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BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 1 BLD 60303

EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION
GROUP MEMBER
NICHOLAS WONG YEW KHUNG 0328559
CHONG XIAN JUN 0332605
RAEMI SAFRI 0328385
LIM MAY LEE 0328549
NG JING YUAN 0331472

TUTOR
AR. ALICE LIM
CONTENT PAGE

2.0 Foundation Chong Xian Jun


Cover ……………………………………………….1
Group Members...……………………….…..2
2.1 Deep Foundation …………..…....26
Content Page…………………………………..3
Introduction………….……………………..….4
3.0 Building Structure Ng Jing Yuan
Site A ………………………………………………5
Site B……………………………………………….6
3.1 Beam …………………………...……….31
Site C ..…………………………………………….7
3.2 Floor Slab ……………….…….…….34
Site D ..……………………………………………8
3.3 Column…………….…………..….…..38
Site E ……………………………………………...9
4.0 Stairs Lim May Lee

4.1 Stairs …………………….……….…….44


4.2 Staircase Terminology………..44
1.0 Preliminary Raemi Safri
4.3 Stair Construction Process….45
1.1 Site Clearance ……………………..11
5.0 Wall System Nicholas Wong Yew Khung
1.2 Setting Out …………………………12
1.3 Site Layout ………………………….13
5.1 Type of Wall……………………..…..47
1.4 Preliminaries ……………………...14
5.2 Components of Wall ..………...48
1.5 Site & Safety ……………………...15
5.3 Brick Arrangement ……………...49
1.6 Personal Protective Equipment
5.4 Construction of Wall …………..50
……………………………………………..17
5.5 Plastering …………………………….51
1.7 Earthwork Excavation ………..18
5.6 Conduit Installation……………..52
1.8 External Works…………….……..21
1.9 Machinery Earthwork ………..22
References…………………………………….....53
INTRODUCTION
SITE A - CASIRA 1
SITE B - KUNDANG ESTATE
SITE C - KINGSVILLE RESIDENCE
SITE D - TAMAN TASEK
SITE E - TNB BALAI ISLAM COMPLEX
SITE A CASIRA 1
Casira 1 is designed as a modernist approach to keep form with function in mind. Having wide windows to accommodate for views and ventilation . Located at Klang , a prime district
bustling with culture ,business and opportunities - the Casira 1 aims to be a place a lively area for the family .
With a secured area of a one entrance , one exit policy and green landscapes to complement the architecture.

Floor Plan for A1 intermediate lot


Source from :
Site plan https://www.simedarbyproperty.com/bandar-bukit-raja/casira1
Source from : https://www.simedarbyproperty.com/bandar-bukit-raja/casira1

Site photo taken on site visit Site photo taken on site visit Site photo taken on site visit

5 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION INTRODUCTION SITE A


SITE B KUNDANG ESTATE
Located at Rawang in the heart of Klang Valley, Kundang Estates is an 89-acre boutique residential development under Gamuda Land that
engages countryside living. Aimed at promoting multi-generational, community living with its 573 units of double-storey terrace residences, the
development offers four interconnected parks with different features and activities. This project is expected to complete in November 2018.

Site plan of Kundang Estate Floor plans of the houses in Kundang Estate
Source from: Source from:
https://gamudaland.com.my/kundangestates/features/index.html http://gamudaland.com.my/kundang-esta
tes-anise-terrace-homes/

Site photo taken on site visit Site photo taken on site visit
Site photo taken on site visit

6 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION INTRODUCTION SITE B


SITE C KINGSVILLE RESIDENCE
Located strategically within the vicinity of Kuala Lumpur , Cheras ,Kajang , Putrajaya and Seremban . The Kingsville residences is a prime area for a connected
And convenient township.
Kingsville is a collection of 152 single-storey and 32 1½ -storey bungalows immersed in the timeless charms of the English colonial era.
Kingsville was designed as single-storey bungalows to cater for the needs of small families, empty-nesters, families with elderly members and terrace house owners who would like to
upgrade their lifestyle.
The development of these residences are under Ecohill.

Site Plan.
Source from : https://secure.spsetia.com.my/kingsville/ Singe storey unit floor plan that we
Detailed Floor Plan taken from site visit.
visited.
Source from
:https://secure.spsetia.com.my/kingsvil
le/

7 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION INTRODUCTION SITE C


SITE D : TAMAN TASEK
This is a two-storey terrace houses project developed by Three by Three Sdn Bhd in Taman Tasek, Ipoh. It consists of 34 units in total. It is a simple design for
accommodating medium size family to live in.

