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Chapter 2

2.1 Methodologies
2.1.1 Prototyping

Date Activity

- We performed brainstorming to come up with the type of
December 06, 2017
system that we will create. We agreed to create a trucking
system for a trucking company.

Formulation of ideas
December 09, 2017
- We formulated the ideas on how we will create this system.

Acquired the formal letter

December 13, 2017 - On this day our professor gave the formal letter to be presented
to our client.

Interview and Validation

December 15, 2017
- This day, we conducted our interview with our client.

Quick design of user interface

December 27 – 30, 2017 - This day, we started to create the prototype of our system. It
took us four days to finish our prototype.
2.1.2 Waterfall

Requirement Analysis
1. Brainstorming
2. Formulation of idea
3. Interview and validation
4. Writing the plan

1. Database Schema
2. User Interface
3. Information flow
4. Start of documentation

Building Prototype
1. Connecting Database
2. Working User Interface

Customer Evaluation
1. First Client Consultation
2. Second Client Consultation
3. Third Client Consultation
4. Fourth Client Consultation

Building Prototype
1. Apply suggestions of client

Engineer Product
1. Further debugging
2. Finalization of system
3. Finalization of document
4. Final presentation
2.2 Review of Related Literature and Studies

This chapter presents the related literature and studies after the thorough and in-depth
search done by the researchers. This will also present the synthesis of the art, theoretical and
conceptual framework to fully understand the research to be done and lastly the definition of terms
for better comprehension of the study.

2.2.1 Review of Related Studies

Trucking companies are increasingly looking out for the ways to make their delivery cycle
more streamlined and efficient. Dispatch procedures are the topmost priorities for these companies
to implement their innovative ideas to do so. The reason being dispatch software are giving them
leverage to adapt to wiser dispatch practices with minimum formalities involved. This saves time
as well as the crucial man hours invested in completing the dispatch procedure. No points for
guessing that the same is crucial for faster delivery of shipment.

A. Local:

Based on an article by Ben Kritz, TMT (2017, March 20) titled "Scania rolls out Fleet
Management System in PH" Scania, the Swedish manufacturer of trucks, buses, and other heavy-
duty vehicles, has introduced its revolutionary Fleet Management System (FMS) to the
Philippines. Scania Fleet Management is a set of services that connects the vehicles to the
operator’s office. The service helps identify and use the key details needed such as vehicle data,
fuel consumption, fleet position and driver performance (coasting, heavy braking, speeding or
idling) that will help increase the productivity of the fleet, achieve fuel economy and eventually
reduce the cost of operations. It puts clear and useful information at the manager’s fingertips that
helps operators better understand how their fleet is performing and what costing money is.

“The good news is all new Scania trucks that are being sold in the country come preinstalled
with the Scania Communicator telematics unit. This device regularly collects, saves, sends and
receives information for analysis and presentation on the Scania Fleet Management portal or
through the Scania Fleet Management app that can be downloaded for free. Operators just need to
activate the service in order for them to be able to connect to their fleet’s data,” said Leilani Lim-
Tan, Vice President of BJ Mercantile Inc., the local distributor of Scania. Scania Fleet
Management consists of two different service packages: Monitoring and Control. The Scania Fleet
Management Monitoring Package is an easy-to-use service that puts operators on the right track
to improving their fleet economy – even for small fleets. They will receive weekly email
summaries covering all of their vehicles on vital information such as fuel consumption, carbon
dioxide emissions and driving behaviors. From these they can see at a glance how each vehicle is
performing and which ones need special attention.

They can also access the Scania Fleet Management portal to manage their service planning.
Service Planning and Remote Diagnostics provides an overview of all the equipment in the fleet,
along with their maintenance plans, including a calendar for keeping track of maintenance and
repairs. When a vehicle is scheduled for repair through the FMS portal, parts for replacement can
already be prepared in advance, thereby reducing downtime. The workshop only uses Scania
genuine parts to reduce breakdown risks. The Control Package is an advanced set of services that
help fleet owners utilize vehicle and driver follow-ups and operational information to support their
transport process. Apart from the benefits of the Monitoring Package, they can also access
additional useful information and functions including Driver Evaluation, Vehicle Evaluation, Fuel
Report, Events Report, Vehicle Tracking, Fleet Position, Environmental Report and a Messaging
Service for quick and easy communication.

