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GEH-6375A

g
GE Industrial Systems

EX2000
PWM Digital Regulator
User's Guide
g
GE Industrial Systems
Document: GEH-6375A
Original Issue Date: 1997-06-01
Rev. A: 2000-07-20

EX2000
PWM Digital Regulator
User's Guide
© 2000 General Electric Company, USA.
All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America.

These instructions do not purport to cover all details or variations in equipment, nor to
provide every possible contingency to be met during installation, operation, and
maintenance. If further information is desired or if particular problems arise that are not
covered sufficiently for the purchaser’s purpose, the matter should be referred to GE
Industrial Systems, Salem, Virginia, USA.
This document contains proprietary information of General Electric Company, USA and is
furnished to its customer solely to assist that customer in the installation, testing,
operation, and/or maintenance of the equipment described. This document shall not be
reproduced in whole or in part nor shall its contents be disclosed to any third party without
the written approval of GE Industrial Systems.

Document Identification: GEH-6375, updated release

Windows NT is a registered trademark of the Miscrosoft Corporation.


Windows is a registered trademark of the Microsfot Corporation.
DIRECTO-MATIC is a registered trademark of the General Electric Company, USA.
Safety Symbol Legend

Indicates a procedure, condition, or statement that, if not


strictly observed, could result in personal injury or death.

Indicates a procedure, condition, or statement that, if not


strictly observed, could result in damage to or destruction of
equipment.

Note Indicates an essential or important procedure, condition, or statement.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Safety Symbol Legend • a


This equipment contains a potential hazard of electric shock
or burn. Only personnel who are adequately trained and
thoroughly familiar with the equipment and the instructions
should install, operate, or maintain this equipment.

Isolation of test equipment from the equipment under test


presents potential electrical hazards. If the test equipment
cannot be grounded to the equipment under test, the test
equipment’s case must be shielded to prevent contact by
personnel.

To minimize hazard of electrical shock or burn, approved


grounding practices and procedures must be strictly followed.

To prevent personal injury or equipment damage caused by


equipment malfunction, only adequately trained personnel
should modify any programmable machine.

b • Safety Symbol Legend EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A


Contents
Chapter 1 Overview 1-1
Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 1-1
System Overview.............................................................................................................. 1-2
Product Overview ............................................................................................................. 1-3
Hardware Design ....................................................................................................... 1-3
Power converter module............................................................................................. 1-5
Software Design ........................................................................................................ 1-6
Human-Machine Interface (HMI) ............................................................................... 1-8

Chapter 2 Hardware System Description 2-1


Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 2-1
Packaging......................................................................................................................... 2-2
Environmental ........................................................................................................... 2-2
Enclosure................................................................................................................... 2-2
Ratings ............................................................................................................................. 2-3
Input Ratings ............................................................................................................. 2-3
Output Current Rating................................................................................................ 2-4
Voltage Control Range............................................................................................... 2-4
Power Profile Rating.................................................................................................. 2-4
Power Converter Hardware ............................................................................................... 2-5
Ac and Dc Input Devices............................................................................................ 2-6
Dc Link and Dynamic Discharge................................................................................ 2-6
IGBT And IAXS Devices........................................................................................... 2-6
Output Contactor MDA.............................................................................................. 2-7
Output Shunt SHA ..................................................................................................... 2-7
Control Electronics Module .............................................................................................. 2-7
TCCB (DS200TCCB) ................................................................................................ 2-8
PSCD (IS200PSCD) .................................................................................................. 2-8
GDDD (IS200GDDD) ............................................................................................... 2-8
PTCT (DS200PTCT) ................................................................................................. 2-8
NTB/3TB (531X305NTB) ......................................................................................... 2-9
LTB (531X307LTB) .................................................................................................. 2-9
RTBA (DS200RTBA)................................................................................................ 2-9
ACNA (DS200ACNA) .............................................................................................. 2-9
Inputs and Outputs............................................................................................................ 2-9
Generator Inputs ........................................................................................................ 2-9
4-20 mA Inputs.........................................................................................................2-10
Generator Line Breaker Status...................................................................................2-10
Generator Lock-Out Trip...........................................................................................2-10
Additional I/O...........................................................................................................2-11

GEH-6375A User's Guide Contents • i


Chapter 3 Software System Overview 3-1
Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 3-1
Configuration Tools.......................................................................................................... 3-2
Programmer Module ......................................................................................................... 3-2
Software Design ........................................................................................................ 3-2
Standard Functions ........................................................................................................... 3-3
Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) Ramp................................................................ 3-3
Automatic Voltage Regulator Setpoint ....................................................................... 3-3
Automatic Voltage Regulator ..................................................................................... 3-3
Field Regulator (FVR) Ramp ..................................................................................... 3-3
Field Regulator .......................................................................................................... 3-3
Under Excitation Limiter (UEL)................................................................................. 3-4
Over Excitation Limiter (OEL)................................................................................... 3-4
Firing Block............................................................................................................... 3-4

Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling 4-1


Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 4-1
Configuration and Scaling Example .................................................................................. 4-2
Example Generator, Exciter, and Regulator ................................................................ 4-3
General Configuration ...................................................................................................... 4-4
Feedback Scaling.............................................................................................................. 4-6
Generator Feedback ................................................................................................... 4-6
Bridge Voltage Feedback ........................................................................................... 4-7
Bridge Current Feedback............................................................................................ 4-8
Feedback Offsets........................................................................................................ 4-8
Instantaneous Overcurrent Trip .................................................................................. 4-9
Regulator Scaling ............................................................................................................. 4-9
Automatic Voltage Regulating System ....................................................................... 4-9
Under Excitation Limiter (UEL)................................................................................4-13
Reactive Current Compensator (RCC).......................................................................4-16
VAR/Power Factor Control .......................................................................................4-17
Field Regulator (FVR) ..............................................................................................4-18
Field Current Regulator (FCR) ..................................................................................4-20
Optional Functions Scaling and Configuration..................................................................4-23
Transducer Outputs...................................................................................................4-23
Ground Detector and Diode Fault Monitor.................................................................4-24
Field Thermal Model ................................................................................................4-25

Chapter 5 Startup Checks 5-1


Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 5-1
Prestart Checks ................................................................................................................. 5-2
Energization and Simulator Control Checks................................................................ 5-2
Pre-start Power Checks ..................................................................................................... 5-4
Initial Roll Offline Checks ................................................................................................ 5-6
Online Checks .................................................................................................................. 5-7
Operator Interface............................................................................................................. 5-8
Units with Innovation Series Controller...................................................................... 5-8
Units with Discrete Switches and Meters.................................................................... 5-8

ii • Contents EX2000, PWM Regulator GEH-6375A


Chapter 6 Simulator Scaling and Operation 6-1
Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 6-1
Simulator.......................................................................................................................... 6-1
Simulator Scaling....................................................................................................... 6-2
Operation................................................................................................................... 6-4

Glossary of Terms

Index

GEH-6375A User's Guide Contents • iii


iv • Contents EX2000, PWM Regulator GEH-6375A
Chapter 1 Overview

Introduction
This manual describes the EX2000 Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) digital regulator
for brushless generator excitation systems. This is a microprocessor controlled power
converter that produces controlled dc output for rotating exciter, brushless generator
applications.
This manual is intended to assist applications and maintenance personnel in
understanding the equipment hardware and software. It also provides initial startup
information.
The manual is organized as follows:
Chapter 1 briefly defines the EX2000 PWM regulator with an overview of the
hardware and software design. Includes references to other manuals and documents,
one-lines and connection diagrams. Its purpose is to present a general product
overview for the reader as follows:
Section Page

System Overview ................................................................................................ 1-2


Product Overview................................................................................................ 1-3
Hardware Design.......................................................................................... 1-3
Power Converter Module.............................................................................. 1-5
Software Design........................................................................................... 1-6
Human-Machine Interface (HMI) ................................................................. 1-8
Chapter 2 Hardware System Description, contains specific information on system
hardware design and purpose, ratings, I/O definition.
Chapter 3 Software System Overview, contains specific information on software
tools, structure, functions, and one-line representations.
Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling, gives examples of the scaling for
specific parameters in a generic brushless regulator generator application.
Chapter 5 Startup Checks, contains pre-start, startup, and on-line adjustments
required during the commissioning of the PWM regulator for a brushless excitation
system.
Chapter 6 Simulator Scaling and Operation gives example simulator scaling and
operation instructions for a typical brushless regulator generator application.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 1 Overview • 1-1


System Overview
A second power source is also The PWM regulator controls the ac terminal voltage and/or the reactive volt amperes
possible from a dc battery of the generator by controlling the field of the rotating brushless exciter. Figure 1-1
source. shows a typical one-line system of a Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) fed
brushless generator application. Power for the regulator is normally supplied from a
PMG driven directly by the main generator field. This can be a single phase or 3-
phase PMG. An alternative method is to obtain excitation regulator power from a
Power Potential Transformer (PPT) supplied from an auxiliary bus. This can also be
a single or 3-phase supply. The PPT is required to ensure an ungrounded input to the
regulator.
The control system contains both a generator terminal voltage regulator and an
exciter field current regulator. These are known as the automatic or ac regulator and
the manual or dc regulator respectively.
When operating under control of the dc regulator, a constant exciter field current is
maintained, regardless of the operating conditions on the generator terminals. When
operating under control of the ac regulator, a constant generator terminal voltage is
maintained under varying load conditions. If the generator is connected to a large
system through a low impedance tie, the generator cannot change the system voltage
appreciably. The ac regulator, with very small variations in terminal voltage, then
controls the reactive volt amperes (Var)s.
If the generator is isolated from a system, the ac regulator controls the terminal
voltage and the Vars are determined by the load. Most systems operate in a manner
that is between these two extremes. That is, both Vars and volts are controlled by the
ac regulator. Normal operation is with the ac regulator in control, with an automatic
transfer to the dc regulator in the event of loss of potential transformer feedback as
detected through Potential Transformer Failure (PTFD) or PT Undervoltage
Detection (PTUV).
In the regulator, PT Failure Detection requires two sets of PT inputs. There is
automatic tracking between the ac and dc regulators to ensure a bumpless transfer in
either direction. A balance signal is available for display on the operator station or
turbine control interface. A transfer between regulators can be initiated by the
operator or, if supplied, by the PT failure detection algorithm. In addition to the
reference input to the ac regulator summing junction, a number of both standard and
optional inputs are possible.
The regulator includes a Besides the regulating functions, the excitation system contains protective limiter
Local Area Network (LAN) functions, startup and shutdown functions, and operator interfaces that are
and RS-232C interfaces for implemented in both hardware and/or software.
external communication.
The software is accessed via an RS-232C communication link using the GE Controls
Systems Toolbox (toolbox). The toolbox is used to configure and maintain regulators
and exciters. It is Windows-based and consists of a collection of programs (tools)
running under a command shell.

1-2 • Chapter 1 Overview EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A


Figure 1-1. PMG Brushless Exciter Overview

Product Overview

Hardware Design
Optional hardware devices The regulator hardware consists of a control core and a power converter section,
are also available, such as 4- described in Chapter 2. The controller includes printed wiring boards containing
20 mA transducers, PPT, and programmable microprocessors with companion circuitry, including electrically-
Field Ground Detector Power erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) where the regulator’s system
supplies. blockware pattern is stored. The power converter consists of input disconnects and
filters, a dc link with charge control, IGBT devices, output contactor and shunt, and
control circuitry.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 1 Overview • 1-3


Control Core (Regulator Module)
Refer to figures 2-3 and 2-4 The control core is mounted in two board racks on the outside of the core panel and
in Chapter 2. is accessible while the regulator is operating. Also, behind the hinged outer door,
several Input/Output (I/O) boards are mounted. The control core consists of all these
circuit boards interconnected by ribbon cables and harnesses, which keep wiring to a
minimum. Detailed hardware information including fuse and test point information,
replacement instructions and board layouts are provided in the referenced documents
for each of the following circuit boards.
Power Supply and Contactor Driver (PSCD) board creates internal power supplies
and redistributes the necessary power supply voltages for the other control core
circuit boards. An isolated 70 V dc supply is also produced and used for LTB board
inputs. The PSCD board also produces the contactor coil voltage for the MDA output
and charge control contactor (refer to GEI–100241).
Gate Driver and Dynamic Discharge (GDDD) controls the gating of the IGBTs for
bridge output and Dynamic Discharge control. It also isolates and scales dc output,
dc link voltage, shunt feedback and heat sink temperature feedbacks (refer to GEI–
100240).
LAN Terminal Board (LTB) provides an interface between control devices and
external devices such as contactors, relays, indicators, lights, pushbuttons and
interlocks (refer to GEI−100022).
Microprocessor Application Board (TCCB) contains software transducering
algorithms that mathematically manipulate the inputs from the isolation and scaling
printed wiring boards. These inputs are analog feedback signals from the current and
voltage transformers, which monitor generator output and line voltage, and from the
bridge ac input and dc output voltages and shunt feedbacks (refer to GEI−100163).
I/O Terminal Board (NTB/3TB) includes an RS-232C communication port for
connecting to a personal computer (PC). The optional field ground detector inputs
are connected to the NTB board (refer to GEI–100020).
Drive Control and LAN Control Board (LDCC) controls LAN communication
and permits operator access and control via the Programmer keypad. It also contains
the drive control microprocessor which monitors start/stop sequencing, alarms, trips
and outer loop regulators and motor control microprocessors which monitors the
field voltage and current regulators, gating and overcurrent protection (refer to GEI–
100216, for reprogramming the LDCC board refer to GEI−100217).
Relay Terminal Board (RTBA) provides seven output relays with form C contacts
available for customer use which can be driven from a remote input or directly from
the relays on the LTB board (refer GEI–100167).
ARCNET Link (ACNA) board provides the connection point for the ARCNET
LAN communications.

1-4 • Chapter 1 Overview EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A


Figure 1-2. EX2000 Brushless Unit

Power Converter Module


The power conversion section consists of an input section, a dc link, and the
converter output section. The input section is a 3-phase diode bridge with input
filters. The range of the ac input is from 90 V rms up to 275 V rms. Frequency inputs
range as high as a nominal 360 Hz. It can be a single phase or three phase input from
a PMG, auxiliary bus or generator terminal fed. An input PPT is not required for the
PMG input. A PPT is required for an auxiliary bus or generator terminal feed. An
optional voltage doubling feature is available for units requiring higher forcing
capability.
This circuit is normally An optional backup source from nominal 125 or 250 V dc batteries is filtered, diode
powered from the GDDD isolated and combined with the three-phase diode bridge output. These sources
board but may be powered charge the power capacitors through a charge control resistor, RCH, which forms the
through the dynamic dc link portion of the power converter module. The dc link is the unregulated source
discharge power source voltage for the control core power supplies and the output power through the IGBTs.
resistor RDS if control power A coarse control of the voltage level of the dc link is provided by the dynamic
is lost. discharge circuit. This circuit will dissipate excess power from the dc link (possible
due to a regeneration effect from the field of the rotating exciter) through the
dynamic discharge resistor, RDD.
The converter output section takes the dc link source voltage and pulse width
modulates it through the IGBT devices. The output voltage is determined by the
following formula:
Voutput = Vinput * (time on/(time on + time off))
For more information refer to where Vinput is the dc link voltage, time-on is the conduction time of the IGBT
Chapter 5, Figure 5-1. devices and time-off is the non-conduction time of the IGBTs. The chopping
frequency of the IGBTs is approximately 1000 Hz.
This output is fed to the rotating exciter field as a regulated voltage or current. A
single pole contact from the MDA contactor isolates the regulator from the field. An
output shunt monitors the field current.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 1 Overview • 1-5


Optional Hardware Modules
Scaling is provided in the There are a limited number of structured options available with the PWM regulator.
PWM software. Up to four 4-20 mA output transducers are available for customer use. They are
driven from D/A converters located on the NTB board, and are non-adjustable
devices.
A 50/60 Hz, 25 kVA Power Potential Transformer (PPT) is available for units that
are connected to an auxiliary bus or generator output terminals. This PPT may or
may not be supplied inside the regulator enclosure. Power to the primary should be
fused per the application notes found in the control elementary supplied with the
equipment. This transformer is sized to supply rated excitation requirements
continuously and still be capable of operation at ceiling excitation for a short time.
An optional Field Ground Detector Power supply may be supplied for some systems.
This power supply provides 24 V control power to the Field monitor unit mounted in
the generator exciter housing. A 120 V ac feed is required to power this supply.

Software Design
The regulator application software consists of modules (blocks) combined to create
the required system functionality. Block definitions and configuration parameters are
stored in read-only memory (ROM), while variables are stored in random-access
memory (RAM). Microprocessors execute the code.
Diagnostic software is transparent to the user. A programmer module with a digital
display and keypad allows an operator to request parameter values and self-checks.

Software
The exciter application emulates traditional analog controls. It uses an open
architecture system, which uses a library of existing software blocks. The blocks
individually perform specific functions, such as logical AND gates, proportional
integral (PI) regulators, function generators, and signal level detectors.
These blocks are tied together in a pattern to implement complex control functions.
For example, a control function such as the under-excitation limit (UEL) is included
as an ac regulator input by setting software jumpers in EEPROM. The relevant
blockware is enabled by pointing the block inputs to RAM locations where the inputs
reside (the UEL requires megawatts, kilovolts and megavars). The UEL output is
then pointed to an input of the ac regulator summing junction. The software blocks
are sequentially implemented by the block interpreter in an order and execution rate
defined in the toolbox.
The blockware can be interrogated while running by using the toolbox. The
dynamically changing I/O of each block can be observed in operation. This
technique is similar to tracing an analog signal by using a voltmeter.

1-6 • Chapter 1 Overview EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A


AC and DC Regulators
The power system stabilizer The ac or automatic regulator and, dc or manual regulator are software functions
(PSS) is an optional function. again emulating traditional analog controls. The ac regulator reference is from a
static counter and is compared to the generator terminal voltage feedback to create
an error signal. In addition to the reference signal input to the ac regulator summing
junction, the following inputs can be used to modify the regulator action.
Alternatively it can be used to Reactive Current Compensation (RCC): The generator voltage is allowed to vary
provide line drop in order to improve reactive volt amp (VA) sharing between generators connected in
compensation. parallel. Generator voltage decreases as overexcited reactive current increases, and
increases as underexcited reactive current decreases.
Under-excitation Limit (UEL): Under-excited Vars must be limited to prevent
heating of the generator iron core and to ensure dynamic stability of the turbine
generator. This is done by an under-excitation limiter that takes over when a
specified limit curve is reached and prevents operation below this limit.
V/Hz: The ratio of generator voltage to frequency (V/Hz) must be limited. This
prevents overfluxing the generator and/or line-connected transformers caused by
overvoltage operation or under-frequency operation, or a combination of the two.
Power System Stabilizer (PSS): The introduction of high gain, high initial response
exciters can cause dynamic stability problems in power systems. The advantage of
these exciters is to provide improved transient stability, but this is achieved at the
cost of reduced dynamic stability and sustained low frequency oscillations.
The PSS is an optional The PSS is fed with a synthesized speed signal based on the integral of accelerating
function. power. This indicates the rotor deviation from synchronous speed. This signal is
conditioned and fed into the summing junction of the continuously acting ac
regulator so that under deviations in machine speed or load, excitation is regulated as
a composite function of voltage and unit speed. The stabilizer therefore produces a
damping torque on the generator rotor and consequently increases dynamic stability.
Over-excitation Limiter (OEL): It is necessary to limit generator excitation current
off-line to prevent overfluxing the generator and connected transformers. Online, it
must be limited to prevent field thermal damage. The limiting action is performed by
the excitation current regulator. The current regulator takes control of bridge gating
if the regulator (automatic or manual) calls for exciter field excitation current in
excess of a predetermined pick-up level.
The dc or manual regulator is configured as a field current regulator using shunt
feedback and comparing it to the manual regulator static adjust reference. It will
maintain a constant exciter field current based on the setpoint adjuster. The online
and offline field current regulators are low value gate selected with the inner loop
regulator output to select the appropriate firing level for the IGBT bridge.

