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Stainless Steel Grades

When an alloy of steel contains more than approximately 10 ½% Chromium it can be


classified as a stainless steel. This is because Chromium has a high affinity for
Oxygen and forms a stable Oxide film on the surface of the steel. This film is
resistant to further chemical or physical change.
Stainless steels can be divided into four major groups, namely Martensitic, Ferritic,
Austenitic and Duplex.

The Martensitic Group


This group contains a minimum of 12% Chrome and usually a maximum of 14% with
Carbon in the range of 0.08 to 2.0%. Due to the high Carbon content of the steel it
responds well to heat treatment to give various mechanical strengths, such as
hardness. When heat treated this group of steels show a useful combination of
corrosion resistance and mechanical properties that qualify them for a wide range of
applications. These steels are all magnetic.

Type 410
A 13% Chrome, 0.15% Carbon alloy possesing good ductility and corrosion
resistance. It can be easily forged and machined. Exhibits good cold working
properties.

Type 416
Similar to Type 410 but has added Sulphur giving improved machinability. Usually
supplied in bar form.

Type 431
A 17% Chrome, 2½% Nickel, 0.15% max Carbon stainless alloy. Has superior
corrosion resistance to types 410 & 416 due to the Nickel. Usually supplied in bar
form.

The Ferritic Group


This group contains a minimum of 17% Chrome and Carbon in the range 0.08 -
0.2%. The increase in Chromium gives increased corrosion resistance at high
temperatures. However it can not be heat treated therefore its applications are
limited. These steels are magnetic.

Type 430
A 17% Chrome, low alloy Ferritic steel. It has good corrosion resistant properties up
to about 800°C. Usually on used in strip and sheet form due to its poor
machinability.

The Austenitic Group


This group contains Chromium in the range 17 - 25% and Nickel in the range 8 -
20%, with various elements added in an effort to achieve desired properties. When
fully annealed this group exhibits a useful range of mechanical and physical
properties. These steels are normally non magnetic.

Type 304
An economic balance of alloying materials. Excellent corrosion resistance in
unpolluted and freshwater environments, though not recommended for seawater.

Type 321
A variation of Type 304 with titanium added in proportion to the carbon content. This
improves its high temperature properties.

Type 347
Very similar to Type 321 but uses Niobium instead of Titanium.

Type 316
The addition of 2 - 3% Molybdenum in this grade gives increased corrosion
resistance in offshore environments, however it does pit when immersed in
seawater. A nickel content of 12% maintains the austenitic structure.

Type 317
Similar to 316 but the 3 - 4% Molybdenum gives increased pitting resistance when
immersed in cold seawater.

6 Moly
Or as it is more properly known - UNS S31254 - gives high resistance to sea water
attack due to high levels of Chromium and Molybdenum.

L Grades
Most austenitic grades can be provided as low carbon grades e.g. 316L where carbon
is restricted to 0.03 to 0.035%. This reduces the tensile strength.

Duplex Stainless Steels


This relatively new group has a balance of Chromium, Nickel, Molybdenum and
Nitrogen to give a near equal mix of austenite and ferrite. The result is a high
strength, highly corrosion resistant material. Recommended extended use within
temperature limits of -50 to +300 °C due to embrittlement. They are referred to by
UNS numbers, or manufacturer's trade names.

UNS S31803
The most widely used grade of duplex and is typical of above description. Typical
composition is 0.03% max Carbon, 22% Cr, 5.5% Ni, 3% Mo and 0.15% N.
UNS S32304
A low alloy duplex with similar corrosion properties to type 316, but with
approximately double the tensile properties. Hence its primary use is in structures
where mechanical strength is important. Typical composition is 0.03% max Carbon,
23% Cr, 4% Ni and 0.1% N.

UNS S32750
A super duplex exhibiting enhanced corrosion resistance and mechanical properties.
Typical composition is 0.03% max Carbon, 25% Cr, 7% Ni, 4% Mo and 0.28% N.

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF STAINLESS STEEL

304 430 410

Chemical Composition (Austenitic) (Ferritic) (Mart

(Max. unless otherwise noted)

Carbon 0.08 0.12 0.15

Manganese 2.00 1.00 1.00

Phosphorus 0.045 0.04 0.04

Sulfur 0.03 0.03 0.03

Silicon 1.00 1.00 1.00

Chromium 18.00 16.00 11.5


-20.00 -18.00 -13.50

Nickel 8.00
-10.50

Tensile Strength

Ksi 84 75 70

MPa 579 517 483

Yield Strength (0.2% offset)

Ksi 42 50 45

MPa 290 345 310

Elongation (in 2" / 50.8 mm)

% 55 25 25

Hardness (Rockwell)

B80 B85 B80


Modulus of Elasticity in Tension

psi x 10 to the 6 28 29 29

GPa 193 200 200

Modulus of Elasticity in Torsion

psi x 10 to the 6 12.5

GPa 86.2

Density

lbs/cubic in 0.29 0.28 0.28

kg/cubic meter 8060 7780 7780

Specific Heat

Btu/lb/F 0.12 0.11 0.11

32-212°F ( 0-100°C) J/kg.k 503 460 460

Thermal Conductivity

Btu/hr/ft/F

212°F (100°C) 9.4 15.1 14.4

932°F (500°C) 12.4 15.2 16.6

W/m.K

212°F (100°C) 16.2 26.1 24.9

932°F (500°C) 21.5 26.3 28.7

Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

x10 to -6/F 32-212°F 9.6 5.8 5.5


(0-100°C)

