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PROFESSIONAL ADJUSTMENT/ NURSING JURISPRUDENCE Provided, That the majority of the members of the Board shall

be holders of a master's degree in nursing: Provided, further,


That the Chairperson shall be a holder of a master's degree in
A. Patient’s Bill of Rights
nursing; Have at least ten (10) years of continuous
practice of the profession prior to appointment: Provided,
 The patient has the right to considerate & respectful care, however, That the last five (5) years of which shall be in the
irrespective of socio-economic status. Philippines; and
 The patient has the right to obtain from his physician Not have been convicted of any offense involving moral
complete current information concerning his diagnosis, turpitude
treatment and prognosis in terms the patient can reasonably
be expected to understand.
 The Board shall supervise and regulate the practice of
 The patient has the right to receive from his physician
the nursing profession and shall have the following
information necessary to give informed consent prior to start
powers, duties and functions: CIMECPRP
of any procedure and or treatment (except in emergencies).
Conduct the licensure examination for nurses; Issue,
 The patient has the right to refuse treatment / life-giving suspend or revoke certificates of registration for the
measures, to the extent permitted by law and to be informed practice of nursing;
of the medical consequence of his action.
Monitor and enforce quality standards of nursing practice
 The patient has the right to every consideration of his privacy
in the Philippines. Ensure quality nursing education
concerning his own medical care program. Case discussion,
Conduct hearings and investigations to resolve
consultation, examination and treatment are confidential and complaints against nurse practitioners Promulgate a
should be conducted discreetly. Code of Ethics Recognize nursing specialty organizations
 The patient has the right to expect that all communication and in coordination with the accredited professional
records pertaining to his care should be treated as organization
confidential. Prescribe, adopt issue and promulgate guidelines,
 The patient has the right that within its capacity, a hospital regulations, measures and decisions as may be necessary
must make reasonable response to the request of patient for for the improvements of the nursing practice
services.
 The patient has the right to obtain information as to any
 The president may remove or suspend any member of
relationship of the hospital to other health care and to other
the Board after having been given the opportunity to
health care and educational institutions in so far as his care is
defend himself/herself in a proper administrative
concerned.
investigation, on the following grounds:
 The patient has the right to refuse or participate in such
Continued neglect of duty or incompetence; Commission
research projects.
or toleration of irregularities in the licensure examination;
 The patient has the right to expect reasonable continuity of and
care.
Unprofessional immoral or dishonorable conduct.
 The patient has the right to examine and receive an
explanation of his bill regardless of source of payment.
 The patient has the right to know what hospital rules and D. Licensure Examination
regulations apply to his conduct as a patient.
 In order to be admitted to the examination for nurses, an
B. Nursing as a Profession applicant must, at the time of filing his/her application,
Nursing is a profession. A profession possesses the following establish to the satisfaction of the Board that:
primary characteristics: He/she is a citizen of the Philippines, or a citizen or
 Education, requires an extended education of its subject of a country which permits Filipino nurses to
members, as well as basic liberal foundation. practice within its territorial limits on the same basis as
 Theory, has a theoretical body of knowledge leading to the subject or citizen of such country: Provided, That the
defined skills, abilities and norms. requirements for the registration or licensing of nurses in
 Service said country are substantially the same as those
 Autonomy prescribed in this Act; He/she is of good moral character;
and
 Code of ethics
He/she is a holder of a Bachelor's Degree in Nursing from
 Caring a college or university that complies with the standards of
nursing education duly recognized by the proper government
C. Organization of the Board of Nursing agency.