Scaling
It is necessary to scale the software in each exciter for application with a particular
generator. The regulators use normalized values of counts to represent one per unit
(1 pu). Typically 1 pu equals either 5000 or 20000 counts. This means that the
feedback value for a particular variable, such as dc link voltage (VDCLINK = 1 pu)
or bridge current (AFFL = 1 pu), must be normalized by using a multiplier to equal
the prerequisite value of counts when it is at 1 pu. See Chapter 4 for more details.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 1 Overview • 1-7


Faults
Refer to GEI−100242 for fault The EX2000 exciter has a sophisticated self-diagnostic capability. If a problem
codes, interpretation, and occurs, a fault code flashes in the programmer display showing a fault name and
troubleshooting. number. The fault number also appears on the display on the LDCC in coded form.

Simulator
Located within the core software is a sophisticated system simulation program that
models the exciter and generator behavior. The simulator is activated via a software
jumper in EEPROM.

The simulator physically operates the field contactors when a


start signal is issued to the exciter. If dc link voltage is present,
current may flow in the exciter field.

This tool is useful for Signals representing the field and the generator feedbacks are simulated in the
training, startup, and microprocessor application board (TCCB) and fed to the transducering algorithms,
calibration checkout. in place of the real feedbacks. Once the exciter is scaled for a particular generator,
the simulator uses that scaling. For example, after a successful startup sequence is
performed in simulator mode, the operator interface will displays the exciter voltage
and current and generator voltage applicable to that particular unit.
Note Scaling and operation of the simulator is discussed in Chapter 6.

Human-Machine Interface (HMI)


Refer to the control The PWM has a HMI datalink with the turbine controller over the Status_S page for
elementary supplied with the regulator information. Optional interfaces include, discrete switches and meters,
equipment for further direct DCS control through an Innovation Series Controller, or some other device.
information.

1-8 • Chapter 1 Overview EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A


Chapter 2 Hardware System Description

Introduction
This chapter describes the EX2000 PWM regulator hardware structure, and overall
operation. When reading these descriptions, refer to Figure 1-2, the specific unit
elementary, and the excitation layout diagrams provided with the equipment.
Section Page

Packaging ........................................................................................................... 2-2


Environmental.............................................................................................. 2-2
Enclosure ..................................................................................................... 2-2
Ratings ............................................................................................................... 2-3
Input Ratings................................................................................................ 2-3
Output Current Rating .................................................................................. 2-4
Voltage Control Range ................................................................................. 2-4
Power Profile Rating .................................................................................... 2-4
Power Converter Hardware ................................................................................. 2-5
Ac and Dc Input Devices .............................................................................. 2-6
Dc Link and Dynamic Discharge .................................................................. 2-6
IGBT And IAXS Devices ............................................................................. 2-6
Output Contactor MDA ................................................................................ 2-7
Output Shunt SHA ....................................................................................... 2-7
Control Electronics Module................................................................................. 2-7
TCCB (DS200TCCB) .................................................................................. 2-8
PSCD (IS200PSCD)..................................................................................... 2-8
GDDD (IS200GDDD).................................................................................. 2-8
PTCT (DS200PTCT).................................................................................... 2-8
NTB/3TB (531X305NTB)............................................................................ 2-9
LTB (531X307LTB) .................................................................................... 2-9
RTBA (DS200RTBA) .................................................................................. 2-9
ACNA (DS200ACNA)................................................................................. 2-9
Inputs and Outputs .............................................................................................. 2-9
Generator Inputs........................................................................................... 2-9
4-20 mA Inputs ...........................................................................................2-10
Generator Line Breaker Status .....................................................................2-10
Generator Lock-Out Trip.............................................................................2-10
Additional I/O .............................................................................................2-11

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 2 Hardware System Description • 2-1


Packaging
GEI-100228 provides information on Receiving, Storing, and Warranty Instructions
for DIRECTO-MATIC 2000 Equipment. This document should be consulted upon
receipt of the regulator.
Each regulator will withstand the following environmental conditions without
damage or degradation of performance.

Environmental
Temperature requirements for the regulator should be maintained within the limits in
GEI−100228 during transport and handling. Once installed, the operational limits of
an ambient temperature of 0 to +45 °C, outside of the convection cooled cabinet,
should be maintained. It is expected that the hottest board entry temperature will be
approximately 60 °C allowing the use of 70 °C parts. Maintain 5 to 95% relative
humidity with no external temperature or humidity excursions that would produce
condensation.
The control equipment is also designed to withstand 10 ppb of the following
contaminants:
• reactive sulfur
• reactive chlorine
• hydrogen sulfide
• sulfur dioxide
• chlorine dioxide
• sulfuric acid
• hydrochloric acid
• hydrogen chloride
• ammonia

Enclosure
The standard offering is a NEMA 1 or IP20 equivalent, 90 inches high by 24 inches
wide and 20 inches deep. An optional 36 inch wide enclosure is also available. In
some instances, just the regulator panel without enclosure will be provided. This
panel measures approximately 63 inches high by 17 inches wide by 18.5 inches deep.
Other enclosure types are available.
The estimated weight is 1200 pounds with NEMA 1 24 inch enclosure, and 900
pounds without enclosure. The estimated watt losses are a maximum 200 watts for
all applications.

2-2 • Chapter 2 Hardware System Description EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
Ratings
Each regulator has a specific output limit rating based on the application of the
regulator and limited by the shunt chosen for the application. The following ratings
information is the maximum output of the standard regulator, using a 25 A shunt. For
shunt ratings other than 25 A, the output current limitations will be reduced
proportionately. Name plate information should be used for accurate ratings.

Input Ratings
The ac input is the primary input power to the brushless regulator. The range of input
ac is from 90 V rms up to 275 V rms. The ac input may be single or 3-phase. The
input ac may be from a permanent magnet generator (PMG), customer supplied
auxiliary bus, or bus fed from the generator. The ac source input to the regulator
should have an impedance of 6 % nominal based on an estimated 20 A, 10 kVA
source.

PMG Input
The voltage and frequency for PMG-based input will start from 0 and increase to
rated as a function of generator speed. Rated input from the PMG system can be as
high as 250 V ac rms / 360 Hz. Nominal voltages can be 100 V ac rms up to 250 V
ac rms. With overspeed conditions, the maximum is 275 V ac rms / 440 Hz. Since
the PMG is ungrounded and only used to source power to the brushless regulator, no
input transformer is required. PMG systems on gas turbines will see extended
periods of time at < 50 % speed operation on startup. This is due to the purge cycle
needed by the gas turbine. Since the PMG may be the only input power to the
regulator, the control will initialize at ≤ 60 V ac rms (~50% speed).

Auxiliary Bus Input


Auxiliary bus-based systems require an input transformer to isolate the input to the
brushless regulator from the customer power system. This insures that the power
source to the brushless regulator is ungrounded. The transformer can be external to
the enclosure that houses the brushless regulator, but will generally be located in the
panel. The secondary voltage can range from 90 V ac rms up to a max. 275 V ac rms.
Nominal secondary voltages can be 100 V ac rms up to 250 V ac rms. Rated
frequency for the auxiliary bus-based systems can be 50 Hz or 60 ±10%.

Bus Feed from the Generator


Bus fed-based systems will require an input transformer to isolate the input to the
brushless regulator from the power system. This also insures that the power source to
the brushless regulator is ungrounded. The transformer will be external to the
enclosure that houses the brushless regulator. The secondary voltage can range from
90 V ac rms up to a max. 275 V ac rms. Nominal secondary voltages can be 100 V
ac rms up to 250 V ac rms. Rated frequency for the bus feed based systems can be 50
Hz or 60 ±10 %. If a bus fed system is applied on a black-start gas turbine, this input
may start at 20 % of rated speed, therefore, the voltage and frequency will start at 20
% of rated.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 2 Hardware System Description • 2-3


DC Input Power
The dc source input power is generally provided from a battery bus. This source is a
back up to the primary ac input power source. It can be used as the primary input
power for starting black-start turbine generators.
The nominal battery bus voltages are based on a 110/125/ 220 / 250 V dc. Therefore,
the operating range for the dc input is from 80 V dc up to a max of 290 V dc.

Output Current Rating


The bridge is capable of delivering the following absolute maximum output:
• 25 A dc continuously over the specified temperature range
• 40 A dc for 20 s once every 30 minutes after continuous operation at 25 A dc
over the specified temperature range.
The PWM bridge is monitored for excessive temperature by a heatsink sensor. Both
alarm and trip signals are available.

Voltage Control Range


The PWM bridge is capable of two-quadrant operation (positive and negative output
voltage, positive current). This allows operation near zero voltage. The PWM bridge
has two active transistors and will operate in zero vector mode. This will allow the
output voltage to be chopped in PWM fashion from +V dc to 0 for positive voltage
commands and -V dc to 0 for negative voltage commands. The chopping frequency
is approximately 1 kHz.
The IGBT bridge does not provide a low impedance path, which would provide
rectification when gating is disabled. This prevents runaway conditions known to
occur on brushless units having rotating diode failure. The four flyback diode
structure provides this inherently.

Power Profile Rating


The output power profile is a function of line impedance, line current rating,
operating point (I dc and V dc), and capacitor current rating. Peak current is limited
by IGBT rating. In general higher current output is available at lower output
voltages. Output current (I dc) can be higher than line current rating. The regulator
shall be capable of matching the following power profile.
The continuous operating area is bounded by the minimum of the capacitor limit,
line limit, 25 A dc, or maximum output curve and the x (V dc) and y (I dc) axis.
The y-axis shows input line amps (rms), capacitor amps (rms), or output amps (dc)
for a given output V dc and I dc. The curve labeled 25 shows rms capacitor current
on the y-axis for a given V dc and 25 I dc.

2-4 • Chapter 2 Hardware System Description EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
Line and capacitor currents as functions of dc voltage and current
35
at 200 Vdc and
IGBT limit 25 Adc
25Adc line current
cap limit 10 Arms is 15 Arms
30
Line (A rms), capacitor (A rms), or output (A dc) current

line limit 12.5 Arms

25 maximum
output

25 Adc
20

15

25

10

at 50 Vdc and 25 Adc


5 capacitor current is
10 Arms

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Output voltage (Volts dc)

Figure 2-1. Typical Power Profile

The curve labeled 25 A dc shows rms line current on the y-axis for a given output V
dc and 25 I dc.
Negative voltage operation is The line limit curve corresponds to given V dc and I dc, which would result in rated
not shown. line current. The cap limit curve corresponds to given V dc and I dc, which would
result in rated capacitor current. The following graph illustrates the various limits.

Power Converter Hardware


For the following discussions, use elementary drawing 03A and the panel layout
drawings (Figures 2-2 through 2-5) as references. The elementary drawing is typical
for all applications. On a requisition basis, the output shunt (SHA), charge resistor
(RCH), and dynamic discharge resistor (RDS) may change. Also, various
combinations of the input source power may exist. A single phase PMG with battery
backup is assumed.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 2 Hardware System Description • 2-5


Ac and Dc Input Devices
The ac input device DSWAC is a 3-phase, 600 V ac, 30A molded case industrial
circuit breaker. For single-phase applications, the L1 and L3 connections should be
used. The dc input device DSWDC is a two phase, 250 V dc, 30 A molded case
industrial circuit breaker. These input devices are mounted at the top of the panel,
easily accessible for operation as a disconnect during equipment maintenance or
inspection.
All of these components are The ac input source is filtered by snubber RC networks and rectified by a 3-phase
located at the top of the diode bridge (DM1, 2 and 3). The dc output of this bridge charges capacitors C1, C2,
panel, behind the ac and dc C3, and C4, forming the dc link. The dc supply is filtered through inductors (LPDC
disconnects. and LNDC) and battery capacitor C1F. It is then fed directly to the dc link through
isolation diode DM4. MOV1 and MOV2 are provided for surge protection.

Dc Link and Dynamic Discharge


A charge control resistor (RCH) mounted on the heat sink assembly is provided to
limits inrush current during powerup and capacitor charging. The second pole of the
MDA contactor controls application or removal of the charge control resistor. The dc
link provides the source power for internal board power supplies via cable DCPL to
the PSCD board. The control power supply is designed to operate over a range of 60
to 600 V dc on the dc link.
Auxiliary diodes DM5 allow stored energy in the exciter to be returned to the dc link
when the output contactor MDA opens. Excessive voltage buildup in the dc link
during regeneration is controlled through the dynamic discharge circuit. This circuit
monitors the level of the dc link and will dissipate energy through the dynamic
discharge resistor (RDD) mounted at the top of the panel to prevent overvoltage of
the power circuit and board rack supply. The C leg of the 3-phase IGBT pack is
controlled by the dynamic discharge circuitry on the GDDD board. An alternate
source of power for the discharge circuit is provided through the RDS resistor, also
to the GDDD board, in the event that control power is lost. Jumper settings on the
GDDD board set the control level of the dc link by the dynamic discharge circuit.

IGBT And IAXS Devices


The dc link also provides the unregulated power source for the Insulated Gate Bi-
polar Transistor (IGBT) bridge used to provide the exciter field current. The bridge
consists of legs A and B of the 3-phase, 50 A, 1200 V IGBT pack. Only leg A upper
and leg B lower IGBT’s are active. Leg A lower and leg B upper are permanently
inactive. Controlled by the microprocessor-based digital regulator, the leg A and B
are modulated to pulse the dc link supply and feed the resulting output to the field of
the rotating brushless exciter. The output voltage is determined by the following
formula:
Voutput = Vinput * (time on/(time on + time off))
where Vinput is the dc link voltage, time on is the conduction time of the IGBT
devices and time off is the non-conduction time of the IGBTs. The chopping
frequency of the IGBTs is approximately 1000 Hz.

2-6 • Chapter 2 Hardware System Description EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
The IAXS board provides the connection of the dc link capacitors to the IGBT
bridge, dynamic discharge control and gate control from the GDDD board. The
IAXS board is also the connection point for the dc output voltage and sensing
feedbacks to the control circuitry.

Output Contactor MDA


The output contactor MDA is described in GEK−83756. It is a double pole, single
throw, 600 V dc, 50 A contactor, isolating the positive leg of the bridge output. The
second pole is used to remove the charge control resistor RCH. The power for the
contactor coil is provided from the PSCD board. This voltage is only present when
the control has been commanded to run. When the dc link voltage is not present,
there is no power available to drive this contactor.

Output Shunt SHA


The output current is monitored by the control via the 100 MV feedback shunt SHA.
The shunt rating is application specific. A range from 1 A to 25 A maximum is
possible. The shunt rating must be less than twice the exciter amps full load.

Control Electronics Module


The control electronics module contains powerful programmable microprocessors
with companion circuitry, including EEPROM, to process the application software. It
is a module assembly that is located on the front door assembly of the power
conversion module. Elementary diagram sheet A04 and Figure 2-7 shows the
connections of the various boards in the control module.
This control module assembly contains the main processor board (LDCC),
microprocessor application board (TCCB), power supply and contactor driver board
(PSCD), and the gate driver board (GDDD). These boards are interconnected
through ribbon cables. Each board has a unique GEI, which documents the hardware
layouts, test points, fuses and other information for each individual board. These are
referenced in Chapter 1.
The LAN and Drive Control board (LDCC), which is the main processor board,
provides the IGBT gating circuit control and regulator functions including:
The LDCC board also • automatic voltage regulator
contains both isolated and
non-isolated circuits for • field current regulator
communication inputs to the • field current limit regulator
exciter's controller. The LED
display and keypad • volts/hertz limit regulator
programmer is on this board. • reactive current compensation
• under-excitation limit regulator
Optional functions include:
• VAR/power factor regulator
• power system stabilizer

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 2 Hardware System Description • 2-7


TCCB (DS200TCCB)
The microprocessor application board (TCCB) is essentially a transducer board. The
isolated and scaled generator PT and CT signals are fed from the PTCT board to the
TCCB board. The TCCB uses voltage controlled oscillators (VCOs) to transform the
analog voltage signals into digital signals. Software transducers process the voltage
and current signals and then calculate generator data. This information is passed to
the LDCC control processors for use by the regulators. The regulator simulation
software also resides in the TCCB.

PSCD (IS200PSCD)
The Power Supply and Contactor Driver board (PSCD) is powered from the dc link
through stab-on terminals DCPL1 (+) and DCPL2 (-). The control operates from 80 -
400 V dc as nominal range inputs. Transient operation to 600 V dc is possible during
maximum operation of the dynamic discharge. This board produces control power
for distribution to the other control module boards. The main supply produces ±24 V,
±15 V, and +5 V for control boards (LDCC and TCCB) A 17.7 V ac squarewave is
distributed through high frequency transformers to the gate driver and LTB inputs
power supplies. Auxiliary to the main supply are supplies for generating isolated 70
V dc (sufficient to power 13 LUP inputs ) and an isolated SHVI/SHVM power for
future applications.
The contactor control power supply from the PSCD board is sized to deliver up to
0.75 A dc. Power is taken directly from the dc link and converted to 105 V dc by a
buck converter. The enable of the MDA contactor is through an optically coupled
signal, which is logically in parallel with the coil of K1. Relay K1 is driven from the
LDCC board when the control is commanded to run.
Relay K86 is used as the controls permissive to run and emergency stop. Dropping
out K86 will immediately stop the regulator. Coil voltage is from the 70 V dc power
supply on the PSCD board.

GDDD (IS200GDDD)
The Gate Driver and Dynamic Discharge board (GDDD) provides the interface
isolation between the IGBTs and the main processor firing circuits. Dynamic
discharge circuit control is implemented on the GDDD board as well as the gating
circuits for the A and B leg active IGBTs.
This board also provides the instrumentation of the regulator. Output dc voltage, dc
link voltage, shunt current mV input, and the heat sink thermistor input are processed
on the GDDD board and sent to the LDCC processors for use by the regulators.

PTCT (DS200PTCT)
The Potential Transformer Current Transformer (PTCT) board isolates and scales the
voltage and current signals from the PTs and CTs. It also provides auxiliary inputs
and outputs for either low voltage (± 10 V dc) or 4-20 mA current signals.
Secondaries of the isolation transformers are passed to the TCCB board through the
JKK ribbon connector.

2-8 • Chapter 2 Hardware System Description EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
NTB/3TB (531X305NTB)
The NTB/3TB serves as a general purpose terminal connection board. Connections
are made as an interface between the control core and other devices. The RS-232C
serial port is located on this board. When supplied, the field ground detection inputs
from the ground detector receiver are connected to the auxiliary VCO inputs on the
NTB/3TB board.

LTB (531X307LTB)
The LAN Terminal Board (LTB) is an I/O termination board that serves as an
interface between the control core and other devices. Ribbon cable RPL allows
software variables pointed to the seven low voltage, low current, form C LTB output
relays to control higher voltage, higher current, form C RTBA board relays. Jumper
settings on the RTBA board determine if the LTB relays or external connections
operate the RTBA relays. The eight LTB (or LUP) inputs are connected to the LDCC
board through 8PL for use by the regulator controls.

