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“Viral Conjunctivitis Infection”

Conjunctivitis (also called "madras eye" in south India or "pink eye") is an acute
inflammation of the conjunctiva (the outermost layer of the eye and the inner surface of the
eyelids), most commonly due to an allergic reaction or an infection (usually viral, but sometimes
bacterial).Viral conjunctivitis is often associated with an infection of the upper respiratory tract, a
common cold, and/or a sore throat. Its symptoms include watery discharge and variable itch. The
infection usually begins with one eye, but may spread easily to the other.
Viral conjunctivitis, commonly known as "pink eye”, shows a fine diffuse pinkness of
the conjunctiva which is easily mistaken for the 'ciliary injection' of iritis, but there are usually
corroborative signs on microscopy, particularly numerous lymphoid follicles on the tarsal
conjunctiva, and sometimes a punctate keratitis. Allergic conjunctivitis is typically itchy,
sometimes distressingly so, and often involves some eye swelling, shows pale watery swelling or
edema of the conjunctiva and sometimes the whole eyelid, often with a ropy, non-purulent
mucoid discharge. There is variable redness. Chronic allergy often causes just itching or
irritation.
The most common cause of viral conjunctivitis is adenoviruses; however there are so
many pathogenesis that can cause viral conjunctivitis Neisseria gonorrhoeae also known as
(gonococcus) fastidious, gram negative diplococcus type and non motile bacteria, Streptococcus
pneumoniae gram positive diplococcus type, Staphylococcus aureus gram positive cocci,
Haemophilusphilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius , ,
The portal of entry is which may be inoculated by rubbing with contaminated fingers
directly to the eyes. Infected human is the reservoir.
Most common mode of transmission of viral conjunctivitis may result from water
borne, contaminated fingers with direct contact, penetration through the intact skin, droplets, can
also transmitted one person to another by casual contact, sharing towels or pillow cases, facial
contact, or sharing of cosmetics.
Common portal of exit via tears droplets. Susceptible host most are infected humans.
Organisms usually cause infections in people who are weak, sick and malnourished, have cancer,
are diabetic or are immuno-suppressed. Individuals who have a suppressed immune system are
quickly over powered by the organisms. The majority of chronic or persistent infections occur in
individuals who have poor defense mechanism(s).
In viral cases the incubation period of can be up to a week. Signs & Symptoms of viral
conjunctivitis asymmetry the infection may start in one eye and then spread to the other, but
usually affects both eyes fairly quickly. One eye may have worse symptoms than the other; eye
sensation viral conjunctivitis causes eyes to become red, with irritation, gritty sensations,
discomfort and itchiness; eye discharge tearing and watery discharge are common signs of
conjunctivitis, sometimes with tears leaking from the eyes. The discharge might be yellow or
greenish, and can cause eyelids to stick together after sleeping; duration viral conjunctivitis can
last for several days up to three weeks. Symptoms are similar to bacterial conjunctivitis, but that
type can be treated with antibiotic eye drops, and thus clear up much faster.
Diagnosis of conjunctivitis and differentiation between bacterial, viral, and noninfectious
conjunctivitis are usually clinical; special tissue cultures are necessary for growth of the virus but
are rarely indicated. Features that may help differentiate between viral and bacterial
conjunctivitis can include purulence of eye discharge.
Prevention measures include avoiding touching the eyes, which can transmit an
infectious virus or bacteria from the hands into the eyes. It is also key, to wash hands frequently
with soap and water for at least 15 seconds, especially after having contact with anyone with
conjunctivitis or any object that may be contaminated with a virus or bacteria. Do not share
personal items that touch the face or eyes, such as pillowcases, towels or wash cloths with others.
Treatment plans for conjunctivitis are individualized depending on the specific kind of
conjunctivitis. Treatment generally involves a multifaceted plan that addresses the cause and
helps to minimize eye discomfort and the development of complications, such as blindness in
newborns. Antibiotics are not effective for treating viral conjunctivitis. Can be serious and
requires treatment with acyclovir. Conjunctivitis resolves in 65% of cases without treatment,
within 2 – 5 days. The prescribing of antibiotics
Although there is no specific treatment for viral conjunctivitis, symptomatic relief may
be achieved with cold compresses and artificial tears. People are often advised to avoid touching
their eyes or sharing towels and washcloths. Moist warm compresses applied to the eyes can help
relieve symptoms. Over-the-counter artificial tears (eyedrops) can also bring relief.

