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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ


ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«БАРНАУЛЬСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
ЛИНГВИСТИЧЕСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ

Т.Д.Максимова

Spotlight
on
History of English
Барнаул 2007

УДК 802.0
ББК 81.43Англ-0
М171

Максимова Т.Д.
Spotlight on History of English : Уч.-метод. пособие. – Барнаул : БГПУ,
2007. – 60с.

Рецензент: канд.филол.наук доцент Л.Ф.Супрун

Настоящее издание определяет программу курса «История английского


языка и введение в спецфилологию » и включает требования к уровню
усвоения содержания курса студентами факультетов и институтов
иностранных языков. В настоящее пособие включены темы лекций и
планы семинарских занятий, материал в виде схем и таблиц, тезисное
освещение отдельных вопросов, иллюстративный материал и тексты
различных периодов развития языка с необходимым для них словарем,
систематизирован посекционный терминологический аппарат.
Предусмотрена основная и дополнительная литература, а также вопросы,
выносимые на экзамен. Данное пособие предназначается для студентов
факультетов и институтов иностранных языков.
© Т.Д. Максимова, 2007
© Барнаульский государственный
педагогический университет, 2007
Цель курса «Введение в спецфилологию и история английского языка» –
ознакомить студентов с этапами развития языка на протяжении веков,
помочь осознать связь изменений в языке с историческими процессами в
обществе, выявить внутренние закономерности развития языка. Прослушав
данный курс, студент должен уметь объяснять нормы современного
английского языка и его особенности с точки зрения законов его
исторического развития, видеть процесс развития языка как систему,
владеть терминологией, связанной с тематикой курса. В задачи курса
входит раскрыть диалектический характер развития языка, показать
взаимосвязь развития языка и общества, выработать у студентов умение
сопоставлять и связывать различные языковые явления, развить у
студентов практические навыки анализа языковых форм в различные
исторические этапы развития английского языка.
Данный курс рассчитан на 68 часов: 30 часов лекционных, 38 часа
семинарских занятий и охватывает 7-ой и 8-ой семестры обучения.
Курс введения в спецфилологию и истории английского языка состоит
из следующих разделов:
1. Введение;
2. Общие сведения о германских языках и место английского языка;
3. Древний период истории английского языка;
4. Средний период истории английского языка;
5. Новый период развития истории английского языка.

Студентам при подготовке к семинарским занятиям рекомендуется


использовать следующие учебники, учебные пособия, хрестоматии и
сборники упражнений:
Основная литература

1. Ilyish B. History of the English language. L., 1973.


2. Ivanova I.P. A Reader in Early English. L., 1980.
3. Rastorguyeva T.A. History of English. M., 2001.
4. Аракин В.Д. История английского языка. М., 1985.
5. Иванова И., Чахоян Л., Беляева. История английского языка. Учебник.
Хрестоматия. Словарь. С-Пб, 1999.
6. Максимова Т.Д. Spotlight on History of English. Барнаул. 2007.
7. Максимова Т.Д. History of English Tests and Tasks. Барнаул. 2005

Дополнительная литература
1. Аракин В.Д. Очерки по истории английского языка. М., 1955.
2. Арсеньева М.Г., Балашова С.П., Берков В.П., Соловьева М.Г. Введение в
германскую филологию. М., 1980.
3. Линский С.С. Сборник упражнений по истории английского языка.
Л., 1963.
4. Reznik R.V., Sorokina T.S., Reznik I.V. A History of the English Language. M., 2001.
4
LECTURES

OLD ENGLISH PERIOD


1. Subject and aim of the History of English. Classification of Germanic
Languages. Periodisation.
2. Phonetic and grammatical peculiarities of Germanic languages.
3. Old English phonetic changes.
4. Old English nouns, pronouns and adjectives
5. Old English strong verbs.
6. Old English weak verbs and minor groups of verbs.
7. Old English syntax. Old English vocabulary.

MIDDLE AND NEW ENGLISH PERIODS


8. Middle English spelling.
9. Middle English Phonetics.
10. New English Phonetics.
11. Nouns in Middle and New English.
12. Verbs in Middle and New English.
13. New verbal categories.
14. Syntax in Middle and New English.
15. Development of the vocabulary in Middle and New English.

SEMINARS

OLD ENGLISH PERIOD


SEMINAR 1

I. Data on Old Germans

1. Ancient Germanic tribes and their Ilyish p.9-11


classification:
a) East Germanic tribes Rast. p.27-29
b) North Germanic tribes Rast. p.29-31
c) West Germanic tribes Rast. p.31-33
2. Germanic Alphabets Ilyish p.30-32,Rast.p.63-65

II. Phonetic peculiarities of Germanic languages

1. The First Consonant Shift Ilyish p.12-15


2. Causes of the First Consonant Shift Rast. p.63-65

5
3. Word stress. Verner’s Law Ilyish p.15-16
4. The Second Consonant Shift Ilyish p. 19-20