Promotional photo of Taman Tasek. Floor plan taken on site visit.


Source from:
https://www.propertyguru.com.my/property-listing/2-sty-terrace-house-at-t
aman-tasek-ipoh-for-sale-by-caiyi-choo-24033542

Site plan taken on site visit.

Floor plan taken on site visit. Site signboard taken on site visit

8 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION INTRODUCTION SITE D


SITE E : TNB BALAI ISLAM COMPLEX
The TNB Balai Islam Complex is located at the existing TNB Headquarters premise, it is part of the new TNB Headquarters project which consists of Balai Islam Complex
(Phase 1) and four blocks of office buildings including shared facilities (Phase 2). In this project, TNB is amining to set a benchmark for sustainable building in Malaysia,
therefore it targets to achieve the platinum rating for the Green Building Index (GBI) for this new TNB Headquarters. The design of the Balai Islam Complex makes use of
skylight, louvres veils, and lots of greeneries as the passive design strategies. The project is expected to complete in December 2018 and open to public in March 2019.
The architects of this project are NEUformation Architect and the Australia-founded Woods Bagot architectural practice.

The complex consists of 4 levels, that are main prayer hall on the mezzanine level, plaza and podium on the ground floor, amenities on the lower ground floor, and two
levels of parking further down.

Key plan Location plan` Construction drawing of the site plan.


Phase 1 Phase 2

Promotional Material taken on site visit Floor plan taken on site visit

9 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION INTRODUCTION SITE D


1.0 PRELIMINARY
The stage of preliminary is mainly to prepare for the actual construction of the
project. However, this is also a very important stage as it prepares everything
preconstruction.
1.1 SITE CLEARANCE
Site Clearance is the removal of natural elements such as trees and shrubs as well as soil to make way for the construction at site.It
is mandatory and serve as a fundamental basis in preparing the site for construction. Site Clearance serves to clear any obstruction
that is on site, which includes the removal of vegetation and soil.

Tree
Stump

Roots

1. Remove all vegetations that are present at Not removing the decaying tree stumps will Bulldozer is used to uproot trees and assist
the site and may become obstacles. make weaker soil structures due to voids in pushing loose vegetation or rocks out of
left in the soil. the soil.

Anthill
Animal Burrow

2. This includes digging out large stones that Other than large stones, anthills and animal burrows are also dug
The next step is to remove the surface soil
may become obstacles in the future. out and replaced with clayey soil.
layers

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1.2 SETTING OUT
Setting Out is an important component to be carried before construction. It serves to establish the markings to define the site
boundary. The position of each marker has to be accurate so that construction can take place with ease.

A
A
F
8” 6” E

F
E B

B
10” C

1. LINE AB 2. LINE AD 3. LINE BC and CD 4. LINE BC and CD


A baseline is established based on the Stake F is driven on line AB, 6 feet away Line AE is extended to D, another corner, Line AE is extended to D, another corner,
surveyor’s line to mark out an end of the from stake A and stake E is driven is 8 feet another stake is driven. another stake is driven.
building. away from stake A and 10 feet away from Steel tape is then hooked on D and B and Steel tape is then hooked on D and B and
Corners are marked with stakes. stake F. This ensures a 90 degree angle pulled towards another corner, when the pulled towards another corner, when the
based on the 6-8-10 (pythagorean theorem). correct width and length coincide with each correct width and length coincide with each
other, point C will be staked, another corner, other, point C will be staked, another corner,

Batter Boards

5. Batter boards are erected slightly outside the boundary.


The squareness of the corners are tested with the 6-8-10
method.
The layout of the building is then transferred by using
steel tape.
Stakes ABCD is then removed.

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1.3 SITE LAYOUT (SITE A)

Hoarding Substation Temporary Storage


Casira 1 Construction 3 meter high metal hoarding used to
protect the site from theft and
TNB substation is located here. They
provide electricity for the
An area is dedicated to temporarily
store materials such as bricks and
protect public from bad view and construction site and the township. cement. They are covered by plastic
Main Road noise. sheets to protect from the rain.

Other construction site

Water Supply Canteen Workers Quarters Office & Meeting Room


Temporary water supply brings Temporary canteen for the Temporary housing for the . Temporary offices for the on site
water to the construction site. It is construction workers and construction workers. The quarters architect and manager. Meeting
located above the toilets. consultants to eat. at Casira 1 allows room for consultants to have
meetings.