Scania Driver Services

An added-value component of the Control Package is the Driver Services package, which provides
a clear way to monitor driver behavior, plan training, and develop incentives for good performance.
A good driving style saves fuel, reduces vehicle wear and helps prevent accidents on the road
boosting road safety and reducing vehicle downtime. Scania offers a driver training program to
show drivers how to drive more economically and more safely, which in turn has a positive impact
on profitability and has a significant on reducing emissions. With the Driver Evaluation function
of the Control Package, operators can regularly check on their drivers’ driving style to identify
areas of improvement.
Satisfied clients

The Scania Fleet Management System is already being used by a number of fleet operators
in the country.

“The Scania system gives you more in-depth knowledge of your vehicles and driver performance,”
said Benzon Rosete, Managing Director, and Best Geo-Carrier.

“The fuel performance per vehicle is very useful to us especially with regards to the handling of
the vehicle’s transmission, the active detection of vehicle problems/faults, maintenance
notifications as well as real-time monitoring of their fuel load and other parameters crucial in a
journey,” said Luigi Teola, Technical Manager, Great Sierra Development Corporation, who
provided live data from his fleet to demonstrate the system for media and fleet owners at the
introduction event recently held at BJ Mercantile’s showroom at EDSA Balintawak in Quezon
City (Metro Manila).

“The driver performance data helps us assess driver skills as well as set benchmarks and gauge
driver performance across our entire fleet. Scania Driver support is being used together with our
Driver Management Team to coach drivers in the way they handle our Scania vehicles,” Teola

Also based on an article from Auto Industriya (2017, October 10) titled "MAN's Telematics
and Fleet Management System keeps track of trucks", To provide owners and fleet operators an
easier way of managing their fleet of trucks, MAN Automotive Concessionaires Corporation
(MACC), the exclusive importer, assembler and distributor of MAN trucks and buses in the
Philippines recently launched the new Telematics and Fleet Management System (FMS). The new
system will help owners and fleet managers easily manage their fleet, while also being able to
monitor driver performance and safety practices. Developed by MSI/Funtoro, the Man Telematics
and FMS is made specifically to be integrated with Mobileye's Advanced Drive Assistance
System, a collision avoidance system. Together the system reduces the chances of accidents of
occurring, making the roads a safer place.

Thanks to a cloud platform, owners and fleet managers can access information such as
location and reports of the trucks anytime thanks to GPS and a navigation app. The cloud system
works anywhere, be it a desktop or even one's mobile phone as long as it has an internet connection.
This allows the real-time tracking of trucks should there be any problem or should the driver
navigate off-course. In fact, one could even monitor driving behavior, providing better insight on
drivers and further reducing operating costs. Likewise with the integration of 3G/LTE data log in
FMS, drivers can also notify base should any problems arise with their trucks. Thanks to the real-
time tracking, owners and managers can save on manpower, time and money to go directly to the
problematic truck rather than having to search for it.

Apart from benefiting truck companies, MAN Telematic and FMS is also beneficial to
street users as well. Having the FMS on trucks would make trucks safer on the roads, improving
road safety with its use. MAN Telematic and FMS is applicable to all sizes of fleets, covering from
1 to 10,000+ vehicles. The system was recently launched in the country last October 9 at the Manila
Polo Club, coinciding with MACC's 28th anniversary celebration.

B. International:

Based on an article by writika.bhaskar (2016, October 20,) titled "7 Dispatch Trucking
Software Features Which Are Providing Significant Benefits" truckers are becoming aware of the
fact that the growing economy and e-commerce trade needs to be catered wisely. The wise
decisions are meant by the way trucking operations are scaled without investing heavily on infra
or the workforce. This essentially lays emphasis on the need to implement more advanced and
aggressive software solutions such that the trucking companies can keep up with the growing
demand without taking too much burden or liabilities. Dispatch is the single most part of the
logistics where almost a third of the procedures are completed and requires similar amount of effort
in terms of resources of all type. Thus it is obvious that the truckers are enthusiastic about
revamping their biggest segment of operations and expenses as it has higher and faster impact on
their balance sheets. Let’s check out the most exciting trends and how they are becoming
extensively useful for the truckers to reap the benefit out of the trucking business.