6
SEMINAR 2

I. Main characteristics of Germanic languages


1.Vowels Rast. p.34-36
2.Grammar Rast. p.42-47

II. Old English. Historical background

1. Pre-historic Britain. Rast. p.55-57


2. Germanic settlement of Britain. Rast. p.57-61
3. Old English dialects. Rast. p.61-63
4. Old English manuscripts Rast. p.65-70

III. Periodisation in the history of English. Ilyish p.36-37; Rast. p.54-55

SEMINAR 3

I. Old English phonetics. Phonetic structure. Ilyish p.44-46;

II. Old English alphabet. Rast. p.71-74

III. Analysis of the text “Ohthere’s and Wulfstan’s story”.


(Ivanova.I.P. “A Reader in Early English” p.7; 1-18 lines)

SEMINAR 4

I. Phonetic changes in Old English vowels: Ilyish p.47-50


1. qualitative changes
2. quantitative changes

II. Phonetic changes in Old English consonants. Ilyish p.51-53

III. Learn the passage “Ohthere sǣde … ambyrne wind” by heart

SEMINAR 5

I. Nominal parts of speech in Old English

1. The noun:
a) grammatical categories: number, gender, case Rast. p.93-95
b) types of declension Rast. p.96-101
2. The pronoun: personal, demonstrative Rast. p.102-104
3. The adjective: grammatical categories, weak and
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strong declension, degrees of comparison Rast. p.105-108

II. Learn the passage “Wulfstan sǣde … under seʒle” by heart.


SEMINAR 6

I. The verb in Old English

1. Grammatical categories of the verb Rast. p.109-110


2. Morphological classification of verbs:
a) strong verbs Rast. p.115-119
b) weak verbs Rast. p.119-122
c) minor groups of verbs Rast. p.122-124

II. Test

SEMINAR 7

Syntax in Old English

1. The phrase Rast. p.124-125


2. The sentence:
a) the simple sentence Rast. p.125-126
b) compound and complex sentences Rast. p.126-128
3. Word order Rast. p.128-129

SEMINAR 8

Old English vocabulary

1. General characteristics of Old English Rast. p.131-133


vocabulary
2. External means of enriching vocabulary Rast. p.133-138
3. Internal means of enriching vocabulary Rast. p.139-146

SEMINAR 9

I. Revision of the material

II. Achievement test

8
9
MIDDLE AND NEW ENGLISH PERIOD

SEMINAR 10

I Historical background of Middle and New English


1. The Scandinavian invasion Rast. p.149-151,
p.209-301
2. The Norman conquest Rast. p.151-154

II Spelling changes in Middle English Rast. p.184-187

III Analysis of the first 12 lines of “Canterbury Tales” by G.Chaucer


(I.P.Ivanova. “A Reader in Early English” pp.56-57 or
T.A.Rastorguyeva “History of English” pp. 187-188)

SEMINAR 11

I. Phonetic changes in Middle English


1. Changes in unstressed vowels Rast. p.190-191
2. Changes in stressed vowels Rast. p.191-200

II. Learn the passage from “Canterbury Tales”


by heart (1-12 lines)

SEMINAR 12

I. Phonetic changes in New English


1. The Great Vowel Shift Rast. p.200-204
2. Other changes in vowels Rast. p.204-208
3. Evolution in consonants in Middle Rast. p.209-214
and New English

II. Analyse the passage from “The tragedy of Macbeth”


by W. Shakespeare

SEMINAR 13

The Noun in Middle and New English

1. Decay of noun declensions Rast. p.222-224


2. Grammatical category of case Rast. p.224-228
3. Grammatical category of gender Rast. p. 224-226
10
4. Grammatical category of number Rast. p.228-229

SEMINAR 14

I. The Pronoun
1. Personal and possessive pronouns Rast. p.230-233
2. Demonstrative pronouns Rast. p.234-236
Development of articles
II. The Adjective Rast. p.234-240
III. Test
SEMINAR 15
The Verb in Middle and New English

1. Simplifying changes in the verb conjugation Rast. p.241-244


2. Changes in morphological classes of verbs Rast. p.249-252
a) strong verbs
b) weak verbs Rast. p.253-254
c) minor groups of verbs Rast. p.256-259
SEMINAR 16
Growth of new forms and grammatical categories
1. The future Tense Rast. p.260-262
2. The category of Voice Rast. p.267-268
3. The category of Time-correlation Rast. p.268-271
4. The category of Aspect Rast. p.271-274
SEMINAR 17
I. Development of the syntactic system in Middle and New English

1. The simple sentence Rast. p.281-283


2. The compound and complex sentence Rast. p.283-284
II. Causes of grammatical changes Rast. p.290-294

SEMINAR 18
Development of the English vocabulary in Middle and New English
1. Types and sources of changes Rast. p.296 -299
2. Scandinavian influence on the English vocabulary Rast. p.299-301

11
3. Norman influence on the English vocabulary Rast. p.301-306
4. Borrowing from different languages Rast. p.306-313
5. History of word-formation Rast. p.313-328