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1.4 PRELIMINARIES
Preliminaries are temporary things that are placed at site. It is used during construction and removed after construction is completed.

Site Office Scaffolding Electrical Generator Fencing


Offices for on site engineers and Provides stability for the structure and a Provides electricity to the machineries at Uses barb wire fencing to protect the site
architects, meeting room for fortnightly platform to climb on for the workers. site. from thieves and animals.
inspections. From Site D From Site C From Site C
From Site D

Temporary Toilet Canteen Water Supply


Toilet for the workers and visitors. Place for workers to buy and eat their Provides temporary water supply for the
From Site D meals as well as snacks workers’ quarters.
From Site D From Site D

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1.5 SITE & SAFETY (SITE A)
Ensure that a construction site or the industry as a whole is not the cause of immediate danger to the public around a construction
site, or the workers at a construction site, as well as making sure that the finished product of construction meets required safety
standards.

SIGNAGE
Every construction site should have signages all around. These signages are used to either mark something, to warn or to advice.

Poster at Kundang Estate informing the Safety poster at kundang Estate based Right: Safety signboard at Kundang The project signboard located at Casira 1. Project
workers as well as visitors and on BS ISO 7010 that warns people on Estate based on BS ISO 7010 informing signboards are used to indicate the information of
consultants the right way to wear a mask what is prohibited on site, this includes the workers and visitors on the Hazards the project as well as inform people of the
smoking, taking photos and Warnings at site, this includes construction taking place. Information on the

SAFETY BRIEFING
electricity, fire, radioactive waste signboard includes name of the project, name of
developer, architect, engineers, expected date of
completion, Majlis approval number

For every construction site, before


each visit or tour, we were given a
safety briefing on what to do and
what not to do as well as things
that are going on at site.

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SAFETY EQUIPMENT ON SITE
Every construction site requires safety equipment that will protect and prevent accidents on the people on site.

Fire Extinguisher Safety Net Scaffolding Thrash Management


Fire extinguisher used to put out fires if any Safety nets are used to protect against Scaffolding provides temporary support to Thrash is categorised and recycled based
fires break out. people and things fall down. for the formwork of the building and allow on what it is made out of. They help make
workers to get to different floors. sure the site is clean.

Diesel & Waste storage Ladder First Aid Kit


Diesel and waste storage before they are Ladders are used for the construction First Aid Kit was not found on site, however
properly disposed. This prevents any leakage that workers to safely get up to different heighs it should be on site as it allows for fast and
may cause harm to the workers and the public. where the scaffolding is removed. emergency aid.

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1.6 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is clothing and equipment worn by construction workers to minimize exposure to workplace
injuries and illness. This is stated on information board located at common area of labor shed as it is compulsory for all workers on
site.

Workers complying with PPE. PPE informs workers to always wear their helmets. Helmets protect the head from
falling objects and other accidents. There are different coloured helmets for
different jobs. Workers wear yellow, Consultants wear white and Safety
Inspectors wear red.

Gloves are an important part of PPE. Boots are also part of PPE. Boots have High visibility vest is part of PPE. They At Casira 1, PPE is taken very seriously and signboards to warn
Gloves protect the hands from metal parts covering the toes so that allow people to clearly be seen by the and remind workers are all around. They are fined RM 50
accidents like things falling, or as a last resort if an accident were to bright yellow colour as well as the whenever they are caught not complying to PPE.
touching dangerous objects like nails happen, there would be some reflective strips.
and tools. protection.

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1.7 EARTHWORK EXCAVATION
Excavation is the work of removing soil or ground. In construction, excavation is done during the preliminary stages to get the
correct depth before construction. It is also done to remove any unnecessary soil.

Soil from about 150mm to 300mm depth from the top is excavated via excavator. This soil Soil that has been excavated is then brought away via a ‘lori hantu’.
contains organic and decaying matters which makes them compressible and not strong
enough to support the building.

LEVELLING PROCEDURE
Before levelling can take place, the topography must be measured accurately to ensure levelling can happen without any mistakes All the levels in
a building are taken from a fixed point called a datum. This is a known point that is set by the licensed surveyor. When the point is transferred to
the site, this point is called Temporary Benchmark (TBM). The design drawings will have floor levels set to the datus and the TBM must relate to
this.

