3, July 1999
Abstract: This paper presents laboratory and field tests of the such as inverters and rectifiers, which have inherently non
filters constructed to reduce harmonic currents generated by linear characteristics.
three phase systems of fluorescent lamps. The main idea is to Measurements carried out on distribution lines supplying
develop a filter with high impedance for harmonic currents to ’light industry and small commercial buildings, show high
reduce harmonic distortion and a with low impedance for distortion of supply currents and a high value of the neutral
flow of the fundamental in asymmetrical regimes. This filter current with significant phase asymmetry. In industry and
is included in the neutral conductor with the primary role of high rise buildings there are often thousands of fluorescent
reducing the zero sequence harmonics. fittings, these are usually connected in a 4 or 5 wire, three
The filter design procedure is based on “levels of phase circuit. The implication of this configuration, is that the
aspirations” to reduce harmonic currents. With the use of a neutral current will increase significantly due to the additive
lamp equivalent circuit, it provides the required filter effect of the zero sequence components, in many cases
impedances for a given harmonic frequency. Rosenbrock’s combined with any current due to unbalanced loading [2], 131.
optimization procedure is employed to search for the optimal This effect leads to neutral overloading and distribution
filter parameters, minimizing the objective function transformer overheating.
formulated. A solution has been proposed, which involves splitting the
Laboratory and field tests show that a tuned filter in the main distribution transformer into two smaller transformers
neutral conductor can an effective method to reduce harmonic with the corresponding phases 180” out of phase 141. This
current distortion. It can be applied to any set of discharge connection leads to cancellation of the triplen current
lamps arranged as a three phase circuit. The method is components in the neutral, however there is no improvement
especially suitable for high rise buildings and industrial in the line current waveforms. Moreover, splitting the
installations where a large amount of electrical energy is distribution transformer is expensive. An alternative method,
consumed by lighting. proposed by the State Electricity Commission in Victoria,
was to add a series inductor to the neutral [ 6 ] .However this
Keywords: Harmonics, fluorescent lamps, filters. adds significantly to the system impedance, which should be
minimal to allow unbalanced currents to flow in the neutral.
1. INTRODUCTION The solution proposed by the authors of this paper involves
connecting a tuned filter into the neutral as shown in Fig. 1.
The presence of harmonics in power system is cause for This filter is designed so as to have a high impedance to the
increasing concern by supply authorities. The origin of these harmonic components of the neutral current and minimal
harmonics is usually attributed to power electronic devices impedance to the fundamental unbalanced component. The
neutral filter, if designed correctly, will reduce the neutral
PE055PWRD0101998 A paper recommended and apprwed by loading as well as improving the waveform of the line
the IEEE Transmission and Distribution Committee of the IEEE Power currents. Although the scheme is conceptually simple, there
Engineering Society for publication in the IEEE Transactions on Power
Delivery. Manuscript s u b r n i i February 2, 1998; made available for
are complications due to factors such as the varying nature of
printing November 10,1998. the load impedance. Installation of filters in the neutral
conductor of a three phase system needs careful design and
verification taking into account filter structure, parameters
and equivalent circuits of three phase lamp systems.
This paper presents the second stage of the research project
leading to the verification of the harmonic filter effectiveness
in reducing harmonic distortion for various regimes of the
supply system. In the first stage, the idea of a parallel or
double tuned filter included into the neutral conductor has
Lamp B
, 
B . m
.
Lamp C 4
~ ~~~~~~~~.~~ where R I , R = resistances of the inductors. L , ,L 2 = the
reactance of inductors, C,, C2 = values of capacitors.
5. FIELD TESTS
1.2
3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 1 3 1 5
Hamania, Hamwnica
1.o 12
SO.8 %a
E 8
f 0.6
U 0 6
$0.4 $ 4
f 0.2 2

no 0
3 5 7 9 11 13 15 1 3 5 7 9 11 1 3 1 5
m c s Harmonics
Fig. 5. Reduction of harmonic currents during laboratory tests: (a) Symmetry  Phase Current, (b) Symmetry  Neutral
Current, (c) Asymmetry  Twophase regime  Phase current, (d) Asymmetry  Twophase regime  Neutral current.