SEMINAR 19
I. Revision
II. Final Test

12
Indo-European Languages

1. The Indian languages 5. The Romance languages 8. The Greek language


Sanskrit (obsl), Hindustani, Gipsy Latin (obsl.), French, Italian, Spanish,
Portuguese, Rumanian, Moldavian

2. The Iranic languages 6. The Celtic languages 9. The Armenian language


Iranian, Tajik, Ossetic Scotch, Irish, Welsh, Breton

3. The Slavonic languages 7. The Germanic languages 10. The Hittite (obsolete)
a) Western Slavonic: Polish, Czech, Slovakian
b) Southern Slavonic: Bulgarian, Serbian, Slovenian, Croatian
c) Eastern Slavonic: Russian, Byelorussian, Ukrainian 11. The Tocharian (obsolete)

4. The Baltic languages


Lithuanian, Latvian, Prussian (obsl.)

13

Old Germanic languages Modern Germanic languages

Gothic, Burgundian, Vandalic – East – obsolete

Old Norse, or Scandinavian,


Old Norwegian, Old Swedish, – North – Norwegian, Swedish, Danish,
Old Danish, Old Icelandic Icelandic, Faroese
Old Saxon, Old Dutch, – West – Dutch, Afrikaans, Yiddish,
O. High German, O. English English, German, Frisian

14
The First Consonant Shift (Grimm’s Law) – 2 BC

Grimm’s law states correspondences between definite Indo-European (non-Germanic) and


Germanic consonants

IE G
I Indo-European voiceless stops (p, t, k) correspond to Germanic
voiceless fricatives (f, θ h)
p – f
папа father
t – θ
три three
k – h
Lat. noctem Germ. naht
II Indo-European voiced stops (b, d, g) correspond to Germanic
voiceless stops (p, t, k)
b – p
15 Lat. Labrum d – t lip
два g – k two
иго III yoke
Indo-European voiced aspirated stops (bh, dh, gh) correspond
Sanskr.
to Germanic voiced stops without aspiration ( b, d, g)
bh – b
bhratar
dh – d brother
madhu
gh – g OE medu
гость guest
Lat.hostis
(enemy)

Verner’s Law

The idea of Verner’s Law is voicing of consonants.


According to Verner’s Law all the early PG voiceless fricatives which arose under
Grimm’s Law became voiced if the preceding vowel was unstressed.

p – f – v – b Lat. sep'tem OE seofon NE seven– Germ. sieben


t – þ – ð – d Lat. pa'ter OE faðar O.Sw. fadar
k – h – g – g Gr. de'kas Goth. taihun Goth. tigus
s – z – r (rotacism) Goth.laisian OE lǣran – Germ. lehren
16

The Second Consonant Shift


The 2nd Consonant Shift states correspondences between Common Germanic and
High Germanic consonants.

Com. Germ. p b t d k g θ

High Germ. pf f p ts s t kh h k d
English apple hope ten eat do make three
German. Apfel hoffen zehn essen tun machen drei

17
Periods in the History of English
Periods Chronological division Linguistic division
Dates Historical events Language situation Linguistic changes
phonetic morphological
division division
Old 5 c. Germanic settlement of Early OE,
English Britain pre-written E
5c.–11c.
full endings full grammatical forms
7 c. beginning of writing written English sunu wrītan–wrāt–writon–writen
Middle 1066 Norman conquest Early ME –
English dialectical divergence
weakened grammatical
11c.–14c leveled endings morphemes
flourishing literary sune
18 writen–wrot–writen–writen
English (Chaucer)
1475 introduction of printing
New 1475–1660 Early NE–literary lost endings lost grammatical morphemes
English Renaissance sun write–wrote–written
15c. – … (Shakespeare)

normalization period
1660–1800

Late English –
expansion of English
1880–1945
Present day English
1945 –…
OE Phonetic Structure
Vowels

Monophthongs Diphthongs

Short i e æ a å o u y ea eo io ie
Long ī ē ǣ ā ō ū ӯ ea eo ıo ı e͞
͞ ͞ ͞

Consonants
19
Phone Spel Comments Phone Spel Comments
mes ling mes ling
p p t t
b b d d
m m r r
Labial w w Dental l l
n n
f f at the beginning & the end [f]: wīf
v f in the intervocal position [v]: wīifes s s
z s at the beginning & the end [s] sǣ, mūs
in the intervocal position [z] ce osan
͞
θ þ, ð
ð þ, ð
at the beginning & the end [θ] þr e o
͞ ,se a
͞ þ
in the intervocal position [ð] se oþan
͞
k c
Velar h h
and g ʒ initially before cons. and back vowels; in the middle after ‘n’= ʒleo, ʒōd, sinʒan
palatal
γ ʒ after back vowels and the sonorants ‘r’ & ‘l’ – daʒas, sorʒ, swelʒan
j ʒ in the presence of front vowels – ʒe ar
͞ ,dæʒ, ʒiefan