RTBA (DS200RTBA)
The Relay Terminal Board (RTBA) board contains seven form C, DPDT relays that
can be software driven via the LTB pilot relays or externally driven. The relay
contact outputs are used for external customer interface. Each relay contains an LED
that indicates when the relay is energized.

ACNA (DS200ACNA)
The Status_S data link The ARCNET Board (ACNA) serves as the connection for the ARCNET data link
connection to the turbine for the regulator. Termination is made using co-axial cable. Each ACNA can
controller is made on the terminate two co-axial cables.
ACNA board.

Inputs and Outputs


The regulator has a limited amount of hard inputs and outputs (I/O) that can be
supported. For most applications, these are to be conducted over the Status_S data
link. The following sections define the minimum I/O that must be supported.

Generator Inputs
Potential Transformer Inputs
Up to three sets of 3-phase PT inputs are supported. These inputs are a nominal 120
V secondary with software adjustments available for other nominal secondary
voltages. The inputs are less than a 10 VA burden on the PT inputs.
The first two PT sets are used to supply generator line voltage feedback information
to the automatic (ac) regulator for control of the generator output voltage. The first
PT set is used for generator control. The second set is used for PT failure detection
and can be configured for control should the first set fail.
These inputs also supply speed/frequency feedback information for the regulators,
limiters, and protection functions, including the optional Power System Stabilizer
(PSS).

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 2 Hardware System Description • 2-9


Optional PT isolation The third set of 3-phase PT inputs provides line side voltage and is used by the
switches for all three sets of control for an optional voltage matching feature. These connections are made
inputs may be supplied. directly to the PTCT board.

Current Transformer Inputs


Optional CT isolation One set of 2-phase CT inputs is supported. Phase A and phase C currents are
shorting switches for each required by the regulator. These CTs supply generator line current feedback
phase input may be supplied. information for use by regulator, limiters, and metering functions in the brushless
regulator control, including the optional Power System Stabilizer (PSS). The inputs
require a nominal 5 A secondary CT input. Software adjustments are available down
to a nominal 3 A secondary input. The CT burden is less than 1 VA per phase. These
connections are made directly to the PTCT board.

4-20 mA Inputs
Optionally, the regulator can support two 4 to 20 mA inputs for signals used to
modify the overexcitation limiter/protection based on the cooling of the generator.
On air cooled generators this input is proportional to the cooling air temperature for
the generator. On hydrogen cooled generators this input is based on hydrogen
pressure of the generator.

Generator Line Breaker Status


One form A contact input from the generator output circuit breaker is used by
control, limiter, and protection functions. This contact is connected to an LTB input.
The contact may be powered using the 70 V dc supply from the PSCD board.

Generator Lock-Out Trip


One form A (closed when reset) contact input from a customer trip relay (86G
typically) is supported for an external trip of the excitation control system. This
contact must be powered from the 70 V dc power supply on the PSCD board.

2-10 • Chapter 2 Hardware System Description EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
Additional I/O
In addition to the I/O listed above, Table 2-1 lists minimum inputs and outputs that
are supported.
Note Not all applications will require each of the contact I/O or 4-20 mA inputs or
outputs listed. Refer to the job specific elementary for those supplied.

Table 2-1 Minimum Inputs and Outputs supported


Input/Output Description
Input Regulator On / Off Used to start and stop the brushless regulator.
(Closed = Regulator On)
Input Regulator Selector AC/DC Used to select the controlling regulator, auto (ac)
(Closed = AC ) or manual (dc).
Input Regulator Raise (Close = Interfaces to the active regulator’s reference
Raise) adjuster, ac or dc, and raises the setpoint.
Input Regulator Lower (Close = Interfaces to the active regulator’s reference
Lower) adjuster, ac or dc, and lowers the setpoint.
Input PSS Enable/Off (Closed = Allows the PSS control to operate if minimum
Enable) load permissives are reached.
Input Status of Control Output Used to monitor the status of the MDA contactor.
Contactor
Output Exciter Alarm (30EX) Provides a global exciter trouble alarm for
customer annunciation.
Output Protective Transfer to dc Provides an indication of an automatic transfer to
Regulator / Transfer Regulator manual regulator.
alarm (60EX)
Output Regulator On Provides an indication that the regulator is
operating
Output Exciter Trip Request Request from the regulator to immediately trip
(94EX) the generator. Usually directed to the 86G
device.
Output Exciter Field Ground Can be either an alarm or trip contact depending
Alarm/Trip (64FA or 64FT) on customer preference.

The voltage inputs supported are:


• Input from Exciter Field Ground Detector Alarm (+ 24 V)
• Input from Exciter Field Ground Detector Malfunction (+24 V)
• Input from Exciter Field Ground Detector Diode Fault (+24 V)
Up to four 4 to 20 mA outputs are also supported. These outputs are provided
through the digital to analog converters on the NTB/3TB board. They are software
configurable. Typical uses are regulator output voltage, regulator output current, and
regulator balance.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 2 Hardware System Description • 2-11


Figure 2-2. Mechanical Layout

Note This layout is not certified for construction.

2-12 • Chapter 2 Hardware System Description EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
Figure 2-3. Front View

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 2 Hardware System Description • 2-13


Figure 2-4. Front View (Door Removed)

2-14 • Chapter 2 Hardware System Description EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
Figure 2-5. Bridge Components

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 2 Hardware System Description • 2-15


Figure 2-6. Bridge Components (Isometric)

2-16 • Chapter 2 Hardware System Description EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
TO TURBINE CONTROL
OPERATOR INTERFACE
METER DRIVER
OUTPUTS QTY (4)
1PL

3PL, 2PL 2PL GDPL, PPL

MAIN MICROPROCESSOR POWER SUPPLY GATE DRIVER AND


PROCESSOR APPLICATION AND DYNAMIC DISCHARGE
BOARD BOARD CONTACTOR DRIVER BOARD
BOARD
LDCC TCCB PSCD GDDD

DCPL, MDPL
JKK

CPL
GPL, 8PL

4 PL, 2PL
IOPL, 8PL

ARCPL PTCT
BOARD

ARCNET BOARD
AC INPUT
ACNA POWER CONVERTER
MODULE (IGBT)
DC INPUT
3 PHASE 2 PHASE
VOLTAGE CURRENT
SENSING SENSING
INPUT INPUT

DC OUTPUT
TO
EXCITER FIELD

RPL

LTB RTBA NTB/3TB

CONTACT CONTACT CONTACT RS232


INPUTS/OUTPUTS OUTPUTS INPUTS PORT

WORK
STATION

Figure 2-7. Typical Connection Diagram

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 2 Hardware System Description • 2-17


Notes

2-18 • Chapter 2 Hardware System Description EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
Chapter 3 Software System Overview

Introduction
The regulator uses microprocessor-based software that includes adjustable
parameters. These parameters perform many functions once controlled through
adjustable hardware and software combinations.
The parameters are modified to customize the regulator to the specific hardware and
application. They also enable field and maintenance personnel to fine tune the
regulator for optimal performance.
Use the Control System Toolbox (toolbox) and LDCC board programmer to make
software adjustments.
Section Page

Configuration Tools ............................................................................................ 3-2


Programmer Module ........................................................................................... 3-2
Software Design........................................................................................... 3-2
Standard Functions.............................................................................................. 3-3
Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) Ramp.................................................. 3-3
Automatic Voltage Regulator Setpoint.......................................................... 3-3
Automatic Voltage Regulator ....................................................................... 3-3
Field Regulator (FVR) Ramp........................................................................ 3-3
Field Regulator............................................................................................. 3-3
Under Excitation Limiter (UEL) ................................................................... 3-4
Over Excitation Limiter (OEL) ..................................................................... 3-4
Firing Block ................................................................................................. 3-4

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 3 Software System Overview • 3-1


Configuration Tools
The toolbox is used to configure, maintain, and fine tune the regulator. It includes an
extensive database of definitions, accessed and manipulated using menu driven
selections. Additionally, the toolbox can graphically display the exciter's program
logic on the computer screen. By viewing the logic flow, you can better understand
and manipulate the exciter's adjustable values.
The toolbox is used at the factory to initially configure and test the systems. At the
customer site, it enables GE field engineers and other trained personnel to
troubleshoot, fine-tune, and maintain the installed regulator. Optional tool based
modules provide real display of control variables and communications data.
Refer to GEH−6404 for more information and PC requirements.

Programmer Module
The regulator includes a programmer module with a 16-character digital display and
an alphanumeric keypad. It functions as an operator interface for software
adjustments and diagnostic testing when the toolbox is not available.
Note Permanent changes made using the programmer module must also be made in
the toolbox to keep them up to date with the exciter's software configuration. Get
contact information from GEI−100242.
Refer to GEI−100242 for more information on the programmer module.

Software Design
The exciter application consists of functional software modules (blocks) combined to
perform to system requirements. Block definitions and configuration parameters are
stored in read-only memory (ROM), while variables are stored in random-access
memory (RAM). Microcontrollers execute the code.
The exciter application emulates traditional analog controls. The software uses an
open architecture system, which uses a library of existing software blocks. The
blocks individually perform specific functions, such as logical AND gates,
proportional integral (PI) regulators, function generators, and signal level detectors.
These blocks are tied together in a pattern to implement complex control systems.
For example, a control function such as the under-excitation limit (UEL) is included
as an ac regulator input by setting software jumpers in EEPROM. The relevant
blockware is enabled by pointing the block inputs to RAM locations where the inputs
reside (the UEL requires megawatts, kilovolts and megavars). The UEL output is
then pointed to an input of the ac regulator summing junction.
This technique is similar to The software blocks are sequentially implemented by the block interpreter in an
tracing an analog signal by order and execution rate defined in the toolbox. The blockware can be interrogated
using a voltmeter. while running by using the toolbox. The dynamically changing I/O of each block can
be observed in operation.

3-2 • Chapter 3 Software System Overview EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
Standard Functions
These inputs and outputs can Table 3-1 is a description of the inputs and outputs for the more significant blocks
be monitored through the used in the exciter. Also, the significant adjustments of those functional blocks are
toolbox. described as adjustable constants. These constants represent limits, gains, and
setpoints. They are functionally equivalent to potentiometers or other discrete
adjustment devices used in previous excitation systems.

Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) Ramp


The AVR ramp block accepts an input from the operator through the Status-S page
for auto regulator raise or lower. The reference then ramps at a predetermined rate,
within an upper and lower limit (usually 0.9 to 1.1 pu terminal V). The output can be
preset to a value upon startup. Automatic tracking of the AVR track value is
performed when operating in manual regulator (refer to Figure 3-2).

Automatic Voltage Regulator Setpoint


The AVR setpoint block sums the output from the reactive current compensation
(RCC), AVR ramp, UEL output, and power system stabilizer (PSS) output. This sum
is compared to the V/Hz reference in a minimum select block and then passed
through a high limiter as the AVR output signal. By selecting a negative or positive
gain, line-drop or droop compensation mode may be selected on the RCC. An
auto/manual command by the operator generates auto active or manual active status
indicators. A PT failure can also select manual (refer to Figure 3-3).

Automatic Voltage Regulator


The AVR block combines the AVR setpoint with the negative generator terminal
volts to provide an error signal. This is passed through to the automatic regulator
proportional and integral gain sub-blocks, and then passes through the auto regulator
limits to the manual voltage regulator (refer to Figure 3-4). The auto regulator is
modeled by the following transfer function:
AVR out = AVR error (Kp + KI)/S

Field Regulator (FVR) Ramp


The FVR ramp block accepts an input from the operator through the Status-S page
for manual regulator raise or lower. The reference then ramps at a predetermined rate
within an upper and lower limit (usually 0.7 pu VFNL to 1.2 pu VFFL). The output
can be preset to a value upon startup. When in auto regulator mode, the FVR ramp
tracks the value of exciter field current (IFE) (refer to Figure 3-5).

Field Regulator
The exciter field regulator is configured as a current regulator. The reference input to
the FVR is from either the manual regulator ramp block or the AVR. When fed from
the AVR, the field regulator is used as an inner loop. A bridge firing enabled signal
is also provided to keep the exciter turned off until bridge firing is enabled (refer to
Figure 3-6).

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 3 Software System Overview • 3-3


Under Excitation Limiter (UEL)
The UEL blocks accept watts and volts as inputs and calculates a VAR reference.
Using a table lookup, which approximates the underexcited capability of the
generator, the Var reference is then compared to the actual unit Vars to develop a
Var error signal. The error signal is then passed through a proportional and integral
regulator sub-block to keep the machine within its underexcited capability (refer to
Figure 3-7).

Over Excitation Limiter (OEL)


A cool down function is also The alternate current regulator is initially enabled. If the signal level detect looking
supplied to simulate cooling at exciter field current or either of the inverse time protection blocks activate, the
of the field after an alternate field current regulator is disabled and the primary current regulator
overexcitation condition. setpoints are active. The output of either the alternate or primary field current
regulator is fed to the firing block where a minimum select with the field regulator
firing command is performed (refer to Figure 3-8).

Firing Block
The firing block accepts the field current reference and the field voltage reference
and then selects the least of the two. This signal is passed on to the bridge only if the
instantaneous overcurrent or the stop commands are not activated. If either of these
are active, the firing signal is a preset retard limit (refer to Figure 3-9).

3-4 • Chapter 3 Software System Overview EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
Table 3-1. Standard Software Functions

Function Inputs Adjustable Constants Outputs


AVR Ramp Auto Increase (RF1@IN) High limit (RF1THO) Reference out
Auto Decrease (RF1@DC) Low limit (FR1TLO)
Manual Active (RF1@VE) Ramp rate (RF1NRT)
Go to Preset (RF1@3E) Preset value (RF1@T3)
Track Enable(RF1@T2) Track lag (RF1WLG)
Track Value(RF1@2E)
AVR Frequency (ASP@FQ) ASP Limit High (ASPHLM) AVR Ref
Setpoint React. Cur.(ASP@IQ) V/Hz Gain (ASPVHZ) Auto Active
REF Out (ASP@RO) RCC Gain (ASPRCC) Man Active
UEL Out (ASP@UE) PSS High Watt (ASPHIW) PSS Active
PSS Out (ASP@PV) PSS Low Watts (ASPLOW) V/Hz Active
Auto/Man (ASP@AC) UEL Active
Extra Input (ASP@EX) Setpoint In Limit
PT Fail (ASP@PT) Latched PT Fail
Gen Volts (ASP@VM)
PSS Armed (ASP@PC)
Gen Watts (ASP@WT)
PT Fail Reset (ASP@PR)

FCR FCR Setpoint FCR@SP FCR Prop Gain (RGKC0) FCR Output
FCR Enable FCR@EN FCR Integral Gain (IRWIC0) ILOP0
FCR Alternate Setpoint Alt FCR Prop Gain (IRGKA0)
FCA@SP Alt FCR Integral Gain
FCR Alternate Enable (IRWIA0)
EFA@EN

AVR Generator Volts (AVR@FB) High Limit (AVRPLM) AVR Out


FVR Output (AVR@TV) Low Limit (AVRNLM) AVR In Limit
AVR Ref (AVR@SP) Prop. Gain (AVRPGN) AVR Error
Manual Active (AVR@TC) Integral Gain (AVRIGN)
Bridge Fire Enabled Tracking Gain (AVRTGN)
(AVR@ZC)
FVR Ramp Manual Increase (SS) High limit (RF2TH0) Reference Out
Manual Decrease (SS) Low limit (RF2THL)
Auto Active (RF2@2E) Ramp rate (RF2NRT)
Go To Preset (RF2@3E) Preset value (RF2@T3)

FVR Field Current (IFE) FVR Turn Off (FLDZVL) FVR Out
AVR Out (EFR@TV) Tracking Gain (FLDTGO)
FVR Ref (EFR@SP) Proportional Gain (FLDPGO)
Auto Active (EFR@EN) Integral Gain (FLDIGO)
Bridge Fire Enabled
(MPWRENAB)

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 3 Software System Overview • 3-5


Table 3-1. Standard Software Functions - Continued
Function Inputs Adjustable Constants Outputs
UEL Watts (RA1@I1) Vars Ref. 0 (FGENYO) UEL Output
Gen. Volts(@INPUT) Watts Ref. 1 (FGENX1)
Vars (R2@FBO) Vars Ref. 1 (FGENY1)
Watts Ref. 2 (FGENX2)
Vars Ref. 2 (FGENY2)
Watts Ref. 3 (FGENX3)
Vars Ref. 3 (FGENY3)
Watts Ref. 4 (FGENX4)
Vars Ref. 4 (FGENY4)
Prop. Gain KP (R2KFBO)
Integral Gain KI (R2WI_0)
High Limit (R2LMPO)
Low Limit (R2LMNO)
OEL Act
OEL Field Current High Limit (CRLMHI)
2 (FLDMOD)
(CURRENT) Low Limit (I tAFL)
FCR Preset (PIT@RS) IIT Acc
Inst. Overcur. Lim (PITPU) (PITIACCM)
IIT Limit (PITLM)
FCR Pos. Limit (FCRPLM)
2
IIT Cooling Mult. (I tCMT)
Firing Block FVR Out Retard Limit Firing Code
FCR Out
IOC Active
Start/Stop

3-6 • Chapter 3 Software System Overview EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
EXVMAG AUTO
PT FAIL AUTO/MAN
DETECT SELECT VAR/PF CONTROL, POWER SYSTEM STABILIZER
LOGIC AND PT FAIL DETECTION ARE OPTIONAL.
EXXMAG MAN
ALL OTHER FUNCTIONS SHOWN ARE STANDARD.
V/HZ
EXVFREQ

ARM PSS RAISE MAN


REG.
LOWER SETPOINT
Pa
PSS VOLTAGE LIMIT
AUTO EXCITER FIELD
REGULATOR REGULATOR
EXWATTS
+

ZERO LEVEL +
+
+
RAISE PI PI
+
+ - - LOW
-
VALUE
EXWATTS VAR AUTO
IFE GATE
/PF REG EXVMAG
EXVARS CONTROL SETPOINT BRIDGE
FIRING

LOWER

SPARE HIGH SP FCR@SP

LOW SP PI
1177S
EXWATTS
IFE
EXVARS UEL I*T LIM

EXVMAG RUNNING
OFFLINE FCA@SP

ONLINE

EXIREAC RCC AND


52G
SLD1

Figure 3-1. Software Overview

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 3 Software System Overview • 3-7


Figure 3-2. Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) Ramp

]
]
]

] ]
+
] ]
+
]
]
- ]
+
] +
+
+

] ]

] ]

] ]

Figure 3-3. Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) Setpoint

3-8 • Chapter 3 Software System Overview EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
Figure 3-4. Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR)

Figure 3-5. Field Voltage Reg (FVR) Ramp

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 3 Software System Overview • 3-9


Figure 3-6. Field Regulator (FVR)

Figure 3-7. Under-Excitation Limit (UEL)

3-10 • Chapter 3 Software System Overview EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
Figure 3-8. Over Excitation Limit (OEL)

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 3 Software System Overview • 3-11


Figure 3-9. Firing Block

3-12 • Chapter 3 Software System Overview EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
Chapter 4 Software Configuration and
Scaling

Introduction
This chapter gives examples of the scaling for specific parameters in a generic
brushless regulator generator application.
Section Page

Configuration and Scaling Example..................................................................... 4-2


Example Generator, Exciter, and Regulator................................................... 4-3
General Configuration......................................................................................... 4-4
Feedback Scaling ................................................................................................ 4-6
Generator Feedback...................................................................................... 4-6
Bridge Voltage Feedback.............................................................................. 4-7
Bridge Current Feedback .............................................................................. 4-8
Feedback Offsets.......................................................................................... 4-8
Instantaneous Overcurrent Trip..................................................................... 4-9
Regulator Scaling................................................................................................ 4-9
Automatic Voltage Regulating System.......................................................... 4-9
Under Excitation Limiter (UEL) ..................................................................4-13
Reactive Current Compensator (RCC) .........................................................4-16
VAR/Power Factor Control .........................................................................4-17
Field Regulator (FVR).................................................................................4-18
Field Current Regulator (FCR) ....................................................................4-20
Optional Functions Scaling and Configuration ....................................................4-23
Transducer Outputs .....................................................................................4-23
Ground Detector and Diode Fault Monitor ...................................................4-24
Field Thermal Model...................................................................................4-25
The software to configure various regulators, metering, and protective functions
within the regulator operates on a count system representing actual feedback values.
These feedbacks are generated by current transformers, voltage transformers, and dc
shunts. The signals may pass through isolators and amplifiers. These analog signals
are transformed to digital signals by voltage controlled oscillators.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling • 4-1


The regulator controls use standard normalized values to represent the variable being
monitored or regulated. This enables the use of software that, to a large extent, is not
application dependent. For example, the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) controls
the generator terminal voltage based on a setpoint chosen by the operator. For any
machine, 1 per unit (or rated terminal voltage) is defined within the AVR to be
20000 counts. If the operator chooses to set the terminal voltage at rated then the
reference to the AVR is 20000 counts. The voltage feedback counts are compared to
this reference to generate an error signal and the appropriate control action takes
place to maintain the feedback counts at 20000.
The actual generator terminal voltage being regulated is not referenced at this control
level. It is therefore necessary to ensure that the feedback counts seen by the
regulators are adjusted to provide the standard number of counts when the generator
is operating at rated. This is referred to as scaling.
An EX2000 system can be constructed several ways to accommodate customer
system requirements. For example, the regulator can be fed from the permanent
magnet generator or from an auxiliary bus. It can be a brushless regulator or an SCT
control winding regulator. The controls are set to match the hardware used. This is
known as configuration.

