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metal-ceramic composites:

Part 2 Thermomechanical behaviour

S. Suresh and A. Mortensen

Introduction

Following a review of the processing of In Part 1 (Ref. 1) of this two part series, attention

functionally graded metals and metal-ceramic

was focused on the different methods and processes

composites in Part 1; this Part 2 of the two part

series focuses on the thermomechanical by recourse to which functionally graded metals and

behaviour. The paper begins with an overview of metal-ceramic composites could be synthesised. Also

the fundamentals of thermoelastic and addressed in Part 1 were the overall principles under-

thermoplastic deformation in metal-ceramic lying the concept of functionally graded materials

composites. Various approaches, including the whereby gradual transitions in microstructure and/or

rule of mixture approximations, mean field composition, motivated by spatially varying func-

theories, crystal plasticity models, discrete

tional performance requirements within a single com-

dislocation models, and continuum finite element

ponent, could be engineered from currently available

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

composites, are discussed, and the significance materials and processing technologies. In the present

and limitations of these approaches are paper, Part 2, the micromechanics and physical

highlighted. Issues specific to the rationale for the purposeful introduction of controlled

thermomechanical analyses of graded materials gradients in the composition, microstructure, and

are then addressed. It is reasoned that the properties for the specific purpose of enhancing the

introduction of a new length scale to the problem thermomechanical performance of a structural mater-

due to compositional gradients inevitably calls for

detailed micromechanical analyses of the size,

ial are examined.

shape, continuity, and spatial dispersions of the When dissimilar materials, such as metals and

constituent phases of graded metal-ceramic ceramics, are joined or mixed to form a layered or a

composites. Models for the thermal, elastic, and composite structure, temperature changes induced

plastic deformation of graded multilayers are then during cooling from the joining/processing temper-

presented within the context of classic beam and ature and during subsequent service can generate

plate theories, in conjunction with strategies for high internal stresses as a result of unequal thermal

developing 'design diagrams' for

expansion or contraction between the constituent

thermomechanical performance. Methods to

identify the conditions governing the onset of

phases. Similarly, different local deformation fields

instability and a.brupt shape changes due to large are induced in the two materials during imposed

deformation in graded multilayers are also mechanical loading as a consequence of their differing

provided. The macroscopic continuum analyses elastic and plastic properties. Such an incompatibility

are followed by discussions of micromechanics or misfit in thermomechanical deformation can engen-

simulations of the real microstructural dispersions der internal stresses and strains, and locally elevated

by recourse to computational models which invoke values of triaxiality which, as schematically illustrated

von Mises type and crystal plasticity theories.

Experimental methods to assess the validity of

in Fig. 1, playa dominant role in the creation of such

such models are then examined, along with typical damage features as misfit or threading dislocations,

results of processing induced internal stresses and localised yielding with a high gradient in plastic

thermal stresses arising from temperature strains in the vicinity of the interfaces, interfacial

excursions in model systems with gradients in debonding, micro cracking, and brittle failure of the

metal-ceramic concentrations. It is demonstrated hard phase, or separation by void nucleation and

that stepwise or continuously graded metal- growth in and around the ductile phase. In many

ceramic composites can be designed to improve

cases, mitigating the severity of abrupt transitions in

interfacial bonding between dissimilar solids, to

minimise and optimally distribute thermal

composition or microstructure at both the micro-

stresses, to suppress the onset of plastic yielding, scopic and macroscopic scales by the introduction of

to mitigate the deleterious effects of singular fields a graded structure offers the possibility to control

at free edges of multilayers where interfaces and distribute damage and failure optimally.2-12 In

intersect free surfaces, to reduce the effective addition, when sharp interfaces between highly dis-

driving force for fracture, and to arrest cracks. similar solids, such as between a metal and a ceramic,

IMR/298 intersect a free surface, the corner at the point of

© 1997 The Institute of Materials and ASM International. intersection serves as a site of stress singularity in the

S. Suresh is R. P. Simmons Professor in the Department of vicinity of which elevated levels of a multi axial

Materials Science and Engineering and Professor of stress-strain field can promote the inception of flaws.

Mechanical Engineering at Massachusetts Institute of

Such 'edge effects', schematically shown in Fig. la,

Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA.

A. Mortensen is Professor, Laboratoire de Metallurgie can be suppressed, and consequently the damage

Mecanique, Departement des Materiaux, Swiss Federal tolerance enhanced, in some cases by introducing a

Institute of Technology, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, smoother transition in the microstructure of the

Switzerla nd. interface between the metal and the ceramic over a

finite distance.

International Materials Reviews 1997 Vol. 42 No.3 85

86 Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2

{ thermal and/or mechanical loading

Interface }

di slocation

Plastic zone during

~ { thermal excursion

Free edge

is a region of Sharp interface

singular fields Free edge where multiaxial

norma I and shear stresses

(0 ) prevail and cracks are likely

tonucleate

Constrained plastic 0 0 0

zone during thermal/ )'0 0 0

mechanica I loading /

/

0 o 0 0

0 0

/

/ 0 0 0

Ceramic particle /

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

are punched out to relieve

(b) misfit strains

1 Some characteristics of thermomechanical deformation in a metal-ceramic layered plates and b ceramic

particle reinforced metal matrixes

Functionally graded materials can, at least in prin- of diesel engines used in surface transportation

ciple, be designed to tailor thermomechanical charac- vehic1es.3o,31 The mechanical integrity of such a thick

teristics by the appropriate choice of gradients in coating can only be ensured by a stepwise increase in

composition or microstructure in view of the follow- the ceramic content from the interior to the outer

ing potential benefits: surface, by depositing a number of metal-ceramic

1. The magnitude of thermal stresses and the criti- composite sublayers of increasing ceramic content;

cal locations at which they act can be judiciously the deposition of the ceramic directly on to the metal

controlled.13-23 will in this case result in interfacial delamination even

2. The onset of plastic yielding and failure can be before the component enters service.

delayed for a given thermomechanicalloading.15-19 8. Gradients in the composition of surface layers

3. The severity of stress concentrations and can be tailored to suppress the singular fields which

singularities at free edges of interfaces can be arise at the root of sharp indentations on the surface32

suppressed.18,24 or to alter the plastic deformation characteristics

4. The strength of the interfacial bond between around the indentation.33 These processes are of

dissimilar solids, such as a metal and ceramic, can be considerable interest for the potential design of ther-

increased by the introduction of continuous or step- mal barrier, tribological, or impact resistant coatings

wise gradations in composition as compared to a (such as for turbine blades for aircraft jet engines

sharp interface.9,25 which are susceptible to domestic and foreign object

5. The density and kinetics of misfit/threading dis- damage), or of graded armour materials with

locations generated at the interfaces between dis- improved resistance to high strain rate deformation

similar solids can be altered.26 (This is indeed the and impact. It is also known34 that stepwise gradients

objective in some optoelectronic devices wherein, for in the alignment of fibres in continuously reinforced

example, a graded layer in InGaAs, produced by organic composites can be designed to improve sig-

molecular beam epitaxy or chemical vapour depos- nificantly their indentation resistance and to suppress

ition, is sandwiched between InGaAs and GaAs micro cracking damage.

layers.26) The present paper is arranged in the following

6. The driving force for crack growth through sequence. Since developing a complete understanding

and across an interface can be reduced by tailor- of the effective properties of composites is central to

ing the interface with gradients in mechanical the eventual success in the design of graded metal-

properties.24,27-29 . ceramic composites with optimised thermomechanical

7. Some applications necessarily involve the depos- performance, first there is a detailed discussion of

ition of a 'thick' brittle coating on a ductile substrate different approaches to composite modelling which

for protection against thermal exposure, environmen- include the simple rule of mixture formulations, mean

tal attack, contact failure, or wear. An example of field theories and their various adaptations, finite

such an application is the thermal spraying of a element unit cell models, and numerical modelling of

zirconia layer, more than 2 mm in thickness, on a a large sample of the real microstructure. This dis-

steel substrate for thermal protection in piston heads cussion is followed by analyses of the evolution of

International Materials Reviews 1997 Vol. 42 NO.3

Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2 87

stresses, strains, and curvatures in graded multilayered In this 'rule of mixtures', E is the isotropic Young's

structures. For this purpose, classic beam/plate theor- modulus, I the volume fraction of the phase, and the

ies of continuum mechanics are employed to develop subscripts 1 and 2 denote phase 1 and phase 2,

a theoretical foundation for elastic and elastoplastic respectively. Very small differences from the prediction

response of graded materials within the context of of equation (1) would be expected for the above equal

small strain, small deformation analyses. Departures strain case when the isotropic values of the Poisson

from small deformations during the thermomechan- ratios of the two phases are not equal.

ical deformation of graded multilayers are examined An alternative approach, often relevant to the

next in an attempt to identify the geometry and transverse loading of a unidirectionally reinforced

loading conditions which promote instabilities, shape continuous fibre composite, invokes the assumption

changes, and bifurcation. The descriptions of these that each phase in the composite carries an equal

deformation theories are then followed by a brief stress during the imposition of an external load. In

summary of available methods to monitor the evol- this case, the so called Reuss model,44 the overall

ution of stresses, strains, and curvatures in graded strain in the composite is the sum of the net strain

multilayers, and examples of such measurements in carried by each phase, and the effective composite

model systems are presented. Attention is then modulus is given by

directed to the fracture of graded materials, where

parameters to characterise the driving force for frac- E = (11 + 12)-1

e (2)

ture are examined. This is followed by a discussion £1 E2

of crack growth across graded interfaces. The paper

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

concludes with some overall strategies for alleviating

also commonly made, as shown in subsequent

the deleterious effects of sharp transitions in material

sections, to compute the effective shear moduli, bulk

composition and/or microstructure via gradation for

moduli, and Poisson ratios of the composite from a

the specific purpose of enhancing thermomechanical

knowledge of the corresponding values for the two

performance, and with some suggestions of areas in

phases and of the phase concentrations. Invoking

which future research might fruitfully be directed.

the principle of minimum potential energy, Hi1l4s

showed that the rule of mixtures provides an upper

Determination of effective properties bound for the elastic moduli for the composite.

of metal-ceramic composites

Modified rule of mixture approximations

A finite transition in materials spanning a range that

extends from one material or phase to another neces- In many practical situations, such as in two phase

sarily comprises an intermediate region which is a composites where one phase is discontinuous in a

composite of the two extremes if, as is generally the continuous matrix of the other phase, neither the

case, the extremes are not fully miscible. Therefore, Voigt model nor the Reuss model provides an accu-

the vast majority of graded structures are mostly rate description of the effective modulus of the com-

made of composite or multiphase materials. posite under both normal and shear loading. In these

Thermomechanical analyses of graded structures situations, empirically adjusted combinations of equa-

inevitably call for methods by which the effective tions (1) and (2) are commonly employed to describe

properties of the underlying dual phase or multiphase the experimentally observed stress-strain character-

structures can be determined. For this reason, in this istics of the composite. One well known expression

section analytical and computational methods which of this kind is the Halpin- Tsai46 equation for the

offer estimates of the composite properties of the transverse Young's modulus of a fibre reinforced

metal-ceramic graded structure are considered, in an composite which widely allows for increased load

attempt to establish a general basis on which quanti- carrying of the fibres

tative analyses for graded materials can be predicated.

E = {1- II [(~: -1) (~: + A) -IJ}-I

c E2

Rule of mixture approximations

The overall mechanical properties of a two phase

material are generally dependent on such factors as

{1+IIA[(~:-1)(~:+ArIJ}

x

the concentration, shape, and contiguity, and the (3)

spatial distribution of each phase.3s-42 Consider the Here the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the properties of

simple case of a composite comprising two elastically the fibre and the matrix, respectively, and A is an

isotropic constituent phases, wherein the applied load empirical parameter whose magnitude is of the order

causes equal strains in each of the phases at all times. of unity.

Such a situation, commonly referred to as the Voigt Other modifications to the rule of mixture formu-

model,43 is encountered typically when a unidirec- lations have been employed for two phase cemented

tional continuous fibre reinforced composite is carbides47,48 and later for metal-eeramic graded com-

stressed along the fibre direction. In this case, the posites.1s,16,18,19 Here the composite is treated as

overall composite stress is the sum of the stresses isotropic (as, for example, may be envisioned for

carried by each phase; the composite modulus is then powder metallurgy processing), with its uniaxial stress

the weighted average of the moduli of the constituents and strain given, xespectively, by

. . . . (1) (J e = 11 (J 1 + /2 (J 2; 8e = /181 + /282 • ( 4)

88 Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2

Composite

and volume concentrations of phases 1 and 2, respect-

ively. The ratio of the stress to strain transfer is then

./

~;

defined by the parameter "./

(J)

(J)

/// Metal

Q)

. . . . . . . (5) .;:

(/)

H2

~

><

Obviously, q ~ 0 and q ~ 00 refer to the equal stress o

and equal strain averaging schemes given in equations c:

~

(2) and (1), respectively. Combining equations (4)

and (5), one obtains

Ee =

q

[ 12 ( q

+ E1)

+ E2 + 11

J-l

Uniaxial strain

2 Schematic representation of modified rule of

mixture formulation of uniaxial elastoplastic

deformation of metal-ceramic composite

For example, a value of q = 4500 MPa has been used

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

fractions, the above formulations becomes complete.

tensitic phases in a dual phase stee1.49 The specific

For the case of a graded composite, additional inform-

choice of the empirical parameter q, however, widely

depends on the internal constraints which arise from ation regarding the variation of 11 or 12 with position

needs to be provided. Detailed discussions of plasticity

the particular spatial distribution of the phases in the

models for two phase materials can be found in

composite, the thermomechanical properties of the

Refs. 48-50.

two phases, the residual stresses induced during pro-

In addition to the foregoing approximations, the

cessing, and the connectivity of the phases which is

shear lag mode151 (which focuses on the transfer

sometimes defined as48

of tensile stresses between the phases via interfacial

No. of two phase shear processes) or one of its many adapt-

boundaries intersected ations36,37,39,4o,52,53 is commonly used to simulate the

Connectivity = N ft h . . (7) overall composite deformation in matrixes reinforced

0.0 wo p ase with aligned short fibres or whiskers.

boundaries analysed

The modified rule of mixture formulation has also Mean field theories

been extended to model the elastoplastic deformation The chief objective of the mean field theories for

of two phase composites (e.g. Refs. 15, 16, 18-20). composites is to assess the overall properties, such as

Figure 2 schematically shows the uniaxial elastoplas- the effective stiffness tensor E*, the effective com-

tic deformation of a metal-ceramic composite. Similar pliance tensor C*, and the effective thermal expansion

to the case of the elastic behaviour, equations (4)-( 6), coefficient (CTE) tensor a*, in terms of the corres-

the effective plastic response of the composite is ponding properties and concentrations of the consti-

assessed by invoking the parameter q in the following tutent phases.37,38,53-56 For this purpose, the phase

manner. The overall flow strength of the composite averaged stress and strain fields are employed.

corresponding to the onset of plastic yielding ye is (J

Consider first the case of linear thermoelastic

given by deformation. The overall stress-strain response can

be written as

lTyc=lTY2[f2+(::~:)~:flJ ..... (8) €* =c*a* + a*I1T

. . . . . . . . (10)

when the metal (phase 2) is continuous with yield a* =E*€* - E*a*I1T

strength (Jy2, and 11 = 1 - 12. The strain hardening of where the second term on the right hand side rep-

the composite, described by the uniaxial tangent resents the thermal strain or stress tensor due a

modulus, is uniform temperature change 11T with reference to

some initial stress free temperature. The symbol ''''

denoting a volume average is defined as

. . . . (9)

15 = ~

V Jvr p dV . . . . . . . . . . . (11)

where H 2 is the instantaneous value of the elastoplas- as stress or strain, and V a representative control

tic tangent modulus of the metallic phase, as shown volume of the composite.

in Fig. 2. With a knowledge of the constitutive The total averaged stresses and strains within the

response of the individual phases and their volume two phases (i.e. the matrix phase, m, and the inclusion

International Materials Reviews 1997 Vol. 42 No.3

Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2 89

T I I I I 11

, I I , " I I I

T Tll..~JII-lr

.J.o'" """'looool

..........-1 11 ~,

'I II 11~

Q r I

i"'t-L-l

I

I

I

I .-....rII...I

I

I

T II

I I

(a )

\ + / / (d)

, ..,

~, -'-- I Til

I

I

• -I --

-~-- t .•. /

", '"

t \

I

I

+

I I T1 .,. '-

\ £=0

£

~ --.