Single Dashboard for enhanced visibility

A lot of time is invested in churning out the actionable insights or inferences about the
current status of the trucking business by going through the raw data. As much as this process is
accurate, it also is time consuming and research intensive. Single dashboard with cognitive user
experience helps out the truckers by segregating the important points to focus in crisp format.
Since the focus on the key indicators of growth and threats are right away visible, it cuts down the
analysis effort in half and helps in faster decision and strategy making.

In-built accounting & auditing

Truckers prefer to focus on the logistics industry tasks and outsource the accounting ones to the
external agencies. This is a feasible practice if we focus on the skill sets but not a viable one if we
focus on long term goals. With the help of dispatch accounting and auditing software the logistic
companies are able to become more independent for managing the backbone of their business
which is finance. It helps in inducing faster financial transactions and also creates lesser accounting

Mobility Solutions Integration

Mobility is an advantage whether it is about the moving fleet or managing operations and
communications with the each unit carrier. Mobility solutions helps in maintaining the contact
whether it is for normal status update or communicating a change in the routing options. With
majority of companies coming forward to leverage the power of smartphones and tablets acquired
by almost every other person, mobility solutions are stated as the game changers.

IoT Specific solutions

IoT (Internet of Things) is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital
machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to
transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer

Connected machines and network of machines is an old concept but it is finding its relevance in
the logistics world since last decade. With the improvised logistics techniques storming the
scenario in terms of acceptance for autonomous vehicles, drones and sensors, it is time for any
organization to think seriously about the adaption of the Internet of Things solutions in their
Real Time Tracking

Time is money- this becomes 100% true when you are working in logistics industry. Real time
tracking is a boon for any logistics company owners as with this they can confidently track the
status of their shipment and share with their clients. This not only increases the faith between the
two parties but it also negates the possibility of any false information about their shipments.

IFTA & IRS Compliance modules

Accounting is itself a difficult task and when it teams up with the bills and tax payments, it can
surely create a havoc for anyone. The more frustrating part is managing the documentation as it
can land you in or out of some serious trouble and fines when you are doing intermodal
transportation. IFTA and IRS compliance modules ensures that nothing like this happens to you.

Cloud Based solution for Data Security

Cloud is coming up as a magical solution which can unbound you from the limitations of place,
time and distance literally. Cloud based solutions also provide the ease to retrieve important
documents such as payment receipts and tax filings at the needed time irrespective of the location
of the carrier. It reduces the dependency on paperwork and prepares you to combat the situations
like system failure by safeguarding all the data on cloud storage. The cloud based solutions by
DreamOrbit also ensures that the connectivity and user experience never becomes an issue to adapt
these solutions. DreamOrbit is consistently experimenting to provide innovative cloud based
dispatch trucking software to the clients. To know more about the true potential of these solutions
check out the exhaustive services at the solutions page.

Also based from the book of Belzer, Michael H. (2002, September) titled "Technological
innovation and the trucking industry: Information revolution and the effect on the work process",
the trucking industry has experienced a drastic change in competitive forces in the past 20 years.
These changes have led to longer hours and lower wages and arguably to greater risk to drivers'
health and safety. They have also led carriers to implement new technologies, especially
information technology, to compete successfully. While basic freight handling has undergone
marginal changes (manual forklifts giving way to powered forklifts; drag lines and hand carts
giving way to conveyors), and various truck technology improvements have led to greater safety
(anti-lock brakes and collision avoidance technology), the basic work process has not changed
greatly. The greatest changes have come from the introduction of information technology. Carriers
use sophisticated routing and scheduling algorithms to increase the efficiency of their dispatch
systems and hence the efficiency with which they use labor. Modern computing systems, with
processor speed and storage capabilities hundreds of times greater than those of the biggest and
fastest computers a human generation ago, allow carriers to process information efficiently and
maximize their use of resources. Satellites and other modern telecommunications devices have
made it possible to communicate with the truck and driver, monitoring both the truck's mechanical
activity and location as well as driver practices. With the advent of the Internet, carriers can attempt
to track shipments and vehicles to provide nearly real time information management, overcoming
one of the greatest transportation problems.