The line of sight of the instrument is recorded as BS and FS. The reading at the benchmark is called the backsight
FS= 0.22m (BS). The reading taken after turning the instrument and moving the staff is the foresight (FS).
BS = 1.61m
Elevation of the benchmark is known (100.05 m)
Elevation of BS = BS + Benchmark (BM) = 1.61 + 100.05 = 101.66 m
A Elevation of point A = elevation of BS - FS = 101.66 - 0.22 = 101.44 m

Therefore, the difference in elevation between TBM and point A = 101.44 - 100.05 =1.39 m

1.39 m of soil will need to be levelled so that point A elevation is the same height as the TBM
TBM = 100.05 m
In practice, 1.39m of soil need to be levelled to account for the structural floor level (SFL), another 0.055 m of
allowance will need to be made for the floor finishings.
In actual case, 1.39 + 0.055 = 1.445 m of soil will need to be levelled

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B
A

TBM

This is repeated where the staff that was the FS, staff A becomes the BS.
So, A would be the BS and B would be the FS.
The process would be repeated as many times as needed.
The levelling should always end on a TBM as a check

The TBM encountered at the TNB Balai Islam


Complex construction site.

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1.7 EARTHWORK LEVELLING
Levelling is the work to ‘level’ the terrain to make it flat. It is also done to get the accurate depth that is required for the
construction.

LEVELLING CUT AND FILL

Existing site elevation showing the Cut line is drawn to show what is Anything above the cut line is required The soil from the “cut” is used to “fill”
topography of the site. required to “fill”. to “cut”. so that no wastage of soil happens.

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1.8 EXTERNAL WORKS
External works are additional works that are done so that construction runs smoothly. This includes the usage of an earth drain and a silt trap.

Earth Drain Silt Trap


Earth drain creates a passage for rainwater to flow out of the site. Not having an earth drain Silt trap ensures that the whenever rain occurs and eroded or disturbed soil is trapped in the
will result in the site being flooded with water and create a very difficult obstacle. The earth silt trap rather than flow into a nearby lake or river that will pollute it. This ensures the water
drain leads the water to a nearby lake. at the nearby lake or river is not contaminated.

Wash Trough
To ensure that vehicles are clean on the road after
visiting a construction site, a wash trough washes the
vehicle to ensure that it isn't cause the road to be dirty
and create a problem for the public.

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1.9 MACHINERY EARTHWORK
Excavation is the work of removing soil or ground. In construction, excavation is done during the preliminary stages to get the
correct depth before construction.

Backhoe Bulldozer
Excavator Push large quantities of soil, sand,
and rubble during construction or
Bigger than backhoe loader. Large conversion work and is equipped
vehicle that is used for excavation at the rear with a claw-like device
and demolition purposes. to loosen compact materials.
Photo from Ecohill Residence Photo from Casira 1

Compactor
Lorry Used to reduce the size of material
Also known as ‘Lori Hantu’. such as waste material or biomass
Transport excavated soil around through compaction as well as
the site. Not able to move outside flatten the materials into the
the site as it is not licensed. ground.
Photo from Ecohill Residence Photo from Kundang Estate

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MACHINERY CONSTRUCTION
Excavation is the work of removing soil or ground. In construction, excavation is done during the preliminary stages to get the
correct depth before construction.

Backhoe Loader Mobile Crane


Very common and used for a wide Used both to lift and lower materials.
variety of tasks: construction, light It is mainly used for lifting heavy
transportation of materials, things and transporting them to other
excavation and breaking asphalt. places.
Photo from Casira 1 Photo from Casira 1

Load Lifter Pile Driver


Machine used to lift and load Drives piles into the soil to provide
materials over a short distance. foundation structures for the building.
Photo from Kundang Estate Photo from Kundang Estate

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MACHINERY MISCELLANEOUS

Roller Pan Mixer Concrete Mixing Truck Buckets Hammer


Combines cement, water and Transport and mixes concrete. Concrete is Holds concrete after being mixed before Used to hammer down nails as well as
aggregates on site to create concrete. maintained in liquid state, by mixing the drum. being poured. take things apart.

Electrical Generator (Left) Air Compressor (Right) Shovel and Hoe Bar Bending Machine
Provide electricity to the site Pressurizes the air to be used Used to fill move the concrete into holes Bend reinforced concrete bars.
office and some machineries. for some machineries such as and buckets.
nail gun.