1

E= E I

I I

1/ (c )

" .•. -•.

I I I I I I

I I I I I

;;iii ". "

Transformation strain

(b) ( e)

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

3 Eshelby method61

for estimating stress state in metal matrix reinforced with misfitting ellipsoidal

inclusion (After Ref. 37)

phase, i) of the composite can be defined as where I is the identity tensor. Expressions similar to

emE' =~i m Vm

edT/:

for the matrix . . . . (12)

equation (17) can be obtained for the volume aver-

aged stresses in each phase by recourse to the so

called stress concentration tensors,45.54 The stress and

strain concentration tensors and their components

a

m

=~rV JVm

udV generally depend on the geometry and spatial distri-

bution of each phase.57 Expressions which link the

m

concentration tensors to the elastic stiffness and com-

and pliance tensors and the tensor of CTE have been

derived58-60 by invoking the principle of virtual work.

f=~i

1 K

1 Vi

edT/:' For the particular case of an ellipsoidal inclusion

of arbitrary aspect ratio in an infinite continuous

for the inclusion . . . . (13)

matrix, Eshelby61 showed that the stresses are uniform

a. =~

1 Vi JV

r adV throughout the inclusion. Consider that an ellipsoid

i shaped elastic inclusion, made from the same material

Here Vm and Vi are the volumes of the matrix and as the surrounding infinite matrix (i.e. taken out from

inclusion phase, respectively, and V = Vm + Vi. The an ellipsoidal region of an infinite matrix), is permitted

total averaged thermoelastic stresses in the matrix to undergo an unconstrained (i.e. stress free) trans-

and the inclusion can then be written as formation strain eT (i.e. shape change or eigenstrain,

such as that produced by pure thermal expansion or

am=Emem-Emam~1; ai=Eiei-Eiai~T (14) martensitic transformations which involve no changes

If the composite is subjected to a homogeneous in elastic constants of the inclusion and which may

applied stress aapp, the resultant overall thermoelastic be anisotropic), as shown in Fig. 3. Since the stress

strain is given by state in the constrained inclusion is uniform, Ui = G'i.

The inclusion is now forced to assume its original

e* = fiei + fmem = e app + a*~ T = c*aapp

. . . . . . . . (15)

+ a*~T shape by the imposition of surface tractions (Fig. 3c)

and forced back to fill exactly the ellipsoidal cavity

in the matrix. Once placed back in its original position

where fi and fm (= 1 - fi) are the volume fractions of

inside the matrix, the interfaces between the matrix

the inclusion and the matrix, respectively. The overall

and the inclusion are such that no interfacial sliding

elastic stress is given by

occurs, and the surface tractions constraining the

. (16) inclusion to its original shape are released. As equi-

librium is attained between the inclusion and the

The total phase averaged strains and stresses are then matrix, the inclusion develops a constrained strain eC

related to the overall strains and stresses via the strain relative to its initial pretransformation shape. The

concentration tensors A and a, which are defined as constrained strain is related to the stress free trans-

em = Ame* + am~ 1; and ei = Ai e* + ai ~ T ( 17) formation strain by the so called Eshelby tensor, S

matrix, respectively. Note that

where the subscript In refers to the matrix. Since

fiAi + fmAm = I; and fiai + imam = 0 . . (18) (eC - eT) is the uniform elastic strain in the inclusion

90 Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2

which causes internal stresses, the stress within the Pedersen56 has proposed that the average matrix

inclusion can be obtained by Hooke's law to be stress due to the inclusions be treated as if it were an

externally applied stress, an approach which is

O'i = Ei(e C

- eT) . . • • (20)

expected to give lower bound estimates for composite

A particularly useful feature of the Eshelby tensor S properties. Similar methods which estimate directly

is that it enables the determination of the uniform the elasticity tensor of the composite have been

stress and strain in the inclusion, and obviates the formulated by Tandon and Weng.66 Wakashima

need for a full knowledge of the complex matrix stress et al.67 have proposed an approach for computing

field.37-39,61,62If the matrix elastic deformation exhib- the image stresses by employing the Eshelby method.

its isotropic material symmetry, Sm depends only on They postulate that, since the volume average total

the Poisson ratio of the matrix and on the aspect matrix stress am is essentially the same as the applied

ratio of the ellipsoidal inclusion. stress aapp in the dilute case, the non-dilute concen-

Now consider the case of an 'inhomogeneous tration effects be accounted for by replacing the

inclusion', i.e. one which is made of a material different applied stress with the volume averaged total matrix

from the matrix. In this case, the transformation stress. This method has also been extended to graded

strain eT in the inhomogeneous inclusion can be metal-ceramic composites.68

modelled by considering a homogeneous 'equivalent' During plastic flow, the back stresses may arise

or 'reference' inclusion (with the same elastic prop- from the pile up of dislocations (such as the Orowan

erties as the matrix) which is permitted to undergo a loops) around brittle inclusions in a ductile matrix

suitable equivalent eigenstrain q in such a way that e: which may oppose continued forward deformation

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

the inhomogeneous inclusion. and the equivalent while aiding reverse deformation (this can be viewed

inclusion attain the same uniform stress state as one of the mechanistic origins of the Bauschinger

O'i = Ei(eC

- eT

) = Em(e C

- e:q) • • (21)

effect).63,69 The magnitude of the Bauschinger effect

scales with the area fraction of the Orowan loops or

Since equation (19) applies equally to both a homo- the unsheared area of the glide plane. The dislocation

geneous and an inhomogeneous inclusion (with eT or loops can also promote additional inhomogeneous

e: q as the transformation strain, respectively), equa- stresses in the matrix since the presence of one loop

around a particle may repel successive loops which

tion (21) can be written as

are being formed around the same particle and also

O'i = Ei(Sme:q - eT) = Em(Sm - I)e:q . . (22) the effective spacing between the particles and hence

This equation can be solved to obtain the equivalent the matrix volume undergoing plastic flow are

transformation strain as a function of the stress free reduced. This latter term is commonly referred to as

transformation strain, the elastic constants for the the 'source shortening stress',56,69-73 and has been

matrix and the inclusion, and the tensor Sm. used to explain the strengthening and uniaxial ten-

When the concentrations of both phases of the sion--eompression asymmetry of metal matrix com-

composite are non-dilute, interactions of the fields posites reinforced with ceramic particles, whiskers, or

from other inclusions will be expected to influence continuous fibres. A variety of energy minimisation

the evolution of the average fields in the matrix and schemes and relaxation micromechanisms are also

the reinforcement. One way to account for such effects incorporated in such models to account for the onset

is to estimate an average matrix stress arising from and spread of inelastic deformation.37,38

the back stresses or image stresses from all the other A commonly discussed iterative method for estimat-

reinforcements, and to incorporate this back stress in ing the effective properties of a composite with a non-

the computation of the fields within and around a dilute concentration of a second phase is to envision

particular inc1usion.63,64 the composite volume as comprising an inclusion that

Irrespective of the particular mechanistic origins of is surrounded by an average medium whose effective

the average matrix stress, approaches which employ properties are the properties of the composite. These

the image stress or mean stress concept are commonly composite properties are not known a priori, but are

referred to as mean field theories, the Mori- Tanaka solved iteratively to obtain a self-consistent result. In

approaches, or the 'equivalent inclusion-average the generalised self-consistent schemes, the inclusion

stress' methods. For isothermal stressing of a matrix is embedded within a matrix material which, in turn,

reinforced with inclusions65 is surrounded by an effective composite medium. A

number of unit cell based analytical and semi-analyti-

cal models, wherein continuous fibres are periodically

(23a)

arranged in a matrix, have also been considered by

Bapp = Bi [( 1 - h)I + h(AddiluteJ [(AddiluteJ-1

different researchers.74,75

where the subscript 'dilute' refers to the value of the

subscripted quantity for the dilute concentration of

the inclusion. From equation (23a), it is readily shown Computational models

that All of the foregoing analyses of two phase composites,

with very rare exceptions, do not accurately capture

(Adnon-dilute = (Ai)dilute [( 1 - fdI + 11 (AddiluteJ-1 the geometrical effects of the shape and spatial distri-

. . (23b)

bution of one phase in the matrix of another phase.

A number of different variations of the mean field This limitation raises certain key issues.

theory have been proposed for non-dilute concen- 1. As noted above, the Eshelby method61 provides

trations of a second phase in a matrix. For example, elegant analytical tools for quantifying the stresses in

International Materials Reviews 1997 Vol. 42 NO.3

Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2 91

soidal inclusions of arbitrary aspect ratio. However, 6 0.3

when the inclusions are of arbitrary shape with sharp

corners (such as in whiskers), precipitous gradients in

5

the fields emerge in the vicinity of the sharp corners,

and complete solutions can only be gathered by L

4 10

recourse to computational models, such as the finite

element method. b 0.2

2. As noted in a number of studies,76-s6 composite ~

models which invoke assumptions of spatially uniform

Ib 3

5

phase dispersions and idealised shapes (such as

spheres, ellipsoids, or cylinders) for one phase in the 2 0.5

2

matrix of the other may, in some cases, provide I

erroneous predictions of the effective elastic moduli I

for most real composites where the shapes and spatial o 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

distributions of the phases are seldom uniform. Inclusion volume fraction (fj)

3. For some reinforcement shapes and large

5

reinforcement concentrations, averaging schemes38,87 (b)

(such as those based on the Eshelby method)

may fall outside the elastic bounds of Hashin

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

mates89,90 may also deviate significantly from finite

element predictions81 at large concentrations. 4

•

Detailed micromechanical analyses81,82 have revealed

that the dependence of the effective elastic moduli of

two phase composites on the shape of the reinforcing b

phase can be traced to the differences in the extent of ~

load transfer between the phases. Ib 3 Aligned

4. The effective CTE of a two phase composite discs

depends strongly on the overall bulk modulus of the

composite. For composites exhibiting macroscopically

isotropic elastic behaviour, the effective CTE is of

the form

(1/Q) - (1/Q2)

0: = 0:2 + (a1 - 0:2) (1/Qd _ (1/Q2) . (24)

2 +

Randomly

where a and Q = E/[3( 1- 2v)] are the CTE and bulk orientated

modulus, and the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the discs

ductile and brittle phases, respectively. The variables 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

without the subscripts denote the effective properties Inclusion volume fraction (fj)

of the composite. Where E is strongly influenced by

the spatial dispersion of the constituent phases as a 4 Normalised limiting value of overall composite

consequence of differing levels of constrained shear- tensile strength plotted as function of volume

ing, Q is essentially insensitive to phase distribution fraction of a aligned ellipsoidal inclusions and

effects. As a result, from equation (24), a is also b aligned and randomly oriented discs and

unaffected by spatial distribution (see, for example, needles (After Ref. 78)

Refs. 87 and 91). This result has important impli-

cations for the evolution of thermal stresses in graded

composites. rounding matrix within the cell are considered to

5. The effects of particle shape and spatial distri- deform identically to every other particle and matrix

bution on composite deformation become more pro- neighbourhood in the composite, and the particles

nounced when constrained plastic deformation, are assumed to populate the composite in a perfectly

accompanied by high triaxial stress and plastic strain periodic arrangement.

gradients, occurs in one of the two phases.76,78,82,83 One study of this type was published by Bao

To address these issues, a number of studies have et al.,78 who analysed the effects of particle morph-

dealt with detailed finite element simulations of the ology and orientation on composite elastoplastic

micromechanics of deformation within the context of deformation. Figure 4a shows the strengthening ratio

unit cell models.76-86 In these models, the concen- iiy/(Jy for an elastic-perfectly plastic matrix reinforced

tration of the reinforcing phase in the cell is the same with ellipsoid shaped isotropic elastic inclusions plot-

as that in the composite, and all the reinforcement ted against their volume fraction Ii for different ratios

particles are assumed to have the same shape, orien- of the particle aspect ratio atfaL, which was taken to

tation, and size. The unit cell comprising the particle be the same as the cell aspect ratio AIfAL. The matrix

in the ductile matrix is generally approximated by an is assumed to conform to a Mises type yield behaviour

axisymmetric geometry with periodic boundary con- whereby the effective stress (Je = [(3sijSij)/2] 1/2= (Jy,

ditions. Furthermore, the reinforcement and its sur- where sij are the deviatoric stress components and

International Materials Reviews 1997 Vol. 42 No.3

92 Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2

160

(a) ~.,

/'" Square

~

0120 ~/

a. / ..,.,-..,.,-

~

~

(J)~

~ 80 /,

/

"

",-""--

,.,. ", ... ......-- --- ---- --_.-.---

....--

...---Hexagonal

-Q)

(J)

'

,.( /"/:,.....

~ ...