 The Board is composed of a Chairperson and six (6)  In order to pass the examination, an examinee must
members obtain a general average of at least seventy-five
percent (75%) with a rating of not below sixty
 That the membership to the Board shall represent the
percent (60%) in any subject.
three (3) areas of nursing, namely: nursing education,
nursing service and community health nursing. An examinee who obtains an average rating of seventyfive
percent (75%) or higher but gets a rating below sixty
 The Chairperson and Members of the Board shall possess percent (60%) in any subject must take the examination
the following qualifications: again but only in the subject or subjects where he/she is
Be a natural born citizen and resident of the Philippines rated below sixty percent (60%).
Be a member of good standing of the accredited
professional organization of nurses; In order to pass the succeeding examination, an examinee
must obtain a rating of at least seventy-five percent (75%)
Be a registered nurse and holder of a master's degree in in the subject or subjects repeated.
nursing, education or other allied medical profession conferred
by a college or university duly recognized by the Government:
 A special/temporary permit may be issued by the Board
to the following persons subject to the approval of the
Commission and upon payment of the prescribed fees:
F. Laws Affecting Nursing Profession
Licensed nurses from foreign countries/states whose service
are either for a fee or free if they are internationally well-
known specialists or outstanding experts in any branch PD 442 Labor Code
or specialty of nursing;
PD 651 Birth registration following delivery (all health
Licensed nurses from foreign countries/states on medical workers shall identify and encourage the
mission whose services shall be free in a particular registration of all births within 30 days
hospital, center or clinic; and following delivery)
Licensed nurses from foreign countries/states employed by PD 825 Anti- improper garbage disposal
schools/colleges of nursing as exchange professors PD 856 Code of Sanitation
in a branch or specialty of nursing; PD 996 Compulsory immunization for all children
below eight (8) years old against six (6)
immunizable diseases
 The Board shall have the power to revoke or suspend the
certificate of registration/professional license or cancel EO 51 Milk Code
the special/temporary permit of a nurse upon any of the RA. 1136 Tuberculosis Law
following grounds: RA. 3573 Reporting communicable Disease
RA. 4073 Liberalized the treatment of Leprosy
Person convicted by final judgment of any criminal
offense involving moral turpitude or any person guilty of RA. 6425 Dangerous Drug Act – the sale, administration,
immoral or dishonorable conduct or any person delivery, distribution and transportation of
declared by the court to be of unsound mind For prohibited drugs is punished by law.
unprofessional and unethical conduct; RA. 6675 Generics Act of 1988 – this promotes, requires
For gross incompetence or serious ignorance; and ensures the production of an adequate
For malpractice or negligence in the practice of nursing; supply, distribution, use an acceptance of drugs
For the use of fraud, deceit, or false statements in and medicines identified by their generic
obtaining a certificate of registration/professional license or a names.
temporary/special permit; RA. 7160 Local Government Code
For violation of this Act, the rules and regulations, Code of RA. 7170 Organ Donation Law
Ethics for nurses and technical standards for nursing practice, RA. 7277 Magna Carta for Disabled persons
policies of the Board and the Commission, or the conditions RA. 7305 Magna Carta for Public Health workers
and limitations for the issuance of the temporarily/special
RA. 9257 Expanded Senior Citizen Act of 2003
permit; or For practicing his/her profession during his/her RA. 7600 Rooming –In and Breast feeding Act
suspension from such practice;
RA. 7610 Anti-Child Abuse Law
RA. 8172 Asin Law / Iodize Salt Law
E. Nursing Education and Practice RA. 8423 Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act
RA. 8504 Philippine AIDS Prevention and Control Act
 A member of the faculty in a college of nursing teaching RA. 8976 Food Fortification Act
professional courses must: RA. 9173 The Nursing Act of 2002
Be a registered nurse in the Philippines; Have at least
one (1) year of clinical practice in a field of
specialization; G. Inform Consent
Be a member of good standing in the accredited  Requisites for Validity of Informed Consent
Written permission is best and legally accepted.
professional organization of nurses; and Be a holder of To ensure that the client understand the nature of the
a master's degree in nursing, education, or other allied treatment including the potential complications and
medical and health sciences conferred by a college or disfigurement (explained by AMD)
university duly recognized by the Government of the Republic
of the Philippines. Signature is obtained with the client’s complete understanding
of what to occur.
In addition to the aforementioned qualifications, the dean - adult sign their own operative permit
of a college must have a master's degree in nursing. - obtained before sedation
He/she must have at least five (5) years of experience in
nursing. For minors, parents or someone standing in their behalf, gives
A person occupying supervisory or managerial positions the consent.
Note: for a married emancipated minor parental consent is not
requiring knowledge of nursing must: needed anymore, spouse is accepted
Be a registered nurse in the Philippines; Have at least
two (2) years experience in general nursing service For mentally ill and unconscious patient, consent must be
administration; taken from the parents or legal guardian