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2.0 FOUNDATION
Foundation function as to safely sustain and transmit to the ground the combined loads resting on itself
in a manner that does not cause any settlement or other movement which would destabilize or damage
the building.
2.1 DEEP FOUNDATION
Deep foundation or pile foundation is a series of columns constructed or driven into the ground to transmit the load of a
structure to the lower level of subsoil

PRECAST CONCRETE PILE PROCESS TO LAY PILE FOUNDATION


End bearing concrete piles are used at our site. The piles are pre-formed and driven into the
ground to required depth, that is where its tip encounters resistance from a suitable bearing
stratum. 1. SETTING OUT FOR PILES
Setting out is done to locate the position of the piles as in the detailed drawing with
geometrical construction. This ensures the piles to be driven at correct position.

The elevation of pile Precast concrete piles at Kundang Male and female joint Engineering drawing of the multi-purpose Red marking to indicate the position of the
foundation. Estate with cross-sectional area of are used for pile hall project at Kundang Estate. piles.
150*150mm and a length of 6m. splicing to extend the
Pointed shoe at the end of the pile pile to required
allows for moderate to hard driving.
Photo from Site B.
depth. Photo from
Site B.
2. PILE DRIVING
The precast concrete piles are percussion driven.

APPLICATION
Precast concrete pile is used widely in the construction field, generally applied on medium
to large contracts where soft soil deposits overlie a layer of firm strata.

Besides being highly resistant to biological and chemical actions of the subsoil. good
quality control can be implemented on precast concrete pile as well. Moreover, these piles
can be constructed in various cross-sectional shapes as the design demands.

The red marking on the piles Pile hammer is used to Hydraulic pile driver is
measure the depth of which it is drive the pile to used at times to minimise
driven into the ground. required depth. sound pollution.
Photo from Site B. Photo from Site B.. Photo from Site C.

26 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION FOUNDATION CHONG XIAN JUN 0332605


3. PILE SPLICING 4. PILE LOAD TEST
Pile splicing is needed when pile length required is too long. In the case of construction in Test loads used for pile load test. The piles
Kundang Estate, the required depth of foundation is 12m while the pile has a length of only are overloaded by 50 percent of its working
6m. Splicing is called for to join the piles and reach the required depth. load for 24 hours. Settlements and other
datas are recorded and adjustments to the
foundation design are to be made based on
the test result.
Photo from Site B

5. EXCAVATION
Male and female joint found on the precast concrete piles for splicing. After the installation of piles, excavation comes into place to prepare for pile caps installation.
Photo from Site B.. The excavation has to be big enough to allow for working space. The depth of excavation is
calculated by addition of the heights of pile cap, column stump, ground floor slab and finishing
for flooring.

Excavation in progress by using an The depth of excavation st Ecohill


excavator. Residence.
Photo from Site C Photo from Site C

The depth of the excavation for pile cap installation is


calculated as explained by the project manager at the
The top section, with male joint set in position Driving continues after splicing. The pile site. For example :
and inserted into the female joint of the bottom is now able to reach the required depth
section. Two pile lengths are then welded to 600mm ( pile cap ) + 300 mm(column stump) + 450
reinforce the connection. (ground floor slab) + 50mm (finishing for flooring)
= total 1450mm of soil need to be excavated

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5. SETTING OUT FOR PILE CAPS
Setting out is done with the reference to grid lines. When the grid lines are
given in the drawing, setting out are done with reference to these grid lines.

The worker is using flame cutter to cut off Oxygen tank fueling
the excessive pile reinforcement.. the flame cutter.
Photo from Site C Photo from Site C.

7. PILE CAPS REINFORCEMENT


The red mark ‘9’t with the nail is On the red mark, a nail is stuck on the
where the grid line will be drawn Pile caps reinforcement is essential to provide tensile strength for the pile cap. They are
wooden stick to act as a starter. A string fabricated with rebar by using bending machine.
from , it is done in accordance to the is attached to it and pulled across the
drawings provided by the structural ground to form grid lines
engineer. The green geometry in the Photo from Site C..
drawing are where the pile cap
located. From the intersection of the
grid lines drawn, the pile cap can be
located.

6. PILE HACKING
Excessive pile length is cut off before the installation of pile cap.
The workers are bending rebar with a bar The pile caps are shaped into different
bending machine. forms according to the drawings.
Photo from Site C Photo from Site C.

8. PILE CAPS FORMWORK


Formwork needed for concrete pouring
of pile caps later is being assembled with
wood.. Photo from Site B.

Concrete of excessive piles are hacked A closer view on the hacked concrete
off by the workers. piles. The reinforcement is left exposed
Photo from Site C to the air.
Photo from Site C.