1006
TABLE 2
PHASE AND NEUTRAL CURRENTS
l l 3
A
& 7 9 1 3 5 7 9
3 5
L7 9
CaseA Case6

2
ii
B
CaseCHa~~n~nics
Fig. 6 Reduction of harmonic distortion in phase current (Blue) in percentage of the total current for No
Filter option
TABLE 3
1007
The total harmonic distortion index of the phase currents was [2] E. Gluskin, “High harmonic current in fluorescent lamp
very high reaching nearly 27%. Switching in the filter led to circuits,” IEEE Trans on Industry Applications, vol. 26,
significant distortion reduction, in particular in Case C, single no. 2, MarcWApril 1990, pp. 347351.
phase configuration. Smaller reduction of phase current [3] W. Lawrance, G. Michalik, W. Mielczarski, and
distortion occurred in Case A, symmetry. This is a result of J. Szczepanik, “Reduction of Harmonic Pollution in
reduction of only zero sequence harmonics flowing in the Distribution Networks,” Proceedings of EPDM’95, 2 1
neutral conductor. In this case, negative (5”) and positive 24 November 1995, Singapore, IEEE Catalogue No
(7”) sequence harmonics can flow in phase currents as they 95TH8130, pp. 198202.
are not effected by filters installed in the neutral conductor. [4] A. Liew, “Excessive neutral currents in threephase
fluorescent lighting circuits,“ IEEE Trans. on Industry
6. CONCLUSIONS Applications, vol. 25, no.4, JulyAug. 1989.
(51 Standards Association of Australia, Disturban ‘
Laboratory and field tests have confirmed that the inclusion mains supply networks, Part 1  Limitation of h
of a parallel or double tuned filter in the neutral conductor caused by household and similar appliances,
leads to the harmonic current reduction in the neutral and Limitation of harmonics caused by industrial equipment,
phase currents. It can be considered as one of possible AS 2279  1979.
options of harmonic current reduction in particular of zero [6] J. Szczepanik,. “Reduction of harmonic distortion in
sequence components. It seems to be effective way of distribution circuits caused by discharge lamp systems,”
reducing distortion especially for low frequency harmonics, MEngSc Thesis, Monash University, 1995.
like 3d order, for which tuned parallel filters connected
between supply line and the ground are very expensive. Wladyslaw Mielczarski (M’9 1 SM’94) received his
Although, laboratory and field tests generally confirm the M.Sc..Ph.D. and D.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering from
effectiveness of the new idea, there are still many problems to the Technical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland, in 1973,
analyse, in particular, how to design low cost construction 1978 and 1987, respectively.
and influence of filters on system characteristics. From 1978 to 1990, he was with the Institute of Electrical
During tests, both filters have been subjected to strong Power Engineering, Technical University of Lodz, as a
harmonic distortion. The double tuned filter dampens more Lecturer and an Associate Professor. Currently, he is an
effectively higher harmonic currents compared to the parallel Associate Professor with Department of Electrical and
filter. However, its construction is more complicated and Computer Systems Engineering, Monash University,
expensive. It is worth installation in systems with strong Melbourne, Australia. His research interests include
asymmetry and harmonic distortion resulting from other applications of optimization methods in electrical
nonlinear loads. engineering, quality of electricity supply and fuzzy logic
Filters can be applied to new and existing installations on methods.
various levels of supply systems. They can be used for a
group of lamps, one entire floor in a building or the complete William B. Lawrance (M86) received his B.Eng degree in
building supply system. The decision depends of typical electrical engineering from the Royal Melbourne Institute of
regimes of system loading and cost calculation. Technology, Melbourne, Australia, 1968, Master’s degrees
The most promising approach seems to install such filters from the University of Surrey, Surryy, the U.K., and
in the neutral of three phase lamp fittings. Symmetry of a Laughborough University, Laughborough, the U.K. in 1974
three phase fitting permits the implementation of a parallel and 1980 respectively, and the Ph.D. degree from Curtin
filter, reducing the cost. Moreover, a three phase fitting University of Technology, Perth, Australia in 1995.
reduces the stroboscope effect of discharge lamps by shifting Currently, he is the Head of the Department of Electrical
phase voltages 120”. The common application of parallel Engineering, Curtin University. His research interests include
filters in new, three phase fluorescent fittings will allow power system harmonics and photovoltaic applications.
significant harmonic current reduction in neutral and phase
currents. Jerzy Szeczepanik received his MSc. degree in electrical
engineering from the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy,
Acknowledgment Cracow, Poland. From 1993 till 1995 he was studying
towards his MEngSc at Monash University, Melbourne,
This research project has been supported by Mineral and Australia. Currently he is a Ph.D. student at the Royal
Energy Research Institute of Western Australia, Grant E232, Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
and ABB Capacitor Division in Melbourne.
REFERENCES
[I] M.S. Bazaraa, and C.M. Shetty, Non  linear
programming  theory and algorithms, John Wiley, 1979.