Configuration and Scaling Example


The following section shows how scaling is performed using example generator data.
The example system is configured as a brushless exciter regulator fed from a PMG
with a 125 V dc battery backup. There is also a single set of generator potential
transformers (PT)s and no line PTs.

The scaling may not apply to all EX2000 applications. Contact


GE Industrial Systems before changing any EE values.

Note Operating data from the generator field is not readily available to the
regulator. The generator information listed is critical to the overall operation and
performance of the regulator and excitation system. Assumptions made in the AVR
and exciter field regulators are based upon the available generator data.

4-2 • Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
Example Generator, Exciter, and Regulator
Generator Data
KVA 100000
Frequency 60 Hz
Volts 13800
PF 0.85
Cold Gas Temperature 40 °C
Rated Stator Amps 4184
Amps Field No Load 313
Amps Field Air Gap 281
Amps Field Full Load 846
Amps Field Ceiling 1360
Field Open Circuit Time Constant (T'do) 5.615 sec
Field Open Circuit Subtransient (T’’do) 0.022 sec
Field Winding Resistance 0.199 ohms at 25 °C
Volts Field Full Load 136
Station battery volts 125 V dc
PT Ratio 14400/120
Current Transformer (CT) Ratio 8000/5

Exciter Data
kW 268
Volts 300
Rated Exciter Output Amps 893
Amps Field Air Gap (exciter) 1.712
Amps Field No Load (exciter) 3.52
Amps Field Synch Imp.(exciter) 6.236
Amps Field Full Load (exciter) 9.54
Amps Field Ceiling (exciter) 15.45
Exciter Time Constant (T'do) 0.35 sec
Field Winding Resistance (exciter) 4.871 ohms at 25 °C

Regulator Data
DC shunt 10 A = 100 mV
Dynamic Discharge Resistor 17.0 ohms
Dynamic Discharge Resistor Rated Amps 6.0 A
Charge Control Resistor 2.0 ohms
Voltage Doubling No
DC Link Expected Volts from PMG 137
Maximum Expected DC Link Volts 360

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling • 4-3


General Configuration
Throughout this example, the software nomenclature is defined as follows:
EE.XXXX (ABCDEF)
where XXXX represents the software address location and ABCDEF represents the
software address name.
There are many parameters that are set in the regulator that are not discussed in this
manual. Many of them are used to set up configurable parameters such as the
Status_S data link, communication, and so on. These are fixed parameters such as
baud rates, display, configuration, and keypad configuration for all applications and
should not be changed or need changing on any requisition.
Note If any parameters not discussed in this document are in question, contact the
product service group of GE Industrial Systems or the local GE service organization
for advice.
The following list are general configuration adjustable parameters (EEPROM) used
to direct signals and help make the configurable blockware function as a brushless
regulator.

4-4 • Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
Generator Model Jumper EE.3850 (GMJMPR)
EE.3850.1 Used to simulate PT failure in simulator mode. Normally set to 0.
EE.3850.2 Selects slip source for Power System Stabilizer (PSS) The example
has no PSS
EE.3850.3 Selects extra PT source for calculation of PT failure. Can only be
from PTCT board for regulator. Set to (0).
EE.3850.4 Generator model type. Can be static (0) or rotating (1). Brushless
regulator is rotating.
EE.3850.5 Selects 50 Hz (1) or 60 Hz (0) system for simulator and normal
operation. Example is 60 Hz.
EE.3850.6 Selects terminal (0) or separately fed (1) inputs for bridge. The
regulator is separately fed.
EE.3850.7 Selects whether the extra PT is used for calculations if a PT failure
is detected. (1) is yes, (0) is no. No PT failure detection available in
the example.
EE.3850.8 Selects location of extra PT input. Line side (1) of 52G breaker or
generator side (0). Example does not have extra PT input.
EE.3850.9 Select if PT failure detection is always (0) or only with 52G closed
(1). No PT fail detection in example system. Set to zero.
EE.3850.10 Use maximum of PT feedbacks for calculations. (1) is yes, (0) is no.
No for example.
EE.3850.11 Adjusts simulator for 60 Hz (0) or 50 Hz (1)
EE.3850.12 Sets LOE calculation for high gain (rev. G1B) PTCT board for LOE
calculations. All new regulators use high gain PTCT inputs. Set to
(1)
EE.3850.13 Adjusts PTCT board inputs for Rev. A (0) or Rev. B (1) board.
Configuration Jumper EE.589 (ECNFIG)
EE.589.0 Selects IFG feedback to be from SHPL on GDDD (1), IA2PL from
GDDD (2) or none (0). Set to 1.
EE.589.2 Selects IFE feedback to be from SHPL on GDDD (1), IA2PL from
GDDD (2) or none (0). Set to 1.
EE.589.4 Selects VFG to be from APL/BPL on GDDD board (1), IA1PL on
GDDD board (2) or none (0). Set to 0.
EE.589.6 Selects VFE to be from APL/BPL on GDDD board (1), IA1PL on
GDDD board (2) or none (0). Set to 1.
EE.589.8 Selects field regulator feedback to be either VFG (0), VFE (1), IFG
(2) or IFE (3). For current regulator set to 3.
EE.589.10 Selects source for Var.105 to be either IFG (0) or IFE (1). Set to 1
for the regulator.
Other general configuration parameters important to the operation of a
regulator
EE.550 Identifies product type, for hardware select 84.
EE.556 Identifies hardware feedback board, select GDDD board 2.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling • 4-5


Feedback Scaling
As a brushless regulator, there are a limited number of feedback signals from the
generator available. These are potential transformers and current transformers
monitoring the stator output, a shunt feed back from the exciter field, and exciter
field voltage. Main generator field current and voltage are not commonly available
for display or control on a brushless generator. The following sections describe
common feedback signals and scaling.

Generator Feedback
The PT and CT signals to the regulator are isolated by the PTCT board. The voltage
signals generated by the PTCT are sent to the TCCB transducer board. Here voltage
controlled oscillators (VCO) translate the analog signals into digital counts.
The PTCT board will accept one set of 3-phase CT inputs from the main generator
stator current transformers. These CTs must have a nominal 5 A secondary and
phase A and C are required for correct operation of the regulators. Phase B CT input
is not required and not used by the controls. EE.3840 CT_ADJ is used to account for
off nominal CTs. The scaling for this EE setting is calculated as equal to
20480/(actual 1 pu CT secondary amps)
For the example generator data:
EE.3840 = 20480/(4184*5/8000) = 7832
The PTCT board also accepts up to three sets of generator voltage transformer
inputs. These inputs are 3-phase inputs with a nominal secondary voltage of 120 V
ac. Two of the inputs are for generator voltage before the synchronizing breaker.
These two PT inputs should both be on the same side of the generator step up
transformer. The third input can be used for a line side of the synchronizing breaker
voltage input. The scaling for this EE setting is calculated as equal to 491520/(actual
1 pu PT secondary volts)
For the example generator data:
EE.3841 = 491520/(13800*120/14400) = 4274

Potential Transformer Failure Detector (PFTD) Operation


In the example system only one set of PT inputs are specified. The second set of
generator side PT’s can be used for an optional Potential Transformer Failure
Detection (PTFD) function. The generator PTFD operates by comparing the sum of
the absolute counts for V12 and V23 signals (generator PT signals) with the sum of
the absolute counts representing the extra PT input signals VX12 and VX23.
The 1 pu secondary voltages from these two sources depends on the transformer
ratios used. A scale factor PTFDSC EE.3835 is used to null the signal difference
that could exist. The resulting magnitude difference is filtered and the absolute value
is compared to the failure detection level set by EE.3837 PTFDVL. Under normal
conditions the difference between the two sums should be approximately zero. If
this absolute difference is greater than the value set by PTFDVL EE.3837 then a PT
FAIL FLT.488 is generated and VAR.1183 EXVPTL becomes true. This variable is
sent to the excitation autosetpoint block input ASP@PT and, if true, forces a latched
transfer to the manual regulator.

4-6 • Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
The PTFD can be disabled offline by setting EE.3850.9 GMJMPR.9 equal to 1. The
PTFD detector can be tested using the simulator by setting GMJMPR.1 equal to 1 to
simulate loss of V12 PT signal.
Setting EE.3850.9 GMJMPR.7 equal to 1, the extra set of PTs can be used for all
calculations downstream from the PT failure detector software.

PTFD Scaling
Parameter PTFDSC EE.3835, PT failure scale adjust, is used to null any signal
difference existing between V and X PTs. If a second PT for failure detection were
supplied, then set EE.3835 = 4096 * (1 pu V PT secondary volts/1 pu X PT
secondary volts).
In most cases, the second set of PT inputs would be the same secondary as the first
and the default value of 4096 would be used

PTFD Detection Level


The failure detection level is set using PTFDVL EE.3837. It is typically set to
approximately 50% of nominal (120 V) PT signal (loss of half the voltage of one
phase).
For the example system, EE.3837 = 0.5 * 2048 * (115/120) = 981. In the formula,
2048 represents a complete loss of a PT signal and 115 is the actual 1 pu PT
secondary volts.
A PT failure detection causes automatic transfer to the field (or manual) regulator.
This regulator controls field current level and does not look at generator terminal
voltage. This is the only fault that initiates automatic transfer to the manual regulator.
It is not possible to transfer back to the AVR until this latching fault is cleared. The
operator interface should indicate when a PTFD has occurred. A reset signal must be
sent to reset the PTFD. A soft reset of the core is necessary to clear the fault display
from the LDCC board once the PT feedback problem is fixed.

P.T.U.V.
If a second set of generator PTs is not provided then the PTFD scheme described
above can not be used. In this case the PTFD function is disabled by setting EE.3837
to 65,535 and protection is provided by pointing ASP@PT at VAR.1182 EXPTUV.
In the event of loss of one phase or complete loss of generator voltage signal as
measured by the TCCB board, and after a time delay specified in EE.3834 PTFDT1.
EXPTUV will become true, forcing the control into manual regulator mode.

Bridge Voltage Feedback


The bridge (regulator) dc output voltage feedback signal is fed via APL-5 and BPL-6
from the IAXS board to the GDDD board. A voltage controlled oscillator on the
GDDD board converts this analog signal to a frequency and digital counts. JP1 on
the GDDD board is set per the maximum expected dc link voltage. For units not
employing the voltage doubling feature of the regulator, this is normally 640 or 360
volts. The example system does not use voltage doubling.
The dc link voltage feedback signal is fed to the GDDD board via the DCPL -1 and 2
connections on the IAXS board. Again, JP2 on the GDDD board is set to the
maximum expected DC link voltage.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling • 4-7


EE.612 VDCMAX sets the 1 pu count level (20000) equal to 360 or 604 volts for
scaling of both the DC link voltage and DC output voltage. JP3 on the GDDD board
sets the operation level of the dynamic discharge firing circuit. The selection of JP3
is also based upon the maximum expected dc link voltage. JP1, 2 and 3 on the
GDDD board should all be set to the same settings.

Bridge Current Feedback


The regulator field current feedback signal is from shunt SHA and is fed to the
GDDD board via connections SHPL-1 and -2. This input is scaled using EE.1505
CFISF0. This trims the gain of the VCO to achieve 5000 counts at 1 pu bridge
current. The scaling for this EE setting is calculated as EE.1505 = 32768*(shunt
rating)/(regulator amps field full load). For the sample system, the shunt rating = 10
A for 100 mV. The exciter AFFL rating is 9.54 A.
Set EE.1505 = 32768 *(10)/(9.54) = 34348

Feedback Offsets
Due to the tolerance limits of the op-amps and VCOs that provide the feedbacks, it is
possible that positive or negative offsets may occur with zero signal feedback. The
actual offsets produced are dependent on the actual hardware and must therefore be
zeroed at startup. The bridge output voltage, dc link voltage and shunt feedback are
adjustable using the following feedback offsets:
EE.1508 VF1OF0 is used to zero the VFB1 bridge voltage feedback offset. With no
bridge output, variable 1014 should be read using diagnostic test 31. This count
value multiplied by the constant -1141 and divided by the scale factor value in
EE.612 VDCMAX then becomes the value in EE.1508.
For example, with power on the bridge but the bridge not firing, monitor VAR.1014
(assuming VFE is the selected feedback) for any zero offset. Assume the offset
found was approximately 80 counts. Set EE.1508 = (80*-1141)/360 = -253. Enter
this value and continue to monitor VAR.1014 to verify that the offset is now zero.
EE.1510 CF1OF0 is used to zero the CFB1 bridge current feedback offset. With no
bridge output, variable 1016 should be read using diagnostic test 31. This count
value multiplied by the constant 21475 and divided by the scale factor value in
EE.1505 CFS1F0 then becomes the value in EE.1510.
For example, with power on the bridge but the bridge not firing, monitor VAR.1016
(assuming IFE is the selected feedback) for any zero offset. Assume the offset found
was approximately -100 counts. Set EE.1510 = (-100*21475)/34348 = -62. Enter
this value and continue to monitor VAR.1014 to verify that the offset is now zero.
EE.1513 VDCOF0 is used to zero the dc link voltage feedback offset. Since dc link
voltage is required for control power, this offset must be made with dc link voltage
present. VAR.1018 should be read using diagnostic test 31. The dc link voltage
should be read on the IAXS board connection points PL and NL. This measured
voltage will then be converted to counts. The converted measured counts minus the
count value in VAR.1018 then becomes the value in EE.1513.
For example, with power on the bridge but the bridge not firing, monitor VAR.1018.
Assume it is 7825 counts. Then assume the measured value of the dc link is 137
volts. Converting the measured voltage to counts gives 137/360 * 20000 equals
7611. Set EE.1513 = (7611-7825) = -213 counts. Enter this value and continue to
monitor VAR.1018 to verify that the offset is now zero.

4-8 • Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
Instantaneous Overcurrent Trip
An instantaneous overcurrent trip occurs if the bridge current, as monitored by SHPL
(CFB1), exceeds the threshold set by EE.1518 IOCTRO where 5000 counts = 1 pu.
Set EE.1518 = 25000 (5 pu).

Regulator Scaling
There are several regulators and limiters available in the regulator. The applicable
one-line or system ordering documents will detail whether or not all or any of these
are supplied on a given requisition. Generally the AVR, FVR, and OEL regulators
are supplied as standard. The UEL, RCC, and V/Hz limiters are also generally
standard features. PSS and VAR/PF controllers are typically supplied as options.

Automatic Voltage Regulating System


The primary purpose of the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) is to control the
generator terminal voltage according to a chosen reference. The terminal voltage can
then be modified by various limiter and regulator functions.

AVR Operation.
The regulator is designed to be started in AVR. The exciter can be started in AVR
mode with the generator operating from 20 to 100 Hz. To prevent initial overshoot,
the integrator is held at the preset value until 95% voltage is obtained. For a normal
bandwidth AVR, this also means forcing the regulator to its maximum output until
95% of terminal voltage is reached. If the speed of the generator is below rated when
the regulator is started, the V/Hz limiter will hold down the terminal voltage and
regulator output such that the volts per hertz ratio specified in the AVR controls is
maintained.

REF1 Operation
The selected (unmodified) reference originates in the INC/DEC reference block
REF1 (see Figure 3-2). The initial reference used in the regulator is a preset value
normally set for 1 pu generator voltage. The REF1 output tracks this value when a
start is given to the regulator. During this initial operation the RAISE and LOWER
controls are ignored.
Once the startup operation is complete, the reference can be changed by selecting
RAISE or LOWER from the operator station with the regulator in AUTO regulator.
When offline, selecting RAISE or LOWER controls the generator terminal voltage
over a range set in REF1 (and the autosetpoint block). This range is normally ±10%
of rated terminal voltage. When online, selecting RAISE or LOWER increases or
decreases the generator terminal reactive voltage and/or the power output of the
generator. The more stiff the connection to the power system (lower impedance tie)
the less the generator terminal voltage is able to change.
An optional volt ampere reactive/power factor (VAR/PF) controller can also control
the output of the REF1 block. While under control of the VAR/PF controller, the
slew rate of REF1 is slowed to an alternate ramp rate, and the operator
RAISE/LOWER inputs are ignored.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling • 4-9


When the exciter is operating in manual, the autosetpoint reference REF1 tracks a
value representing the sum of ASP@VM (normally generator voltage) and the
reactive current compensation signal. While REF1 is tracking this value, the
INC/DEC commands from the operator station are ignored in the REF1 block. The
output of REF1 in VAR.282 REF1OUT0 is passed to the autosetpoint block
(EXASP).