Possess a degree of Bachelors of Science in Nursing, with If the patient is unable to write, an “X” ia accepted if there is
at least nine (9) units in management and administration a witness to his mark
Secured without pressure and threat
courses at the graduate level; and Be a member of good A witness is desirable – nurse, physician or authorized
standing of the accredited professional organization of nurses; persons.
Provided, That a person occupying the position of chief When an emergency situation exists, no consent is necessary
nurse or director of nursing service shall, in addition to because inaction at such time may cause greater injury.
the foregoing qualifications, possess: (permission via telephone/cellphone is accepted but must be
At least five (5) years of experience in a supervisory or signed within 24hrs.)
managerial position in nursing; and
A master's degree major in nursing H. Living Will
 It is a legal declaration of a person’s intentions upon non-injurious consequences  Stepping beyond one’s
death. authority
 The nurse should note the soundness of the patient’s  RN exceeding the scope of nursing practice & does an
mind and that there was free from fraud or undue MD’s job.
influence and that the patient was above 18 years or of
age. K. Torts
 The patient should write that the will was signed by the
testator, that the witnesses were all present at the same
time and signed the will I the presence of the testator.  Assault is a unjustifiable attempt to touch another
person or even the threat of doing so
 Advance Directive
 Battery is the actual carrying out of the threatened
Signed request to be allowed to die when life can be physical contact
supported only mechanically or by heroic measures  Defamation of character occurs where a person
Includes the decision to accept or refuse any treatment, discusses another individual in terms that diminish
service or procedure used to diagnose or treat his/her reputation. Libel is written defamation. Slander is oral
physical or mental condition and decisions to provide
Defamation
 False Imprisonment it is making someone wrongfully
 Health Care Proxy feel that he or she cannot leave the place.
The patient designates a health care representative,
usually a member of the family, a friend or a family L. Restraints
physician to make decisions for him/her when he/she is  Restraints are protective devices used to limit the physical
unable, due to physical or mental incapacity, accept or
activity of a client or to immobilize a client or an
refuse treatment, service or procedure used to diagnose
or treat his/her physical or mental condition and extremity.
decisions to provide, withhold or withdraw life sustaining R-equires physician’s order; consent
measures E-mergency, get MD’s order ASAP
S-hortest duration, least restrictive type
T-o protect pt. and others
I. Negligence R-enew order every 24 hours
A-ssess every 15 to 30 minutes and document
I-ndividualized supervision
 NEGLIGENCE” refers to the commission or omission of
N-ever used as a punishment T-otal
an act, pursuant to a duty, that a reasonably prudent documentation
person in the same or similar circumstance would or S-eclusion as last step
would not to, and acting or the non-acting of which is the
proximate cause of injury to another person to his
property. M. Crimes
 Elements of Negligence:  Conspiracy to commit a crime:
Existence of a duty on the part of the person Principals- are those who take a direct part in the
charged Failure to meet the standard of due care execution of the act, who’s directly force or induce others
Harm resulting from failure to meet the standard to commit it; or who cooperate in the commission of the
 Specific examples of Negligence: offense by another act without which it would not have
Failure to report observations to attending Physicians been accomplished.
Failure to exercise the degree of diligence which the
circumstances of the particular case demands Accomplices- are those who, not being principals,
Mistaken Identity cooperate in the execution of the offense by previous and
simultaneous act.
Wrong medicine, wrong concentration, wrong route,
wrong dose Accessories- are those who, having the knowledge of the
Defects in the equipment such as stretchers and commission of the crime. Assisting the offender to profit
from the crime either by disposing the body, concealing
wheelchairs may lead to falls thus injuring the patients
or assisting in escape of the principal of the crime.
Errors due to family assistance

 Degree of the acts of execution:


 Doctrine of Negligence
Consummated- when all the elements necessary for its
1. RES IPSA LOQUITOR
execution and accomplishment are present.
“the things speak for itself” - the injury is enough proof of
negligence Frustrated- when the offender performs all the acts or
2. RESPONDEAT SUPERIOR execution which will produce the felony as a consequence but
Let the master answer for the acts of the subordinate The which nevertheless, do not produce it by reason of causes
liability is expanded to include the master as well as the independent of the will of the perpetrator. Attempted-
employee 3. FORCE MAJEURE when the offender commences the commission of the same
Irresistible force; unforeseen or inevitable event No person directly by overt acts, and does not perform the acts which
shall be responsible for those events which cannot be shall produce the felony.
foreseen Ex. Flood, fire,
earthquake

J. Malpractice
 Doing acts or conducts that are not authorized or licensed LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT
or competent or skilled to perform, resulting to injuries or
A. Leadership Style  Narrative Research, Focus on story as the object of inquiry, to
determine how individuals make sense of events in their lives.

 Authoritarian leadership style or autocratic leader


keeps strict, close control over followers by keeping
close regulation of policy and procedures given to B. Differences Between Conceptual and Theoretical
followers. Model
 Democratic leadership style consists of the leader
sharing the decision-making abilities with group
members by promoting the interests of the group
members and by practicing social equality. Conceptual Model or Theoretical Model or
Paradigm Framework
 Laissez faire style is sometimes described as a
"hands off" leadership style because the leader
delegates the tasks to their followers while providing It is a pre-theoretical basis It proposes a framework
little or no direction to the followers from which substantive derived from theories
theories may be derived
It is highly abstract It is less abstract
Transactional Leadership Transformational Concept are related and Concepts are narrowly
Leadership multidimensional bounded, specific and explicitly
Focuses on management Identify common values interrelated.
task It provides a perspective for It postulates relationship. It is
science descriptive, explanatory or
Caretaker Is committed predictive.
It is derived from systematic It is constructed from available
Uses trade-offs to meet Inspires other with vision observation and intuition. theories and findings of
goals empirical research.
Shared values not identified Has a long term vision It is developed through the It is develop through the
process of intuition process of induction and
deduction.
Examines causes Looks at effect It must be evaluated through It permits empirical tests.
Uses contingency reward Empowers other logical grounds and cannot be
empirically tested.