20
Phonetic changes in OE vowels

qualitative quantitative

fracture palatalization

æ >ea ⋎ r ærm > earm


l + cons. æld > eald front ψ ʒ [j] > diphthongse > ie ʒefan > ʒiefan
h æhta > eaht vowels c[k’] æ > ea scæl > sceal
h final sæh > seah ǣ > e a͞ ʒǣr > ʒe ͞ar
all vowels ψ sc[sk’] > diph. a> ea scacan > sceacan
e >eo ⋎ r +cons. > change into
herte > heorte
lc ⋎ before
melcan > meolcan
21 lh ψ after
selh > seolh
h+cons. loss of
h final Θ no changes
feh > feoh
mutation ⊍ between

i-mutation back-mutation h-mutation

ā>ǣ lārian > lǣran


e > eo herot > heorot naht > neaht
æ>e tælian >tellan
a > ea saru > searu nieht
a>e framiam > fremman
i > io hira > hiora niht
o>e ofstian > efstan
ō>ē dōmiam >dēman
u >y fullian > fyllan
Phonetic changes in OE vowels

qualitative
quantitative
lengthening
2.
1. ⋎ ld cild > cīld ⋎ consa) d sæʒde >
nd bind > bīnd
sǣde ⋎
mb climban > ʒ
clīmban n friʒnan >
Θ⋎ ld frīnan ⋎
nd + cons cildru=cildru b) m fricatives
n
22 mb
f finf > fīf
s uns > ūs
3. contraction: h ⊍ 2 vowels
þ onþer > ōþer
ah+vowel > eah+vowel > eLa
h bronhte > brōhte
slahan > sleahan > slen an

eh+vowel > eoh+vowel > eLo


sehan > seohan > sen on
Phonetic changes in OE consonants

qualitative quantitative

voicing & devoicing palatalization

fricatives k > k’ k’ > ʧ cild > c’ild> child


f – v wīf – wīfes g > g’ ⋎ front sc’> ʃ scip > sc’ip > ship
s – z h > x’ vowels g’ > ʤ brycg > bricg’ > bridge
cen as – cen osan
ʒ> j
θ – ð sen að – sen oþan
23

assimilation

fn > mn efn > emn


fm > mm wifman > wimman
Phonetic changes in OE consonants
qualitative quantitative

gemination metathesis

often⋎ j,i
pridda > pirda
sætjan> settan
loss of consonants
syncopation
simplification
cons ⋎
h in hl hlaford >loverd

24 a) ʒ[j] ⋎ d sæʒde > sǣde hr hring > ring


n friʒnan > frīnan

b) m ⋎ fricatives
n
f finf > fīf
s uns > ūs
þ(ð) onþer > ōþer
h bronhte >
brōhte

c) h ⊍ vowels
sehan > seahan > sen on
Spelling changes in Middle English
New Consonant letters for

old phonemes new phonemes

(Þ) [θ(ð)] - th þӕt > that (f) [v] - v,u lufu > love

(ʒ) [g] -g ʒōd > good


-z
25 (s) [z] Zefirus
(ʒ) [j] -y ʒyf > yif

-c caru > care (c) [k']>[ʧ] - ch cild>child


(c) [k] -k cnīf > knyf

- ck bӕc > back (sc) [sk']>[ʃ] - ss,ssh,sh fisc>fish


(cw) [kw]
- qu cwēn > queen
(h) [x'] - gh (cʒ) [g']>[ʤ] - dge brycʒ>bridge
niht > night
Spelling changes in Middle English

New Vowel letters for

old phonemes new phonemes

–o ⋎
(u) [u] m,n,u,v cuman>comen (ǣ)[ǣ] > [ē̢] – ea,e sǣ > sea

– ou,ow hū> how tēð > teeth


(ū) [u:] (ē) [ē] > [ē]] – ee,e
26

(ӕ) [ӕ] –a –o stān > stone


dӕʒ >dai (ā) [ā] > [ǭ]

y, ӯ ʒyf>yif,if – oo fōt > foot


[y], [ӯ]>[i],[ī] – i (ō) [ō] > [ō]]

[ӯ ] =[Ü] – ui OFr fruit >ME fruit


Changes in stressed vowels in Middle English (1)
qualitative
rising of new phonemes growth of new diphthongs
(i or u as the second element)
ā >ǭ hām >hǭm
ō > ō] tōþ > tō]th 1.Vocalization of ʒ [j] & [ɣ]
a) vowel + ʒ[ j] > diphtong (digraph)
æ +ʒ[ j] > ai dæʒ > day
ǣ > ę̄ sǣ > sę̄
e + ʒ[j] > ei weʒ > wey
ē > ē] mētan > mē]ten
b) vowel +ʒ [ɣ] > diphtong (digraph)
a + ʒ[ɣ] > au laʒu > lawe
monophthongiztion ā + ʒ[[ɣ] > ou āʒen > ǭwen
27

en a > ę̄ ben am>[bę̄m] beam 2. Vowel + h > diphthong (diagraph)


en o > ē] den op>[dē]p] deep o+h > [ou](ough) brohte > [brouhtǝ] (broughte)
ı ͞o & ı ͞e> in li n ehtan > līghten
io &ie> i nieht > niht; hierde>herd 3. Vowel + w > diphthong (diagraph)
ea > a earm > arm ǭ+w > [ou] (ow) flōwan > [flouǝn] (flowen)
eo > e heorte > herte
Changes in stressed vowels in Middle English (2)
quantitative