REF1 Scaling and Configuration


REF1 tracks target RF1@T3 EE.3402 without delay during startup. It is normally
pointed to a value of 20000 counts for 1 pu generator voltage. For 1 pu generator
voltage set EE.3402 = 19. During startup, a quick store register can be used to preset
the terminal voltage to a value other than rated. This register can contain a count
value representing the desired preset voltage. RF1@T3 should then be pointed to this
address. For example, during startup, if the desired preset voltage is 12.5 kV on a
13.8 kV machine, the reference preset counts required is 12.5/13.8 * 20000 = 18116
counts.
Quickstore EE.95, currently an unused register, can be used to store this value. Then,
point EE.3402 (RF1@T3) to EE.95 instead of the normal EE.19 location.
The range of the AVR is set using EE.3414 RF1TH0 (upper limit) and EE.3412
RF1TL0 (lower limit). Set this to provide a range of ± 10% of rated generator
voltage. Set EE.3414 = 18000 and EE.3412 = 22000.
To select the ramp rate of the AVR set EE.3400.6 = 0 for a normal INC/DEC scale
control setting of 1/10 bits/sec. The time to ramp across the AVR range is set by the
normal INC/DEC rate EE.3421 RF1NRT.
The range of the AVR = (22000-18000) = 4000. The desired time to cover this range
is 60 seconds taking into account the setting of EE.3400.6. Set EE.3421 = (4000/60)
*10 = 667.

Autosetpoint Block
The selected reference from REF1 enters the autosetpoint block (EXASP) as the
main auto reference setpoint. This reference can now be modified in the autosetpoint
block by various standard and optional regulators and limiters. In addition to the
REF1 input the ASP block receives feedback variables for reactive current, generator
terminal voltage, generator frequency, the output of the under excitation limiter, and
generator real power if a power system stabilizer (PSS) is used (see Figure 3-3).
Automatic regulation is enabled through the operator station or the A/M selector
button on the LDCC board programmer keypad. When auto is active, VAR.953
ASPAUTOA will be true. The ASP block also has an input from the PTFD (or
PTUV). When a PT failure is detected, regulation is switched to the MVR.
ASPAUTOA becomes false and remains latched in that state until the PT feedback
problem is corrected, the core is soft reset, and the PTFD reset button on the operator
station is pushed to permit selection of AUTO operation. Configuration jumper
EE.589 selections can disabled the PTFD while off-line.
The ASP block contains a summing junction, minimum value gate, and a positive
output limiter. The summing junction adds the output of REF1, the UEL regulator
output, the PSS regulator output (if present), and an extra input ASP@EX. This extra
input can be used to insert a test signal. The RCC compensation signal is subtracted
in the summing junction.

4-10 • Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
The output of the summing junction feeds a minimum value gate where it is
compared with a V/Hz limit signal proportional to the generator frequency by an
amount set in EE.3789 ASPVHZ. The minimum of these two references is used as
the reference sent to the regulator. The maximum output is limited to a value set in
EE.3790 ASPHLM. If the reference used by the regulator is the V/Hz limit and the
exciter is in auto, then VAR.958 ASPVHZA is set true and an indication is given that
the exciter is in V/Hz limit.
If a positive value is input to the summing junction from the UEL and the exciter is
in auto, then VAR.959 ASPUELA is set true and an indication is given that the
exciter is in UEL. The output of the AVR setpoint block VAR.158 ASPAVRSP is
sent to the AVR block as the regulator reference signal.

Autosetpoint Block Scaling and Configuration


For the example system the V/Hz limiter will be set to 110%. Set EE.3789, the V/Hz
gain, to 282 (256 = unity). For 50 Hz applications, multiply EE.3789 by 6/5.
The ASP High Limit is set in EE.3790 ASPHLM. This is generally set for 110% of
rated or 22000 counts. For 50 Hz applications, multiply EE.3790 by 6/5.

Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) Block


The AVR is a proportional plus integral regulator that compares the generator
terminal voltage feedback (derived from the V12 and V23 generator PT signals) with
a reference from the auto setpoint block to produce an error signal. This error signal,
VAR.156 AVRERROR, is fed to the PI regulator. If the regulator is in automatic
regulator, the output of the AVR, AVROP VAR.157 is then fed to the inner loop
field regulator. The AVR output is limited to approximately 2 pu field current so that
it does not overdrive the exciter. The output of the AVR is passed through the field
regulator to cancel the impact of the additional time constant of the rotating exciter.
By doing this, the calculations and settings of the various regulator limiters, (UEL,
V/Hz, OEL) can be set using the same rules as a terminal fed or bus fed excitation
system. Tuning of regulators in the field is thus minimized.
The AVR is preconditioned to a value corresponding to AFNL at startup. The initial
value of AFNL used could be an estimated value. After the initial startup, when a
precise value of firing command counts for AFNL is known, the preconditioning
value stored in EE.92 can be adjusted accordingly.
When the precondition input AVR@ZC is true, the AVR output follows the
preconditioning value AVR@ZV. If AVRJMP.0 = 1 the integrator continues to
follow AVR@ZC until AVRERROR is less than 5% (1000 counts on a 20000 base).
If, in addition to AVRJMP.0 = 1, AVRJMP.1 also = 1 then the output of the AVR is
forced to maximum as set in EE.3772 AVRPLM until the AVRERROR is less than
1000 counts. If the exciter is in MANUAL (ASPMANUA true), the AVR tracks the
output of the field regulator FLOPO VAR.1004.
The AVR integrator has anti-windup protection that zeros the error feeding the
integral gain if either:
a. The output is in positive limit or if the regulator is in FCR and the error signal
feeding the regulator is positive.
b. The AVR output is in negative limit or in full retard and the error signal feeding
the regulator is negative.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling • 4-11


AVR Scaling and Configuration
The AVR response is not set for optimum speed, but for acceptable performance
without risking instability due to local mode oscillations. This setting is considered
to be a normal bandwidth regulator. A high bandwidth regulator is used when a high
gain fast response AVR is required. The example assumes a normal bandwidth
regulator. If a high bandwidth regulator is chosen, then the high bandwidth settings
for the UEL regulator should be used also.
AVRJMP EE.3759.0 is set to 1 for AVR output to follow AVR@ZC until regulator
error is less than 1000 counts. Set at 1 for a high bandwidth exciter also.
EE.3759.1 is set to 1 on a normal bandwidth exciter to hold AVROP in ceiling until
AVRERROR is less than 1000 counts. Set to zero for a high bandwidth exciter.
AVRPLM EE.3772 is the positive limit for AVR output. Normally set to 10000,
which is approximately 2 pu current for the exciter field.
AVRNLM EE.3773 is the negative limit for AVR output. Set to 0.
AVRTGN EE.3770 is the AVR tracking gain. This sets the time delay for the AVR
to track the output of the field regulator while in manual regulator. Set EE.3770 = 5
(where 100 = 1 rad/sec) for a 20 second tracking filter.
The following is an example of setting the AVR regulator for an regulator with
normal bandwidth.
Prior to startup, the AVR output is preset to the no load exciter field current level.
This effectively wipes out overshoot problems when starting in the automatic
regulator.
VR@ZV EE.3764 points to EE.92. In EE.92, the RUN2RF storage register stores the
firing command count value necessary to produce 80% exciter AFNL. In the
example, exciter AFNL was 3.52 A dc.
Set RUN2RF EE.92 to a FIRCMD = 0.8 * AFNL* 5000/AFFL = 0.8*3.52*5000/9.54 =
1476

AVR Proportional Gain


The proportional gain of the PI regulator is set as follows:
1. Determine the transient gain requirements of the system.
2. Calculate the proportional gain, which is directly proportional to the transient
gain. For the normal bandwidth regulator, set the transient gain to 4*T'do (the
open circuit field time constant) with 20 as a default minimum for new gas and
steam applications. A high bandwidth regulator should be set for a transient gain
of 100.
From the transfer function of a brushless regulator, the relationship between
proportional and transient gains is:
Transient gain = (Kp*20000 * Kex*AFFLex) / (VFAGgen*5000) where Kex is the gain
of the exciter. The gain of the exciter is calculated as the (voltage out/current in) or
((VFFLgen at 100 C - VFNLgen at 100 C) / (AFFLex - AFNLex)). For the example
system, Kex is calculated to be (216-80.13)/(9.54-3.52) = 22.51.

4-12 • Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
VFAGgen is the air gap voltage, which is determined by reading IFAG from the
machine estimated air gap line at 1 pu armature voltage. The example generator has
IFAG of 281 A dc. The rated field resistance Rf@rated temp is defined as 100 C.
The Rf@100C was not given and is therefore extrapolated from Rf@125C to give
Rf@100C = .256 ohms. VFAG = .256 * 281 = 72 V dc.
Solving for Kp gives Kp = (transient gain * VFAGgen*5000) / (20000 * Kex*AFFLex) =
(20*72*5000) / (20000*22.51*9.54) = 1.67.
Set AVRPGN EE.3769 = 1.67 * 256 (where 256 = unity) = 429

Integral Gain
Set Kp/Ki = 1 for a lead time constant of 1 sec. For the example Ki = Kp = 1.67
Set AVRIGN EE.3771 = 1.67 * 100 (where 100 = 1 rad/sec) = 167

Under Excitation Limiter (UEL)


The two basic problems with operating a generator in the underexcited region of the
capability curve are stator end iron heating and generator steady state stability limit.
Stray flux in the end turn region of a high speed steam or gas turbine driven
generator can cause large losses in the core end iron during underexcited operation.
The steady state power stability limit indicates the maximum real power that can be
delivered at constant field voltage. The effect of the high initial response AVR is to
substantially increase the steady state stability limit. The generator must be
constrained to operate in the underexcited region in an area where the unit would be
stable if a transfer were made to the field regulator.
The thermal limit is usually more restrictive than the power stability limit. The
default scaling of the UEL curve described is based on the generator capability
curve. The intent is to protect the generator from end iron heating effects by setting
the UEL approximately 10% above the underexcited reactive capability curve. The
10% is chosen to give sufficient safety margin.
The stability limit is a function of the network to which the generator is connected.
The customer is responsible for system stability protection settings. If the customer
supplies UEL curve points, enter those values instead of the values from the method
described.

UEL Operation
This section describes the UEL operation, which is performed by a combination of
standard blocks (see Figure 3-7). The capability of a generator when plotted on a
reactive power versus real power plot changes as terminal voltage changes. This
means that a number of curves are required to provide protection over the normal
10% terminal voltage range permitted by the AVR. If the real and reactive power
signals are normalized by dividing by the square of the terminal voltage then the
capability of the generator becomes a single curve.
The generator watts signal is first normalized by dividing by the square of the
filtered voltage signal. The resulting normalized power is then filtered and absoluted.
This value is fed to the function generator block where the normalized pu UEL curve
has been entered. The output of the function generator block is the UEL curve point
corresponding to that value of generator real power output. This value then becomes
the UEL limit allowed.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling • 4-13


This UEL limit as read from the curve is normalized Vars and must be multiplied by
the square of the filtered voltage signal to produce a Var reference for the
proportional plus integral regulator. The PI regulator is enabled by an AND gate if
52G is closed and the AVR is in control. It compares measured generator Vars
feedback quantity with a reference limit derived from the UEL curve to generate an
error signal that feeds the regulator.
The output of the PI regulator block is fed to a limiter set to allow only positive
outputs. This value is then fed to the excitation autosetpoint block ASP@UE input. It
is added to the existing AVR setpoint to produce an increase in the excitation level
sufficient to prevent the excitation decreasing below the level corresponding to the
UEL limit curve chosen.

UEL Scaling and Configuration


Configuring and scaling the UEL function involves setting the PI regulator for
proper gain and time constants. It also includes setting the UEL curve based on the
generator capability curve.
The UEL limiter uses process regulator #1. This is a proportional plus integral
regulator. A PI regulator has the form:
Kp + Ki/s where Kp = proportional gain and Ki = integral gain (rads/sec).
Only two sets of adjustments for the UEL regulator are necessary. One for exciters
using a normal bandwidth AVR and one for those customers requiring a higher
bandwidth, such as a fast response/high gain AVR. The default setting is normal
bandwidth. The recommended settings are as follows:
Normal High
EE.5899 = 200 (Ki = 2 rads/sec) EE.5899 = 200 (Ki = 2 rads/sec)
EE.5900 = 819 (Kp = 3.2) EE.5900 = 410 (Kp = 1.6)

Note Two EEPROM values are set because the command and feedback gains are
independently adjustable.
Steady state stability of the UEL can be verified by operating the generator at various
power levels then slowly lowering the excitation to drive the generator into the limit
curve. Dynamic closed loop response can then be verified by stepping the AVR
setpoint using the excitation autosetpoint block extra input ASP@EX. A step of 1 or
2% is sufficient. If it is not permissible to drive the generator into its true limit curve
then the curve could be reset at a safer level and the testing performed using this
curve.

UEL Curve
The UEL limit curve is obtained by using a general purpose background function
generator block. This is a five point piecewise linear function generator. The
function is flat to the left of Y0, the first point, and to the right of Y4, the last point.
The X coordinates must be monotonically increasing X0<X1<X2<X3<X4.

4-14 • Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
The coordinates are specified in counts, where generator 1 pu watts = 5000 counts
and generator 1 pu Vars = 5000 counts. The underexcited portion of a typical
generator reactive capability curve is shown in Figure 4-1.
Generator Data: 100000 k VA
3600 RPM
0.85 PF
40 °C cold gas
13800 V

1 pu power at unity power factor = 100 MW = 5000 counts. This value was defined
during primary scaling of the generator voltage and current feedbacks. The exciter
calculates watts and Vars from measured generator voltages and currents.
If the customer has not specified UEL settings, the following recommended settings
can be used:
Recommended X coordinates are at 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2 pu MW. X = 0 is the X
coordinate for Y0 point and needs to be entered. This gives the following values:
• X1 = 0.3 pu = 0.3*5000 counts = +1500 = EE.2864 (from the example curve
this is equivalent to 30.0 MW)
• X2 = 0.6 pu = 0.6*5000 counts = +3000 = EE.2866 (from the example curve
this is equivalent to 60.0 MW)
• X3 = 0.9 pu = 0.9*5000 counts = +4500 = EE.2868 (from the example curve
this is equivalent to 90.0 MW)
• X4 = 1.2 pu = 1.2*5000 counts = +6000 = EE.2870 (from the example curve
this is equivalent to 120.0 MW)
Next, the Y coordinates must be chosen. This method selects Y values 10% above
the rated capability curve to provide ample safety margin. If more than one curve is
given for different gas temperatures, use the rated curve. In the example given this is
40 °C cold gas. From the chosen customer reactive capability curve, read the Vars at
0 power. This is -35 MVars. Add 10% of rated kVA (not 10% of the reading) to
define the Y0 point. Y0 = -35 + (10% * 100) = -25 MVars. This value must now be
changed to counts to store in EE.2872.
EE.2872 = (-25/100)*5000 counts = -1250 counts = Y0
Y1, Y2 and Y3 are obtained as follows:
• Y1 = -40 MVars + 10 = -30 = -1500 counts = EE.2865
• Y2 = -35 MVars + 10 = -25 = -1250 counts = EE.2867
• Y3 = -17 MVars + 10 = -07 = -350 counts = EE.2869
The final value Y4 is chosen differently. A straight line is drawn from the Y3 point
through the 1 pu at unity power factor point to intersect the X = 1.2 pu power line.
This gives Y4 = -2*Y3 = -2 * -350 = +700 counts = EE.2871. All this is based on the
assumption that the 0.9 pu power point on the capability curve yields a negative
value and the final segment passes through rated k VA at unity power factor. The
final point Y4 is chosen this way because this gives better coordination with loss of
excitation protection.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling • 4-15


Figure 4.1 UEL Curve

Reactive Current Compensator (RCC)


The RCC signal is used to compensate for insufficient reactance between generators
or when there is too much reactance. The RCC simulates a reactance on the
generator output. If reactive current increases, the amount subtracted from the
autosetpoint also increases. This lowers the excitation voltage and therefore the
amount of Vars produced by the generator. It provides a drooping characteristic to
insure that the load reactive power is equally divided between paralleled machines.
Generally this compensation is required if machines are paralleled directly on the
same bus. If generators are paralleled on the high side of their generator step-up
transformer, then sufficient reactance should exist between the generators so that
additional compensation is not required. The factory default setting is zero
compensation. Determine the amount of compensation necessary during initial
startup. The compensation is set to the minimum required to ensure VAR sharing.
Values of 3% to 6% reactance are usually sufficient. (Alternatively, EE.3791
ASPRCC can be set to a negative value to provide line drop compensation LDC).
RCC is set by EE.3791 ASPRCC, reactive current gain. The range of this setting is ±
12.5% compensation. The setting for the +12.5% compensation is 32768 counts, or
2621.44 counts per percent compensation. If an RCC of 4% reactance is desired, set
EE.3791 = 4*2621.44 = 10486. If LDC is required, EE.3791 is set to a negative
value. For a 4% line reactance, or line drop compensation, set EE.3791 = -10486.

4-16 • Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
VAR/Power Factor Control
A VAR/Power Factor controller can be provided as an optional regulator in the
regulator core. Either VAR control where a constant generator VAR output is
maintained or power factor control where a constant generator power factor is
maintained can be selected. The two control actions are, of course, mutually
exclusive. The PF/VAR controller can be configured to latch to the existing PF or
generator VAR output when the associated control action is initiated.
The operator station is used to enable the PF/VAR controller. The operator must
adjust the generator to the VAR output or PF that it is desired to maintain. The
appropriate operator station button is then pushed to latch the output at the desired
value. To release the control action, the same button is pushed a second time.

VAR/PF Control Operation and Configuration


The PF/VAR control block uses the generator Vars and Watts as its feedback
variables. These inputs are selected by EE.3718 PF@VAR, normally pointed to
VAR.1153, generator Vars and EE.3719 PF@WAT, normally pointed to VAR.1152,
generator watts.
The watt and Var signals pass through low pass filters, both of which are set by
EE.3723 PFLPFW. A setting of 5 rad/sec is typically used (where 100=1 r/s).
The filtered Var signal is fed to a latch and the negative input of the controller
summing junction. The latch gets set when VAR control is selected. The input
variable that controls VAR control selection is set by EE.3717 PF@ENV. When this
variable is true, VAR control is selected. The latch holds the value of Vars that was
measured as the latch was set. This latched variable is fed to a switch. The switch is
configured by EE.3720 PFARK. If PFARK is set to 0, then the switch will pass the
latched value of Vars to be regulated. If PFARK is set at a non zero value then the
generator output Vars corresponding to this count value will be maintained. This
feature is typically not used.
The power factor controller The preset or latched Var setting is fed to a second switch that will pass either the
functions in a similar fashion. VAR or PF reference to a summing junction depending on which control action has
been selected. If the Var setting was chosen, the VAR reference will be fed to the
summing junction where the actual VAR feedback will be subtracted to create an
error signal. This error signal passes through a deadband set by EE.3722 PFDEBD
(5000 counts = 1 pu). The deadband setting should be chosen so that excessive
regulation does not occur while the required setting is accurately maintained. From
the dead band function a raise or lower signal is given to the exciter as required to
maintain the value selected. The raise signal is PFVRAISE VAR.718 and the lower
is PFVLOWER VAR.719.

The same deadband setting The Var signal is multiplied by 32768 and then divided by the watt signal. The
applies to either the PF or resultant is the normalized tan of the angle between watts and Vars where 32768
VAR controller. equals a tangent of unity (45 degrees). The resultant is filtered and then feeds a latch
that will be set if the PF control function is selected. The output of the latch feeds a
switch configured by EE.3721 PFVWTK. If PFVWTK is set to zero the latched
value is passed. If PFVWTK is set to a non-zero value, then the angle represented
by the setting of EE.3721 will be regulated. A non-zero value is typically not used.
The output of this switch is multiplied with the actual generator watts and divided by
32768. The resultant is the generator Vars necessary to maintain the desired PF angle
at the new generator real power level. This becomes the reference to the controllers
summing junction, where an error signal is developed which causes the exciter to
raise or lower the generator Var output to hold the desired power factor.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling • 4-17


Note The algorithm does not calculate the cosine of the angle between the generator
watts and Vars so does not explicitly develop a signal representing the PF of the
generator.