//

,,~

... --"'~

...""-Square diagonal

(J)

'"

~ 40

Transverse tension

o

o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Tensi Ie strai n, 0/0

Sa transverse tensile deformation of 6061-0 AI-Zn-Mg alloy reinforced with 46 vol.-o/o of boron fibres

that are distributed in different periodic or random arrangements and b finite element unit cell showing

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

(Jy is the tensile yield strength of the matrix. iiy is the only recourse for quantitative modelling of the com-

limiting value of overall tensile yield stress ii of the posite micromechanical behaviour.

composite. This overall limit yield stress is independ- Finite element models of the dependence of spatial

ent of the elastic properties of the reinforcement and distribution of the two phases on the overall inelastic

the matrix, and is not influenced by the size of the response have been studied by a number of research-

reinforcement. Figure 4a shows that aligned elongated ers.76-83,92-100 The most systematic among such simu-

(atfaL> 1) or disc shaped (atfaL < 1) inclusions impart lations involve the effects of phase geometry on the

significantly more strengthening than spheres (adaL = transverse tensile deformation of metal matrix com-

1). Figure 4b is a plot of iiy/(Jy versus fi for randomly posites reinforced with a high concentration of uni-

oriented elongated ellipsoidal needles (atfaL = 0'1) and directionally reinforced fibres.83,93,94 Figure 5a shows

discs or platelets (atfaL = 10) reinforcing an elastic- the transverse tensile stress-strain curve for a 6061-0

perfectly plastic matrix. (Here the grainlike packets Al-Zn-Mg alloy reinforced with 46 vol.-% of boron

are oriented in such a way that the overall composite fibres. When the fibres are packed in a square array

behaviour is isotropic. These calculations of Bao and transverse tensile loading is applied along the

et al.78 involved (a) a three-dimensional cell model to edge of the square (termed 'square edge packing'

extract the multi axial limit yield surface of the grain- arrangement), the composite exhibits the greatest

like packets and (b) averaging over all orientations resistance to both elastic and plastic deformation.

with respect to the tensile axis, by recourse to a When the applied tensile loading is along the diagonal

Bishop-Hill procedure, to obtain an upper bound for of the square (termed 'square diagonal packing'

iiy•92) Also superimposed in Fig. 4b are the results for arrangement), the most compliant response is seen.

aligned inclusions of the same shape from Fig.4a. For fibres packed in a triangular or hexagonal per-

The randomly oriented particles, as anticipated, are iodic array, an inbetween stress-strain curve results

not as effective as strengtheners as the aligned ones. between the two bounds for the square packing case.

While the results shown in Fig. 4 exhibit macro- Figure 5b shows a random arrangement of 60 fibres

scopic trends, the micromechanics of plastic deforma- packed in a unit cell, which is repeated in the finite

tion in the metallic phase is subject to further element model with periodic boundary conditions

complexities. When one of the two phases deforms involving a generalised plane strain model. For this

plastically due to thermal and/or mechanical loading, geometrical arrangement of 'random fibres' (which

the local deformation undergoes severe non-pro- can be created by imaging and then discretising a

portional loading and becomes highly inhomo- typical microstructure in the real composite), the

geneous with steep gradients in plastic strains and stress-strain curve falls inbetween the bounds pre-

hydrostatic stresses, especially in the vicinity of sharp dicted by the square edge and square diagonal pack-

corners.76 The overall deformation of the composite ing models in Fig.5a. Note that the random fibre

then becomes increasingly more sensitive to the load- model predictions are noticeably different from those

ing path and to the shape and spatial distribution of of the periodic hexagonal array predictions (which

the phases. The onset and spread of local failure produces a transversely isotropic response during

processes are also influenced markedly by these fac- elastic deformation only). Brockenbrough et al. 83 and

tors. As a result, analytical methods become increas- Nakamura and Suresh94 showed that the effects of

ingly incapable of tracking the evolution of inelastic fibre distribution (for a fixed volume fraction) on the

deformation, damage, and failure in the composite, plastic response of the composite directly correlated

and computational models, albeit time consuming with the extent of hydrostatic stresses and constrained

and numerically cumbersome, appear to provide the plastic flow developed in the matrix. Consequently,

International Materials Reviews 1997 Vol. 42 NO.3

Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2 93

reinforced with 30 vo1.- % of unidirectional W fibres.

Figure 6b is an optical micrograph showing partial

recrystallisation of the deformed region around the

fibres after annealing at 300°C for 30 min.

Since the evolution of matrix stress and stress fields,

as well as the onset of shear localisation (such as the

one shown in Fig. 6) are strongly influenced by the

geometry, concentration, and spatial arrangement of

one phase in another, the evolution of damage and

failure is also expected to be highly sensitive to these

factors. In addition, experimental results by Embury

and co-workersl02 and Lewandowski and co-

workersl03 have documented how externally im-

posed constraints, in addition to local microstructural

constraints, influence the deformation and failure of

two phase composites. Extensive studies of failure in

metal-ceramic composites have identified a variety

of conditions which govern the following princi-

pal mechanisms: (a) fracture of the brittle phase,

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

coalescence of voids within the metallic phase,

and (c) delamination and crack growth along the

interface between the brittle and the ductile phases.

Detailed reviews of the mechanics and micromech-

a

anisms of these failure processes can be found

elsewhere. 37,39,41,79,82,86,104

microstructural deformation processes

The approaches outlined in the preceding sections on

the mechanics and micro mechanics of deformation in

metal-ceramic composites are predicated on the

premise that the size of each phase, i.e. the size of the

reinforcement and the size of the matrix region sur-

rounding it, are large enough to be amenable to be

modelled by continuum mechanics. That is, these

dimensions are large compared to the characteristic

microstructural size scales, such as the grain size or

b the dislocation cell size in the ductile phase. This

6 a backscattered electron micrograph of requirement may not be satisfied when the volume

deformed grid, etched on specimen surface by fraction of one phase in the matrix of the other is

electron beam lithography, showing presence large. Furthermore, none of the continuum models

of shear bands in OFE Cu matrix reinforced with discussed above can account for the important role

30 vol.·% of unidirectional W fibres and b optical of size scale in influencing the deformation and failure

micrograph showing partial recrystallisation of composites because the constitutive model for the

of deformed region around fibres after anneal· matrix material or the reinforcement has no length

ing at 300°C for 30 min (Reproduced with scale built into it. For example, it is known from

permission from Ref. 101)

experiments that the strengthening of particle

reinforced composites and the propensity for the

the order in which the constraint increases in the fracture of the brittle reinforcement can be strongly

matrix corresponds to the order in which different influenced by the size of the reinforcing particle; these

spatial arrangements of fibres increase the overall are features which are completely left out of the scope

deformation resistance of the composite. Systematic of continuum formulations. There have been recent

experimental measurements of localised strain distri- developments in the modelling of strain gradient

bution in plane strain compression (derived from plasticitylOS which, seek to address such size effects.

changes in the shapes of fiducial grids), matrix texture In addition, finite element models which examine the

development, recrystallisation behaviour, and damage details of micro mechanical failure processes, such as

evolution in the ductile matrix, for hexagonal and brittle reinforcement fracture,86 or ductile failure by

square periodic arrangements of tungsten fibres in a void growth in the metallic matrix,79 or along the

copper matrix have been reported by Poole et al.lOO,lOl interface,86,104 appear to capture some aspects of

Figure 6a is a backscattered electron micrograph of the effects of reinforcement size on the overall

a deformed grid, etched on the specimen surface by deformation and failure of the composite. However,

electron beam lithography, where the presence of general methods for the quantification of composite

94 Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2

strengthening in plastically deforming matrixes into plastically deforming matrixes from the ends of

remain far from complete at this time. reinforcing particles has been documented during

The analysis techniques discussed in the foregoing thermomechanical loading, using the photoplastic

sections were also predicated on isotropic elastic or Agel as a model matrix material and SiC or A1203

inelastic constitutive models. These approaches do as reinforcements.118,119 These observations illustrate

not allow for the discreteness of crystallographic slip the significant role of discrete dislocations and loops

in the metallic grains of the composite, and the in not only relieving misfit strains during thermome-

ensuing anisotropy of microscopic deformation. This chanical loading, but also in influencing subsequent

limitation can at least partly be overcome by resorting deformation.

to continuum formulations of crystal plasticity at the

single grain level. Such models, which build on the

works of Taylor106 and Hill and Rice,107 have been

Some critical issues in modelling of

developed into a framework amenable for detailed graded composites

computational simulations.los-115 Modelling of the Modelling of the elastoplastic deformation character-

plastic deformation can be accomplished to account istics of compositionally graded composite micro-

for both the discreteness of straining by slip and the structures requires the incorporation of additional

randomness of grain orientations in a microstructural factors and length scales into the analyses, over and

ensemble, by allowing for the shearing along crystallo- above the aforementioned factors for two phase com-

graphic planes in preferential slip directions and posites without gradients in phase mix, in view of the

summing the plastic shear flow over all active slip following considerations:

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

systems in different crystal structures. It has been 1. The existence of a gradient in phase mix intro-

found that while the predictions of the crystal plas- duces a new length scale to the problem, i.e. the

ticity models for the deformation of metal-ceramic variation of the relative concentrations of the two

composites qualitatively mirror the trends derived phases with distance. In addition to the phase shape,

from continuum Mises type (J 2 flow theory) calcu- connectivity, and dispersion, the gradient in compos-

lations, the discreteness of the slip process has been ition generates additional geometrical effects in the

found to identify more pronounced shear localisation deformation of a composite.

effects which can have a major influence on failure 2. In a unidirectionally graded composite layer

processes. The crystal plasticity theories, however, are sandwiching two homogeneous materials, discrete

also incapable of predicting the effects of phase dimen- sublayers can be found within which the composite

sions (such as the size of the reinforcement particle) has essentially uniform concentration of the two

on deformation. A more detailed discussion of con- phases. For example, if a graded metal-ceramic com-

tinuum crystal plasticity theories, as they specifically posite layer is synthesised by sintering techniques by

apply to graded metal-ceramic composites, is pre- stacking sublayers of different relative proportions of

sented in the section 'Crystal plasticity models' below. the two materials, the thickness of each sublayer

The discreteness of microscopic deformation can introduces another microstructural length scale. In

be considered at yet smaller length scales by invoking order for continuum analyses to be valid, the thickness

the concept of discrete dislocations within the ductile of each such sublayer must be significantly greater

phase. Such dislocation based plasticity models have than the characteristic microstructural unit size, such

a built in characteristic length scale, which is the as a grain size or a particle size. When the graded

Burgers vector. Cleveringa et al.116 have presented an composite layer is discretised into sublayers for com-

analysis of plastic flow arising directly from the putational modelling, each sublayer should comprise

collective motion of a large number of dislocations in a sufficiently large number of elements for numerical

a composite material subject to simple shear. A full convergence and accuracy, and must be sufficiently

boundary value problem is considered with a two- larger than the microstructural unit size. At the same

dimensional array of line defects in an isotropic linear time, the size of each unit must be small enough to

elastic solid. Deriving from earlier studies117 (see capture the local fluctuations in stresses between

Ref. 116 for additional references on the subject of sublayers. This issue is illustrated with examples in

dislocation modelling of deformation), the stresses the section 'Experimental measurement of stresses

and strains are cast as the superpositions of the fields and deformation in graded multilayers' below.

from discrete dislocations and the complementary 3. In a metal-ceramic composite graded continu-

fields which account for the interactions with hard ously or discretely from an all metal layer to an all

inclusions and enforce the boundary conditions. ceramic layer, the concentration changes from a dilute

Continuum elasticity fields describe the long range mix of a brittle phase in a ductile matrix at one end,

interactions between dislocations, and an additional to a high fraction of a brittle (ductile) phase in a

set of constitutive rules account for dislocation drag, ductile (brittle) matrix near the middle, to a dilute

interactions with obstacles, as well as dislocation mix of a ductile phase in a brittle matrix at the other

nucleation and annihilation. It is shown that such an end. The phase shape, connectivity, and dispersion

approach would predict the dependence of the local may also change continuously through the thickness

stress and deformation fields in the metallic phase of of the graded layer.

the composite on the size of the brittle phase, as well 4. Differential shrinkage during sintering and poss-

as on the spatial dispersion and geometry of the ible differences in the evolution of pores and other

two phases. defects across the thickness of the compositionally

This section is concluded by noting that direct graded layer engender residual strains which can have

experimental evidence for the punching of dislocations a marked effect on subsequent thermomechanical

Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2 95

captured in the models for graded materials. Some

techniques to alleviate these phenomena were

addressed in Part 1 of this series.1

1

Layerl, 2El,vpal

5. Since the constraint due to the brittle phase on

Graded layer (GL) 20

the ductile matrix changes with distance, constitutive

models for deformation and failure must be designed y hi Layer 2, E2, v2' a2

to capture the differing constrained plastic flow and

damage evolution in the different regions within the .• Lx

7 Schematic of layered plate with graded

deformation, damage evolution, and fracture in each interlayer and associated nomenclature

of the constituent phases must be known.

Thermoelastic deformation of

between the phases within the graded layer causes a

graded multilayers variation in thermal stress to evolve along the thick-

The most convenient analytical and computational ness of the plate. The plate begins to curve because

models of functionally graded materials, which are of the through-thickness strain gradient, thereby

representative of many practical applications, involve accommodating the thermal stresses. When the geo-

formulations within the framework of small deforma- metrical conditions of the plate (which is isotropic

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

tion, small strain plate/beam theories of classical in-plane) are such that the strain is allowed to be a

continuum mechanics (e.g. Ref. 120). These formu- function of z only, the small strain compatibility

lations, which ignore dynamic effects, thermal gradi- equations lead to the result that the in-plane normal

ents, and stress relaxation mechanisms, provide exact strain C = Cxx (= Cyy for the biaxial stress state in

results within the realm of small strain analyses in Fig. 7) is linear; it can be expressed as

regions away from free edges where the multiaxial

fields due to edge effects and singularities need to be c(z) = Cxx = Co + KZ . • . . •. .• (25)

examined. For the purpose of illustration, consider where Co is the normal strain at z = 0 and K the

the layered structure schematically shown in Fig. 7 curvature (i.e. the inverse of the radius of curvature)

which comprises two homogeneous layers, 1 and 2, of the plate in its plane. The only non-zero stress is

between which a graded layer of thickness 2a is O"(z) = O"xx(z) = O"yy(z), which is given, for the equal

placed. The in-plane shape of this layered solid is a biaxial stress state, by

rectangle whose length and width are Lx and Ly along

the x and y axes, respectively. The plate is assumed E(z)

O"(z) = 1 _ v(z) [c(z) - ex(z)~ T(z)]

to have a uniform thickness everywhere, and for the

purpose of simple analytical formulation, the entire

E(z)

multilayer is assumed to have a uniform temperature = 1 _ v(z) [co + KZ - ex(z)~ T(z)] . . . (26)

everywhere at all times during thermal excursions

(although simple heat conduction across the layers

where ex is the thermal expansion coefficient, and ~ T

can easily be modelled on the basis of the present

represents the change in temperature from the initial

formulation using a personal computer). The

stress free state, and in general, they are all functions

geometry of the layered structure shown in Fig. 7 is

of z. (For simplicity of illustration, isothermal con-

such that the problem can be treated as one-dimen-

ditions are assumed in the following discussion, i.e.

sional. When the geometry of the layers is such that

~ T is independent of z.) In the general case involving

Ly» (h1 + h2»> Lx in Fig. 7, plane stress beam con- externally imposed thermal and/or mechanical loads,

ditions prevail, and the parameters of interest for

the resultant force and the resultant moment of the

thermomechanical performance depend only on the

stress distribution O"(z) along the height z from equa-

vertical position z. The general three-dimensional

tion (26) must be equal to the applied axial

stress state, which prevails over a distance from the force Fap and the applied bending moment Map,

edge which is approximately equal to the layer thick-

respectively

ness, alters the plane stress results only near the edges.

