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Example No.6.4

An existing pump, having the tabulated characteristics, is to be used to pump raw sewage

to a treatment plant through a static lift of 20 m. A uPVC pipeline 10 km long is to be used.

Allowing for minor losses totaling 10 v 2 / 2g and taking an effective roughness of 0.15 mm

because of sliming, select a suitable commercially available pipe size to achieve a

discharge of 60 lit/sec. Calculate the power consumption.

Pump Characteristics :

 Discharge 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 (l/sec) Total 45.0 44.7 43.7 42.5 40.6 38.0 35.0 31.0 Head (m) Efficiency 35 50 57 60 60 53 40 (per cent) -

The efficiencies given are the overall efficiencies of the pump and motor combined.

Given :

H s = 20 m

L = 10,000 m

k = 0.15 mm

h minor =10

2

v

2 g

Q req = 60 lit / sec = 0.06 m 3 / sec

Steps of solution :

To provide a discharge of 60 lit/sec, the pump will operate at a manometric head of 35 meters, therefore the sum of the static lift and pipeline losses must not exceed 35 m. We shall start with trying a pipe diameter of 300 mm, then we would calculate the required head to pump 60 lit/sec through the system :

The flow velocity through the pipe :

v = Q = Q

A

π

4

D 2

v = 0.060

π

4

0.3 2 = 0.849 m / sec

To calculate Reynolds number :

R e = vD

ν

= 0.8490.3

1.1310

6 = 225,352

The roughness height for uPVC pipes is :

k = 0.15 mm

To calculate the friction coefficient, Barr's equation is used :

 1 =− 2 log ( k / D 3.7 + 5.1286 R 0.89 ) √ f e

1 f = 2 log ( 0.15 / 0.3 + 5.1286

3.7

225,352

0.89 )

f = 0.0188

To calculate K for the pipeline (using Darcy-Weisbach equation) :

K = 8 f L

π

2

gD 5 K = 80.018810,000

π 2 9.810.3 5

To calculate the friction losses through the pipeline :

h f = KQ 2 = K 0.060 2 = 22.960 m

To calculate the minor/secondary losses through the pipeline :

h minor =

K

2

10

gA 2 0.060 2 = 0.367 m

For the pipeline, the head required to produce a discharge Q of 60 lit/sec is given by :

H m = H s + h f + h minor

H m = H s +

8 f L

K

π 2 gD 5 Q 2 + 2 gA 2 Q 2

m

H m = 20 + 22.960 + 0.367 = 43.327 m

Since the required manometric head is more than 35 meters, therefore the pipe diameter is too small and needs to be increased. Try a pipe diameter of 350 mm, then we would calculate the required head to pump 60 lit/sec through the system :

The flow velocity through the pipe :

v = 0.060

v = Q = Q

4

0.35 2 = 0.624 m / sec

4

To calculate Reynolds number :

= 0.6240.35 1.1310 6

 R e = vD ν =193,159

The roughness height for uPVC pipes is :

k = 0.15 mm

To calculate the friction coefficient, Barr's equation is used :

1

=− 2 log ( k / D

+ 5.1286

R

0.89

e

)

1 f = 2 log ( 0.15 / 0.35 + 5.1286

3.7

193,159

0.89 )

f = 0.0186

To calculate K for the pipeline (using Darcy-Weisbach equation) :

K = 8 f L

π

2

gD 5 K = 80.0186 10,000

π

2 9.810.35 5

gA 2 Q 2 =

m

2

A

π

D 2

π

f

3.7

To calculate the friction losses through the pipeline :

h f = KQ 2 = K 0.060 2 =10.551 m

To calculate the minor/secondary losses through the pipeline :

h minor =

K

2

10

gA 2 0.060 2 =0.198 m

For the pipeline, the head required to produce a discharge Q of 60 lit/sec is given by :

H m = H s + h f + h minor

H m = H s +

8

f L

K

π 2 gD 5 Q 2 + 2 gA 2 Q 2

m

H m = 20 + 10.551 + 0.198 = 30.749 m

Since the required manometric head is less than 35 meters, therefore the chosen pipe diameter is optimum. Now, the operating discharge and head should be calculated through the typical procedure. The solution to such problems is basically to solve simultaneously the head- discharge relationships for the pump and pipeline :

For the pump, head delivered at discharge Q may be expressed by :

H m = AQ 2 + BQ +C

For the pipeline, the head required to produce a discharge Q is given by :

H m = H s + h f + h minor

H m = H s +

8

f L

K

π 2 gD 5 Q 2 + 2 gA 2 Q 2

m

A graphical solution is the simplest method and also gives the engineer a visual interpretation of the matching of the pump & pipeline.

gA 2 Q 2 =

m

2

First of all, we shall start with the system curve. Values of H corresponding to a range of Q values will be calculated.

 System Curve TheFluidMechanic.Com Q (l/s) 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 Q (m 3 /s) 0 0.015 0.03 0.045 0.06 0.075 0.09 D (mm) 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 v (m/s) 0.000 0.156 0.312 0.468 0.624 0.780 0.935 Kinematic Viscosity 1.13E-06 1.13E-06 1.13E-06 1.13E-06 1.13E-06 1.13E-06 1.13E-06 R e 0 48,290 96,579 144,869 193,159 241,449 289,738 k (mm) 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 k/D 0.00043 0.00043 0.00043 0.00043 0.00043 0.00043 0.00043 f -0.5 0.000 6.668 7.036 7.216 7.327 7.403 7.459 f 0.0000 0.0225 0.0202 0.0192 0.0186 0.0182 0.0180 H st 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 L (m) 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 H f 0.000 0.796 2.860 6.118 10.551 16.147 22.904 K m 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 H minor 0.000 0.012 0.050 0.111 0.198 0.310 0.446 H m 20.000 20.809 22.910 26.230 30.749 36.457 43.350

To summarize the procedure for completing the previous table :

Flow velocity is calculated through :

v = Q = Q D 2 v =

4

4

Q

The kinematic viscosity for water is taken as :

ν = 1.1310 6 m 2 / sec

Reynolds number is calculated through :

R e = vD

ν

= v 0.35

1.13 10 6

A

π

π

0.35 2

The roughness height for uPVC pipes is :

k = 0.15 mm

To calculate the friction coefficient, Barr's equation is used :

1

=− 2 log ( k / D

+ 5.1286

0.89

e

)

The friction losses (using Darcy-Weisbach equation) occurring in the pipeline is calculated through :

h

f = KQ 2 ,K = 8 f L π 2 gD 5

To calculate the minor/secondary losses through the pipeline :

K

2 gA 2

Finally, the total manometric head required is :

H m = H s + h f + h minor

The following graph shows the system curve for the previously tabulated values :

f

3.7

R

h minor =

m

Q 2

The following graph shows the pump characteristic curve (Head vs Discharge curve ) :

The computed system curve data and pump characteristic curve data are now plotted on the same graph as shown in the following figure :

The intersection point gives the operating conditions; in this case :

Q o = 66 l / sec , H m = 32.89 m

The operating efficiency is :

η total = 0.45

To calculate the power consumption :

66

Output Power = γ w Q o H m =9,810 1000 32.89 = 21,294.96 Watt

η total = Output Power Input Power

0.45 = 21,294.96 Input Power

Input Power = 47,322.132 Watt = 47.3 kW

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