C. Variables
RESEARCH

 Independent Variables (CAUSE), These are factors


A. Types of Research that are being manipulated by the researcher and the
focus of the inquiry.
 Basic / Pure Research, it is done for the intellectual pleasure  Dependent Variable (EFFECT), This is the factor or
of learning to search for knowledge for its own sake and variable that is affected or influenced by the
eventually filter down the result into real life situation. independent variable.
 Applied Research, seeks for practical application of
 Intervening Variable (MEDIATOR), This is a factor or
theoretical or abstract knowledge. The truth is adapted to
every situation. variable that exists between the independent and the
 Action Research, the process involves the study of certain dependent variable.
problem and from that experience, decisions, actions and  Moderator Variable, This is a variable that affects the
conclusion are drawn. strength or direction of the relationship between the
 Correlational Research, involves the systematic investigation independent and the dependent variables.
of relationship between or among variables.
 Experimental, an objective, systematic, highly controlled
investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling Examples
phenomena in nursing practice. IV Independent Variables
 Non Experimental, the researcher collects data without DV Dependent Variable
introducing any treatment or making any changes.
 Quasi – Experimental, is like experimental research because
it actively introduces some form of treatment or manipulation
of an independent variable. Self-Concept, Personal and Professional Characteristics of Staff
 Quantitative Research, a formal, objective, systematic Nurses (IV) in Relation to Patient’s Satisfaction Index (DV)
process in which numerical data are used to obtain information
about the world.
 Qualitative Research, systematic, interactive, subjective Thermoregulation of Infants (DV ) utilizing Mineral Water
approach used to describe life experiences and give them Container and Droplight (IV)
meaning.
 Phenomenological Research, begin with accumulation of
evidence when little topic is known or when studying new topic
it involves gathering of fresh perspective. D. Hypothesis
 Grounded Theory Research, the primary purpose of  Simple Hypotheses – predicts the relationship
grounded theory research is to develop a theory. The concepts between one independent variable and one dependent
and theories discovered through this research approach are
variable.
derived directly from the data.
 Ethnographic Research, a tool for studying cultures
Example: Performance in the College of Nursing is
related to success in the nurse’s licensure exam.

 Complex Hypotheses – predicts the relationship


between two or more independent variables and two
or more dependent variables.
Example: Heredity, home environment and quality
of instruction are related to intelligence, motivation
and performance of school.

 Directional/Predictive Hypotheses – specifies the


direction of relationship between the variables being
studied.
Example: People who smoke are more prone to lung
cancer than those who do not smoke.

 Non Directional Hypotheses – predicts only that


there is a relationship between the variables being
studied but does not specify what it is. Example: There
is a difference in the level of anxiety of pre-operative
patients who receive preoperative instruction than
those who do not receive such instruction.

 Statistical / Null Hypotheses – is an assumption that


there is no difference between the studied variables.
Example: There will be no correlation between
liberalization attitudes and completion of a course in
human sexuality.

 Research Hypotheses – this is also referred to as


substantive or declarative hypotheses or statement of
expected relationship between variables. Example:
There is a significant relationship between maternal
heroin addiction and birth weight of infants.

E. Sampling Technique

 Simple Random Sampling – the selection of sample is


done by chance. e.g Lottery draw
 Stratified Random Sampling – population is subdivided
into areas, section then random sample as are taken from
each.
 Systematic Sampling – consist of taking every nth
person in a school, community telephone directory.
 Cluster Sampling – small sample is taken from various
section of a total population.
 Convenience or Accidental Sampling – data is
collected from anyone most conveniently available.
 Snowball or Network Sampling – involves subjects
suggesting or referring other subjects who meet the
researcher’s criteria.
 Judgmental or Purposive Sampling – researcher
selects and studies a specific number of a special group
that represent the target population with regards to
certain characteristics such as age, sex or economic
status.
 Cross-cultural Sampling – conducted in a variety of
cultural settings.
 Longitudinal Sampling – given group of subjects are
studied for an extended period of time
 Cross-sectional Sampling – subjects are observed at
only one point in time.
 Quota Sampling – identifies the strata of the population
and determines the proportion of elements.