The analyses for plane stress can easily be extended

to the more realistic situation involving thermoelastic

response in the equibiaxial stress state (corresponding

to the geometrical condition of a plate that

fh: +a a(z) dz

a+h1

+ t:a

a(z) dz

J O"(z) dz = Fap . . . . . . . (27)

r:

+a

ing Young's modulus E by the corresponding biaxial

modulus E = E/( 1 - v) where v is the Poisson ratio.

Consider an initially perfectly planar uncon-

strained, layered and/or graded plate with a graded

t~:+a a(z)z dz + a(z)z dz

uniform thermal excursion ~ T from some stress free + Ja+h O"(z)z dz = Map . . . . . . (28)

+a

reference temperature (such as the processing temper-

ature, diffusion bonding temperature, or softening These two conditions, i.e. force balance and moment

temperature). The thermal expansion or contraction balance, lead to a linear system of equations in Co

96 Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2

are given by z/h

- 1 (J 0 + pap)

2 + 11 (J 1 + Map)

80 = -----------

Ii - 1012

I1(JO + pap) - IO(J1 + Map) h

K = -------- .... (29)

Ii - 1012 :{ a

where

Ii = fh 2

-hi

ziE(z) dz, i = 0, 1, 2

::::

and

that no singular values for 80 and K can be encoun-

-\.O

tered since Ii =I-1012. The value of Ii depends only on

the geometry and the profile (variation across the

8 Example of thermal stress distribution in

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

Ni-GL-AI203 trilayer beam which is subject to a

is uniform and pure thermal loading is applied, then

temperature drop of 100 K from initial stress

Jo and J1 are proportional to ~T. This, together with free temperature

pap = 0 and Map = 0 for pure thermal loading, implies

that 80 and K are also proportional to ~ T. From the

above four ~quations, the thermal stress profile In equations (31) and (32), the symbol ~ preceding

through the thickness of the multilayered material a property refers to the change in that property for a

with a compositional gradient can be deduced. If E change in temperature ~T. From equations (25)-(30),

and a~ T vary continuously with z, then (J is contin- the strains, curvatures, and stresses in the multilayered

uous too. Furthermore, if E or a~ T is discontinuous, plate can be deduced. In an attempt to develop a

then (J is also discontinuous which is the case for a quantitative assessment of stress evolution, consider

sharp interface between a metal and a ceramic. The the model system of aNi-graded layer-Al203 trilay-

force and moment balance equations (27) and (28) ered system. The thermoelastic properties within the

can be incorporated into simple softwares amenable inbetween graded layer (GL) vary linearly with dis-

for use with a personal computer in such a way that tance z, according to equations (31) and (32). The

the general thermomechanical analysis of a multi- spatial variation of the elastic thermal stress (Jxx with

layered material with or without a gradient in com- distance z in the Ni-GL-AI203 system (in plane

position in one or more layers can be performed; in stress) subjected to a temperature reduction of 100 K

this way, the overall curvature of the plate, the stresses (from an initial stress free reference temperature) is

and the strains at any thickness location in any of plotted in Fig. 8 for the particular geometrical con-

the three layers can be computed numerically. Such dition that h1 = h2 = h and that a/h = 0·6. Also indi-

an approach121 is additionally capable of incorporat- cated in Fig. 8 are the corresponding thermal stress

ing non-uniform temperatures, in-plane orthotropy in profiles of a Ni-AI203 bilayer without a graded

elastic properties in one or more layers or graded interlayer (shown by the broken lines), for the same

sublayers, plasticity with isotropic hardening, steady temperature drop from the same initial stress free

state power law creep, and simple criteria for brittle temperature. A comparison of the behaviour of the

or ductile failure initiation at critical locations of the bilayer (with a sharp interface) and the graded trilayer

m ul tila yer. reveals the following trends: (1) when the interface

It is illustrative at this point to examine the impli- between the metal and the ceramic is abrupt, large

cations of compositional gradation, in the context of stresses develop in the interior of the layered solid;

equations (25)-(30). For this purpose, assume that (2) for cooling from the stress free temperature, the

the biaxial Young's modulus E and coefficient of near interface region of the metal develops a tensile

thermal expansion in the graded layer (- a < z < a) stress, while the near interface region in the ceramic

in Fig. 7 and isothermal conditions such that develops a compressive stress - there is an abrupt

change in the sign of the stress at the interface; (3) the

E=Eo-~E=Eb -h1~z~-a

magnitude of thermal stress in the interior can be

- - -z reduced and the abrupt change in sign of the stress

E = Eo + ~E -, -a ~ z~ a at the interface can be erased by introducing a graded

a

interlayer, as shown in Fig. 8; (4) the stress at the

E=Eo+~E=E2, a~z~h2 .... (31) reference plane (z = 0) is eliminated by the introduc-

a=aO-~a=a1, -h1~z~-a tion of the graded layer for the particular geometry

z and gradient profile shown in Fig. 8. (In general, the

a = ao + ~a - , - a~ z~ a interior location where the residual stress is made to

a

vanish can be tailored by the appropriate choice of

a = ao + ~a = a2, a~ z~ h2 . (32) the gradient in the metal-ceramic mix of the

International Materials Reviews 1997 Vol. 42 No.3

Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2 97

interlayer.16,18) Note in Fig. 8 that the stresses vary where C* is the global compliance tensor, the

linearly with distance within the metallic and ceramic subscript 0 denotes the matrix phase and the subscript

layers, and parabolically within the compositionally i denotes the inclusion phase which in the most

graded layer (when the elastic modulus and thermal general case is considered to be of an ellipsoidal

expansion coefficient vary linearly with distance). geometry of arbitrary major and minor axis ratio,

Table 1 provides an example calculation of the and orientation. Br denotes the phase concentration

elastic stresses in the Ni-GL-AI203 layered material factor tensor, and the components of Br are functions

for different values of Pa = a/h and a Ni-AI203 of the ellipsoidal parameters as well as of the elastic

bimaterial with a sharp interface (a/h = 0), subjected constants of the matrix and the inclusion. Porosities

to a temperature drop of 805 K from the initial stress in the matrix, whose concentration may vary as

free temperature.18 For small Pa, the largest stress in functions of position (as, for example, due to differen-

the Ni layer is at the free surface, and it occurs at the tial shrinkage), can be considered as inclusions with

alumina/FGM interface for larger values of Pa' The no stiffness. In view of the possibility that the matrix

residual stresses vanish as Pa ~ 1, as expected from and inclusion phases may not be interchangeable and

the theory, equations (25)-(30). Table 1 also illus- that there exists an uncertain or 'fuzzy' transition in

trates that by compositionally grading an interface microstructure between the two phases, the effective

between a metal and a ceramic, the abrupt transitions property within the graded layer (which comprises

in residual stress gradients seen at a sharp interface two materials involving different microstructural

are eliminated, and that the magnitude of the residual combinations i = 1 to I, where I is the total number

stresses is markedly reduced through the majority of of microstructures) has been taken to be123

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

While the foregoing analyses deal with continuum - Ibif:U~

p= b·f' . . (35)

descriptions of elastic deformation, it is worth noting 1 m

where ~ is effective property estimated from the mean

toplastic deformation predicated on the mean field

field approach, and bi a function (linear, quadratic,

theories discussed above have also been applied

etc.) which characterises the variation of P as a

to characterise the thermomechanical response of

function of z. Further details of these approaches can

graded multilayer plates. Hirano, Wakashima, and

co_workers68.122,123 have extended the mean field be found in Refs. 122-125.

formulations of Wakashima et al.67,124 to graded

metal-eeramic composites in the following manner. Onset and progression of plastic flow

The fractional volume of the constituent phases in in graded multilayers

the graded region is characterised by the distribution

function When plastic flow and/or other types of permanent

inelastic deformation commence in one or more layers

f:(z) = (1- fm: Ji) (1- fp); of the graded multilayer, the stresses begin to redis-

tribute in a manner that is different from the descrip-

tions provided in equations (25)-(30). A simple and

convenient way to estimate the temperature change

f:n = ( 1 - f!: Ji) (1 - fp) . (33) at which plasticity begins, (~T)pb is to equate the

von Mises effective stress (Je to (J(z) under plane stress

where fp is the volume fraction of the micropores in or equal biaxial stress states, and to invoke the

the graded region and z is the coordinate along the criterion that plastic yielding begins at a location

thickness of the graded region. The effective prop- where (Je first reaches the yield strength of the material

erties, such as the compliance tensor, in the graded (Jy.* Closed form solutions17,18,126 and results of com-

region are obtained by the following formulation putational simulationsI5.18.127,128 are available for the

plastic deformation of graded metal-eeramic compos-

(34) ites as a function of different layer geometries and

gradient profiles. Also known are the conditions

Table 1 Calculation of elastic stresses in which govern the location for the onset of plastic

Ni-GL-AI203 layered material for different flow in a general metal-eeramic graded multilayer,18

values of Pa = a/ hand Ni-AI203 bimaterial such as the one illustrated in Fig. 7.

with sharp interface (a/ h = 0), subjected General 'plasticity diagrams' which map the onset

to temperature drop of 805 K from the of yielding in the graded metal-eeramic layered solid

initial stress free temperature18 for any arbitrary combinations of the individual thick-

a/h = 0'1 a/h=0'4 a/h = 0'9-1'0

nesses of the homogeneous and graded layers can be

developed on the basis of the above simple criteria.

z FGM* Sit FGM* Sit FGM* Sit Figure 9 is a diagram for the Ni-GL-AI203 model

h -1'91 -1'80 -1'80 -1'80 ~O -1'80 system.18,129 In this diagram, the three independent

a 4·20 4'26 2'07 2·23 ~O -1'80 layer dimensions, i.e. a, hb and 112, can be represented

0+ 0'40 4'93 0'12 4·93 ~O 4'93

0- 0'40 -7'61 0'12 -7'61 ~O -7'61

-a -6'54 -6'44 -3'47 -2'80 ~O 4·37 * Under plane strain conditions, E or E should be replaced by

-h 4·24 4'37 3'44 4'37 ~O 4'37 E/(l- v2) and a by a(l + v). The von Mises criterion for plane

strain becomes

* Functionally graded.

t Sharp interface. . (36)

98 Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2

......, 1,

AI203 thin film on Ni ;---_.j 8 600 because of the sharp interface between the metal and

1.0 ..-r

7 300 the ceramic. It is also seen that when the graded

6 200 interlayer between the metal and the ceramic is thick,

5 160 i.e. for Pa > 0·8, plasticity is essentially suppressed for

0.8 4 140 the range of temperature changes considered here.

...--C\J 3 120 For Pa ~ 1, there is no residual stress in the entire

..c 2 100 graded layer as long as ad T varies linearly with z as

+ 0.6 1 50 anticipated from the small strain thermoelasticity

..c

/p theory.130

~

..c Also plotted in Fig. 9 is the region, bounded by

II 0.4

.r::.

0..

the broken line and the line connecting the points

(Pa, Ph) = (0, 1) and (1, 0'5), within which plastic flow

initiates at the Ni free surface. Outside this region are

0.2

o hI geometrical combinations for which yielding initiates

<i: at the interface between the homogeneous Ni layer

and the graded layer.

0.0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Micromechanics of plastic

deformation

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

necessary for onset of plastic flow in The continual spatial variations in the concentrations

Ni-GL-AI203 trilayer system for any arbitrary of the constitutent phases of a graded composite

combination of relative thicknesses of each of engender new 'length scales' and other complexities

layers; see text for details (After Ref. 18) in the computational modelling of the micromechan-

ics of deformation and failure. When the volume

fraction of one phase in the matrix of another is in

in terms of two non-dimensional geometric para- the range 30-700/0 and when there exists a transition

meters as, for example, Pa = 2a/(h1 + h2) and Ph = from a ceramic matrix to a metallic matrix, the simple

h2/(h1 + h2). Any two-dimensional 'performance dia- 'unit cell' computational models discussed above fail

gram' can then be drawn for a given graded material to provide accurate descriptions of the thermomech-

system on the basis of these two parameters for all anical behaviour without appropriate modifications

possible combinations of the thicknesses of each of and refinements. To overcome these limitations, newer

the three layers. The ordinate in this figure represents classes of computational models have been developed

different geometrical combinations of a Ni-AI203 for graded composites.131,132

bilayer with a sharp interface. The three coordinate

points represented by (Pa, Ph) = (0, 0), (0,1), and

(1,0'5) represent the three corners of a triangle within Mises type continuum plasticity models

which all thickness combinations of the three layers Figure lOa is a diagram which illustrates a planar

can be mapped. The first of these three corners beam geometry comprising a unit cell model (dark

denotes the location of a thin Ni film on a thick shaded region) for a graded multilayer.131 The

Al203 substrate, the second denotes a thin Al203 film deformed and undeformed configurations of the unit

on a thick Ni substrate, and the third, marked as cell are also indicated in that figure. For pure thermal

point P in Fig. 9, represents the condition where the loading of the graded material in response to an

entire material is a single compositionally graded increase or decrease in temperature by dT (without

layer extending from all Ni at one end to all Al203 any thermal gradient through the thickness), the

at the other. following boundary conditions are imposed

Figure 9 shows the contours of constant critical

temperature variation, (d T)pl, at which plasticity ux(O, y) = 0; ux(O, y) = 0 )

begins in a Ni-GL-AI203 trilayer (shown sche-

matically in Fig. 7) for all possible combinations of

uxO¥' y): uxCW; 0) + A[ux(W; P) = ux(W; 0)] (37)

the thicknesses of the Ni, A1203, and linearly graded uy(Jt: y) - uy(Jt: 0) + A[uy(Jt: P) uy(Jt: 0)]

layers. Here the elastic modulus and CTE variations

within the graded layer are assumed to follow equa- where ux(l, 2) and uy(l, 2) are the displacements in

tions (31) and (32). For the purpose of simple illus- the x and y directions, respectively, at locations (1, 2),

tration, plane stress conditions are assumed and the Wand P are the width and height, respectively, of

yield strength of Ni is taken to be 100 MPa (which is the unit cell, and A is a parameter, symbolising the

a typical value at 527°C). For a Ni thin film on an vertical position as a fraction of the total height,

