin q  0
dq 3

• Since the first non-zero term is < 0, the state is unstable at P=Pcr and q=0

## Rigid bar with translational spring

1.2

1 UNSTABLE
UNSTABLE
0.8

0.6

UNSTABLE
0.4

0.2

0
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
End rotation q
q00

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## • Consider example 2 – but as a system with imperfections

– The initial imperfection given by the angle q0 as shown below
q0 P
L

k
L cos(q0)

## – The free body diagram of the deformed system is shown

below
P
L

L sinq
q
L sinq0
O
q0

L cosq

L (cosq0-cosq)

P
L

L sinq
q
L sinq0
O
q0

  U  We
1 2
 k L (sin q  sin q 0 ) 2  P L (cos q 0  cos q ) L cosq
2 L (cosq0-cosq)
d
 k L2 (sin q  sin q 0 ) cos q  P L sin q
dq
d
For equilibriu m; 0
dq
Therefore, k L2 (sin q  sin q 0 ) cos q  P L sin q  0
sin q 0
Therefore, P  k L cos q (1  ) for equilibriu m
sin q
The equilibriu m P  q relationsh ip is given above

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sin q 0 P sin q 0
P  k L cos q (1  )   cos q (1  )
sin q Pcr sin q
dP sin q
Pmax   0  k L( sin q  2 0 )  0  sin q 0  sin 3 q
dq sin q
 Pmax  k L cos q
3

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## Rigid bar with translational spring

1.2
Envelope of peak
1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
End rotation q
q00 q00.05 q00.1 q00.2 q00.3

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## • As shown, deflection starts as soon as loads are applied. There is

no bifurcation of load-deformation path for imperfect systems.
• The smaller the imperfection magnitude, the close the load-
deformation paths to the perfect system load –deformation path.
• The magnitude of load, is influenced significantly by the
imperfection magnitude.
• All real systems have imperfections. They may be very small but
will be there
• The magnitude of imperfection is not easy to know or guess.
Hence if a perfect system analysis is done, the results will be
close for an imperfect system with small imperfections.
• However, for an unstable system – the effects of imperfections
may be too large.

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