Field Regulator (FVR)


The FVR (manual) regulates the exciter field without reference to the generator
terminal voltage. It is possible to configure the field regulator to regulate one of four
variables. Either main generator field quantities IFG and VFG or exciter field
quantities IFE and VFE are selectable. For the regulator, the field regulator is
configured as a current regulator with IFE as the feedback variable. Normal regulator
operation is in automatic voltage regulator with transfer to the manual regulator only
occurring as a result of losing the generator terminal voltage feedback signal(s) due
to PT failure detection. The PTFD detector is disabled off-line in certain
configurations. In this case, the field current regulator (OEL) serves to limit the
regulator output to prevent overfluxing the generator. The operator has the capability
to switch the exciter to manual regulation by an operator station command (refer to
Figure 3-5).
In automatic regulator, the field regulator receives an input from the auto voltage
regulator and acts as an inner loop regulator in an attempt to cancel the effects of the
time constant of the rotating equipment. This allows for greater speed of response
when operating in automatic regulator. The AVR output is limited to 2 pu exciter
field current so as not to overdrive the regulator output.

REF2 Operation
The increase/decrease reference block normally supplies the field regulator reference
to the core block EXCOR. This reference block is identical in structure to the REF1
block used by the AVR.
During exciter startup, the output of REF2 tracks, without delay, the value pointed to
RF2@T3. This is EE.91 RUN1RF register. RUN1RF is set to the count value
representing 80 percent of AFNLex. Normal increase/decrease control is disabled at
this time. If the exciter is in AUTO regulator and is not detected to be in limit then
the output of REF2 tracks the variable pointed to by RF2@T2 which is normally
IFE.

4-18 • Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
The manual (backup) regulator tracks the field current necessary to maintain the
existing generator terminal voltage. This tracking is delayed to avoid following
transient fluctuations or erroneous AVR behavior. The ramp range is typically set for
70% of AFNLex to 120% AFFLex in 120 secs. The output of the REF2 block is
passed through a software switch to the core block and then to the MCP block as the
field regulator adjust command MFLDADJ VAR.165.

REF2 Scaling and Configuration


The present for the manual voltage regulator RUN1REF EE.91 is set to a count value
for 80% of AFNLex . Set EE.91 = (0.8*AFNLex*5000/AFFLex) = 1476.
The REF2 ramp high limit is set to 120% of AFFLex. Set RF2THO EE.3444 =
1.2*5000 = 6000.
The REF2 ramp low limit is set to 70% AFNLex. Set RF2LO EE.3442 =
.07*(3.52/9.54)*5000 = 1291
Typically the ramp time to cover this range is set for 120 secs. Set RF2SLM
EE.3446 = 0 for 1/10 bit/sec rate and RF2NRT EE.3451 = ((6000 - 1291)/120)*10 =
392.
Tracking delay, set RF2WLG EE.3447 = 50

FVR Operation
The field regulator adjust command MFLDADJ VAR.165, which normally
originates as the REF2 output or a reference signal from the AVR, becomes the
reference for the field regulator. This reference feeds a summing junction. A
feedback signal representing IFE is subtracted from this reference to give an error
signal (FLOPERR VAR.1003) for the PI regulator. The output of the field regulator
(FLOPO VAR.1004) goes to a minimum value gate where it is compared with the
field current regulator output (ILOPO VAR.1002). The minimum of the two
becomes the net firing command (FIRCMD VAR.1000).

FVR Scaling
The field regulator is set to cancel the effects of the time constant of the rotating
equipment by setting Kp/Ki = T’d0 of the exciter. With the loop gain set to unity, the
transfer functions of the inner loop reduce to be Ki = (2*pi*f*VFFLex @75
C)/(Bridge Gain*5000). The bridge gain is the actual DC link voltage divided by
11775, maximum firing command counts.
The field regulator bandwidth for the regulator is chosen to be 10 Hz.
In the example system, VFFLex is 9.54 * 5.810 = 55.4. The bridge gain is calculated
as 137 volts/11775 or .0116. Ki is calculated to be (2*pi*10*55.4)/(.0116*5000) =
60. Set FLDIG0 EE.1551 = 60*65.536 = 3932 counts.
Since Kp/Ki was set to equal the time constant of the exciter, in the example system,
Kp = Ki *0.35 or 21. From this, EE.1550 FLDPG0= 21 * 256 = 5376 counts.
FLDTGO EE.1547 sets the tracking filter for 2 secs. Set EE.1547 = 1/2 * 65.536
=33 (where 65.536 = 1 rad/sec)

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling • 4-19


Transfer Tracking Meter and Balance
There is automatic tracking between the manual and automatic regulators in either
direction with independent tracking delays. A balance meter is normally provided on
the operator station to show the amount of unbalance that exists between the
regulators. While in the auto regulator, the unbalance is shown as the magnitude of
exciter field voltage unbalance that exists. If a transfer is made at this time to the
manual regulator, the exciter field voltage jumps by this amount. While in the
manual regulator, the balance is shown as the generator terminal voltage unbalance
that exists.

Field Current Regulator (FCR)


The Field Current Regulator (FCR) is programmed within the MCP Block. This
regulator is also a proportional plus integral (PI) regulator. The FCR has a feature
that allows for two sets of proportional and integral gains to be entered. The FCR can
then be switched between these two sets of gains through a command (EFA@EN) to
the Core Block. These two sets of gains are referred to as the primary field current
regulator and the alternate field current regulator. The primary current regulator is
enabled when FCR@EN EE.3706 is true. The alternate current regulator is enabled
when both EFA@EN EE.3705 and FCR@EN are true.

The regulator uses both of these current regulators as an Overexcitation Limiter


(OEL) to limit exciter field current (and therefore main generator field current). The
alternate FCR gains and primary FCR gains are set exactly the same as the field
regulator gains since the field regulator in the regulator is configured as a current
regulator. The alternate current regulator is always enabled unless an extended
forcing condition is detected, and is used as an instantaneous current limit. It has two
setpoints, one for on-line and one for off-line operation. The primary current
regulator is used as an inverse time limiter. Forcing is allowed for up to 10 seconds.
If forcing is maintained for 10 seconds, the alternate current regulator is disabled
with control switching to the primary regulator. The primary regulator will then drop
the current to its on-line setpoint until the inverse time block activates and then
control is limited to 1 pu exciter field current.
In the off-line situation, instantaneous exciter field current is limited to 125% (or
less) of AFNLex to prevent overfluxing the generator and connected transformers.
On-line, the instantaneous current is limited to prevent heating (I2t) damage to the
main field winding. However, it must allow proper field forcing for fault support
before beginning its current limit function.
When either the primary or alternate current limiter takes control of IGBT bridge
gate firing, an OEL Active annunciation is displayed on or sent to the operator
interface. The control of bridge firing is determined by a function referred to as a
minimum value gate. The field regulator cannot resume control of bridge firing until
the firing reference generated by AVR or FVR becomes lower than the firing signal
limit out of the current regulator. See Figure 3-8.

4-20 • Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
Alternate FCR
Off-line, the alternate FCR limits the exciter field current to protect against
overfluxing the machine and any connected transformers. It is a backup V/Hz limit
with the actual V/Hz limiter in the excitation autosetpoint block serving as a primary
limiter. Online, the alternate current regulator serves to limit the exciter field current
to a level that protects the rotating diodes in the brushless exciter.
The alternate field current regulator is enabled whenever EFA@EN true. Until the
generator output breaker is closed, it will limit field current to the value in EE.82, the
off-line instantaneous setpoint. Once the 52G breaker closes, the alternate current
regulator limit is switched to the value in EE.80.
As stated before, since the field regulator (FVR) is configured as a current regulator
in the regulator, the proportional and integral gains for the alternate current regulator
are identical to those in the FVR.

Alternate Field Current Regulator Scaling


EE.1541 IRGKA0 is the alternate FCR proportional gain. From the calculations for
the FVR in the example system, Kp for the current regulator is 21. EE.1541 will then
be the same as EE.1550 = 256*Kp = 5376.
EE.1543 IRWIA0 is the alternate FCR integral gain. From the calculations for the
FVR in the example system, Ki for the current regulator is 60. EE.1543 will then be
the same as EE.1551 = 65.536*Ki = 3932.
EE.1545 ILOPA0 is the alternate FCR preset value. In the regulator, this is chosen to
be 120% of the firing command for exciter field AFNL. For the example system, this
would be (1.2*VFNLex@25 C*11775)/actual DC link voltage. EE.1545 =
(1.2*3.52*4.871*11775)/137 = 1768 counts.
The off-line setpoint for the alternate current regulator is stored in EE.82. This value
is 125% of AFNLex which for the example system would be 1.25*(3.52/9.54)*5000
= 2306 counts.
The online setpoint for instantaneous current limit must allow for forcing of the
regulator during system transients. Generally, calculations are made that specify a
ceiling from the exciter to support 2 pu capability from the generator. The rotating
exciter diodes can be a limiting factor in what this on-line forcing capability is. In
the regulator, this current level is conservatively chosen to be the maximum of either
140% AFFLex or twice AFSIex unless a higher value is specified by the original
equipment manufacturer. In the example system, 1.4 * AFFLex = 13.356. Two times
AFSIex = 2 * 6.236 = 12.472. There is also a specified ceiling limit of 14.45 amps.
EE..80 will then be 15.45 * 5000 /9.54 = 8097 counts. Before changing this
instantaneous limit to a higher value, GE generator engineering should be consulted.
An off-line protection block, PRITC, is provided as an instantaneous trip if the
pickup setpoint is exceeded when the regulator senses the unit is offline. It is set to a
value above the off-line alternate field current regulator setting. If this level is
reached, the regulator will immediately stop IGBT gating.

The PRITC block is set up for linear error with pure integration (1 sec integration
time). The pick up value is set to 1.25 AFNLex with the limit being activated as soon
as the pickup level is exceeded.
Set PITJMP = 2. This sets the PRITC block for excessive I*t function .
Set PITPU = 125% of AFNLex For the example system 1.25*(3.52/9.54)*5000 =
2306 counts the PRITC begins to accumulate when PITPU is exceeded.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling • 4-21


PITTRP is set such that the unit will stop gating at a value of 160% of AFNLex. For
the example system, this would be 645 counts. The trip setting is counts above the
pick up level for a trip.

Primary FCR
The primary field current regulator is used to limit main generator field current to a
value so as not to exceed the thermal capability of the field copper. This limit must
be imposed on the regulator output current into the exciter field in order to limit the
calculated main generator field current. The setpoints of the primary FCR are
generally set to 125% of AFFLex until the inverse time protection is enabled and then
output current is limited to 1 pu AFFLex.
Forcing online is allowed until the reference level stored in a signal level detector
(SLD1) is exceeded for 10 seconds or by a protection inverse time block being in
limit (PIT1LIM = true). The SLD level is set for 140% of AFFL. The protection
inverse time block, PRIT1, is set to begin timing at 1.06 pu exciter current and will
activate the second level of field current at 1.25 pu after 60 seconds. The field
regulator setpoint must be lowered below the level of the field current regulators in
order to release control from the FCR or FCA.

Primary Current Regulator Scaling and Configuration


EE.1540. IRGKC0 is the primary FCR proportional gain. From the calculations for
the FVR in the example system, Kp for the current regulator is 21. EE.1540 will then
be the same as EE.1550 = 256*Kp = 5376.
EE.1542 IRWIC0 is the primary FCR integral gain. From the calculations for the
FVR in the example system, Ki for the current regulator is 60. EE.1542 will then be
the same as EE.1551 = 65.536*Ki = 3932.
EE.1548 ILOPP0 is the primary FCR preset value. In the regulator, this is chosen to
call for full gating of the IGBT bridge. In the example system, this would be 11775
counts.
The high level setpoint for the primary current regulator is stored in EE.83. This
value is 125% of AFFLex which for the example system would be 1.25*5000 = 6250
counts.
After the PRIT1 block times out, the current will then be reduced to the lower level
setpoint for the primary current regulator which is stored in EE.81. This value is
100% of AFFLex, which is equal to 5000 counts.
For SLD1, the level that the input (IFE) is to be compared with is set in EE.152
SL1LEV. This value is set to 140% of AFFLex or 7000 counts. SLD1 pickup time
delay EE.154 = 1000 (for 10 second pickup)
The PRIT1 is an inverse time protection block. The scaling is set on a per unit basis
of AFFL. As all machines are scaled to produce 5000 counts at AFFL then the
values should not change on an individual job basis. The PRIT1 block is scaled for
I*t function with a sixty second leaky integrator.
Set EE.3749.0 PITJMP = 0 This sets the PRIT block for excessive I*t function
(protect for field heating).
Set EE.3749.1 = 0. This sets the PRIT block with a 60 second integrator.
Set EE.3751 PITPU = 5100 which is 102% of AFFLex. The protection block will
begin to integrate when PIT@IN exceeds 102% AFFL.

4-22 • Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
Set PITDEL EE.3755, integrator leak gain to 16122 counts. This setting allows the
PRIT1 block to begin accumulating but never reaches a point where it will generate a
trip. Essentially sets the accumulation level to 1.06% of AFFLex.
A trip level can be set in PITTRP EE.3752. If a trip is used, a setting of 783 will
cause a trip signal output in 120 secs at 112% AFFLex and 42.3 secs at 125% of
AFFLex.
A transfer level can be set in PITTRF EE.3753. If a transfer is used, a setting of 666
will cause a transfer action at 85% of the trip level.
PITDEL is set to 0 in EE.3755 so that pure integration is used. A constant error
signal will produce a linear ramp of (PIT@IN -PITPU) counts/sec.

Optional Functions Scaling and Configuration


Several optional functions are available with the regulator on brushless exciters.
These include exciter field temperature calculation, field ground detection, and 4 - 20
ma output transducers. The requisition specific elementary should be consulted to
determine which, if any, of these options have been supplied.

Transducer Outputs
The DAC1, DAC2, MET1, and MET2 analog outputs are available for test purposes
and are typically used as the input reference for up to four isolated 4-20 ma output
transducers. The four outputs operate identically and are programmed similarly to
the variables in Test 11. DAC1 and DAC2 have 12-bit resolution and are updated
720 times per second. MET1 and MET2 have eight bit resolution and are updated
360 times per second.
Each output has two addresses (see Table 4-1).
• The @I address selects the variable to be output (EE100 = DAC1, EE102 =
DAC2, EE104 = MET1, and EE106 = MET2)The MX address is the maximum
input value (EE101 = DAC1, EE103 = DAC2, EE105 = MET1, and EE107 =
MET2)
• DAC1 and DAC2 can be offset by the values stored in DAC1OF and DAC2OF
For example, to display this function:
1. In the Parameter Mode, call up EE100-DAC1 and EE101-DAC1MX (select
EE.100).
2. Enter the signal to be monitored into EE.100.
Putting that RAM address in EE.100 produces that signal at the NTB/3TB board's
DA1 testpoint and DAC1 terminal (3TB-53).
DAC2, MET1, and MET2 function like DAC1. When a signal's RAM address is
loaded into the DAC and MET addresses, the signal is output on the NTB/3TB
testpoints and terminal points listed in Table 4-1.
Typically, the DAC and MET outputs are assigned with exciter volts (VFE), exciter
amps (IFE), transfer volts, and occasionally exciter field temperature. Consult the
elementary for the specific requisition to see which transducers are supplied, if any.
Typically, DAC1 is exciter field temp, DAC2 is transfer balance, MET1 is IFE and
MET2 is filtered VFE.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling • 4-23


Table 4-1. Diagnostic Mode Analog Output Points
Loaded into Address NTB TP Terminal Board Point
EE.100-DAC@1 & DA1 DA1, 3TB-53
EE101-DAC1MX

EE.108-DAC1OF
EE102-DAC@2 & DA2 DA2,3TB-55
EE103-DAC2MX

EE.109 DAC2OF
EE104-MET@1 & MET1 MET1, 3TB-54
EE105-MET1MX
EE106-MET@2 & MET2 MET2, 3TB-56
EE107-MET2MX

Ground Detector and Diode Fault Monitor


The regulator is capable of interfacing with a brushless regulator field ground
detector module. There are several different styles of ground detectors available,
some with multiple inputs to the regulator, some with only one input. The most
common of these detectors is configured as follows.
This detector requires a 24 volt supply, typically passed through the regulator
cabinet. The detector returns three signals to the exciter. These are a Ground
Detector Malfunction alarm, a Ground Fault alarm, and a Diode Fault alarm. These
three inputs are taken into the regulator controls on the NTB board at inputs V4VCO,
FBVCO, and RFVCO. These inputs are configurable voltage controlled oscillators,
which convert the analog input to dc counts for use in the regulator.
The Detector Malfunction alarm signal is a nominal 2 V dc when there is no fault
present. This signal is scaled in the FBVCO and compared to a fixed reference in a
signal level detect. A high signal (nominally 20 V dc) indicates a detector
malfunction.
The Ground Fault alarm is a nominal 10 to 24 V dc unless a ground fault is detected.
Then the input will go to a nominal 2 V dc. This signal is scaled in the V4VCO,
compared to a fixed reference and passed through a time delay such that the
condition must persist for up to 10 seconds. It is ANDED with the inverse of the
detector malfunction alarm. This prevents a false ground detection if the detector has
indicated that it is not healthy. To prevent inadvertent alarms when the unit is not
operating, the ground fault detector is not activated until the regulator has been
running for 15 secs. It is always disabled while in simulator mode to prevent false
alarms or inadvertant operation of the customer lockout.
The Diode Fault alarm sends a one hertz, 0 to 24 volt squarewave to the regulator.
This signal is scaled in the RFVCO. It is then sent to two signal level detectors. One
checks for a continuously low voltage, which indicates a diode fault. The other
checks for a continuously high voltage, which indicates a diode, monitor fault.
Each of the inputs and resulting signal level detect outputs are incorporated in the
global alarm string 30EX and also passed over the Status_S page.

4-24 • Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
Ground Detector and Diode Fault Scaling and Configuration
The Ground Detector Malfunction input is scaled in the FBVCO. The feed back
VCO scale factor EE.1386 FVSCL0 is set to a value of 10000. This scales VAR.183
to a nominal 20000 counts with an input of 20 V dc. EE.180 SL5LEV is the level
that the input variable from the FBVCO is compared to. This is set to a value of
18000. The mode of the level detect is set to a 0 in EE.178.11 SL5MODE. The level
detect will then pick up when the input is greater than or equal to the sensing level.
The level detect time delay is set to 0.5 seconds with a setting of 50 in EE.182
SL5PUT.
The Ground Detection input is scaled in the V4VCO. The V4VCO scale factor
EE.488 V4SCL0 is set to a value of 10609. This scales VAR.185 to a nominal 20000
counts with an input of 24 V dc.
This variable is compared to EE.74 in the CMPR1 block. EE.74 is a general purpose
register and is set to a value of 2000 counts. If the output of V4VCO is greater than
2000 counts, then there is no ground. The delay of 10 seconds is set in the ONDLY3
block at EE.5670 ONDLY3. This is set to a value of 1000 for a 10 second delay.
The Diode Fault input is scaled in the RFVCO. The reference VCO scale factor
EE.1281 RVSCL0 is set to a value of 10000. This scales VAR.182 to a nominal
20000 counts with an input of 20 V dc.
For a diode monitor fault detection, EE.187 SL6LEV is the level that the input
variable from the RFVCO is compared to. This is set to a value of 18000. The mode
of the level detect is set to a 0 in EE.185.11 SL6MODE. The level detect will then
pick up when the input is greater than or equal to the sensing level. The level detect
time delay is set to 2 seconds with a setting of 200 in EE.189 SL6PUT.
For a diode fault detection, EE.194 SL7LEV is the level that the input variable from
the REFVCO is compared to. This is set to a value of 2000. The mode of the level
detect is set to a 4 in EE.192.11 SL7MODE. The level detect will then pick up when
the input is less than the sensing level. The level detect time delay is set to 2 seconds
with a setting of 200 in EE.196 SL7PUT.