Also based on a foreign article by Yoshimoto, Ryuichi (2005) titled "The Impact of
Information and Communication Technology on Road Freight Transportation", E-commerce is
growing as the cost of information and communication equipment, as well as communication fees,
fall and the number of Internet users rises. Although e-commerce liberates sellers from the need
to maintain a store, and buyers from the need to visit one, it requires the delivery of goods from
seller to buyer. This has led some to argue that e-commerce will increase road freight transportation
and lead to worse urban road congestion. In recent years, the cost of personal computers and
peripherals has dropped sharply even as their processing power and storage capacity have
skyrocketed. Likewise, as the growth of broadband and always-on Internet connections illustrates
communication fees continue to drop even as connection speeds increase. The lower cost and
higher functionality of information and communication systems has had a profound effect in
increasing the population of Internet users and fostering the growth of e-commerce.

In the transportation field, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) like car navigation
systems and VICS (Vehicle Information and Communication System), which provides drivers
with traffic information, have begun to find their way into private vehicles. For commercial
vehicles it is now easy to track the location of vehicles and freight using GPS, and apply such
information to the optimization of travel routes and freight arrival times. In addition, great promise
is also seen for the use of electronic tags (RFID) and Dedicated Short Range Communication
(DSRC) systems such as the ETC system used to collect highway tolls.
Internet-accessible mobile phones have rapidly become commonplace and, together with
their ability also to use e-mail messaging services, are used to find road traffic information.
Business uses for such phones include everything from management of a salesperson's schedule
to logistics applications like photographing the inside of a shipping container with the internal
digital camera and sending the image overseas to show how an item was packaged. In fact, by the
end of September 2004 the number of mobile phone users had reached 89 million. The total
number of GPS-equipped mobile phones sold through 2003 is estimated to have been roughly 12
million. ICT exerts an effect on road freight transportation through the development of e-
commerce, e-logistics and e-fleet management. Here, in addition to offering some hypotheses
concerning ICT's impact and the role of government, we examine data that addresses whether some
of these trends are already underway, measuring road freight transportation in tons, ton-km,
vehicle-km and urban vehicle-km. In general, increases in freight transportation volume in tons
and ton-km are accompanied by increases in vehicle-km and urban vehicle-km but private-sector
efforts such as joint delivery and government introduction of road pricing may work to limit
increases in vehicle-km and urban vehicle-km.
2.2.2 Review of Related Literature

A. Local:

Based on an article by Roces, Inigo S. (2017, March 14) titled “Scania Philippines launches
Fleet Management System", Scania is connecting fleet operators directly to their vehicles with the
launch of their new Fleet Management System (FMS). BJ Mercantile, distributor of Scania trucks
in the Philippines, launched the new FMS to improve fleet safety, increase the productivity, and
reduce cost of operations of local Scania truck clients. Scania FMS is a set of services that connects
the vehicles to the office, providing a readout of key details like vehicle data, fuel consumption,
fleet position and driver performance (coasting, heavy braking, speeding or idling). The system
returns comprehensive, clear and useful information, hoped to help operators better understand
how their fleet is performing and quickly address issues with the driver or vehicle. Clients can
choose from two packages: the Monitoring Package or the Control Package.

The Monitoring Package gives fleet operators weekly email summaries covering all of their
vehicles, such as fuel consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and driving behavior. The
information is easily exported to Microsoft Excel to easily integrate with any pre-existing
monitoring charts. The package also grants access to the Scania Fleet Management portal to
manage their service planning. Service Planning and Remote Diagnostics provides an overview of
all the equipment in the fleet, along with their maintenance plans, including a calendar for keeping
track of maintenance and repairs. When a vehicle is scheduled for repair through the FMS portal,
parts for replacement can already be prepared in advance thereby reducing downtime. The
workshop only uses Scania genuine parts to lessen breakdown risks.