Lengthening Shortening
in open syllables 1) ⋎ two consonants
cēpte > kepte but: cēpan >= k[ē]]pen
a > ā nama > [ā]me wīsdom > wisdom but: wīs >= w[ī]se
o > ǭ nosu > n[ǭ]se
e > ę̄ sprecan > spr[ę̄]ken 2) In three-syllable words
hāʒlidæʒ > hǭliday >holidai
28 Θ i & u were not lengthened:
risen [i], driven[i], comen[u],
sungen[u], love[luve], som[sum]

But in some words: i > ē] wicu > wē]ke > week


u > ō] duru > dō]re > door
Phonetic changes in New English vowels

1. The Great i: > ai time > time


Vowel Shift ę̄ > i: east > east
ē] > i: keepen > keep
a: > ei make > make
ō > ou stone > stone
29
ō > u: goos > goose
u: > au mous >mouse
au > o: cause > cause

2. Formation of [a] > [æ ] man [man] > [mæn]


new short phonemes [u] > [⋀] hut [hut] > [h⋀t]
Θ u ⋎ p,b,f remained u putten [u] > put [u];
3. Formation of o, a, e, u, i + r > o:, a:, ɜ:
new long phonemes corn >corn;
(as the result of vocalization of r) serven [serven]>serve [sɜ:v]
4. Formation of
new diphthongs ę̄, ā + r > ɛə air[ę̄r]>air[ɛə];
bare[ba:rə]>bare[bɛə]
(as the result of vocalization of‘r)
5. Shortening ę̄ ⋎ θ, d > e death [dę̄th]> death [deθ]
II (18c)
u: ⋎ > θ, d, n, v > u blood[blu:d]>[blud](17c u >ʌ. blood [blʌd)
I (16c)
u: ⋎ k > u book[bu:k] > book[buk]
6. Lengthening a ⋎ ss, ft, nt > a: pass, after, plant [a] > [a:] pass, after, plant

30
Phonetic changes in New English consonants

1. Loss of phonemes x & x’ night [nix’t] > night[ni:t]


with lengthening of the preceding vowel
(15c)

of [of] > of [əv]; was[s] > was [z]; thou [θu:] > thou[ðau]
2. Voicing of voiceless fricatives but [θ] in: thing, thick, think
in unstressed syllables/words

31 3. Vocalization of r hors[hors] > horse [ho:s]; yer[jer] >year [jiə]

4. Growth of sibilants and affricates t, d, s, z, + j > ʧ, ʤ, ʃ, ʒ


nature [neitjer] > [neitjə] > [neiʧə]
soldier[ souldiər] > [soulʤə]
sugar [sjugar] > [ʃu:gə]
pleasure[plezjer] > [pleʒə]

5. Contraction of consonants at the end mb > m climben > climb


2 sounds

mn > m autumn > autumn


at the beginning kn > n knee > knee
wr > r wreck > wreck

3 sounds
stl > sl castle > castle
in the middle &
at the end stn > sn listen >listen
ftn > fn often > often

32
OE Nouns
Strong Declension
a-stem
neuter
masc neut masc
short syl. long syl.
sing sing ō
. pl. . pl. sing. pl. sing. pl. sing. pl.

– as – u stān stānas scip scipu bān bān


stāne scipe bāne bāna
es a es a s stāna s scipa s
u u stānu scipu bāne bānu
e m e m stāne m scipe m m
– as – u stān stānas scip scipu bān bān
-stem u-stem
masc.&
fem fem f masc.
sing sing sing
. pl. . pl. . pl. sing. pl

luf
u a u lufa u a sunu suna
luf
e a e lufa a a suna suna
u luf lufu u
e m e m a m suna sunum
luf
e a e lufa a a suna suna

Weak Declension
n-stem

masc. fem. & n masc. fem. neut.


sing
. pl. sing. pl. sing. pl. sing. pl. sing. pl.

a an e an nama naman cwene cwenan e are͞ e aran


͞
nama cwena e e
an ena an ena n namena n cwenena aran
͞ ͞arena
nama cwena e e ͞arum
an um an um n namum n cwenum aran
͞

33
nama cwena ea
͞ re ea
͞ ran
an an an/e an n naman n cwenan

Root declension
fem. &
masc. n masc. fem.
sing sing
. pl. . pl. sing. pl. sing. pl.

man(n men(n) mūs mӯs


– – – – )
manne manna mūs mūsa
es a e a s e
u u
– m – m men mannu mӯs mūsu
m m
man(n men(n) mūs mӯs
– – – – )