Field Thermal Model


The regulator monitors the temperature of the exciter field windings by calculating
the field winding resistance from the measured values of exciter field voltage and
exciter field current. In simulator mode, the model uses the simulated values of
exciter field voltage and current.
From the calculated field resistance, the temperature of the windings is calculated
using the resistance formula for copper. This temperature is stored in VAR.1011,
where it is displayed in degrees centigrade. It can be read directly or sent over the
LAN to the operator station.

Thermal Model Operation


The voltage feedback, VFE (VAR.1014), passes through a limiter that restricts it to
positive values. This prevents negative values of resistance from being calculated.
The resulting voltage signal is fed through a filter that matches the field voltage to
the associated field current. This is accomplished by producing a lag that
approximates the lag experienced by the field current due to the field time constant.
The amount of lag is set using EE.1596 EFLTCO.
A switch is used to select either field voltage or a value of zero. Field voltage is the
output if bridge firing is detected (VAR.882 MPWRENAB is true). This signal
becomes the numerator in a divide function.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling • 4-25


The field current IFE (VAR.1016), after passing through a filter, feeds a limiter that
only passes field current values greater than 500 counts. The signal then becomes the
denominator of the divide function. The result of the divide function is the field
resistance in counts. Restricting the denominator to values above 500 counts
eliminates the possibility of division by zero.
The resulting resistance count value is normalized to Kelvin degrees by multiplying
by a scale factor set EE.1594 ERTSFO. The Kelvin degrees are then converted back
to centigrade by subtracting 235. The temperature, now in degrees centigrade, is
filtered and passed though a limiter that restricts the output temperature range to 0 to
300°. The temperature is output as VAR.1011 EFG, scaled at 1 count equals 1 °C.
Due to the time constants, field temperature is not accurately modeled during startup
and shutdown of the exciter.

Thermal Model Scaling


The example system uses VFE and IFE as the feedback variables. The model
parameters to be set are ERTSF0 and EFTLC0.
EE.1594 ERTSCO - Exciter thermal model resistance to degrees scale factor is set =
(32 * Max V dc link * 5000 * (234.5+t1)) / (AFFLex*20000*(Rf@t1) From the
sample data: DC link volts = 360 V dc; AFFLex = 9.54 A dc ; Rf@25C = 4.871
ohms.
EE.1594 = 32*360*5000*(234.5+25)/(9.54*20000*4.871) = 16082 counts.
The exciter lag field time constant is set by EE.1596. From the sample data, the open
circuit exciter field time constant is 0.35 seconds. It will be set to (4096 * 0.458752)/
(T’do exciter).

4-26 • Chapter 4 Software Configuration and Scaling EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
Chapter 5 Startup Checks

Introduction
This chapter contains basic checks to perform after installation and during initial
startup. Consult and study all furnished drawings and instructions before starting
installation. These include outline drawings, connection diagrams, and elementary
diagrams. For installation details, refer to applicable sections of GEH-6011 and
GEI−100228 Receiving, Storing, and Warranty Instructions.
These checks are not intended as complete commissioning instructions for the
regulator, but serve as a guide for the sequence of tests and a description of functions
and devices requiring field tests.

Before application of any power source to this equipment, be


sure that no tools or other objects left over from unpacking or
installation are present in the cabinets, including the bridge
assembly.
Section Page
Prestart Checks ................................................................................................... 5-2
Energization and Simulator Control Checks .................................................. 5-2
Pre-start Power Checks........................................................................................ 5-4
Initial Roll Offline Checks................................................................................... 5-6
Online Checks..................................................................................................... 5-7
Operator Interface ............................................................................................... 5-8
Units with Innovation Series Controller ........................................................ 5-8
Units with Discrete Switches and Meters ...................................................... 5-8

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 5 Startup Checks • 5-1


Prestart Checks
Each regulator is thoroughly tested before shipment. This testing process should
ensure that the regulator will perform properly upon receipt and loading of
requisition specific software.
A complete inspection of the regulator and associated equipment should be
performed prior to energization of any portion of the regulator controls. Items to
look for are shipping damage to wiring or circuit boards, installation damage or
foreign objects from the installation process, contamination due to improper storage,
and loosening of connections and components.
Proper grounding and separation of wiring levels should also be maintained. Ensure
that the ground connection is sized properly and is connected to a suitable ground
point.

Energization and Simulator Control Checks


The following steps are intended as a guide for installation and initial startup of the
regulators. Site specific procedures should incorporate these steps to ensure
completeness.
1. Verify hardware, proms, and board revisions using the GE Control System
Toolbox (toolbox) and job specific software supplied with the equipment. Check
the hardware including the shunt supplied, dynamic discharge resistor, charge
control resistor, and options supplied.
If changes to proms or circuit boards are required, a Full Calc in toolbox may be
needed. Contact GE Industrial Systems before changing any values generated by
the Full Calc if unsure of the correct settings.
2. Verify jumpers and switch settings as specified in the toolbox and the requisition
elementary. If changes are made, update the application tool databases to keep
an accurate documentation of the regulator.
3. Perform a complete wire check of all external connections to the regulator.
Inspections for unintentional shorts, induced voltages, correct wiring ampacities,
and the like should be made. This will include PT and CT inputs, alarm contacts,
trip contacts, and connections to the operator’s interface device. Ground detector
connections and other optional equipment should also be checked.
4. With input disconnects open, check incoming ac and dc power for proper levels
and polarities. On units with a PMG input, it may not be practical to check the
PMG inputs until initial roll of the equipment. At a minimum, a complete wire
check of the inputs should be performed.

5-2 • Chapter 5 Startup Checks EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A


5. Energize the dc power supply feed to energize exciter regulator controls. The
regulator will go through an initialization process. During this initialization
process, hardware and firmware diagnostic checks are performed. Any faults
generated during the initialization should be corrected before proceeding. If
Innovation Series Controller, Mark V, or Mark VI is supplied on the system,
communication faults will not be cleared until this device is operational.
The LDCC display will default to its normal, de-energized state. It should
appear similar to the following.
A S 97% I 0%
The PSCD board has several LED indications of power supply levels and test
points for checking the output of the regulator supplies. Check these testpoints
for appropriate voltage levels. Refer to the toolbox help messages or the
individual board GEI instructions for test points and voltages.
The dc link voltage should also be checked. Variable VAR.1091 should read the
corresponding voltage in engineering units and should agree with the level
measured. On the IAXS board, connections PL and NL are the positive and
negative link voltages respectively.
6. Turn off the dc supply and repeat the PSCD supply voltage checks for the ac
feed to the regulator. The PSCD board voltages will be the same as for the dc
feed. The dc link voltage will generally be different than the dc link with only
the dc supply voltage. Phase rotation of the ac input is not important in the
regulator. But phasing should be checked to ensure accuracy in as built
drawings. If a single phase ac input is used, it must be connected to L1 and L3
leads of the ac input device.
If voltage doubling is required, the connections on CTBA-3 and CTBA-4 should
Refer to the control elementaries
for proper connections. be made. Voltage doubling may only be used with a single-phase ac source.
After independent proper operation with both the ac and dc source voltages are
observed, both power sources should be energized at the same time. Elimination
of either source should have no noticeable affect on the regulator. Only the dc
link voltage may be affected. This check should be performed during power
initial checks.
7. Using toolbox, download the appropriate core file to the regulator. After the
download is complete, the regulator will again perform a diagnostic check.
8. In order to thoroughly test the operation of the regulator, operation in the
simulator mode is recommended. Place the control core in the simulator mode
(EE.570.0=1). See Chapter 6 for operation and scaling information of the
simulator. It is also recommended that as much testing as possible be performed
in simulator mode. This should help shorten the pre-startup and initial roll
checks greatly since control functions, alarms, trips, etc. will have been tested
and verified correct.
Note In the simulator mode, the regulator can generate a request for lockout. This
can trip the lockout relay unless the function is disabled.
9. It may be necessary to place temporary jumpers on inputs to simulate breaker
closures or start permissives that may not be operable at this time. Refer to
hardware elementaries for specific jumpers required. If temporary jumpers are
used, it is important to remember to check the operation of these inputs from the
actual devices at some point during the pre-start process.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 5 Startup Checks • 5-3


10. If the operator’s station device is available, start the device and test operation of
the controls. Raise and lower signals, alarms, limits, displays and transducer
outputs are available in the simulator mode.
11. Close or jumper circuit breaker auxiliary contact (52G) input to simulate online
operation.
Change EE.84 value to simulate higher turbine load. UEL settings can be
checked by increasing EE.84 lowering the regulator output, and comparing to
the capability curve.
Note Return EE.84 value to (152*frequency/60) before opening the 52G contact or
the simulator will overspeed and cause a trip.
12. Verification of the operation of the online and offline OEL limiters can be
accomplished through the use of the built in simulator and toolbox. A
convenient way to do this is to utilize the two input summation (2 Input Sum)
block that is programmed between the REF2 block output and the CORE block
EFR@SP input. EFR@SP is the setpoint for the field regulator. The summation
block was added to the pattern for test purposes only. Input 1 of this block is the
normal field regulator reference supplied by REF2 output. Input 2 can be
pointed to the output of the background test oscillator. In this manner the
regulator can be easily stepped.
a. Offline OEL
While in manual regulator, raise the excitation level until the field current
exceeds the offline OEL pickup level. The system goes into off-line OEL.
Lower the reference to see that the OEL condition resets. Step the reference into
OEL and observe the response. Return the summation block test input to zero.
b. Online OEL
While in manual regulator and with about 90% MW load, increase the Vars until
field current is above 102% of AFFLex. The PRIT1 block begins to accumulate
and after a time delay activates the OEL limiter. Lower the setpoint and then
step the reference so that the system goes back into on-line OEL. Observe the
response and be aware that if a very large step is used, the signal level detector
pickup level is also exceeded. After 10 seconds, the exciter field current will be
limited to 125% of AFFLex and when PRIT1 times out it will limit to 100% of
AFFLex.
13. After completion of the tests, disconnect the test oscillator.

Pre-start Power Checks


After proper simulator operation, remove the control core from simulator mode. As
described in the section Feedback Offsets, the inputs from the current and voltage
feedbacks should be adjusted. These offsets are found in location EE.1508 through
EE.1513. In simulator mode, these values are not in use and therefore do not affect
the simulator operation.
1. Check PT and CT inputs by applying an input signal with a 3-phase source at
rated PT secondary volts and CT secondary current. The operator station device
should display rated terminal volts. Internal control variables for PT and CT
feedbacks should be verified for proper scaling. If supplied, a PT failure can be
checked by opening the primary switch and observing a transfer to the backup
PTs or a transfer to the manual regulator.

5-4 • Chapter 5 Startup Checks EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A


2. It is recommended that the brushless exciter field be used for initial power tests.
There should be no detrimental effects to using the exciter field as a load since
the unit is not rotating and can not produce generator field voltage. If the exciter
field is not available, a suitable replacement load must be used. This dummy
load has to be inductive. If a simple resistive load is used the control will trip on
instantaneous over current before the regulator can limit the current. Since the
regulator is a current regulator, it should be sized to carry at least AFFLex in
order to keep as many EE settings at the requisition levels as possible. Choosing
a smaller current load will require adjustment of several operating parameters.
3. Place the controls in manual regulator. Connect an oscilloscope and voltmeter to
the output load leads. Incorrect shunt wiring can cause the regulator to turn full
on in manual mode. Verify shunt connections with a mV source, observing
proper polarities, before starting.
Again, test jumpers or operation of the 86G device will be required to run the
regulator into the exciter field or replacement load.
4. Upon starting the regulator, exciter field current should develop to
approximately 80% AFNL. Immediately stop the controls if any unusual or
abnormal operation occurs. Operation in the automatic regulator is not
recommended since the regulator will be open loop and be very difficult to
control.
5. Measure field voltage and current and compare to the operator station display
values. Use the toolbox to check the VCO output counts for proper values.
While the scaling can be adjusted to give the desired counts for the indicated
voltages or currents, it is generally an indication of improper scaling or jumper
settings when these values are not in agreement.
6. Check field output waveshapes using an oscilloscope. Observe for stable
operation at low and full output voltages. The display should be a square wave
similar to Figure 5-1. As output is raised, the on time will increase as the off
time will decrease. The upper and lower peaks of the square wave will be equal
to the dc link voltage.

DC LINK LEVEL

O VOLTS LEVEL

LOW OUTPUT HIGH OUTPUT

Figure 5-1. Typical Output Wave Forms

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 5 Startup Checks • 5-5


If found to be unstable, 8. Use the method outlined in the OEL simulator testing in the section
contact GE Industrial Systems Energization and Simulator Control Checks, step 12 to verify off-line and on-
for any changes in settings. line OEL limit and regulator stability. A jumper for the 52G input will be
required to simulate on-line operation. It will not be necessary to simulate MWs
on the regulator. Raising the output current to the OEL settings should result in
OEL limiter operation as described. For checks without the actual exciter field,
it is possible to simulate higher current levels by changing the value in EE.1505.
This value should be restored to the original setting after testing.

Refer to applicable 9. Restore values and reconnect for normal operation. Check temporary inputs,
jumpers and EE values and restore to the desired operational settings. To restore
documents and perform field
an EE value to its original, as shipped setting, use the clear override function in
ground detector checks and
signal interface to the the software tools. The unit is now ready for offline, initial roll system checks.
regulator.

Initial Roll Offline Checks


1. Run the unit up to synchronous speed. At this time the PMG input may be
available for the first time. Before applying the PMG input, measure and
observe correct PMG inputs. Refer to applicable PMG instruction manuals for
more information.
2. With the regulator in manual control, start the exciter. The unit should come up
to approximately 80% amps field no load. This should result in a build up of
generator terminal voltage no greater than rated terminal volts when operating at
rated generator frequency.
3. Refer to applicable instruction manuals for initial startup checks for the rotating
portions of the brushless exciter and main generator. This should include ground
detector operational checks as well.
4. Check phasing of the PT inputs. CT inputs will not be available at this time.
Measure for correct secondary values at rated generator terminal volts. Negative
generator frequency counts indicate improper phase rotation of the PT inputs.
Check the values of exciter field volts and exciter field current at no. Measure
the actual field volts and field shunt mVs. The measured values, counts and
operator station display values should agree.
5. Step test the exciter field regulator to ensure stable operation. Step test the field
voltage regulator using the input summing block as described in the OEL
simulator testing.
6. Transfer to automatic regulator. The transfer should be smooth and without any
noticeable fluctuations in generator or regulator operation. The AVR can be
stepped by pointing the extra reference in the Excitation Autosetpoint Block
(EE.3781 ASP@EX) to the output of the test oscillator. Generally a 2% step
(400 counts) is sufficient. Verify stability of the AVR.
7. Give the regulator a stop command. With the unit in automatic regulator, restart
the exciter and watch for proper operation. The regulator should bring the
generator to rated terminal volts (or the setting of the EE.3402 pointer).
8. The V/HZ regulator function can be checked by slowing the generator and,
while in automatic regulator, watching the ac terminal volts drop accordingly. A
1.10 pu ratio should not be exceeded.

5-6 • Chapter 5 Startup Checks EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A


The regulator is now ready for online operation. Return the unit to rated terminal
volts. Initial synchronization checks for other equipment may be required at this
time.

Online Checks
1. It is recommended that the unit be synchronized in manual regulator the first
time. The CT inputs to the regulator can adversely affect the automatic regulator
operation if they are not correct. Once the unit has been synchronized, increase
the unit load for a small amount of generator line current.
Check the MW and MVAR displays for positive values. If they are negative, the
CT leads connections may be reversed. This condition should be corrected
before proceeding. If there are no CT disconnects, the unit must be offline to
reverse/change CT connections.
Reversing CT leads with the unit under load can cause
substantial damage to generator components. The unit must
be off-line, 52G open, before correcting CT lead polarity.

2. After correct displays of MW and MVars have been ascertained, place the
regulator in automatic. For units without PT failure detection, remove the main
PT input by opening the disconnect switch (if supplied) or pulling the PTCT
board input connection plug. This generates a PT undervoltage alarm. The
operator station display should indicate that the regulator has transferred to
manual, and can not be placed into automatic. A 30EX global alarm should be
generated. Restoring the PT input and operating the PT BAD reset will allow a
return to automatic. Activating the automatic regulator selection should again
place the exciter in automatic regulator. The 30EX alarm should be clear.
Two PT inputs are required for PT failure detection. Opening the main PT will
generate a PT failure alarm but the unit will not transfer to manual. It will
continue regulation on the secondary set of PTs. Restoring the main PT input
will clear the PT bad alarm.
Removing only the secondary PT input will generate a PTX alarm but will not
transfer the unit from automatic to manual. Restoring the PT input will clear the
alarm.
Removing both the primary and backup PT inputs will generate the PT
undervoltage alarm and the restoration process described above should be
followed.
3. Check UEL operation. The simulator checks should be sufficient to guarantee
proper operation of the UEL at the desired setpoints as long as the line current
and line voltage count values are correct. Many customers may require
verification of the actual UEL limit line. If this is needed, the UEL stability
should be checked first.
Stability of the UEL can be checked by raising the UEL setpoints to a value of
just slightly underexcited. The values of EE.2872, EE.2865, EE.2867, and
EE.2869 should be set to negative 250 counts. Lower the excitation slowly until
the UEL regulator takes over at the revised settings. The regulator can then be
stepped into the UEL regulator using the extra input to the auto setpoint block as
described in the section Initial Roll Offline Checks, step 6. This will verify that
the UEL operation is stable. Contact GE Industrial Systems if any instability in
the UEL regulator is encountered.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 5 Startup Checks • 5-7


If at any time undesired operation is observed, a transfer to manual regulator
should correct the condition. After verification of UEL stability, the original
UEL setpoints should be restored. If the customer desires testing of the actual
UEL limits, the excitation can be slowly lowered into the limit.
4. The online OEL testing performed in the section Energization and Simulator
Control Checks, step 7 should be sufficient. To perform the same test on the
actual machine requires operation at very high field current levels. GE Motors &
Industrial Systems does not recommend that the equipment be actually driven
into OEL. If it is required, contact GE Industrial Systems.
After completion of all EX2000 tests, restore all storage registers used for
testing to normal values, back up the software, and disable all write enables.
As the unit is loaded, check for reactive sharing between paralleled units. Reactive
current compensation can be introduced through the AVR setpoint block by
changing the gain of the RCC. See EE.3791 help for changing the RCC gain.