The Control Package includes everything offered in the Monitoring Package, with the
addition of vehicle and driver follow-ups and operational information. They'll be able to access
information and functions including driver evaluation, vehicle evaluation, fuel report, events
report, vehicle tracking, fleet position, and environmental report all live, as the vehicle is moving.
There's also a messaging service for quick and easy communication. All new Scania trucks that
are being sold in the country come preinstalled with the Scania Communicator telematics unit
crucial to the Fleet Management System. Fleet operators merely need to activate the service.
Lastly, based on the website of The Real-time Vehicle Tracking System uses satellite
technology combined with a comprehensive digital road map link to Google Earth to provide real-
time locations and record historical vehicle activity. Our highly skilled team of professional
technicians will install a vehicle tracking unit into each of your vehicles. There are no exposed
wires or antennas, making the equipment virtually tamper proof, and allowing for covert

The vehicle tracking units transmit data to the REMORA servers via GPRS wireless
networks every 30 seconds. This information can then be accessed 24 hours a day through any
internet connection around the world.

Increased Productivity

Eliminate discrepancies between hours worked and hours claimed by drivers. Key vehicle
management reports such as Management Report, Activity Report and Historic Playback give you

Reduced Overtime

Eliminate false timesheet claims with detailed real time vehicle tracking that provides
accurate start and stop times as well as recorded idling and extended stops. Time sheets are
accurate to the minute!

Lower Fuel Costs

Reduce your fuel bill with Activity reports. Eliminate unapproved or any extended

Reduced Private Use

REMORA Alerts will instantly flag any movement of the vehicle outside working hours.

Faster Response Times

Deploy your vehicles with greater speed and efficiency and accurately predict arrival times
or delays.
Reduced Phone Bill

Constant real-time GPS analysis shows you at a glance where your vehicles are at all times
so you can reduce cell phone calls to your drivers.

Increased Fleet and Workforce Security

With real-time GPS vehicle tracking, REMORA gives you peace of mind knowing that
your fleet vehicles are always monitored.

Two-way communication and Forms

Fleet Managers/Dispatchers need to be in constant communication with their field

workforce. With REMORA Data Terminal they are able to send and receive messages, schedule
tasks/work orders, obtain status changes and gain other important information.

B. International:

Based on an article by Hoppe, Geoff (2017, April 17) titled "The 6 Best Free and Open
Source Fleet Management Software Programs", if your business has a fleet to manage, you still
might be hesitant about investing in fleet management software (or investing multiple hours to
research all the options). Fear not, “free” can help you here, like it helped Pinky and the Brain
entice humanity to a different planet. Consider trying out one of the below free and open source
fleet management software options. You won’t spend anything, and you won’t even have to leave
this planet.

Fleet VIP

Fleet VIP is a great option if you’re a mom and pop shop, and I don’t just mean that
figuratively. The free version covers two vehicles, so if you’re a small business, it could have you
covered. Similar to Odoo, it has a lot of necessary features, such as GPS tracking and alerts, vehicle
mileage, vehicle cost management, and preventative maintenance due dates. What differentiates
Fleet VIP is their due date prediction technology feature.

President Steve Farthing explained that this feature helps companies move “the fleet
maintenance tracking function into a modern project management paradigm by providing calendar
due dates instead of odometer values for maintenance due triggers.” Due date prediction
technology “has the capability to project future due dates that reduces or obviates the need for
frequent odometer readings or expensive GPS systems to capture odometer readings.” Add to this
the fact that, in the next few months, Fleet VIP might add fuel usage tracking or vehicle profile
CSV data import capability, and you’ve got an app that could help your small business cut
unnecessary busy work and keep your fleet sharp.