Al203 substrate, i.e. at the origin of the figure, a which can vary between zero and unity. The displace-

temperature change (d T)pl = 57 K, is needed to yield ments uy(O, y) were left unconstrained. Physically,

the metal film fully. On the other hand, a bilayer equation (37) implies that free deformation allows

comprising a thin Al203 film on a thick Ni substrate the top and bottom sides of the unit cell to deform

does not lead to any plastic flow in the Ni, even for freely, the left side of the unit cell is precluded from

(d T)pl > 600 K. For the geometric conditions rep- any deformation in the horizontal direction, and the

resented by points along the ordinate, plastic flow right side of the unit cell is forced to remain as a

International Materials Reviews 1997 Vol. 42 NO.3

Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2 99

~

y. ...\

0.12 Al20J Unit cell

\

Graded \

~ 0.57 layer

Undeformed (solid)

\

\ Deformed (broken)

0.37 Ni \

... - X

W

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

10 a unit cell and nomenclature of trilayered beam with graded interlayer for finite element simulation

of thermomechanical response, b hexagonal packing arrangement of graded metal-ceramic composite

layer; c and d examples of unit cells with random distributions of metal-ceramic phases in graded

layer (After Ref. 131)

straight line during all deformation though it can employed to analyse the thermomechanical response

rotate. The axial and bending strains, respectively, of the graded layer. The finite element unit cell

are defined as comprises a homogeneous metal layer, a homo-

geneous ceramic layer, and an intermediate metal-

1 ceramic composite layer within which the metal

ea = 2W [ux(Jt: 0) + ux(Jt: P)J

and ceramic concentrations are graded, from 10 to

90 vol.- 0/0, in nine steps corresponding to a linear

1

eb = W [ux(JtJt: 0) - ux(Jt: P)J . . . (38) gradation in composition. In the vicinity of equal

volume concentrations of the metal and the ceramic,

a switch from a metal matrix to a ceramic matrix (or

For deformation induced solely by thermal excur-

vice versa) is needed here for numerical accuracy, as

sions, the curvature of the plate K as well as the

these types of models. represent only a matrix-

instantaneous coefficients of thermal expansion for

inclusion structure.

the unit cell for axial loading and bending, Lia and Lib,

The geometrical arrangement of the phases in

respectively, are defined as*

Fig. lOb represents a highly idealised periodic struc-

eb dea deb ture, whereas real graded microstructures exhibit

K = P; Lia = d T; Lib = dT . . (39) phase dispersions which are significantly more irregu-

lar and non-periodic. These departures from ideal

The above arrangement can be analysed by arrangements can be captured, within the context of

employing a two-dimensional periodic unit cell for- two-dimensional numerical simulations, by consider-

mulation wherein each phase is envisioned as an ing random microstructural unit cells for finite

isolated particle in the matrix of the other phase, with element analyses which can be created by discretising

the volume fraction of the particle adjusted to reflect optical or scanning electron micrographs of typical

the appropriate spatial distribution of the concen- graded microstructures at the appropriate magnifi-

tration of that phase. Weissenbek et al.131 have pro- cation. Figure 10c and d shows two examples of

posed, for this purpose, a hexagonal packing random dispersions of a graded metal-eeramic com-

arrangement, whose finite element discretisation is posite which is sandwiched between the homogeneous

shown in Fig. lOb. The spacing between the inclusions metal and ceramic layers; here the dark grains rep-

is computed on the basis of the hexagonal packing resent the ceramic. The hexagonal packing arrange-

arrangement, since the gradations in composition do ment of Fig. lOb or the random packing arrangements

not allow symmetry in the unit cell along the thickness shown in Fig. 10c and d represent repeating periodic

of the graded layer. In the particular configuration unit cells that are subject to the boundary conditions

shown in Fig. lOb, nine different sublayers are in equation (37). The constitutive properties of the

two phases can then be introduced within the context

of continuum formulations, either by invoking the

* While lXa is based on the standard definition for linear CTE,

equation (39) shows a similar definition for the bending CTE. By von Mises plastic yield behaviour for the metal and

these definitions, the CTE values represent instantaneous values lXi isotropic elastic response for the ceramic,131 or by

at any given temperature, and not a secant or total value.131 employing single crystal plasticity models for the

100 Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2

1.20

,.~

I£l

'0

1.00 _.- Modified rule of mixture

.c

e:1 -- Experiment 20- 350°C

--- Hexagonol

..•. Random arrangement (d)

- Rondom orrangement (c)

80

a 200 400 600 800

T,oC

of CTE in bending with temperature against ':., .,

(b)

experimental observations (After Refs. 19 and :.:

131)

Metal, vol.-%

ceramic grains. 132

[00

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

models which employ a hexagonal unit cell (Fig. lOb)

and random grain dispersions (Fig. 10c and d) are

compared with experimental measurements and with

the predictions of the modified rule of mixture

approximation, equations (4)-(9), in Fig. 11 for the

t X2

simulation and experiments, the relative thicknesses

::I!; ~ L-XI

of the Ni layer, graded layer, and Al203 layer were 12 a illustration of decomposition of total

0'12, 0'57, and 0'37, respectively.) Figure 11 shows the deformation gradient into thermal, plastic, and

variation of bending CTE, C(b, with temperature T. lattice components, and modelling of metal in

Also shown in this figure are the experimental values graded layer as c plastic single crystal rather

of C(b versus T for the Ni-AI203 graded trilayer than as b von Mises continuum (After Ref. 134)

obtained by Finot et al.19 for a temperature excursion

of 20 ~ 350°C. While the modified rule of mixture and lattice components, FT, FP, and F*, respectively,

matches the numerical predictions in the elastic as shown in Fig. 12. If u is the displacement vector

regime, it severely overestimates the temperature for and X is the material position vector with respect to

the onset of plasticity in Ni. The finite element models the undeformed reference state

estimate that the temperature for the initiation of au

plastic flow in Ni is around 150°C, which is in F=F* ·FT• FP = I +- . (40)

accordance with experimental observations. The ax

range of variation in C(b, arising from plastic flow in where I is the second order identity tensor. Plastic

the multilayer, over the temperature range 100-250°C, deformation in individual metal grains is modelled as

as well as the flatness of the initial portion of the simple shearing along crystallographic slip planes

C(b-T curve and the plateau region (from ~ 250 with ~nit normals mp and along slip directions with

to 300°C) after the initiation of plasticity, are also unit vectors sp, where the index f3 refers to the slip

predicted reasonably well by the computational system. The velocity gradients for the plastic and

simulations. 131 Note that finite element formula- thermal parts are given, respectively, by

tions, which incorporate adaptations131-133 of the

jp. (FP)-l = LYpspmp and iT. (FT)-l = 'Fa

Mori- Tanaka mean field method64 in an incremental p

form, have also been used to obtain computational . . .. . (41)

results similar to the ones shown in Fig. 11.

where Yp is the slip rate on the slip system f3 with the

summation done over all active slip systems, T is

Crystal plasticity models the temperature, and a = ~i ~j C(ijaiaj is the tensor of

While the foregoing analyses discretise the graded thermal expansion coefficients with components C(ij

layer into continuum sublayers of averaged properties, defined with respect to the time independent Cartesian

as in Fig. lOb, or into microstructural units wherein base vectors iii' In cubic crystals, the vectors iii are

the effective thermoelastoplastic properties are aligned with the cube axes. The slip rate y p generally

volume averaged or continuum formulations, as in is a function of temperature, stress state, and material

Fig. 10c and d, the plastic deformation of the metal state. Full details of the constitutive response for

grains within the graded layer has also been modelled crystal plasticity are available elsewhere for homo-

at the single crystal level using crystal plasticity geneous metals,107-111and metal-ceramic compos-

theories.134 In this approach, the total deformation ites without compositional gradients112,113and with

gradient F is decomposed into the thermal, plastic, graded composites.134

International Materials Reviews 1997 Vol. 42 NO.3

Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2 101

plasticity models for composite response provide pre- deform\n

dictions of thermomechanical response which are

qualitatively similar to those predicted by the corres- Elastic

ponding von Mises type models, with the exception unloading

that the localisation of intense plastic strains along Elastic

certain directions is much more pronounced in the

former case than in the latter. This difference may

\

Onset of reverse

highlight some distinctions in the predictions of failure inelastic deformation

Residual{

processes for the two classes of models. curvature

Other approaches have also been proposed for the

thermomechanical analyses of graded microstructures

by employing higher order theories for partial homo-

genisation which explicitly couple microscopic and

macroscopic responses.135,136 In this approach, the

generic unit cell is not viewed as the representative I~TI-

volume element whose effective properties are cap- 13 Effect of elastoplastic deformation on

tured through homogenisation. Instead, the represen- curvature evolution during thermal cycling

tative volume element is composed of an entire

column of such cells that are stacked in the direction

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

of compositional gradation, with the response of each mechanical loading. A number of accurate methods,

cell coupled to the response of the entire column. including strain gauges, linear variable differential

transformer (LVDT), and scanning laser techniques,

can be used to measure the in situ evolution of

Experimental measurement of curvature K in the plate during externally imposed

thermal and/or mechanical cycling.19,143-148The cur-

stresses and deformation in

vature change can then be used, in conjunction with

graded multilayers equations (25)-(30), to estimate the variation of

X-ray and neutron diffraction methods137,138 have biaxial stresses through the thickness of the multi-

traditionally been used to assess the internal stresses layer. Figure 13 shows schematically the variation of

in layered materials and coatings. Here the residual curvature with temperature for a layered and graded

strains are computed from experimental measure- plate (such as the one shown in Fig. 7) which is

ments of shifts in lattice spacing, and then are used subjected to thermal cycling. Several features of ther-

to derive residual stresses from known elastic con- momechanical deformation in a graded multilayer

stants of the materials. Residual stress measurements can be extracted from such a plot: '

by X-rays are generally restricted to a shallow region, 1. When all the layers of the plate undergo only

typically of the order of several micrometres, beneath thermoelastic deformation, the curvature changes lin-

a free surface. Although neutrons are capable of early with temperature.

penetrating deeper into the material, both these 2. If inelastic deformation (such as plasticity or

diffraction methods are amenable to uncertainties in creep), phase transformation or dilatational strains

the estimation of internal stresses for the following (such as those arising from martensitic transform-

reasons: (1) it is generally difficult, and in some cases ations in metals and ceramics or swelling due to

impossible, to perform in situ evolution of stresses moisture absorption in polymers), damage (such as

using these techniques during thermomechanical micro cracking in brittle layers or degradation due to

loading of a graded material; (2) when extensive sunlight in organic films), cracking or interfacial

plastic strains occur in the layered structure, the delamination occurs in one or more layers, the I K I

estimation of thermal stresses on the basis of lattice versus I~ TI plot deviates from linearity. This point

constant changes becomes highly inaccurate; and of deviation from a linear variation has been used to

(3) fluctuations and spatial variations in composition quantitatively measure the onset of inelastic deforma-

in a graded layer, over and above the normal micro- tion or damage in graded metal-eeramic

structural variations in the composite layer, can cause multilayers.18,19,126

pronounced errors in the interpretation of results. 3. The direction in which this deviation occurs

In addition to the above diffraction techniques, from the initial linear response can be used to gauge

destructive methods such as layer removal and hole the location within the multilayered solid at which

drilling,139-141 as well as optical fluorescence tech- inelastic deformation is initiated.19

niques142 have been used to estimate internal stresses 4. Reducing the temperature causes a residual cur-

in layered materials. These techniques are not gener- vature to evolve due to permanent deformation in

ally amenable to provide in situ information about one or more layers as a consequence of dislocation

stresses, strains, and geometry changes in a graded plasticity, creep cavitation, grain boundary sliding,

multilayer. irreversible phase transformations, or fracture. The

The evolution of curvature in a layered plate with magnitude of this residual curvature provides an

or without gradients in compositions, when subjected indication of the extent of permanent inelastic

to thermal and/or mechanical loads, also provides a deformation or cracking.

means to assess the evolution of stresses and strains Figure 14a shows a comparison of a numerically

across the thickness of the plate during thermo- predicted variation of curvature with experimental

102 Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2

(a) Figure 14a also reveals that the initiation of plastic

deformation at ~ I50aC shifts the curvature to more

negative values compared to the extrapolation of the

'7 -0.5 initial elastic region. This shift, also predicted by the

E

model, is indicative of the onset of yielding at the Ni

a>

~ free surface.19 Had plasticity commenced either at the

::J

o> Ni/GL interface or within the graded layer, the curva-

~ ture would have changed slope in the opposite direc-

3 -1.0

tion. Figure 14a thus serves to demonstrate how

~ Experimental result quantitative information on the thermomechan-

- - - - Prediction: smooth profi Ie ical deformation can be obtained from curvature

••••••• Prediction: discrete profi Ie measurements.

-1.5

a 100 200 300 400

It is worth noting here that while curvature

500

measurements provide a quantitative measure of the

Temperature,OC

overall deformation, they are relatively insensitive to

150 local fluctuations in stresses. This point is now illus-

Ni GL trated with the results shown in Fig. 14b, where the

100 equal biaxial normal stress, (Jxx = (Jyy (see Fig. 7 for

Discrete profile the orientation of the coordinate axes), is plotted as

(13 steps)"

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

50

c tion in the Ni-AI203 graded trilayer for the same

a.. thermal cycle as in Fig. I4a. The differences between

~ .. a

x the predictions of thermal stress from the discrete

b layer model and smooth gradient model are apparent,

-50 though no differences in curvature predictions were

noted between the two models. The continuous profile

model does not accurately capture the fluctuations in

-100

stresses at the interfaces between the sublayers,

whereas the discrete sublayer model is sensitive to

(b) even the small jumps in compositions at the sublayer

interfaces. (It was also found19 that the discrete sub-

14 Variation of a predicted and measured

layer model exhibited a greater plastic zone at the

curvature as function of temperature and

b predicted stress distribution in Ni-GL-AI203 Ni/G L interface with the corresponding reduction in

trilayer with either smooth or discretely the plastic zone at the Ni free surface.) Despite these

sublayered graded region (After Ref. 19) differences, a number of studies have shown (e.g.

Refs. 15, 18-20, 131) that, for the dimensions consid-

ered in these examples, 10 or more sublayers within

measurements19 (involving an in situ scanning laser the graded layer provide essentially convergent results

method) during one thermal cycle over the range for the thermo mechanical characterisation.

20-475-20aC in a Ni-AI203 graded trilayer (whose

geometry is identical to the one considered in Figs.