34
Personal Pronouns in OE
1st p 2d p. 3d p. 3d p. 3d p. Duel Pl. Pl. Pl.
msc neut fem 1st p 2d p. 3d p

N. ic þū hē hit hen o wit wē se hin e, hin o, hī, hӯ


G. mīn þīn his his hiere uncer ūre en ower hiera, hira, heora, hyra
D. mē þē him him hiere unc ūs en ow him, heom
A. mē þē hine hit hi n e unc ūs(ic) en ow(ic) hin e, hen o, hī, hӯ
There were two types of demonstrative pronouns:Demonstrative
the first with the pronouns in OE
demonstrative meaning considerably weakened; and the second, with a clear
demonstrative meaning.
Weak demonstrative meaning
sing.
pl. As the lexical meaning was
Masc. Neut. Fem.
weakened the grammatical
N. sē þæt sen o þā meaning acquired a larger force
G. þǣs þǣs þǣre þāra and eventually the pronoun
D. þǣm þǣm þǣre þǣm developed into the definite
Acc. þone þæt þā þā article: sē þæt sen o > the
Instr. þӯ
Clear demonstrative meaning Demonstrative pronouns were
frequently used as noun determiners
N. ðes ðis ðe o
͞ s ðās and through agreement with the noun
G. ðisses ðisses ðisse ðissa indicated its number, gender and case
D. ðissum ðissum ðise ðissum thus helping to define the forms of
Acc. ðisne ðis ðās ðās the nouns in ambiguous cases: e.g.
þæt bān=sing. þā bān= pl.
Instr. ðys ðys
Adjectives in OE
Indefinite forms Definite forms
ʒōd man – добрый человек (вообще) sē ʒōd man добрый человек (данный)
ʒōd cwene – добрая женщина (вообще) sen o ʒōde cwene добрая женщина (данная)
lytel bearn – маленький ребенок (вообще) sē lytele bearn маленький ребенок (данный)
strong declension weak declension
Masc Neut Fem Masc Neut Fem
N. sceort sceort sceort sceort-a sceort-e sceort-e
G. sceort-es sceort-es sceort-re sceort-an sceort-an sceort-an
sing. D. scert-um sceort-um sceort-re sceort-an sceort-an sceort-an
Acc. sceort-ne sceort sceort sceort-an sceort-e sceort-an
Inst sceort-e sceort-e sceort-re

N. sceort-e sceort sceort-a sceort-an sceort-an sceort-an


G. sceort-ra sceort-ra sceort-ra sceort-ra sceort-ra sceort-ra
pl. D. sceort-um sceort-um sceort-um sceort-um sceort-um sceort-um
Acc. sceort-e sceort sceort-a sceort-an sceort-an sceort-an
Inst sceort-um sceort-um sceort-um

35
The VERB System in Old English
The number of grammatical categories of the verb in Old English was not
great (four categories), but its paradigm had a complicated structure: verbs fell
into numerous morphological classes and employed a variety of form-building
means. All the forms of the verb were synthetic, as analytical forms were only
beginning to appear.
Old English Verb Categories
The OE verb was characterized by 4 grammatical categories:

Number: sg., pl. Tense: Pr., Past


wrīte – wrītaþ wrīte – wrāt

Gr. categories
of the finite verb

Person: 1,2,3 Mood


sg.1. ic wrīte Indic. Imperative Subjunctive
2. þū wrītest sg. pl. Present Past
3. hē wrīteþ wrīt wrītaþ sg. pl. sg. pl.
pl. hı¯e wrītaþ wrīte wrīten write writen

Number – was made up of singular and plural,


Person – was made up of 3 forms,
Tense – comprised the Present and Past (in the Indicative as well as in the
Subjunctive. The meanings of the Tense forms were very general, as compared
with the present-day English.
The forms of the Present Tense were used to indicate present and future
actions. With verbs of perfective meaning, with adverbs of future time or with
modal verbs the Pr. Tense acquired the meaning of futurity.
The Past Tense was used to indicate various events in the past (including
those which are nowadays expressed by the forms of the Past Continuous,
Present Perfect, Past Perfect and other analytical forms).
Mood – was constituted by the Indicative, Imperative and Subjunctive with
singular and plural forms in all of them.
The use of the Subjunctive Mood in OE was in many respects different
from its use in later ages. Subjunctive forms conveyed a very general meaning of
unreality or supposition in conditional sentences. Besides that Subjunctive was
common in other types of constructions: in subordinate clauses of time, result
and in clauses presenting reported speech.
The non-finite forms included the Infinitive, Participle1, Participle 2.
dēman dēmende dēmed
Inf. Part.1 Part.2
36
Morphological classification of the verb

VERB

strong (7 classes) weak (3 classes) minor groups (3 groups)

4 basic forms 3 basic forms 1. suppletive


vowel gradation dental suffixation 2. anomalous
3. preterite-present
wrītan–wrāt–writon–writen cēpan–cēpte–cēped
Inf. Past sg Past pl Part.2 Inf. Past Part.2
-an -Ø -on -en

As the language distinguished the category of person, the verbs were


conjugated.