GPS Wox is another piece of fleet management software that could be helpful for a very
small business. It’s free for one object, so if you only have one vehicle or asset to track, it’ll get
the job done. Though it only covers one car or truck, you’ll still get real-time tracking of your
asset, and available native apps on Apple, Google Play, and the Microsoft Store are all free. The
sole review on Capterra is for five out of five stars, though that user has a more advanced version
of the software. Other reviews are similarly positive, and GPS Wox’s customer service provides
swift responses.

Odoo Fleet Management

Open source app developer Odoo offers a wide range of apps for business. It also offers a
lot of free and open source programs. It has free programs for everything from HR to event
management to enterprise resource planning and, of course, fleet management. Odoo Fleet offers
multiple core functionalities, with abilities to manage your vehicles’ fuel use, costs, and insurance.
They’ll also send you notifications when a contract is about to expire, allow you to establish a
company vehicle policy, and, of course, help you manage information digitally, rather than keep
track of multiple post-it notes and papers.

Capterra reviewers praise how easy installation is, as well as the app’s end-user orientation.
Other reviewers across the internet praise Odoo for consistently improving their business. If you
don’t already have any of Odoo’s apps, you can get a free version of one of their many products.
The free app is good for unlimited users, and features cloud hosting. The downside? Customization
and support aren’t available for the free version, and there’s also no GPS tracking or integration
with GPS systems. Still, given what Odoo provides, it’s a good deal.
Open GTS Project

If you want a way to track your vehicles, and you have some ability to code, the Open GTS
Project might be the right option for you. A word of warning: the Open GTS Project is not a full
fleet service program like the ones above. It can track where your fleet’s vehicles are, but it isn’t
designed to track things like fuel use, maintenance, costs, or warranty expiration. That said, there
are a range of ways to adapt Open GTS to your needs, like customizable reports based on XML,
integration with multiple different mapping software programs, and even adaptable web page
decorations. The Open GTS software is compatible with Linux, Mac OS, Windows, and Free BSD
and Open BSD. There are client apps that run with it on Google Play and Apple’s App Store, so
mobility won’t be a problem.

While the vast majority of the reviews are positive, the naysayers highlight redundancy
and “code bloat.” Others criticize Open GTS’s use of Java, and even one positive reviewer notes
that it’s “tricky to install for people not familiar with Java.” That said, if you’re willing to roll up
your sleeves and dig into the code, OpenSource GTS offers a lot of customizability.


Traccar is another free GPS tracking system. Like Open GTS, this is a comparatively
stripped-down application. It’ll tell you where your vehicles are, but it won’t manage any other
business-side concerns like using proactive maintenance scheduling to save money. Traccar has a
server-based version, as well as a native mobile app. Their software works with a dizzying number
of tracking devices, and even integrates with Open GTS. The folks at Traccar stay busy, and show
no signs of slowing: they’ve released five new versions of Traccar Server in the past 13 months,
and also bring out new versions of the mobile app on a frequent basis.

Reviews for Traccar are primarily positive, with the program getting an average of 4.6 out
of 5. If you need help with the program, questions on the Traccar forums are answered with the
precision of a Swiss wristwatch by owner Anton Tananaev.

Also based on an article by Beach, Jim (2016, September) titled "TMW Systems,
PeopleNet Hold First Joint User Conference", more than 2,300 people were on hand for a joint
user conference hosted by TMW Systems and PeopleNet Sept. 25-28. Held in Nashville, the 2016
Insight Conference represented the first time the two companies, both of which are owned by
Trimble, had joined forces on a user conference.

The event featured three days of educational sessions for users of TMW Systems’ family
of transportation management software and PeopleNet’s mobile communications system, new
product announcements and technology exhibits from 80 of the two companies’ technology
partners. In opening remarks Sept. 26, David Wangler, TMW president, said that by working
together, “we can transform the way the transportation industry works,” and that by leveraging the
two companies’ combined experience they could deliver solutions that “no one else can.” Brian
McLaughlin, president of PeopleNet, explained the critical element of the companies’ working
together was the ability to deliver, view and analyze critical information from multiple platforms,”
in real time. Among the things the companies have been working on over recent years are the
expansion of TMW capabilities into freight management for shippers, third-party logistics
providers and non-asset based transportation companies; capturing more information from trucks
while on the road; connected maintenance; route planning and trip management; driver
connectivity; safety and compliance, and business and market intelligence.