10 and 11). For predictions, two different models are

Large deformation of graded

considered: one in which the graded layer is regarded

as continuous with smoothly varying thermal and multilayers

mechanical properties, and the other in which the The thermoelastic and thermoplastic characteristics

microstructure and properties are incremented within discussed thus far on the basis of the classic beam

the graded layer in 13 equal discrete steps. Both and plate theories pertain to small strain, small

models use the modified rule of mixture approxi- deformation behaviour. As reviewed by Hyer149 and

mation (Fig. 2) for the computation of effective elas- Finot and Suresh,127 the small deformation elastic

toplastic response in the graded layer. Only curvature analyses are valid when the following assumptions

changes, instead of the absolute magnitude of the are compatible with real behaviour:

curvature, are considered here in an attempt to cir- 1. The out of plane deflections of the layered solid

cumvent the uncertainties in the intrinsic stresses (and are small compared with the thickness and the

hence any prior curvature) arising from processing or through-thickness stresses in all the layers are small

specimen preparation. It is apparent in Fig. 14a that compared with the in-plane stresses.

little difference exists between the discretely and con- 2. The normals to the interfaces remain unde-

tinuously graded cases through the entire range of formed during deformation of the multilayer.

temperatures. Both models also capture experimental 3. The displacements vary continuously across the

trends well, especially in the elastic region. The experi- interfaces between the layers.

mental results show that the plastic deformation in 4. The strains vary linearly with displacements.

one of the layers commences at f1T;::;j 150 K, which is 5. The free edges, where multi axial stress states

evident from the deviation of the 1(- T plot from prevail, are confined to a small region whose dimen-

linearity. The hysteresis in the curvature after one sions are small compared with the in-plane dimen-

cycle stems from plastic deformation, which is also sions of the layered solid.

Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2 103

flat plate lC x = lCy = 0 sphere 1Cx = 1Cy to be constant in the plate. The six degrees of

lCxy =0 1Cxy =0 freedom for the small deformation case are: the two

normal curvatures, Kxx = Kx and Kyy = Ky in the x

/7 and y directions, respectively, the twist curvature,

Kxy' and the components of strain at z = 0 which are

° °

8xx' 8yy, an dOTh

Yxy' e M 0 h r clrc

. Itt'

e represen a Ion 149,150

can be used to visualise the shapes' and curvatures

of the layered plate, as shown in Fig. 15. This circle,

drawn in the Kx or Ky versus Kxy space, is centred at

(Kx + Ky)/2 and has a radius equal to (Kx - Ky)/2.

When the out of plane displacement w becomes

comparable with the plate thickness (while still being

small compared to the in-plane dimensions), the strain

and curvature throughout the layered plate are no

longer uniform.127,149-152 The relation between the

saddle shape lCx = -lCy midplane (z = 0) strains 83 and the displacements

cylinder 1C x=0 J 'ICy i:- 0 along the x and y directions (see Fig. 1), UO and va,

1Cxy i:- 0

(or) 1C y = 0, lex i:- 0 respectively, are given by

lC xyi:- 0

° _ auo !(aw)2

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

curvatures of layered plates (After Ref. 149)

° _ avo !(aw)2

While the small deformation theory is generally 8yy - ay + 2 ay

adequate for analysing the thermomechanical

deformation of layered and graded materials, there

exist many practical situations where the foregoing

°

Yxy

= auo avo (aw) (aw)

a +a + a a . . (43)

y x x y

assumptions break down and large deformations

(albeit small strains) needs to be accounted for. These with the assumption

examples include: unsymmetric laminated tapes of

sintered ceramics and unsymmetric laminates of poly-

w(x, y) = - t (KxxX2 + Kyyy2 + 2KxyXY) . (44)

meric composites with or without stepwise gradients In conjunction with the above formulation, the

in composition, and thin film-substrate systems used in-plane displacements u and v can now be chosen to

in such applications as microelectronics, optoelectron- be polynomials of an appropriate order in x and y.

ics, and thermal barrier coatings which may contain Hyer149,150 used polynomials of order two in his

homogeneous thin films on substrates with a sharp study of large deformation in unsymmetric poly-

or graded interlayer. Furthermore, curvature meric composite laminates, while Masters and

measurements (such as those discussed above), which Salamon151,152 chose a polynomial of order six for

are widely used to assess experimentally the internal large deformation of thin films on substrates and

stresses in layered and graded coatings, can be per- incorporated in-plane shear. With these quantities,

formed with a greater degree of precision if the film- the curvatures can be computed by minimising the

substrate system is designed to undergo large total strain potential energy of the system ~E' and

deformation. examining the stability of various solutions

Consider the layered plate schematically shown in

Fig. 7. When this plate is subject to thermal loading

~E = f Wd d(volume);

from an initial stress free temperature, the relevant Jvol.

total strain components can be written as

. (45)

ness tensor.

Finot and Suresh127 have compared a variety of

analytical solutions for small and large deformation

with detailed three-dimensional finite element analy-

ses of Ni-AI203 bilayer plates with sharp and graded

interlayers. Figure 16 shows the evolution of a nor-

. (42) malised curvature with normalised temperature

change for the Ni-AI203 bilayer with a sharp interface

(where each layer in Fig. 7 is of the same thickness,

i.e. h1 = h2) due solely to thermoelastic deformation

arising from a change in temperature from an initial

where G and K represent three-dimensional vectors, stress free temperature. This normalisation was

and w is the out of plane displacement. For small chosen so that the results can be presented independ-

deformation, i.e. when w is small compared with the ently of the in-plane dimensions (which were chosen

total thickness of the multilayered plate (see Fig. 7), to be at least 50 times the total plate thickness, Lx (=

the curvatures and strains at z = 0 can be assumed Ly) > 50). The small deformation equal biaxial stress

International Materials Reviews 1997 Vol. 42 NO.3

104 Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2

50 Small de.formation theory

(Generalised plane strain) ,./'

,./<// /~ ,,'"

in-plane dimensions of the plate suppress abrupt

shape changes, but instead produce a more gradual

40 ~ ,/' ,"'\ transition from one shape to another. The effect of

Ni-AI203 .' //. . ~~all deformation in-plane dimensional asymmetry, however, on the

Elastic response ,./'" theory

N 30 Lx: Ly // ,"':/' (Biaxial stress state)

evolution of plastic flow in Ni was significantly less

..c

+ h, - h2 ,./' ,,' / pronounced.

A noteworthy trend identified in Ref.127 is that the

~

NX

~

...J

20 /~~' -- / introduction of compositional gradients does not have

.'.,. ,. ~ .

,/

;'

.•'"'

.,~ Large deformation theory

any major influence on the critical temperature

10

./," (Analytical method) change at which bifurcation occurs or on the magni-

.,:,/./ ' Kx(x-direction) tude of curvature corresponding to the onset of

0 bifurcation. This was particularly true for graded thin

films on substrates. Figure 17 shows contours of

0 10 20 30

constant normalised values of temperature change,

~T ~o:L~/(h,+h2)2

L11b, at which bifurcation and abrupt shape changes

16 Variation of normalised curvature, predicted occur in graded multilayers of Ni-AI203 for all poss-

by different analytical and computational ible combinations of the relative thicknesses of the

models for different stress states, as function Ni, gradient, and Al203 layers. The results of this

of normalised temperature change in Ni-AI203 figure have the important practical implication that

square plate (After Ref. 127)

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

of a graded interlayer is not likely to offer any benefit

from the viewpoint of avoiding abrupt shape changes,

state produces a linear variation of curvature with though it might suppress thermal stresses, onset of

temperature, as expected. Here the curvature produces yielding and cracking, and· edge effects.

a spherical shape (Kx = Ky and Kxy = 0) of the plate

due to thermal stresses, for the entire range of temper-

atures considered. The small deformation generalised Processing induced stresses in

plane strain state leads to a larger curvature through- graded composites

out, and for this case, the shape of the bilayer is

cylindrical. The discussion up to this point has centred around

The analytical formulation given in equations the analytical, computational, and experimental

(41)-( 43) predicts curvature variations which are characterisation of the thermomechanical response of

shown in Fig. 16 by the solid line. At low values of graded metal-ceramic composites. A key feature

temperature changes, a linear dependence of curvature of such analyses is that the current state of the

on temperature is seen. However, with increasing material, as characterised by the distributions of

thermal stress at increasing temperatures, a pro- stresses, strains, displacements, and damage through

nounced departure from linearity is clearly seen. In the thickness, is a strong function of the initial con-

this non-linear regime, the large deformation theory dition of the material. While most of the foregoing

predicts a spherical curvature which is smaller than analyses envision the initial state as the 'stress free'

that for small deformation. At a critical value of condition at which sintering, diffusion bonding, or

normalised temperature change, which is roughly 11·5 spray deposition of the material is accomplished, it is

in Fig. 16, a bifurcation in the solution occurs. (The widely recognised that essentially all processing

bifurcation was instigated in the simulation by methods produce 'intrinsic' or 'quench' stresses, over

imposing a small moment about the free edge of the and above the 'thermal stresses' induced during tem-

plate.) Beyond this point, three different equilibrium perature excursions from the stress free processing

shapes are predicted: (a) a stable equilibrjum ellip- temperature to the service temperature. * The magni-

soidal shape with a large curvature in the x direction tude and spatial distribution of these internal stresses

and a much smaller one in the y direction, which at depend on the specific processing methods employed

large values of temperature change, approaches a in addition to the choice of geometry and materials,

cylindrical shape; (b) another ellipsoidal shape where and are markedly influenced by such factors as non-

the x and y axes are reversed (this shape is not shown uniform and differential sintering of the material

in Fig. 16 for reasons of clarity of presentation); and through the thickness, non-equilibrium cooling of the

(c)an unstable equilibrium involving a spherical shape different phases, the rapid solidification of a molten

which is an extrapolation of the initial non-linear droplet on a substrate, and epitaxial misfit. In

curve representing large deformation (broken line). addition, the fabrication of such sublayer structures

The three-dimensional finite element analysis127 pre- may also give rise to 'interface mixing' and uncertaint-

dicts overall trends similar to those of the analytical ies in composition.

model. The differences between the two arise from

the fact that the numerical simulations account for * If the intrinsic stress profile is known following processing, and

the non-uniform curvatures along the in-plane axes, if the magnitude of the stresses everywhere is such that only elastic

with larger magnitudes of curvatures which evolve at deformation occurs due to the internal stresses, then this known

stress field can be superimposed on the subsequent externally

the free edges and spread inward. Finot and Suresh 127 applied loads to obtain an improved analysis using any of the

also studied the effects of a number of different methods discussed in the section 'Thermoelastic deformation of

geometric parameters and plastic deformation on the graded multilayers' above.

Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2 105

250

• Residual stress at 20°C

1.0

30.0

Ni-AIP3

200 A Thermal mismatch stress

Elastic response 20.0

15.0

for T = 130°C

O.B L.=L.,

13.0

~ 150 • Quench stress at 150°C

12.0

a.

11.5

11.0

:§:

0.6

en" 100

en

CD

L.

NI~j

.c

0.4 Ci5 50

I

Q.

Gradient 2a h1

NI.(AI,O,),.. h, o

A1P3

-50

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 O.B 1.0 Volume fraction of AI2031 0/0

Pa = 2a1(h1+h2) 18 Variation of total processing induced internal

17 Contours of constant normalised values of stress at room temperature, the ther-

temperature change L\ Tb at which bifurcation mal mismatch stress, and internal stress

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

and abrupt shape changes occur in graded at processing temperature, estimated for

multilayers of Ni-AI203 for all possible different monolayer coatings of Ni-AI203

combinations of relative thicknesses of Ni, composites (After Ref. 148)

gradient, and AI203 layers (After Ref. 127)

processing induced internal stress at room temper-

The various techniques discussed above137,138 for ature estimated for a number of different monolayer

the experimental measurement of internal stresses are coatings. One of the monolayer coatings comprised a

prone to considerable error in the estimation of single layer of Ni-5 wt-O/oAI on a steel substrate

processing induced stresses especially when gradients (which corresponds to the data point at 0°10 alumina).

in microscopic concentrations of different phases The remaining data points refer to single layer graded

occur and inelastic deformation and damage at the coatings where the content of Al203 was changed in

microscopic level strongly control the overall thermo- 20°10 increments through the thickness of the coating

mechanical response. Consequently, no 'standard' on the steel substrate, with one layer ranging from 0

method of proven reliability is available for the esti- to 200/0Al203 in Ni-5AI, and the others ranging from

mation of internal stresses. A key drawback of such 20 to 40, 40 to 60, 60 to 80, and 80 to 1000/0Al203

paucity of understanding of internal stresses is that in Ni-5Al. In Fig. 18, the results for these specimens

the 'initial mechanical state' of the material, a quanti- are plotted at the average composition of 10, 30, 50,

tative description of which is vital to the success of 70, and 90 respectively. The maximum internal

%

,

design for thermomechanical performance, remains stress at room temperature is 200 MPa for the 1"'oס.I

mostly unknown. This situation is further com- Ni-5AI layer on the steel substrate (which is close to

pounded by the fact that the internal stresses gener- the yield strength at room temperature), and an

ated in graded microstructures have been largely increase in Al203 content causes a reduction in the

unexplored despite the obvious need for research. internal stress. An average internal stress of

A method, which provides an estimate of processing -11 MPa is seen for the single graded coating with

induced stresses, thermal mismatch stresses, as well an average Al203 content of 900/0 and a range of

as in-plane Young's modulus and CTE as a function 80-100 The results in Fig. 18 were obtained by

%

•

of temperature, is proposed in Ref. 148 and applied estimating the effective elastic modulus for Ni-AI203

to graded Ni-AI203 plasma sprayed coatings on steel composite coatings which were prepared by thermal

substrates. Here use is made of a number of identical spraying (and whose effective· stiffness can be five

specimens of the substrates in the spray chamber for times smaller than that of the corresponding fully

the simultaneous coating of surface layers with fixed dense microstructure). * From the experimentally

or stepwise graded compositions (in increments of determined values of the effective CTE of the

sublayer thicknesses of the order of 100 Jlm). Coated composite coatings, Kesler et al.148 also estimated

specimens are periodically removed from the depos- the quench stress at the processing temperature of

a

ition chamber such that different thicknesses of coat- 150 C. The difference between the quench stress at

ings could be obtained on identical substrates under 150aC and the residual stress at room temperature

the same spray conditions or different compositions is plotted as the thermal mismatch stress for a

a

of the metal-eeramic graded coating can be produced temperature excursion of 130 C.

for the same coating thickness. By performing a priori

and in situ strain or curvature measurements during * Similar results can also be derived for thin graded films on thick

the spray deposition, and subsequent four-point bend substrates by recourse to measurements of curvature changes before

tests and thermal loading at different temperatures, and after processing and by employing the classic Stoney153

approximation. Here the average stress in the graded thin film is

the distribution of quench stresses and thermal mis- given by l(jl = Es1z;Kj(61zfilm). The calculation of stress does not

match stresses through the thickness of the coatings involve the properties of the film, but is based solely on curvature

is obtained. Figure 18 shows the variation of the total changes, the substrate stiffness and the thicknesses of the layers.