References:

Mayo Clinic, "Treatment of Pink Eyes" Accessed September 07, 2010

All About Vision, "Pink Eye Infection in Children" Accessed September 07, 2010

Read more at Suite101: Pink Eye in Children: Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention
http://www.suite101.com/content/pink-eye-in-children-symptoms-treatment-and-prevention-
a283180#ixzz10qjbSYcl

http://www.google.com.ph/

http://ask.com/
“Bacterial Conjunctivitis”

Bacterial conjunctivitis due to the common pyogenic (pus-producing) bacteria causes


marked grittiness/irritation, reddening of conjunctiva, edema of eyelids, and a stringy, opaque,
grey or yellowish mucopurulent discharge (mucus),sensitivity to light; highly contagious disease,
gowl, goop, gunk, googies, eye crust, or other regional names, officially known as 'gound') that
may cause the lids to stick together (matting), especially after sleeping. Another symptom that
could be caused by bacterial conjunctivitis is severe crusting of the infected eye and the
surrounding skin. However discharge is not essential to the diagnosis, contrary to popular belief.
Bacteria such as Chlamydia trachomatis or Moraxella can cause a non-exudative but persistent
conjunctivitis without much redness. The gritty and/or scratchy feeling is sometimes localized
enough for patients to insist they must have a foreign body in the eye. The more acute pyogenic
infections can be painful. Like viral conjunctivitis, it usually affects only one eye but may spread
easily to the other eye. However, it is dormant in the eye for three days before the patient shows
signs of symptoms.

Bacterial conjunctivitis is an infection caused by bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus,


Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza are the most common cause, although
many other bacteria can cause pinkeye. These organisms may come from the patient's own skin
or upper respiratory tract or they may be caught from another person with conjunctivitis.

Infected human serves as reservoir of bacterial conjunctivitis, portal of entry is which


skin to skin contact, may be inoculated by rubbing with contaminated fingers directly to the
eyes.

Most common mode of transmission of bacterial conjunctivitis may result from human
to human via contact with eye and respiratory discharge, water borne, contaminated fingers with
direct contact, facial tissues, clothing, eye makeup, eye medication, ophthalmic instruments, and
contact lens- wetting and lens- cleaning agents.

Common portal of exit via the discharges of tears, susceptible host most are infected
humans. In bacterial infection the incubation period can be up to a few days.

Sign and symptoms is typically itchy, sometimes distressingly so, and often involves
some eye swelling. Chronic allergy often causes just itching or irritation.

Allergic conjunctivitis shows pale watery swelling or edema of the conjunctiva and sometimes
the whole eyelid, often with a ropy, non-purulent mucous discharge. There is variable redness.
The symptoms of viral conjunctivitis causing pink eye in children include itching and a clear or
white discharge apart from redness of the eye. Other viral symptoms may be observed such as
cough, a runny nose, or sore throat. Many children with viral conjunctivitis also have an enlarged
lymph node in front of their ear (pre-auricular adenopathy).

Diagnosis infection of the eye cause by bacteria (including chlamydias) and viruses should be
differentiated from allergic manifestations and irritation by microscopic examination of the
exudates (oozing pus), culture of pathogen, and / or immunodiagnostic procedures.

The most preventive measures of conjunctivitis are washing your hands often, to
keep pink eye from spreading.

Never share washcloths, towels or pillowcases with anyone at home or in a public environment.
Don't share eye drops or cosmetics such as eyeliner, eye shadow or mascara. If you have pink
eye, replace these items to avoid re-infection after your recovery.

You also want to use common-sense precautions to avoid spreading pink eye from one infected
eye to the other. Wash your hands frequently, and avoid touching the corners of your eye or
rubbing your eye. If your contaminated hand then touches the unaffected eye, you could end up
with pink eye in both eyes.

For treating bacterial pink eye in children, antibiotic eye ointment, in place of eye drops, is
sometimes prescribed. Though the ointment may blur vision for up to 20 minutes after
application, it is often easier to administer to an infant or young child than using eye drops.
However, eye drops include Polytrim, Tobramycin, and Gentamicin.
easily to the other eye. However, it is dormant in the eye for three days before the patient shows
signs of symptoms.

Pyogenic bacterial conjunctivitis shows an opaque purulent discharge, a very red eye, and on bio
microscopy there are numerous white cells and desquamated epithelial cells seen in the tear duct
along the lid margin. The tarsal conjunctiva is a velvety red and not particularly follicular. Non-
pyogenic infections can show just mild infection and be difficult to diagnose. Scarring of the
tarsal conjunctiva is occasionally seen in chronic infections, especially in trachoma.

Bacterial conjunctivitis usually resolves without treatment. Antibiotics, eye drops, or


ointment are thus only needed if no improvement is observed after 3 days.[7] In
patients receiving no antibiotics recovery was in 4.8 days, immediate antibiotics 3.3
days, delayed antibiotics 3.9 days. No serious effects were noted either with or
without treatment.[8][9]

For treating bacterial pink eye in children, antibiotic eye ointment, in place of eye drops, is
sometimes prescribed. Though the ointment may blur vision for up to 20 minutes after
application, it is often easier to administer to an infant or young child than using eye drops.
However, eye drops include Polytrim, Tobramycin, and Gentamicin.

Read more at Suite101: Pink Eye in Children: Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention
http://www.suite101.com/content/pink-eye-in-children-symptoms-treatment-and-prevention-
a283180#ixzz10qpa51FD