Working with partner ALK, another Trimble company, and the companies developed a
route and trip management product expected to be brought to market next year called TripInsight,
which will automate trip planning. The system will encompass ALK’s CoPilot Truck, PeopleNet’s
mobile devices and TMW’s transportation management systems. The system is designed to build
optimized trips plans that accounts for fuel stops, hours of service rest breaks, traffic, vehicle and
load specifics. It will also feature real-time exception management for every stop, with a
continuous ETA calculation that allows dispatchers or customer service reps to be more proactive
in managing delays. Building on the internet of things concept and making use of the various
sensors and other information available from the truck, the two systems are working on predicting
things such as vehicle breakdowns, safety or route issues.

Lastly, based on an article by Antich, Mike (2015, January) titled " Fleet Management 2025
Forecast: Productivity Tools", dramatic changes are on the horizon for fleet productivity tools.
Companies will continue to embrace the use of technology in fleet vehicles to reduce fleet costs,
as well as drive employee productivity.
Advancements in automotive technology will see future vehicles with integrated
technology to directly manage fuel purchases and capture telematics data to manage driver
behavior and proactive maintenance scheduling.

One forecast is that the data coming from the vehicle itself, combined with maintenance
data and general data on that model, will allow fleets to target replacement on a vehicle-by-vehicle
basis rather than by a generalized replacement date.

The trend toward cloud computing will enable fleet solution providers to offer higher
degrees of data and system integration. These new technology capabilities will result in highly
customizable solutions for fleet managers.

Here are the top trends that will impact fleet productivity over the next 10 to 15 years:

1. Mobile Applications More Integrated in Fleet Operations

“Mobile devices will have tighter integration into vehicles. Beyond connecting hands-free
phone and music, mobile devices will be able to wirelessly sync key vehicle data including
mileage, health checks, and performance, wirelessly with the mobile device, which, in turn, can
use that information for applications,” said Jerry Rozmiarek, assistant vice president – information
technology at Wheels Inc.

“Mobile devices, already ubiquitous in 2014, will be the sole way drivers handle their fleet
tasks. Mileage reporting, trip logs, and finding vendors will all happen through mobile devices and
will make use of the capabilities (such as location awareness) of those devices to automate tasks.
All key fleet documents will be digital and available in a mobile device,” added Rozmiarek.

2. Integrated Technology to Free Vehicles from Policy Constraints

“Vehicles will be produced with integrated technology to directly manage fuel purchases
and capture telematics data to manage driver behavior and proactive maintenance scheduling. This
improved data will allow vehicles to be cycled based on their individual merit as opposed to a
standard fleet policy,” said Tom Coffey, vice president, sales and marketing at Merchants Fleet
3. ‘Big Data’ to Have Big Impact

“Big Data will drive decisions for all aspects of fleet management, including vehicle
selection, maintenance management, and driver safety planning. With the continued use of fleet
analytics and accessibility to greater amounts of data, fleets will become more efficient, operate
with fewer resources, and show an increase in productivity,” said Becky Langmandel, director,
strategic modeling & analytics at LeasePlan USA.

Likewise, other subject-matter experts see Big Data as having a tremendous impact on fleet

“In the near-term, Big Data will help us understand relationships we never would have
looked at in the past, metrics such as connecting sales or delivery performance to the vehicle, and
identifying patterns for accidents or connections that we have yet to think of. The point is that we
will be evaluating data in ways that we never would have imagined in the recent past,” said Steve
Jastrow, strategic consulting manager at GE Capital Fleet Services.

4. Cloud Computing will Accelerate Fleet Decision-Making

“The trend toward cloud computing will enable fleet solution providers to offer higher
degrees of data and system integration. These new technology capabilities will result in highly
customizable solutions for fleet managers. Additionally, increased data download speeds and
better mobile devices and tablets will provide for more mobile-enriched opportunities that can be
used by fleet managers and drivers to do more remote processing of fleet related transactions and
data-driven decision making,” said Tony Candeloro, vice president of product development at