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9. PILE CAPS INSTALLATION

Formwork is placed at the location of pile A layer of lean concrete is laid to provide a The concrete is allowed to cure and set. Completion. Formwork is removed.
caps to prepare for concrete pouring. uniform surface for the pile cap and prevent Photo from Site C Photo from Site C.
Photo from Site C. it from direct contact with the soil.
Reinforcement structure for pile cap is then
placed in the formwork.
Photo from Site C.. 10. COLUMN STUMP

Reinforcement structure of column stump is Concrete is poured into the formwork,. After the concrete of pile caps is set, formwork The pile foundation is done after the curing of
inserted to the pile cap reinforcement. Photo Photo from Site C. is placed around the column stump and the concrete. Backfill of earth is carried out then.
from Site C. process of concrete pouring is repeated. Photo from Site C.
Photo from Site C..

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3.0 BUILDING STRUCTURE
Beam, Concrete Floor, Column

Concrete was not only used for the sites’ substructure making but also for the superstructure making
as it is able to withstand great compressive forces while reinforcement bars would improve the
concrete performance by giving the structure greater tensile strength
3.1 BEAM
Beam is a horizontal structural element that is capable of withstanding transverse load(floor slab/roof slab) primarily by resisting bending. They transfer all the loads
including itself weight to the structural elements below( columns/ column stumps) .

Types of beam are found in our sites : ground


beam and floor beam

Ground beam is the beam


connected to two or more other
foundation element (in our case is
stump or the pile caps) to support
a slab or walls .wall is then
projected from the ground beam
Ground beam

Stump
Stump is a short column
constructed on top of the pile cap
Reinforced
to support ground beam and
Pile Cap
column above, to transfer the load
ground beams Concrete Pile
of a building onto the pile cap

Wall

Pile Cap

Ground beam
Pile

First floor beams

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CONSTRUCTION PROCESS GROUND BEAM ( Site E)

1. 2. 3. 4.
2.

After the column stump is done, the land is The reinforcement steel bars cage for the Dowel bars are for connecting the ground Timber formwork is set up at the position
backfill until the column neck at the area of the ground beam is shaped beam to the column stump where the ground beams will be after the
ground beam and the soil is compacted to installation of the reinforcement cage for
increase soil stability and load bearing beams.
The spacers are used to ensure even coverage
capacity. of the reinforcement in concrete structures

5. 6.

stud The type of concrete used at out s`ite is Crane with bucket is used to transferred the concrete from the premixed concrete
premixed. As the construction is medium delivery truck to the ground beam formwork
Side brace scale, this will save time lot of time
stake

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7. 8.

Concrete vibrator motor is used to make the concrete mix and set evenly, free of air bubbles, for
The concrete is released into its formwork a final product with greater strength

9. 10

The concrete is being set and cured in the The concrete is mixed with
formwork. Grade C40 concrete was used for the the accelerants additives
site which can offer a greater strength than the to speed up the curing
normal C25 concrete since a fairly large mosque process. The formwork is
complex is to be built. removed after 3 days.

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3.2 FLOOR SLAB
Slabs are flat and horizontal surfaces which transfer load to the beams. Steel reinforced concrete slabs are most often used to construct floors and ceilings.

Ground Floor
Slab Layers

Types of slab found in our sites : ground floor slab 2 layers of


and suspended slab. Compressed BRC mesh
Slab
hardcore

Damp-proof
membrane

Bent starter Beam


bar

Concrete slab
Ground floor slab load is transferred from the slab directly to the ground beam, Resists compressive forces
ground and foundation.
BRC mesh (200x200)
Reinforcement for better tensile strength

Lean concrete
Ground floor slab Provides flat base for the concrete slab
Gravity load
Damp-proof membrane
Slab Suspended slab are not in direct Prevent water from ground to sip through
contact with the ground. They
form roofs or floors above ground Anti-termite Treatment
level and load is transferred to the Repels termites
floor beams.
Hardcore ( crusher run)
To fill void in the ground
Beam
Soil
Column
Backfilling of soil

Suspended slab The ground floor slab has more layers than slabs
installed above the ground floor. Higher floor slabs
Pile cap are basically steel reinforced concrete

34 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE NG JING YUAN 0331472


CONSTRUCTION PROCESS GROUND FLOOR SLAB ( Site D)

1. 2. 3. 4.