106 Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2

Ctl

0...

~200·

exists a general multi axial stress state with non-zero

c.5 components of shear stresses and out of plane normal

~150 stresses. Even when there are no cracks present in the

co layered material, these critical locations serve as sites

~100'

~ of singular stresses whose magnitudes are given by154

CIl

co 50·

:J

1

<A <2

"0

cc 10 20

-50

Volume fraction of A1203, % where rand 8 are the polar coordinates centred

at the point of .singularity, A a constant signifying

the strength of the singularity which depends on

the mismatch in mechanical properties between

the materials on either side of the interface, Bij(8) are

non-dimensional universal functions of 8 and the

material mismatch, and K a scalar measure of the

intensity of the singular field. Abrupt discontinuities

in material properties across the interface produce

positive values of A. When the interface exhibits

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

a finite thickness as a result of compositional gra-

dation, it can be shown24,154 that the stresses become

finite and that A becomes zero.

The effectiveness of a graded interlayer in mitigating

the singular stress fields at edges and sharp corners

a estimated variation of total internal stress in is illustrated here with a specific example due to

continuously graded Ni-AI203 graded coating Erdogan and co-workers.24,155 Figure 20a-c shows

produced by plasma spraying and b growth of schematics of a Rene 41 Ni-base superalloy substrate

crack from surface where high tensile stresses which is coated with a single layer (100% zirconia),

are induced during processing (After Ref. 148) two layers (which comprise 50% zirconia-50%

Rene 41 and 100% zirconia), and four layers (which

comprise 25, 50, 75, and 1000/0zirconia), respectively,

Figure 19a shows the estimated variation of total for thermal protection.24 Figure 20d shows the vari-

internal stress in a continuously graded Ni-AI203 ation of Young's modulus with thickness of coatings

coating produced by plasma spraying.148 The speci- of the same overall thickness which are continuously

mens used to obtain these results comprised steel graded from the superalloy substrate to an all zirconia

substrates on which a Ni-5Allayer was deposited, as outer surface with three different gradient profiles:

well as those containing coatings of Ni-AI203 com- linear, metal rich, and ceramic rich; (Since the coating

posites with Al203 volume concentration terminating considered here is deposited by thermal spraying

at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 1000/0.Figure 19a reveals that methods, the elastic modulus of the ceramic is signifi-

the stress in the graded coatings is mostly tensile, and cantly lower than that of bulk zirconia, and is also

that it first decreases, and then increases from the Ni lower than that of the substrate.) The dimensions of

rich end to the alumina rich end. The highest value the coatings and the substrates, and the orientation

of tensile residual stress, ~ 200 MPa, is at the surface of the reference coordinate axes for subsequent dis-

of the Al203 deposit. Since this value exceeds the cussion of stress state are also marked in Fig. 20.

tensile strength of sprayed alumina (I"V 200-250 MPa), Figure 21a shows the shear stress (Jxy (arising from a

the surface layer of the fully graded coating is expected thermal excursion L\ T) plotted as a function of

to crack under a state of equal biaxial stress, which location along the width, which varies from the centre

is expected to advance normally from the free surface of the substrate width (x = 0) to the free edge (x =

to the interior. An optical micrograph of such a Lx/2), for the superalloy coated with a single layer of

surface crack is shown in Fig. 19b for the graded zirconia and with two or four discrete layers of the

coating. superalloy-zirconia composite. The shear stress is

normalised here by (Js = Esll.sL\T, where the subscript

s refers to the properties of the substrate. In all three

Edge effects and singular fields cases, the shear stresses assume non-zero values over

When plates of dissimilar materials are bonded a distance along the x axis from the free edge which

together with no cracks or macroscopic defects along is roughly equal to the total thickness of the layered

their interfaces, a state of equal biaxial loading exists solid. The interior of the substrate-coating near the

in the regions ·of the plate away from the free edges. centre (x = 0) is free of shear stresses, and near the

In this biaxial field, the materials undergo normal free edges an r - A stress singularity is predicted for all

stresses only in the in-plane directions and are free of three discrete stepwise coatings. The normal stresses

shear stresses or out of plane stresses. Under these (Jyy are also unbounded at the free edge in this case

conditions, the plate theory formulations specified in (not shown in the figure). The corresponding predic-

equations (25)-(30) hold. At locations where the tions are plotted in Fig. 21b for the three graded

International Materials Reviews 1997 Vol. 42 NO.3

Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2 107

T.....-. Z_i_r_c_o_n_ia ~

T -0.05

o --o~---'=--,----

Sharp interface

--------

l~_----,....:.. ! tf

"~

b

-0.10

6.

<)

Two layer coating

One layer coating

-0.15

2 layer coating {A singularity near the

free edge of Interface

(a)

-0.20

o 0.004 0.008 0.012 0.016 0.020

x, m

Substrate

y o - ------~

(b)

o",:J1

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

4 layer coating

-0.05

-0.10

Graded interface

o Metal rich gradient

\j

Substrate

6. Linear gradient

<) Ceramic rich gradient

(c) -0.15

240r (b)

I (d)

-0.20

220

o 0.004 0.008 0.012 0.016 0.020

x, m

o 200 21 Normalised shear stress, arising from thermal

a.. excursion, plotted as function of location along

t!)

width, which varies from centre of substrate

w.. 180 width (x= 0) to free edge (x= Lx/2), for

Linear superalloy coated with a discrete layers and

gradien1 b graded layers (After Refs. 24, 155)

160

I. 20 I. 25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50 stress concentration in the vicinity of free edges, they

also promote early onset of plastic flow or cracking

y, em compared with the graded interfaces. Consequently,

20 Rene 41 Ni-base superalloy substrate which is the vicinity of free edges serve as potent sites for

coated with a single layer (100% zirconia), the nucleation of dominant cracks, as a result of

b two layers (50% zirconia-500/0 Rene 41 and brittle tensile failure mechanisms on the ceramic

100% zirconia), and c four layers (25, 50, 75, side of the metal/ceramic interface, or ductile failure

and 100% zirconia), for thermal protection; aided by plastic strain accumulation (due to thermal

d shows variation of Young's modulus with cycling) or void growth on the metal side, or

thickness of coatings of same overall thickness interfacial debonding. Suresh et aI.,17 Yang and

which are continuously graded from superalloy M~nz,28,156 and Arai et al.157 have performed compu-

substrate to all zirconia outer surface with

tational simulations of the evolution of plastic zone

three different gradient profiles: linear, metal

rich, and ceramic rich (After Refs. 24, 155)

at the free edges along metal/ceramic interfaces,

whereas creep zones at free edges have been analysed

by Williamson et aI.158 It has also been shown by

coatings shown in Fig. 20d. It is evident that the stress Williamson and Rabin 159 that the reduction in the

singularity is eliminated by the smooth gradation in magnitude of a certain stress component at a critical

composition across the thickness of the coating for location in a graded material may in fact lead to an

all three gradient profiles, and that the shear stress increase in the magnitude of another stress com-

vanishes at the free edge, where the normal stress (Jyy ponent. Thus optimisation of graded compositions

(not shown in the figure) has a finite value. The metal to mitigate edge effects is strongly dictated by the

rich gradient profile shows the smallest edge effect choice of materials, geometry, and the specific failure

whereas the ceramic rich gradient has the largest. mechanisms.

International Materials Reviews 1997 Vol. 42 NO.3

108 Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2

O"ij(r, 8) = exp [r(B1 cos 8 + B2 sin 8)]

k1 -I k2_11

x (2nr)1/2 O"ij(8) + (2nr)1/2 O"ij(8) (49)

x

Here, the stress intensity factors at the crack tip are

1---2c~ defined as

k1 (c) = lim [2n(x - C)]1/20"yy(X, 0);

x~c

22 Crack centrally located in graded medium x~c

(47) and (49) are identical. The asymptotic stress

Fracture and fatigue of states for the inhomogeneous cracked body in Fig. 22

graded materials and the corresponding homogeneous solid are the

same only at the crack tip (r ~ 0).

A key feature of fracture which distinguishes graded The crack driving force for the fixed grip loading

materials from homogeneous ones is that the resist- case (at the right side crack tip, x = + c) is the strain

ance of the former to fracture and damage tolerance

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

varies spatially. The design of graded materials against

failure is, therefore, inevitably linked to the specific G = n(l + 1]) (k21 + k22) (51)

geometry of the material vis-a-vis the choice of gradi- 8 fl( c, 0) . . . . . . . .

ents in mechanical properties. Consequently, analyses

of fracture in graded materials are considerably more where 1] = 3 - 4v in plane strain and 1] = (3-v)/(l +v)

complex than in the corresponding homogeneous case in plane stress. For brittle fracture in a graded material

of the same specimen and crack geometry subjected which is subject only to local mode I loading (i.e.

to the same loading conditions. Despite these compli- k2 = 0 in equation (51)), one may invoke the criterion

cations, some basic features of fracture mechanics in that quasistatic fracture initiation occurs when

inhomogeneous solids in general and their impli- G~ Gc, where Gc is a measure of the fracture initiation

cations for failure can be extracted from available toughness. Unlike the case of a homogeneous solid,

results. Gc varies with location in the graded material.

Fracture mechanics analyses providing stress intensity

calibrations for a variety of crack geometries, grad-

Fracture mechanics for inhomogeneous

ient profiles, and loading modes can be found

solids elsewhere.24,161-165

Consider the plane problem of a linear elastic, infinite

medium which contains a centrally located line crack Crack driving force in graded materials

of length 2c, as shown in Fig. 22. This crack is located The effect of compositional gradients in reducing the

along y = 0 and - c < x < c, and is subjected to effective driving force for fracture is illustrated with

arbitrary loading. If the cracked body were to have the example sketched in Fig. 23a. This figure shows

homogeneous elastic properties throughout, with two symmetrically formed edge cracks located at the

spatially invariant shear modulus fl and Poisson ratio interface between a Rene 41 Ni-base superalloy sub-

v, the crack tip stress fields will be characterised by strate and a coating. Eight different possibilities are

the following asymptotic response according to linear considered for the choice of this thermal barrier

elastic fracture mechanics for homogeneous solids160 coating, with all the geometric dimensions fixed. The

first of these is a homogeneous zirconia coating

K1 -I KII_II directly on to the superalloy substrate. The seven

O"ij(r, 8) = (2nr)1/2 O"ij(8) + (2nr)1/2 O"ij(8), i, j = r, 8 remaining possible choices are coatings which involve

. . (47) gradient profiles of the superalloy and the ceramic

that include two sigmoidal variations of the graded

where K1 and KII are the mode I and mode II stress composition through the thickness of the coating, two

intensity factors, respectively, at the tip of the crack metal rich gradient profiles, two ceramic rich gradient

under general plane loading, rand 8 the polar coordi- profiles, and a linear profile. The elastic modulus of

nates centred at the crack tip, and atj(8) and al](8) the composite, normalised by the modulus of the

known non-dimensional universal functions of 8. substrate, plotted as a function of the thickness of the

Now consider the cracked body to be an inhomo- coating is shown in Fig. 23b for each of these seven

geneous medium (Fig. 22) with a constant value of graded .coatings. Figure 24 shows the variation of

Poisson ratio v and a shear modulus whose spatial the strain energy release rate G, normalised by the

variation is given by corresponding value for the substrate Gs =

(1 - v;)Es nb(as~ T)2 (where b is the edge crack length

fl(X, y) = flo exp(B1x + B2y) . . . . . . (48)

in the substrate), as a function of the relative crack

where flo, B1, and B2 are known parameters. For this depth cll for the homogeneous and inhomogeneous

case of non-uniform material property, Konda and coatings shown in Fig. 23a and b, in response to

Erdogan161 have shown that the singular fields at the thermal excursions. Since the homogeneous single

International Materials Reviews 1997 Vol. 42 NO.3

Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2 109

0.04

Ceramic rich I

Coating

c~

Substrate

r-c

0.03

Ceramic

Sigmoidal

rich 2

I

Vl ------~oida-I~---

<.9 •• ,...------- ------ .••."'-

o x

<3 0.02 ~/' Linear ~

Metal rich I

(a)

1.00

l/l

W

••... o

W

vi

o 0.2 0.4 0.6 1.0

(/)

~ 0.90

c /1

24 Variation of the strain energy release rate G,

7n

normalised by corresponding value for

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

"0

a>

.~ 0.80 substrate Gs' as function of relative crack

"0 depth ell for homogeneous and inhomo-

E

o geneous coatings (After Ref. 24)

z

0.70

One layer ical damage and contact fatigue failure.172-174While

0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

there exists a vast amount of practical data on the

fatigue of layered structures and weldments, there is

(b) Normalised thickness,y/{hl+h2)

a surprising paucity of fundamental information from

23 a two symmetrically formed edge cracks which conclusive trends could be extracted.

located at interface between Rene 41 Ni-base In an attempt to rationalise results from a study of

superalloy substrate and a coating and b eight fatigue crack propagation across ferritic/austenitic

different possibilities for choice of thermal steel interfaces,175,176and to assess the driving force

barrier coating, with all geometric dimensions for fracture across interfaces with homogeneous and

fixed. First is a homogeneous zirconia coating graded properties, Sugimura et al.I77,178 and Kim et a1.29

directly on to superalloy substrate; other seven have conducted detailed finite element simulations of

coatings involve gradient profiles of super- near tip fields. These simulations consider three

alloy and ceramic (two sigmoidal variations

different interfaces oriented normally to the plane of

of graded composition through thickness of

coating, two metal rich gradient profiles,

the crack between two materials of the same elastic

two ceramic rich gradient profiles, and a and thermal expansion properties and isotropic strain

linear profile) for which elastic modulus hardening response, but different yield strengths: an

of composite, normalised by modulus of idealised, sharp interface of zero thickness, a homo-

substrate, is plotted as function of thickness geneous interlayer of finite thickness (whose elastic

of coating (After Ref. 24) properties are the same as the two materials it separ-

ates, but whose yield strength, uniform through the

interlayer thickness, is the arithmetic mean of that of

layer zirconia coating on the alloy substrate produces

the two materials), and a graded interlayer of finite

the largest thermal mismatch stress, it exhibits the

thickness within which the yield strength varies lin-

highest G for all ell. For the choices of gradient

early with distance across the interlayer from one

profiles considered here, it is apparent that a reduction

material to the other. It has been found that the crack

of as much as a factor of four can be gained in the

tip 'driving force', as characterised by the near tip

strain energy release rate by the proper choice of a

J integral,179 Jtip, is altered vis-it-visthe applied driv-

compositional gradient, which signifies a doubling of

the apparent fracture toughness. ing force J app' When the crack approaches the

interface from the weaker material, Jtip becomes

smaller than J app' as the plastic zone spreads

Fatigue crack growth across homogeneous across the interface (Fig. 25a). (In this figure,

and graded interlayers Jtip/Japp is plotted against K/((Jy VI), where K =

Fatigue failure, arising from fluctuations in thermal [Japp(l- v2)/E]I/2, (Jy the yield strength of the plas-

and/or mechanical loads during service, is one of the tically weaker material, and L the distance from the

most potent mechanisms of failure in a number of crack tip to the centre of the interlayer, as shown in

practical applications in which layered and graded Fig. 25b.) In other words, the crack is shielded from

materials are used, or are candidates for potential the applied loads as the plastically stronger material

applications. These applications primarily involve further ahead of the crack tip sustains a greater

cyclic damage and cracking in thermal barrier coat- magnitude of opening stress than the weaker material

ings,30,31,148,166-170

fatigue in the heat affected zone of directly in front of it. The homogeneous interlayer

welded structures,l71 and coatings to prevent tribolog- exhibits the greatest shielding effect, and the sharp

International Materials Reviews 1997 Vol. 42 NO.3

110 Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2

1.4

- - - - - - - homogeneous interlayer

bimaterial interfaces wherein criteria for the growth

1.3 ---.- ..----. graded interlayer of the cracks are formulated in terms of the relation

-- sharp interface between the crack opening displacement and the

12 traction acting across the crack surfaces.1Sl In

addition, criteria for different brittle failure modes

c.