Conjugation

(strong verb class 1 Inf. wrītan)

Present Imper. Past Part. 1 Part.2

Indicative Subj. Indic. Subj.


sg. 1.wrīte wrāt
2.wrītest wrīte wrīt write write wrītende writen
3.wrīteþ wrāt
pl. wrītaþ wrīten wrītaþ writon

37
Verbs in OE

Strong Verbs (7 classes, 4 basis forms, vowel gradation)

1 cl. rīsan - rās - rison - risen


2 cl. ceLosan - ceLas - curon - coren
3 cl. drincan - dranc - druncon - druncen
4 cl. beran - bær - bǣ ron - boren
5 cl cweðan - cwæð - cwǣdon - cweden
6 cl. faran - fōr - fōron - faren
7 cl. hātan - hēt(heht) - hēton - hāten

Weak Verbs (3 classes, 3 basis forms, suffixation)

1 class regular
dēman dēmde dēmed
styrian styrede styred
irregular
þyncan þūhte þūht
tellan tealde teald

2 class lōcian lōcode lōcod

3 class libban lifde lifd


habban hæfde hæfd

Minor groups of verbs

1. preterite – present: witan, cunnan, maʒan (12 verbs)

2. anomalous: willan, dōn, būan


38
3. suppletive: bēon, wesan; ʒān

39
Preterite-Present verbs
Inf Pr.T Past sg Past pl Part.2

Strong verbs write sg


wrītan wrāt writon writen
(cl. 1) wraþ pl
Pret.-pres. wāt sg
witan
verbs witon pl wit-te>wiste,wisse wiston witen

Weak verbs cēpe sg


cēpan cēpte cēpton cēped
(cl. 1) cēpaþ pl

In OE there were 12 preterite-present verbs.


These verbs have a peculiar formation of basic stems and forms. Their
Present Tense corresponds to the Past of strong verbs while their Past is derived
from the Past weak verbs. Thus, the Present Tense sg. of the verb “witan”
(знать) is “wāt” while its Past is “wiste, wisse”.

Aspects in I-E languages

Pre-Old Germanic: Continuous Momentaneous Resultative


a new stage

Old Germanic: Pr. T. Past T. Pr.T.

The Preterite-Present verbs originated from the so-called resultative aspect. It


is believed that in the Pre-Old Germanic languages the distinction was not
between tenses but between aspects, which show the way the action is
developing.
There used to be 3 aspects: the continuous, momentaneous & resultative. The
Continuous aspect presents actions as developing in time, without reference to
any completion.
The Momentaneous aspect presents the action as heading towards
completion.
The Resultative aspect presents the action as completed and having brought
about a new stage of things.
From these 3 aspects the Tenses of Germanic strong verbs were developed.
The Continuous aspect yielded (произвел, дал плоды) the Present Tense.
The Momentaneous aspect yielded the Past Tense.

40
The Resultative aspect developed in 2 directions: 1) it joined the
momentaneous aspect; 2) it gave rise to the preterite-present verbs to form their
Present Tense.

41
Preterite-present verbs signify the present result of a past action. In some
verbs the Present Tense meaning derived from the resultative aspect can be
well seen: the meaning “know” (знаю) develops from a meaning “have
learnt” (узнал); the meaning “can” (могу) from a meaning “have
learnt”(научился), managed (смог). Most of the preterite-present verbs did
not indicate actions, but expressed a kind of attitude to an action denoted by
another verb in the Infinitive. In other words, they were used like modal
verbs, and 6 of them eventually developed into modern modal verbs – NE
ought, dare, shall, can, may, must.
Suppletive verbs bēon, wesan; ʒān
Suppletive verbs are verbs whose paradigm is made up of several roots. In
other words suppletive verbs build up different forms from different roots.
E.g. I am, he was; Я хожу, он шел.
Supplition is one of the oldest means of form-building. All IE languages
have suppletive verbs: Germ.: sein – war – ich bin;Rus.: быть, есть; Fr.: aller
– je vais.
In OE there were two suppletive verbs: ʒān and bēon,wesan.
The verb ʒān built its Past from a different root – eode.
ʒān – eode – ʒe-ʒān
The forms of the verb “be” are derived from three roots: wes-, es-, and be-.
The Past forms were built from the root wes- on the pattern of strong
verbs of Class 5.
wesan – wæs – wæron – Ø
The present tense forms were different modifications of the root es- and
be- (IE wes- and bhu-)
Sg. 1p. eom, bēo Pl. sind(on), bēoþ, sīen, sīn, syn, bēon, sint.
2p. eart, bist
3p. is, biþ
Anomalous verbs willan, dōn
Anomalous verbs are verbs with irregular forms: willan, dōn, būan. They
have some individual peculiarities.
Willan with the meaning of volition, desire resembles the preterite-present
verbs in meaning and function as it indicates an attitude to an action and it
was often followed by an Inf. The form of the Past T. wolde is similar to the
Past T scolde of the pre.-pres. verb st.-pres. verb sculan. Eventually, on analogy with pre.-pres. verb st.-
pres. verbs it developed into a modal verb and later together with sculan –
into an auxiliary verb.
The verb dōn combined the features of weak and strong verbs.
dōn – dyde – ʒe-dōn
Like weak verbs it formed its Past tense with the help of a dental suffix (d)
and had a vowel interchange (ō–y) and –n in Part. 2, which is characteristic
of strong verbs.

