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Geary A.

Rummler, PhD

What we will cover:

• Geary’s Background
• Performance Improvement Model
• Nine Performance Variables
• 14-Step Performance Improvement Process
• Tools used in the Performance Improvement Process
• Rummler’s Model of the Human Performance Systems
and the Factors that Affect it
Rummler’s Career
Education/ •BA, MA, and PhD from University of Michigan

Professional •National president of the International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI)
•Member, Board of Directors of the American Society of Training and Development (ASTD)
•Member, Editorial Board of Training Magazine
•1962: Co-founded Center for Programmed Learning for Business with George Odiorne
•1969: Co-founded Praxis Corporation with Tom Gilbert
Founder •1981: Founded consulting firm
•1987: Firm became Rummler-Brache Group
•2000: Founded Performance Design Lab

•1998: Training and Development: A Guide for Professionals with George S. Odiorne

Author •1990: Co-authored Improving Performance, How to Manage the White Space on the Organization Chart with Alan P.
•2004: Serious Performance Consulting - According to Rummler

•1986: Induction into the Human Resource Development Hall of Fame

•1992: The Distinguished Professional Achievement Award from ISPI

Awards •1996: The Enterprise Reengineering Excellence Award from Enterprise Reengineering Magazine
•1999: The Distinguished Contribution Award for Workplace Learning and Performance from ASTD
•1999: The Life Time Achievement Award from the Organization Behavior Management Network
•2000: Presidential Citation for Intellectual Leadership from ISPI
Rummler believed it
was all about
Performance Keywhite spaces
Issue for Business
Global Competitive
• Product/Service Quality &
• Higher customer
• Fiscal efficiency
• Productivity

Agile companies are

• Smaller Workforce
• Workers have
interdisciplinary skills
• Organizations have flexible
management, labor, process
and product capabilities
3 Levels of Performance Job/Performer
Improvement Model Level

Process Level


“Organizations are systems, and

people are only as good as the
systems that they’re in”
Nine Performance Variables

Goals Design Management

Organizational Organizational Organizational Organizational
Level Goals Design Management

Process Level Process Goals Process Design

Job/Performer Job
Job Goals Job Design
Level Management

14-Step Performance Improvement Process
Phase 1:

Phase 2:
Phase 5: Process

3. Define the
Phase 4: Job
Phase 1: Performance Improvement Planning Process

• What is the performance

1. Define project problem?

• Establish dates & events

2. Develop for process improvements
project plan

• Project definition
Create worksheet
Documentation • Project plan
" A process is the series of
planned actions in the value chain
that convert a given input into a
desired result.”
Phase 2: Organizational Improvement

3. Define the organization’s • How does the process fit the organization’s big
• How does work flow from inputs to outputs?

4. Identify organizational • Where can the process be improved?

improvement opportunities • Identify missing, unnecessary, confusing, or
misdirected inputs or outputs

5. Specify improvement • Develop relationships that eliminate

actions at the organizational disconnections
• Evaluate different ways to group people or
level establish reporting hierarchies

6. Identify processes that

affect this critical issue most

•Relationship map
•Organizational analysis and improvement worksheet
Create Documentation •With actions
•With process(es)
Manage the White
white Space



Line Line Line

Manager Manager Manager

Individual Individual Individual

Contributor Contributor Contributor

Individual Individual Individual

Contributor Contributor Contributor

Individual Individual Individual

Contributor Contributor Contributor

“A primary contribution of a manager at the second level or

above is to manage interfaces. The boxes already have
managers; the Senior manager adds value by managing the
white space between the boxes.”
Phase 3: Process Improvement

• Create Maps
7. Define the process • Identify what is, and what should be

• Identify process gaps

8. Identify process
improvement opportunities

9. Specify improvement
actions at the process level

• Identify the largest gaps

10. Identify the job that
most affects the process.

• Process map(s)
• Process improvement and analysis worksheet
Create Documentation • With actions
• With job(s).
"Training and development is a
solution in search of a problem”
Phase 4: Job Improvement
Phase 5: Process Management

11. Create job specifications to

support improved processes

12. Identify job performance

improvement opportunities and the
gaps between what is and what
should be.

13. Specify improvement actions at

the job level

14. Implement and evaluate

performance action at all three
performance levels

• Job models(s)
• Job analysis
Create Documentation • Performance system design worksheet
• Action planning worksheets
Rummler was an engineer.
Engineers like diagrams.
Developing Performance Logic
Performance Skills and Individual
Task support Consequences Feedback
specifications knowledge capacity

Are performers able to

Do performers receive Do performers have perform:
Can performer recognize Do they support desired • Physically
Do they exist? info about their skills/knowledge
input needing action? performance? • Mentally
performance? required to perform? • Emotionally

Is that info
Can task be done w/o • Relevant
Do performers know Do performers find them • Timely Do performers know why
interference from other
about them? meaningful? • Accurate performance is desired?
tasks? • Specific
• Understandable

Do performers think they Are procedures/work

Are they timely?
can attain them? flow logical?

Are there adequate

• AllBusiness

• Big Dog Little Dog

• ASTD (requires membership)

• Pursuing Performance Blog

• Performance Design Lab

Prepared for EME 6691 –
Performance Systems Analysis
Fall 2009
– Lea Ann Gates
– Gina Minks
Broad, M. L. (n.d.). Expanding Our Toolbox: Coaching Stakeholders on Performance Improvement Options. ASTD 2007.
Retrieved December 8, 2009, from http://astd2007.astd.org/PDFs/Handouts%20for%20Web/M217.pdf.

Clark, D. (2008, November 2). Big Dog, Little Dog: Geary Rummler, Workflow, Harley-Davidson, & Education. Big Dog, Little
Dog. Retrieved December 8, 2009, from http://bdld.blogspot.com/2008/11/geary-rummler-workflow-harley-

Ferguson, D. (2008, November 25). Dave’s Whiteboard » Blog Archive » Rummler and Brache: Improving Performance. Dave's
Whiteboard. Retrieved December 8, 2009, from http://www.daveswhiteboard.com/archives/976.

Geary Rummler Long View - Dec - ASTD. (2007 11). ASTD. Retrieved December 8, 2009, from

Mallady. (n.d.). Riding the Wave on Flickr - Photo Sharing! Flickr. Retrieved December 8, 2009, from
Professional Portfolio Dr. Geary Rummler. (n.d.). ISSSP International Societu of Six Sigma Professionals. Retrieved December 8,
2009, from http://www.isssp.com/index.asp?page=professional_profile&show=100033791.

Rummler, R. (2008, November 8). Geary Rummler - Management Consultant - Geary Central. Geary CEntral. Retrieved
December 8, 2009, from http://www.geary.com/Geary_Rummler_-_Management_Consultant.
The PACTWiki - Rummler Quote. (n.d.). The PACT Wiki. Retrieved December 8, 2009, from

Wallace, G. (2008, October 30). The Pursuing Performance Blog: A Day of Great Sadness - Dr. Geary A. Rummler Has Passed
Away. Pursuing Performance Blog. Retrieved December 8, 2009, from