1.1 have been formulated for elastic cracks approaching

::t

c.

1.0

~~::--...a 7 8 9

sharp interfaces and those with homogeneous prop-

erties,182-18Sand fracture mechanics solutions for

-f

0.9

0.8

0.7

--_:::~~~~::~:::::)_"' cracks intersecting perpendicularly oriented interfaces

between two elastic solids have been developed.18s-187

The foregoing results clearly reveal that the proper

design of a layered or graded interface can potentially

result in the deceleration or even arrest of the crack.

(a) soft~hard

0.6

This point has considerable implications for the

fatigue resistance of layered and graded coatings, as

illustrated in the following example. Plasma sprayed

chromia (Cr203) coatings, typically 100-500 Jlm in

thickness, are commonly used to enhance resistance

to contact fatigue in a number of structural com-

ponents.188 When such coatings are deposited directly

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

E,v E,v E,v on to the steel substrate, and the coated material is

cry" N, cry, N cry2, N2 subjected to fatigue, the crack, once initiated on the

free surface of the coating runs rapidly through the

__ X'l{

------

thickness of the brittle coating; the interface, oriented

normally to the surface crack, easily delaminates and

a new fatigue crack initiates in a nearby location

and fractures the substrate. Figure 26a shows an

example176of such a fatigue fracture in a 0·45 wt-%C

~ I x, t

steel spray coated with Cr203' In order to improve

the bond strength, a plasma sprayed interlayer or

~L-- bond coat, typically of a ductile alloy such as

(b) (L=I+; ) Ni-5 wt-%AI of about 50-100 Jlm thickness, is sand-

wiched between the Cr203 and steel layers. If the

25 a predicted variation of

Jtipl Japp as function of

thickness of the bond coat is significantly greater than

for different interlayer geometries

K/(~L)1/2

the size of the plastic zone (for a given service loading

and properties and b schematic of interlayer

geometry (After Ref. 29)

condition) when the crack tip approaches the interface

between the ceramic and the bond coat, the propensity

for the crack to jump across the bond coat will be

interface exhibits the least shielding effect, with the suppressed. In this case, the results of experiment

graded interlayer exhibiting an inbetween trend. shown in Fig. 25 would suggest that the crack would

When the crack approaches the interface from the advance through the interface unimpeded if this

stronger material, the near tip driving force is ampli- interface remains well bonded. However, when the

fied, and hence Jtip/Japp > 1 for all three cases. Recall crack advances through the bond coat and its plastic

that for a homogeneous material, J = J app' since tw zone begins to interact with the interface with the

the J integral is path independent.17 Kim et al.29 steel substrate, i.e. the crack is approaching an

have shown that the extent of shielding and amplifi- interface from a weaker material, crack tip shielding

cation is strongly influenced by the direction of crack is expected. (Note that the elastic moduli of Ni-5AI

advance relative to the interface, the distance from and steel are comparable.) In this case, the crack tip

the crack tip to the interface, the thickness of the would be expected to arrest before reaching the bond

interface and the gradient in the properties within the coat/substrate interface. This is indeed seen exper-

interface. imentally, as shown in Fig. 26b.176 The arrest of the

If now an elastic mismatch is superimposed on the crack enhances the overall fatigue crack growth resist-

plastic mismatch between the two materials, the extent ance of the substrate-coating system. If one compares,

of shielding and amplification can be altered in Fig. 26c, the stress-life (S-N) fatigue curves for the

depending on the relative magnitudes of the two uncoated steel, steel coated only with the ceramic

mismatches. An additional complicating effect in the outer coating, and steel coated with both a bond coat

analyses of near tip driving force for fracture at and the ceramic outer coating, the beneficial effect of

interfaces is the thermal mismatch. Numerical simu- the interlayer is evident. By virtue of its hardness, the

lations180of crack driving force for a ferritic-austenitic ceramic surface coating improves the resistance to

bilayer have shown that the thermal mismatch aids fatigue crack initiation at the free surface where the

both the shielding and amplification effects, especially cracks nucleates189 compared with the behaviour of

when the crack tip is close to the interface. the steel substrate. The S-N curve for the former

While the numerical results given in Fig. 25 do not system is, therefore, higher than that of the substrate

invoke any crack growth laws, cohesive zone models alone. However, when the bond coat is introduced

have been developed for cracks terminating at between the ceramic and the substrate, the ensuing

International Materials Reviews 1997 Vol. 42 NO.3

Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2 111

for a variety of practical applications, such as in

thermal barrier coatings, where both the crack

initiation and crack growth resistances could be suit-

ably altered by reducing the effective driving force

for fracture.

Concluding remarks

The development of graded metals and metal-eeramic

composites can offer a number of distinct advantages

for thermomechanical properties, over those seen in

conventional structural metals and composites. These

include: reduction and optimal distribution of stresses,

suppression of free edge effects and of the attendant

singular fields at interfaces, enhanced interfacial bond

strength, the feasibility of depositing 'thick' coatings

on substrates, a greater resistance to damage by sharp

•

indentors or abrasive failure processes, and a

reduction in the driving force for fracture. It is demon-

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

300J.lrn characteristics of a graded material are strongly influ-

enced by a number of length scales and geometrical

A Steei blasted with alumina powder

and annealed (no coatinCJs)

parameters. Examples of such length scales and geo-

metrical considerations include spatial gradients in

Steel coated with

concentration or, equivalently, the (macroscopic)

o 430,um Cr203 graded layer dimensions, their relation to micro-

• 400,u.m Cr203 + 50,u.m Ni- 5AI inter layer structural length scales such as particle dimensions,

800 distribution or connectivity, and/or the Burgers vector

associated with misfit dislocations, as well as ratios

o

a.. 700 • of surface energy and surface stress to volumetric

~ stored energy.190 Among the various approaches

600 o

• reviewed in this paper for the thermomechanical

modelling of graded materials, the choice of a partic-

• ular approach inevitably rests on the length scale that

0- 500 A 0 •

E A 0 is relevant for a given geometry and application.

o A

400 The theoretical frameworks for metal-eeramic

(/) A

(/)

Q)

composite analysis which comprise such diverse

\-

300 approaches as the rule of mixture formulations, mean

en field theories, continuum finite element models, crystal

(c)

plasticity models, and discrete dislocation models,

provide a starting point for the development of

thermomechanical models for graded composites.

Number of cycles to failure (N )

f There are, however, a number of fundamental

issues specific to the graded material which warrant

26 Fatigue crack growth characteristics of

additional considerations:

chromia coated steel a with and b without

1. What is the local value of an effective property

interlayers; c S-N fatigue curves for steel

without any coating, with only chromia given a continuously changing composition or micro-

coating, and with chromia coating and Ni-AI structure? What size scales should experiments aim

interlayer (After Ref. 176) at in order to pro be such effective properties?

2. What is an effective 'layer size' in a smoothly

graded microstructure, and how does it compare with

crack arrest elevates the resistance to fatigue crack the characteristic microstructural length scale such as

propagation in addition to the crack initiation resist- a grain size, particle size, or dislocation cell size?

ance. As a result, additional improvements are seen 3. Since all processing methods invariably give rise

in the S-N curve.176 to a stepwise variation rather than a perfectly smooth

The design of the bond coat is usually based on variation in composition or microstructure, how

considerations of interfacial strength and environmen- small, relative to the total graded layer thickness,

tal resistance (as in the case of the Ni-Cr-AI-Y bond must the step size be before the potential advantages

coat used between the Ni-base superalloy substrate of a smooth variation for thermomechanical perform-

and the zirconia thermal barrier coating in aircraft ance can be realised?

jet engines). The results of Fig. 26 additionally show 4. Are the graded microstructures designed for

that interlayers and bond coats could be designed for optimal thermomechanical performance thermo-

improvements in thermomechanical fatigue resistance. dynamically, chemically, and morphologically stable

This particular feature offers many possibilities for under service temperatures and loads to realise the

112 Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2

do the spatial variations in desired properties compare Appendix

with those arising from normal microstructural segre-

gation intrinsic to a processing method? Lower limits List of symbols

in size scales may occur in many systems, such as a one half of thickness of graded layer

Ti-Al, Cu-Nb, and Fe-Pt, where one plane adopts a al minor axis diameter of axisymmetric

non-equilibrium structure due to the interface or .ellipsoidal inclusion

epitaxy stresses. In addition, small scale layered struc- aL major axis diameter of axisymmetric

tures may exhibit other flow processes such as large ellipsoidal inclusion

driving forces for interdiffusion. ii Cartesian base vectors for crystal

5. Given that the fracture and fatigue resistance of plasticity

graded materials are influenced strongly by the a thermal strain concentration tensor

geometry and gradients in properties, what general A empirical constant

methods of broad interest can be developed for Al diameter of axisymmetric unit cell

assessing the toughness and damage tolerance? AL height of axisymmetric unit cell

6. Since graded composites contain a large number A strain concentration tensor

of microscopic and macroscopic interfaces, the micro- b depth of edge crack in substrate

mechanisms of fundamental and practical interest can hi function which characterises variation of

extend over a broad range of size scales. While atomic i{ with z

level modelling is obviously necessary for a complete Bb B2 material constants

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

between the grains of a metal and a ceramic, under c half crack length

what conditions do macroscopic failure analyses CijkI components of stiffness tensor

require interface separation laws which may warrant Ci compliance tensor of inclusion phase

a knowledge of the force-displacement relations at Co compliance tensor of matrix phase

an atomic level, in addition to micromechanical and C* effective compliance tensor

continuum modelling. E Young's modulus

Developing the necessary numerical and experi- ~E change in Young's modulus with

mental tools to address the above issues will certainly temperature

provide challenging opportunities for both funda- Es Young's modulus of substrate

mental research and practical applications involving E biaxial Young's modulus = E/(l- v)

functionally graded materials. Beyond these challenges Eo biaxial Young's modulus at temperature

lie those which arise from the need to integrate the 10

fundamentals of processing (addressed in Part 1, ~Eo change in biaxial Young's modulus

Ref. 1) with those of thermomechanical behaviour E* effective shear tensor

(addressed here), to achieve the optimisation that I volume fraction

underlies the entire approach of functional grading of Ip volume fraction of micropores

materials. This optimisation must, for each process Ii fraction of inclusion phase in graded

and material type, lead to the best possible perform- region

ance predicted by thermomechanical analysis, within I'm fraction of matrix phase in graded region

the constraints of processing. It is believed that, though pap in-plane normal force applied on layered

tangible successes have been achieved in this direction, plate

the definition of one, or several, integrated gradation F total deformation gradient

approaches, which cut across the wide spectrum of FP plastic component of deformation

materials science and engineering, is still in its early gradient

stages. This exploration remains perhaps the most FT thermal component of deformation

challenging and most interesting within this relatively gradient

new arena of scientific and industrial pursuit. F* lattice component of deformation

gradient

G strain energy release rate

Acknowledgments Gc critical value of strain energy release rate

The authors acknowledge many helpful discussions Gs strain energy release rate for substrate

and technical collaborations on the topic of metal- hfilm thickness of film on substrate

ceramic graded materials with J. D. Embury, hs thickness of substrate

M. Finot, A. E. Giannakopoulos, O. Kesler, A. S. Kim, hi, h2 distance from reference plane to free

S. Sampath, and C. F. Shih, and on the topic of metal surface of multilayer

matrix composites with Y.-L. Shen and A. Needleman. H elastoplastic tangent modulus

Professor Suresh further acknowledges support Ih Ji constants defined in equation (30)

of his research in the general area of graded materials I identity tensor

through Grant N00014-94-1-0139 from the Office J app remote value of J integral

of Naval Research, Grant DE-FG02-93ER45506 Jtip near tip value of J integral

from the Basic Science Division of the US Department k1, KI mode I stress intensity factor in graded

of Energy, and Grant N00014-94-1-0832 from the and homogeneous materials

Office of Naval Research and the Advanced Research k2, Kn mode II stress intensity factor in graded

Projects Agency. and homogeneous materials

International Materials Reviews 1997 Vol. 42 NO.3

Suresh and Mortensen Functionally graded metals: Part 2 113

L distance from crack tip to centre of flo reference value of shear modulus

interlayer v Poisson ratio

in-plane dimension of layered plate Q E/[3( 1- 2v)J = bulk modulus

unit vector normal to slip plane in slip Pa normalised thickness of graded layer, a/h

s)T'Stemf3 a stress

bending moment applied on layered ae von Mises effective yield stress

plate as stress in substrate

p any quantity ay yield strength

p volume average value of p aij component of stress tensor

P height of unit cell fi overall tensile yield stress of composite

P effective property within graded layer fiy overall limit yield stress of composite

~ effective property estimated from mean 6ij functions of the polar angle 8;

field approach superscripts I and II denote modes I

q ratio of stress to strain transfer and II

r distance in cylindrical coordinates 8app homogeneous applied stress

deviatoric stress components 8* effective volume averaged stress

unit vector along slip direction in slip 8 polar angle

system f3

S Eshelby tensor Subscripts

Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd

I1T tern pera ture change following meaning when applied to these variables:

11 {ux, uy, uz} = {u, V, w} = displacement a, A, E, E, H, S, ~ a, €, v, u, and fi.

vector e composite

V control volume i inclusion

w out of plane displacement 111 matrix

W width of unit cell 1, 2 phases 1 or 2

~ strain potential energy per unit volume

~E total strain potential energy

x,y,z Cartesian coordinate axes References

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