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# Eigenfunctions of an LTI Systems

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Continuous-Time LTI Systems

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Eigenfunction & Eigenvalue of CT LTI Systems

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Discrete-Time LTI Systems

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Eigenfunction & Eigenvalue of DT LTI Systems

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Importance of Eigenfunctions

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Continuous-Time Fourier Series (CTFS)

## A signal is periodic if, T > 0,

x(t ) = x(t + T ) , for all t.
the periodic complex exponential
x(t ) = e jw0t ;
2p
where fundamental angular frequency, w0 =
T
And harmonically related complex exponentials,
fk (t ) = e jkw t = e jk ( 2p / T ) t ; k = 0, ± 1, ± 2, . . .
0

## A linear combination of harmonically related complex exponentials,

+¥ +¥ +¥
x(t ) = å akfk (t ) =
k = -¥
å ak e
k = -¥
jkw0t
= å k
a e
k = -¥
jk ( 2p / T ) t
® Fourier Series

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
CTFS

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
CTFS

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Periodic Squire Wave

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Sinc [Sinus Cardinalis (Cardinal Sine)] Function

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Normalized Sinc Function

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Fourier Series Coefficients of Periodic Squire Wave

2 sin(kw0T1 ) 2 sin(kw0T1 )
Þ ak = =
kw0T 2pk
T1 é 2T1 ù
sin(2pk ) sin(pk ê ú )
= T = ëT û
pk pk
T 1 éT ù
Q k |ak = 0 = = ê ú
2T1 2 ë T1 û

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Periodic Impulse Train

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Dirichlet Conditions (1829 by P.L. Dirichlet)

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Sufficient Fourier Coefficients

http://lpsa.swarthmore.edu/Fourier/Series/ExFS.html

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Discrete-Time Fourier Series (DTFS)

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
DTFS of Square Wave

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
DTFS of Square Wave

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Fourier Series Coefficients of DT Periodic Squire Wave
é 2 N1 + 1 ù
sin ê2pk ( )ú
2 N1 + 1 ë 2N û 2N
Þ ak = ; Þ k |ak = 0 =
N sin(pk / N ) 2 N1 + 1

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Fourier Series Representation

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Properties of Fourier Series

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Properties of Fourier Series

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Properties of Fourier Series

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Properties of Fourier Series

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Properties of Fourier Series

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Power Density Spectrum or Power Spectral Density

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 211 Signals & Systems
Power Density Spectrum or Power Spectral Density

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Implementation of Properties of Fourier Series

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Implementation of Properties of Fourier Series

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Implementation of Properties of Fourier Series

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Implementation of Properties of Fourier Series

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Implementation of Properties of Fourier Series

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems
Implementation of Properties of Fourier Series

M Maksud Alam, Senior Lecturer, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. EEE 221 Signals & Systems