42
SYNTAX in Old English

In treating syntax 2 levels are singled out – that of phrases and that of
sentences.
Phrases in OE are of different kinds. We can distinguish between noun
phrases and verb phrases.
Noun phrases had a noun as the head word and pronouns, adjectives,
numerals, nouns as modifiers. Most modifiers agreed with the noun in
gender, number, and case.
on þuðeweardum þam lande(line 3. Ohthere)
Nouns that served as attributes to other nouns usually had the form of
the Gen. case.
hwāles bān (whale’s bone)
Verb phrases included a great variety of dependant components:
nouns, pronouns, adverbs, Infinitives, participles. Infinitives and
Participles were often used with verbs of incomplete prediction. Some of
these phrases were later transformed into analytical forms.
hē wolde fandian ( he wanted to find out)
A sentence is a unit different from a phrase. It’s a unit of
communication.
In OE there were simple and composite sentences.
In an OE simple sentences we find principal (subject, predicate) and
secondary parts of speech (attr., object, adv. mod).
The connection between the parts of the sentence was shown by the
forms of the words as they had formal markers of gender, case, number,
and person. The presence of formal markers made it possible to miss out
some parts of the sentence which would be obligatory in an English
sentence nowadays. For example, the formal subject hit could be lacking in
impersonal sentences:
him þūhte (it seemed to him)
One of the conspicuous features of OE syntax was multiple negations
within a sentence or clause. The most common negative particle was ne,
which was placed before the verb. It was often accompanied by other
negative words, mostly nāht or nōht which had developed from ne+ā-whit
(nothing). Eventually the negative particle ne was dropped, and the
negative meaning came to be expressed by nōht only.
Another peculiarity of OE negation was that the particle ne could be
attached to some verbs, pronouns and adverbs to form single words:
nān man ne būde benorþan him
NE none, never, neither are traces of such forms.

43
Composite sentences are presented in OE by compound and complex
sentences. They are found even in the oldest OE texts.
Compound sentences had different kinds of coordination, and complex
sentences revealed different kinds of subordination. There was a large
inventory of subordinate clauses such as attributive, object, and adverbial
clauses. And yet many constructions look clumsy, loosely connected,
somewhat disorderly, which is natural in a language whose written form
had only begun to grow.
For complex sentences a common feature was repetition of connectives
at the beginning of each clause, for ex. þā (then)
þā hē þær ʒefaren wæs, þā eodon hı¯e tō hiora scipum. (then/when he
came there, then they went to their ships)
The particle þe was often employed in attributive clauses:
sı¯o scir hātte Halʒoland þe hē on būde
As to the word order in OE it was relatively free. The position of words
in the sentence was often determined by logical and stylistic factors. In
other cases grammatical factors were taken into consideration. The word
order could depend on the communicative type of the sentence, (i.e.
whether it is a statement or a question), on the type of the clause, on the
presence and place of some secondary parts of the sentence. For example,
if a sentence began with an adverbial modifier, the word order was usually
inverted.
þonne is ān port on sūðeweardum þæm lande (Ohthere, line 3)
Thus, in many respects OE syntax was characterized by a wide range of
variations.

Old English Vocabulary


Native words

44
The common I-E The common Proper
parent language Germanic source English
Existed in various
Existed in only Existed only
I-E languages
Germanic languages in English
OE mōdor, niht
OE eorðe, ӡrēne clipian (to call)
Germ.Mutter, Nacht
Germ.Eorde, grün brid (bird)
Lat.mater, nox
Rus. мать, ночь

45
Means of enriching vocabulary

Internal
Word derivation

Vowel interchange
Affixation sonӡ – sinӡan
Prefixes dōm – dēman
Suffixes
for+ӡiefan
Noun Adjective ӡedrincan
Suffixes Suffixes
fre̅odom bus+iӡ
cīldhād Engl+isc
fre̅ondscipe car+ful

Word composition
sǣ +man (seaman)
īc+ ceald (ice-cold)

External

Celtic borrowings
binn (NE bin) Latin borrowings
1-st stratum (from Romans)
cradol (NE cradle) Connected with trade
Celtic +Latin Lat.unci OE ynce NE inch
Man–chester
2-nd stratum (from Romanized Celts)
Devon-port
Connected with building, domestic life,
Celtic+Germanic military affair
York–shire
Lat. Strata via OE strǣt NE street
Canter–bury 3-d stratum (from Latin)
Connected with religion and learning
After the introduction of Christianity
In the late 6th c.
Lat. episcopus OE biscop NE bishop

46
Учебное издание

Максимова Татьяна Дмитриевна

Spotlight on History of English

Учебно-методическое пособие

Отв. за выпуск – Л.В.Скорлупина

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History of English

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