After the ground beams are done, backfill of land will be carried out and the Hardcore made of crusher run will be laid to raise levels and to provide Termite treatment layer will be carried
soil will be compacted. a firm base. This layer of crusher run will be compacted as well by using out before the damp-proof membrane
a plate compactor (DPM) layer is laid. The DPM prevents
water from the soil entering the slab
above.

5. 6. 7.

Sever service pipes are installed lean concrete is laid to provide a level BRC wire mesh is installed and it is lifted off ground by spacer The formwork for the concrete floor
surface for the concrete slab which is to blocks to ensure the BRC mesh is adequately covered the slab is set up around the perimeter of
be installed later. concrete all over. Bar chair is used to separate the second the ground beams before the casting
layer of BRC mesh from the first mesh. of concrete is carried out.

35 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE NG JING YUAN 0331472


8. 9. 10

Screeding is carried out once Floating is carried out for a The formwork will be removed after 7 days and the
concrete is placed and smoother surface. The surface concrete floor slab will left to cure. The whole curing
consolidated to strike off the should be worked sparingly ( avoid process will take about 28 days for the concrete to
excess concrete in order to bring overworked )with a float. This develop its full strength.
the slab surface to the right process should take place shortly
elevation. A template with a after screeding and while the
straight lower edge is used. concrete is still plastic and
workable.

36 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE NG JING YUAN 0331472


CONSTRUCTION PROCESS FIRST FLOOR BEAM AND SLAB ( Site D)

2.
1.

Vertical shoring system erected to provide temporary support for the first Beam cage for the first floor beam is tied with the starter bars of the columns so that
floor beams and slabs all the reinforcement of a building is interconnected. BRC mesh is also laid.

3. 4. 5.

Cement spacer are use to Timber formworks and sheathing are set up for the first floor beams and slabs Installation of plumbing sleeves and electrical service
lift the mesh and allow the piping is done before the casting of concrete.
concrete to flow underneath

37 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE NG JING YUAN 0331472


6. 7. 8.

Floating is done to finish the concrete surface by making it Concrete is poured into the beam formwork. The formwork is removed after 14 days and
smoother and even. the curing of the first floor beam will take
about 28 days for the concrete to develop full
strength.

38 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE NG JING YUAN 0331472


3.3 COLUMNS
Columns are the vertical load bearing structural members Column found at the sites were square columns and circular column, both were concrete
which transfer load from beams to the foundation, and columns cast in-situ
are compression members.

Slab

Beam

Column

Pile cap

Square column Circular column

Reinforcement is needed in the column to provide tensile strength in order to prevent vertical bending or buckling in the column.
Bending may induced due to :
● Load coupled with the slenderness of the column
● reaction to the wind-loadings
● reaction to deflected beam to pull the column towards itself

All bars are tied by a tie passing around the bar in such a way that it tends to move
the reinforcement bar towards the centre of the column

39 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE NG JING YUAN 0331472


CONSTRUCTION PROCESS COLUMNS

1. 2. 3.

The reinforcement steel bars assemble for the The pile cap is The rebars are secured in place by using the lateral
Shaping the reinforcement steel bars for column column stump is fitted into the reinforcement steel tie (column stirrup)
formed, leaving the
stump with starter bars with the size T25. bars assemble for the pile cap. This is to form a column stump
continuous system of reinforcement. reinforcement steel
bars assemble visible.

4. 5.

The formworks for the After the allowance are made for the column
After the concrete has set the formwork
column stump is set up and is removed. The protruding stump, the reinforcement bar required reduction
ready to receive concrete. reinforcement steel bars formed the in the section’s size along the height for the
starter bars for the columns.
making of starter bars for column . this is
achieved by bending and terminating the rebars
and cranking the rebar towards the centre.

40 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE NG JING YUAN 0331472


7.
6. 8. Yorks: clamping devices to
main the column
formwork and prevent the
formwork from spreading
under under fluid pressure
of the concrete casting

The reinforcement steel bars assemble for the The formwork for the
The reinforcement steel bars assemble for the column is being
concrete column is set up
shaped to the requirement form. column is tied together with the column starter around the reinforcement
bars and this is called lapping. assemble

9. 10 Starter bars
for the
following first
floor columns

The plywood formwork is


painted with with black oil
so to make the stripping of
formwork much easier

Concrete is cast into the formwork. The finished concrete column for the ground floor.
Consolidation process is carried out
to remove the air bubbles trapped
in the concrete, and to let the
concrete to flow to ever part of the
corner
41 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE NG JING YUAN 0331472
CONSTRUCTION PROCESS CIRCULAR COLUMNS

1. 2. 3.