Operator Interface
The regulator is a versatile regulator, capable of communicating with several
different Human-Machine Interfaces (HMI). Direct communication with the GE
turbine control is the standard interface to the regulator. The communication
configuration is defined and standardized within both the turbine controller and the
regulator. Changes to the Status_S page and communication settings should be made
only under advisement from GE Industrial Systems.
Checkout of the Status_S communications should be carried out in conjunction with
the turbine control startup procedures. Usually it is sufficient to verify control of
operator functions as described on the interface control panel or screen.

Units with Innovation Series Controller


All Innovation Series Controllers are factory-tested and operable when shipped to the
installation site. Final checks should be made after installation and before starting the
Innovation Series Controller/OC2000 combination. Consult the appropriate
equipment GEH for guidelines for inspections to perform prior to startup.
GEH-6335 Operator Console 2000 Operation and Maintenance
GEH-6334 Unit Controller 2000 Operation and Maintenance

Units with Discrete Switches and Meters


Testing of contact inputs and outputs from discrete meters and switches should
include a thorough wiring check for continuity and no direct shorts before powering
the devices from the regulator. Normal startup checkouts will ensure correct
connections and operation of the devices.

5-8 • Chapter 5 Startup Checks EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A


Chapter 6 Simulator Scaling and
Operation

Introduction
This chapter gives example simulator scaling and operation instructions for a typical
brushless regulator generator application.
Section Page

Simulator ............................................................................................................ 6-1


Simulator Scaling......................................................................................... 6-2
Operation ..................................................................................................... 6-4

Simulator
A simulator is built into the regulator that can model a generator and brushless
excitation system off-line or on-line (connected to an infinite bus). Simulator
operation is selected by setting EE.570.0 = 1. When selected, the feedbacks
presented to the control regulators are switched, by software, from the real feedback
inputs to feedbacks derived by mathematical models mimicking the generator and
field circuit behavior.
The regulator controls react in a manner close to the way they would react in normal
operation. The simulator can serve as a valuable startup, maintenance, and training
tool.
The simulator is scaled to represent the actual system as accurately as possible. This
means that when a start command is given to the exciter, it follows a normal start
sequence. Close commands are sent to the bridge contactor but gating of the IGBT
devices is disabled. The controls look for actual auxiliary contact feedbacks
representing the contactor states. If these are not correct the appropriate faults are
generated.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 6 Simulator Scaling and Operation • 6-1


The generator armature and field models, as well as the exciter stator and field
models, provide the feedbacks for exciter field voltage and current and generator
stator voltage and current. These feedbacks are handled by the transducering
algorithms the same way real feedbacks are used to calculate watts, VARs, speed
deviation, and frequency. If the model scaling is correct, the display data cannot be
distinguished from real data. Main generator field voltages and currents are also
simulated internally and used for correct model operation.
The exciter regulator can be raised and lowered in automatic or manual regulator,
both online or offline. The regulator limits come in at the same levels as in non-
simulated operation. The regulator responses provide a good representation of what
can be expected of the real system in response to step changes.
By changing the storage register containing the value representing model shaft
torque, EE.84, it is possible to raise or lower the generator real power output when
simulating on-line operation. The exciter changes the system VARs in response to
changes in the exciter setpoints.

Disable the IGBT gating while in simulator mode. Check that


setting of EE.589.14 = 0.

Simulator Scaling
The goal of the simulator scaling is to make the models represent, as close as
possible, the behavior of the real system.
In addition to the following EE settings, see EE.3850 GMJMPR in Generator,
exciter, and regulator parameters listed in Chapter 4 (General Configuration) in the
section Configuration and Scaling Example, will be used for scaling discussions in
the simulator section.
SMVDCL0 EE.1558 simulates the dc link voltage of the regulator. It is set to
represent the actual running voltage of the dc link. For the example system this is
137 V dc. For EE.1558, set equal to 137/360 * 20000 = 7611 counts.
SMHST0 EE.1559 is the simulated heat sink temperature of the PWM IGBT
heatsink. This value can be used to test the overtemperature alarm and trip levels in
the regulator controls. One count equals 1 °C. Normally set to maximum expected
temperature during operation, 60 °C.
GMVBAT EE.3851 represents simulator flashing voltage. Since flashing is not
required on the regulators, set EE.3851 = 0.
GMRBAT EE.3852 represents simulator battery resistance for field flashing. This
is also not required in the regulator and EE.3852 is also set to a 0.
GMVTHY EE.3853 is the simulator thyrite voltage. This models an overvoltage
protection thyrite connected across the exciter field input. The example system has a
125 V exciter field. Set EE.3853 = (Exciter field class*7.2*1797)/(DC link volts) =
(125*7.2*1797)/137 = 11805.
GMRDIS EE.3854 simulates the dynamic discharge resistance. Set EE.3854 =
(AFNLex*2*RDD*30664) / DC link volts = (3.52*2*17*30664)/137 = 26787.
GM_RFE EE.3855 is the simulator exciter field resistance. This is set equal to
(VFNLex/DC link volts) * 31108 where VFNLex = AFNLex * Rfe@25C. From the
example data Rfe@25c = 4.871 ohms. VFNLex = 4.871 * 3.52 = 17.15 V dc. Set
EE.3855 = (17.15/137)*31108 = 3838.

6-2 • Chapter 6 Simulator Scaling and Operation EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
GMILFE EE.3856 represents the inverse of exciter field inductance. EE.3856 is set
equal to (DC link volts * 156) / (VFNLex * T’doex). T'doex is the open circuit field
time constant which is 0.35 seconds in the example system. Set EE.3856 =
(137*156) / (17.15 * 0.35) = 3561.
GM_RFG EE.3857 simulates generator field resistance. This parameter is normally
set to 7115 * frequency/60. The constant scaling is the result of expected
normalizations. Exciter AFNL is expected to produce VFNL on the generator field,
which in turn produces AFNL on the generator field. Set EE.3857 = 7115 for the
example, which is a 60 Hz system.
GMILFG EE.3858 is the simulated inverse of generator field inductance. Set equal
to (60/ frequency) * 670 / T'dogen, where T'do is the main generator field time
constant. Set EE.3858 = 670/5.615 = 119 for the example system.
GMVFES EE.3859 is the simulator exciter voltage scale down divider. This scales
the exciter voltage from the model to produce EXSIMFE VAR.1177 (simulated
exciter field voltage). Set EE.3859 = 5888 * maximum dc link volts / dc link volts =
5888 * 360/137 = 15472.
GMIFES EE.3860 is the simulator exciter current scale down divider. This
parameter scales the exciter current from the model to make EXSIMIFE VAR.1176
(simulated exciter field current). Set EE.3860 = (AFFLex/AFNLex)*3146 =
(3.52/9.54)*3146 = 8526.
GMVFGS EE.3861 is the simulator generator field voltage scale down divider.
This parameter scales generator field voltage from the model to make EXSIMVFG
VAR.1163. Set GMVFGS to 27329280/ (AFNLgen * RFG@100 C* 20000 /
Maximum DC link volts). In the example system, and simplifying the formula, this is
1367 * 360 / (313*0.256) = 6139.
GMIFGS EE.3862 is the simulator generator field current scale down divider. This
parameter scales generator field current from the model to make EXSIMIFG
VAR.1161 (simulated generator field current). When used in conjunction with
standard scaling, such as AFFL = 5000 counts, set GMIFGS = (AFFLgen /
AFNLgen ) * 3146. In the example system, this would be 846/313*3146 = 8503.
GMIFLS EE.3863 represents the simulator flashing current scale down divider.
This parameter is not used in the regulator. Set GMVIFLS = 0.
GMDAMP EE.3864 is the simulator generator model damping factor where 1 count
= 0.11 pu watts/pu speed(60 Hz). Normally EE.3864 is set equal to 400. If
oscillations occur while operating in simulator mode, try changing GMDAMP.
GM_IXS EE.3865 represents the generator model inverse of synchronous reactance.
This parameter models the generator synchronous reactance in simulator mode.
GM_IXS = 4096/Xs(pu).
To most accurately model the generator, it is necessary to approximate the generator
synchronous reactance from no load to full load. In a real system, machine
reactances vary with saturation and saliency. Therefore it is necessary to make
simplifying assumptions that produce a value of Xs that provides reasonable
behavior over the range VFNL to VFFL. Assume a round rotor machine with no
saturation, no saliency, and resistance is negligible. This makes the direct and
quadrature reactances equal. If this level of accuracy in the model is not of concern
then Xd (the direct axis saturated synchronous reactance) can be used.
If optimum model accuracy is of concern then the following method, based on a
simplified synchronous machine model, can be used. The range of field amps from
no load to full load = AFFL/AFNL=9.54/3.52 = 2.71.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 6 Simulator Scaling and Operation • 6-3


If a phasor diagram showing the machine operating at rated load and power factor
connected to an infinite bus at rated terminal volts is drawn then a quadratic equation
with the synchronous impedance as the unknown quantity can be generated and
solved for Xs. It is then used in the above equation for GM_IXS.
The rated power factor for the sample machine is 0.85. With the machine operating
at rated k VA = 1 pu k VA then rated real power = 0.85*1 pu and rated reactive
power output = 0.53*1 pu Generator voltage = 1 pu
As per unit values are being used it is not necessary to use the actual generator MW
and MVAR values involved.
From the phasor diagram, the following quadratic equation results where the
generator internal voltage range required is represented by the ratio of AFFL to
AFNL = 2.71
(2.71)**2 = (1 + 0.53*Xs)**2 + (0.85*Xs)**2 Solving for Xs gives a synchronous
reactance of 2.04 pu
Set EE.3865 equal to 4096/Xs = 4096/2.04 = 2007.
GMXEXS EE.3866 models the effect of external reactance for the simulator
generator model. This can be set for a strongly or weakly connected system. EE.3866
is set equal to 65536*Xe/(Xs + Xe) where Xe represents the amount of impedance in
per unit connecting the generator to the system. For the example, set for a strong
system (small amount of impedance between generator and system), with Xe = 0.1
pu, then EE.3866 = 65536*(0.1)/(2.04 + 0.1) = 3062.
GM_IM EE.3867 models the effect of generator inertia for the simulator. Typically,
the default value of zero (which is equivalent to M = 3.98 pu) is used. For more
accurate simulator modeling, EE.3867 can be set to (frequency/60)*16302/M where
M =2H, the generator inertia constant.

Operation
To put the control core into simulator mode set EE.570.0 = 1. The shaft speed of the
generator increases to rated (synchronous) speed at a rate determined by the
simulator inertia constant and the level of shaft torque preset in register EE.84. The
value of torque preset to give rated speed at no load is 153 * (frequency/60). Rated
speed is indicated on the core programmer display as 100%. The shaft torque can be
altered on-line or off-line by changing the value stored in EE.84. Offline, changing
shaft torque increases the speed and hence the frequency of the generator. Changing
the torque on-line increases or decreases the real power output of the model
generator.
To start the simulator, it is generally necessary to wait until the simulated generator
speed is above 95%. It is also necessary to have the 86G input to the regulator
closed. Failure to do so will result in a fault 29 when attempting a start. Starts in auto
or manual regulator are permissible. The simulator can be started from the operator's
station or by pressing the RUN button on the LDCC keypad. After starting, exciter
field current and voltage and generator terminal voltage will build up to the preset
levels of the regulator being used.
Once the simulator is on-line, the 94EX contact
output can be operated inadvertently. This may
cause unintentional operation of protective devices
outside the regulator. Lifting of the 94EX output
contacts is recommended during simulator
operation.

6-4 • Chapter 6 Simulator Scaling and Operation EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
To put the simulator online, a contact closure simulating 52G aux contact feedback
must be input to core LTB input IN1. Some oscillations are generally observed when
closing the 52G contact since there is no synchroscope to confirm closing while the
simulated generator and line voltages are in phase. When offline, changing the
exciter AVR or MVR setting adjusts generator terminal voltage. When online, raise
or lower signals change the generator VARs. The result of these control changes can
be observed.
Testing of UEL settings, V/Hz regulator, over current protections, and so on, can
also be observed. Feedback and control signals from the operator's station and 4-20
ma outputs (if supplied) can also be observed.
When stopping the simulator, the reference value in EE.84 should be returned to the
original level for 100% speed off-line. Failure to do so will result in unusual offline
operation.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Chapter 6 Simulator Scaling and Operation • 6-5


Notes

6-6 • Chapter 6 Simulator Scaling and Operation EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A
Glossary of Terms

AFFL
Generator Amps Field full-load.
AFNL
Generator Amps Field No Load.
AFNLex
Exciter Amps Field No Load.
AFFLex
Exciter Amps Field Full Load.
ARCNET
See DLAN, DLAN+.
AVR
Automatic voltage regulator.
Board
Printed wiring board.
Bus
An electrical path for transmitting and receiving data.
Cable
A standard single conductor or combination of conductors insulated from each other.
Card
Alternate term for printed wiring board.
Configure
To select specific options, either by setting the location of hardware jumpers or
loading software parameters into memory.
GE Control System Toolbox
A windows-based software package used to configure and perform diagnostics on
controllers and drives.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Glossary of Terms • 1


Converter
A device that converts ac power to dc power, or vice-versa.
CT
Current transformer.
Device
A configurable component of a process control system.
Diagnostics
Software that checks drive hardware or software, providing error indications that
identify the type or location of malfunction.
DLAN, DLAN+
Communication links between exciters and controllers. There can be up to 32 drops
on DLAN and 255 drops on DLAN+ (ARCNET).
Drive
(Industrial). The equipment used for converting available power into mechanical
power suitable for operation of a machine.
DCS
Distributed control system.
DSW
Power disconnect switch.
ECNFIG
Configuration jumper.
EEPROM
Erasable programmable read-only memory.
FCR
Field current regulator.
FVR
Field voltage regulator.
GDDD
Gate driver and dynamic discharge.
GMJMPR
Generator model jumper.
Ground
An electrical path designated to disperse high-voltage electrical spikes, usually by
routing them to the earth.
HMI
Human-machine interface.

2 • Glossary of Terms EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A


IGBT
Insulated-gate bi-polar transistor.
I/O
Input/Output. Data flow into and out of a device, or the term for input/output
interfaces.
LAN
Local Area Network.
LDCC
Drive control and LAN control board.
LTB
LAN terminal board.
MDA
Bridge dc output (field) contractors.
MOV
Metal oxide varistor (a voltage suppressor).
NTB/3TB
Exciter Terminal Board, 53`X305NTB. The board containing the exciter's customer
connection terminals (3TB) for most signal-level I/O. It also contains most of the
hardware customizing jumpers and potentiometers, plus passive interface circuitry.
OEL
Over-excitation limiter.
PF
Power factor
PI
Proportional integral.
PMG
Permanent magnet generator.
PPT
Power potential transformer.
PSCD
Power supply and contractor driver.
PSS
Power system stabilizer.
PTCT
Potential transformer current transformer.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Glossary of Terms • 3


PTFD
Potential transformer failure detector.
PTF, PT
Potential transformer failure.
PWG
Pulse width modulated.
RAM
Random access memory. Memory can be both read and written to.
RCC
Reactive current compensation.
RCH
Charge control resistor.
RDD
Dynamic discharge resistor.
RDS
Dynamic discharge power source resistor.
ROM
Read-only memory.
RS-232C
An EIA Recommended Standard (RS) for the serial link communications interface
for interconnecting data terminal equipment, such as printers, computer monitors, or
computers to data communications equipment, such as modems, for transmission
over a telephone line or network. RS-232C uses an unbalanced or single-ended
voltage interface.
RTBA
Relay Terminal Board, D5200RTBA. This board contains seven relays that can be
jumper-selected to operate from LTB board signals or from external contacts. Each
relay contains two form C contacts.
SHA
Output shunt.
Shunt
A device having appreciable resistance or impedance connected in parallel across
other devices or apparatus, and diverting some (but not all) of the current from it.
Appreciable voltage exists across the shunted device or apparatus and an appreciable
current may exist in it.

4 • Glossary of Terms EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A


TCCB
Microprocessor application board.
Toolbox
See control system toolbox.
UEL
Under-excitation limit
VARs
Volt amperes

VCO
Voltage controlled oscillator. Its frequency output is proportional to the voltage
applied to it.
V/Hz
Voltage to frequency ratio.

GEH-6375A User's Guide Glossary of Terms • 5


Notes

6 • Glossary of Terms EX2000, PWM Digital Regulator GEH-6375A


E
Exciter data, 4-3

F
Index Faults, 1-7
Feedback offsets
EE.1508 VF1OF0, 4-8
EE.1510 CF1OF0, 4-8
EE.1513 VDCOF0, 4-8
FVR
Operation, 4-19
Scaling, 4-19

G
A
GDDD board, 2-8
Ac and dc regulators Generator data, 4-3
OEL, 1-7 Generator feedback, 4-6
PSS, 1-7 Generator inputs
RCC, 1-7 Current transformer, 2-10
UEL, 1-7 Potential transformer, 2-9
V/Hz, 1-7 Generator model jumper, 4-5
ACNA board, 2-9 Ground detector and diode faults
Alternate FCR Scaling, 4-21 Configuration, 4-25
Application software, 1-6 Scaling, 4-25
Autosetpoint block, 4-11
Configuration, 4-11
H
Scaling, 4-11
AVR HMI, 1-8
Configuration, 4-11
Proportional gain, 4-12
I
Scaling, 4-11
AVR block, 4-11 Input ratings
AVR operation, 4-9 Auxiliary bus Input, 2-3
Bus feed, 2-3
Dc input power, 2-4
C
PMG input, 2-3
Circuit boards
ACNA board, 1-4 L
GDDD board, 1-4
LDCC board, 1-4 LTB board, 2-9
LTB board, 1-4
NTB/3TB board, 1-4 N
PSCD board, 1-4
RTBA boards, 1-4 NTB/3TB board, 2-9
TCCB board, 1-4
Configuration jumper, 4-5 O
Configuration parameters, 4-5
Offline checks, 5-6
Online checks, 5-7
D Operator Interface
Diagnostic software, 1-6 Switches, Meters, 5-8
USC2000, IOS, 5-8
Ouput current rating, 2-4

GEH-6375 User's Manual Index • 1


P T
P.T.U.V., 4-7 TCCB board, 2-8
Packaging Thermal model
Enclosure, 2-2 Operation, 4-25
Environmental, 2-2 Scaling, 4-26
PFTD operation, 4-6 Transducer outputs, 4-23
Power checks, 5-4
Power converter hardware U
Ac and dc input devices, 2-6
Dc link and dynamic discharge, 2-6 UEL
IGBT and IAXS devices, 2-6 Configuration, 4-14
Output contractor MDA, 2-7 Curve, 4-14
Output shunt SHA, 2-7 Operation, 4-13
Prestart checks Scaling, 4-14
Energization and simulator control, 5-2
Primary FCR V
Configuration, 4-22
Scaling, 4-22 VAR/PF control
PSCD board, 2-8 Configuration, 4-17
PTCT board, 2-8 Operation, 4-17
PTFD scaling, 4-7

R
Ratings
Input ratings, 2-3
REF1 Operation, 4-9
Autosetpoint block, 4-10
Configuration, 4-10
Scaling, 4-10
REF2
Configuration, 4-19
Operation, 4-18
Scaling, 4-19
Regulator data, 4-4
RTBA board, 2-9

S
Scaling, 1-7
Simulator, 1-8
Operation, 6-4
Scaling, 6-2
Software, 1-6
Software Design, 3-2
Standard functions
AVR, 3-3
Firing block, 3-4
FVR, 3-4
OEL, 3-4
UEL, 3-4
Standard software functions, 3-5

2 • Index EX2000, PWM Digital Exciter GEH-6375



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