32-600°F 9.9 6.1 6.3


(0-315°C)

32-1000°F 10.2 6.3 6.4


(0-538°C)

32-1200°F 10.4 6.6 6.5


(0-648°C)

32-1800°F 6.9
(0-982°C)

x10 to -6/C 32-212°F 17.3 10.4 9.9


(0-100°C)
32-600°F 17.9 11 11.4
(0-315°C)

32-1000°F 18.4 11.4 11.6


(0-538°C)

32-1200°F 18.8 11.9 11.7


(0-648°C)

32-1800°F 12.4
(0-982°C)

Melting Point

F 2550 2600 2700


-2650 -2750 -2790

C 1400 1425 1485


-1455 -1510 -1535

Electrical Resistivity

Microhm - mm Type 304 Type 430 Type 410 S138

68°F (20°C) 720 600 570 1020

212°F (100°C) 780 675 640

392°F (200°C) 860 770 720

752°F (400°C) 1000 925 880

1112°F (600°C) 1110 1050 1035

1472°F (800°C) 1210 1150 1110

1652°F (900°C) 1260

For additional data please refer to the SSINA Handbook "Design Guidelines for the Selection and Use of Stainless Steel"
STAINLESS STEEL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

S.S. 200 202 301 302 302B 303 303Se 304 304L 305 308 309 309s 310 310s 314 316 316L 317 321 347

Carbon 0.12 0.12 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.08 0.03 0.12 0.08 0.20 0.08 0.25 0.08 0.25 0.08 0.03 0.08 0.08 0.08
Manganes 7.5/1 5.5/7 2.002.
2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
e 0 .5 00
2.0/3. 1.5/3.
Silicone 0.9 0.9 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.5 1.5 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
0 0
16/1
Chromium 14/16 16/18 17/19 17/19 17/19 17/19 18/20 18/02 17/19 19/2122/2422/2424/2624/2624/26 23/26 16/18 18/20 17/1917/19
8
0.5/2. 0.5/4 8.0/1 9.0/1
Nickel 6.0/8.0 8.0/10 8.0/10 8.0/10 8.0/12 8.0/12 10/13 10/1212/1512/1519/2219/2219/22 10/14 10/14 11/15 9/13
0 .0 0 2
Molybdenu
0.2 0.2 2.0/3.0 2.0/3.0 3.0/4.0
m
Phosphoru
0.06 0.06 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.20 0.20 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.0450.0450.0450.0450.0450.045 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.045
s
Nitrogen 0.25 0.25
0.15MI
Suiphur 0.03 0.03 0.03 - 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03
N
0.15MI
Selenium
N
Aluminium

Titanium 5XC

Cb+Ta 10XC
Tensile
105 105 110 90 95 90 90 85 60 85 85 90 90 95 95 100 85 78 90 87 92
Strength
2% Yield
55 55 40 37 40 35 35 35 30 37 35 40 40 40 40 50 35 30 40 35 35
Strength
Elongation
55 55 60 55 50 50 50 55 55 55 55 45 45 45 45 45 55 55 50 55 50
in 2'
Rockwell 90 90 85 82 85 84 84 80 76 82 80 85 85 87 87 87 80 76 85 80 84

Brinell 185 185 165 155 165 160 160 150 140 156 150 165 165 170 170 170 150 145 160 150 160

150- En58
En58M En58E En58J&H
801C C
X12 X2 X5 X5 X12 x5 X2 X10
CrNi17. CrNi18. CrNi18. CrNi18. CrNi18. CrNiMo18. CrNiMo19.CrNiMo18.
7 8 9 8 8 12 1 9
AUST AUST AUST AUST AUST AUST AUST AUST AUST
AUST. AUST. AUST. AUST. AUST. AUST. AUST. AUST. AUST. AUST. AUST.
. . . . . . . . .
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF AISI WROUGHT STAINLESS STEELS

Physical corrosion resistance & other properties of important S.S.Grades


309 310
S.S.Grade 201 202 301 302 304 304L 309 310 316 316L 321 347 409 430 434 410
S S
Density 7.9 7.9 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 7.7 7.8 7.8 7.8
Sp.Elec. Resist 20C
72 72 72 72 72 72 78 78 78 78 74 74 72 73 60 60 60 57
micro
Sp. Heat (0-100c) 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 46 46 46 46

Ther. Conductivity 16.3 16.3 16.3 16.3 16.3 16.3 14.2 14.2 14.2 14.2 16.3 16.3 16.3 16.3 25.1 26.0 26.0 25.1

15.7 18.4 17.0 17.2 17.3 17.3 15.0 15.0 15.9 15.9 15.9 15.9 16.6 16.6 11.7 10.4 11.9 9.9

Mild water X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Industrial X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Marine X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Salt Water X X

Mild X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Oxidising X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Reducing X X
Goo Goo Goo Goo Goo Goo Goo Goo Goo Goo Goo Goo Goo Goo Goo Goo Goo
Abrasion Resistance Good
d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d
Goo Goo Exce Exce Goo Goo Goo Goo Goo Goo Goo Goo Goo
Cold Forming Fair Fair Fair Fair Fair
d d l l d d d d d d d d d
Goo Goo Exce Exce Exce Exce Goo Exce Goo Exce Exce Exce Exce Exce
Weldability Fair Fair Fair Fair
d d l l l l d l d l l l l l
1370 1400 1480
Melting Flange 1400 1420 1400 1450 1430 1510
1400 1430 1530
110 110 110 110
Scaling Temp 800 800 800 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 700 800 800 700
0 0 0 0

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