The reinforcement assemble The scaffolding is used to dismantle the cylinder formwork after the
The finished concrete
are placed. The cylinder concrete has cured.
column for the ground floor.
column required customized
formwork. Which the
traditional timber formwork
would be hard to fulfill this
task. Aluminium cylinder
formwork is used.

42 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURE NG JING YUAN 0331472


4.0 STAIRS
Stairs are type of structure that acts as an access between two or more floors in a building. A flight of
stairs involves steps and landings in between and is usually connected at a certain angle of inclination
depending on its vertical distance.
4.1 STAIRS 4.2 STAIRCASE TERMINOLOGY
DEFINITION STAIRCASE TERMINOLOGY
Besides providing as a convenient and safe access
between floors ,staircases should take safety
precautions such as being fire resistant , able to
carry dead and live load and as an emergency Wall
evacuation route if needed. 25mm nosing

STAIRS ON SITE Reinforced Bars

Concrete
Degreed pitch

Double Quarter Landing Staircase


Section Drawing of the Stairs on site

Double Quarter Landing Staircase


● Double landing allows rest time for users
● Easier to fit into architectural plan as oppose to
Straight Staircases which requires more vertical
spacing
● Convenient , functional and safe

Semi-D Houses
Tread
● Staircase planned and casted side by side at the
same time to minimize labour and maximize time.
Riser

Handrail

44 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION STAIRS LIM MAY LEE 0328549


4.3 STAIRS CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

1. Planning the staircase - The 2. Setting up - Support 3. Stringers and Riserboards - Stringers 4. Reinforcement Bars - Reinforcement
dimensions of the treads, risers posts are erected and the and riserboards are then installed into bars are bent and placed on the
and layout are to be calculated and wooden formwork is the formwork. formwork to provide as a solid support
planned. installed for the concrete

5. Concrete added - Concrete 6. Floating of concrete - the


7. Curing - the staircase is 8. Removal of Formwork - 9. Installation of handrails
is added into the formwork surface of the steps are
left to cure to increase the The formwork of the stairs
secreeded and smoothen out
strength and durability are then removed

45 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION STAIRS LIM MAY LEE 0328549


5.0 Wall System
An erection of stone, brick, or other material, raised to some height, and intended for purposes of security
or inclosure
5.1 TYPE OF WALL
Non load bearing wall Type of brick Cement sand brick
A concrete masonry unit made from Portland cement, water, and suitable aggregates.
· Form a wall by using consist of of modular building blocks bonded together with mortar.
Common brick type in malaysia.
· Non load-bearing wall: one-wall-thick bricks are used as in-fill in between the stretchers
· Most common material used for walls in Malaysia: budget and easily available · Typically cheaper than clay brick, and also stronger than ordinary bricks
· Durable, good sound, fire and thermal insulation · Highly durable and low maintenance
· Does not support any loads from the building · High density, high strength, fire resistant, low water absorption
· Doesn’t bear any weight besides its own

Both of our site the interior and exterior Standard size of cement sand brick
walls are non load bearing wall.

Building Floor plan


Comparison between bricks
Both of the site use cement sand brick for non bearing wall and clay brick for party wall.

Cement sand brick Clay brick

Compressive 3,000 to 4,000 psi 8,000 to 10,000 psi


Strength

Material Cost $190.00 – $250.00 / per thousand $230.00 - $300.00 / per thousand

Absorption 40 and 80 grams per minute per 30 15-35 grams of moisture per minute
sq. in. per 30 sq. ins.
[b
[a]
]
Movement Joint can be built without movement Can be more susceptible to
joints. cracking
[a] Casira 1 Clay brick
Colour Grey Red [b] Kundang estate Cement sand brick

47 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION WALLS NICHOLAS WONG YEW KHUNG 0328559


5.1 TYPE OF WALL COMPONENT OF WALL SYSTEM 5.2
Party wall Lintel
A partition erected on a property boundary, partly on the land of one owner and partly on the
land of another, to provide common support to the structures on both sides of the boundary.

A horizontal beam to support and take load from


structures above the openings in the building. ( doors,
windows etc.)

Party wall Party wall


Stiffener

Type of brick Clay brick


A solid masonry unit of clay or shale formed or extruded into a rectangular prism while plastic
and fired to high temperatures (up to 2000°F) in a kiln.

· cheap and durable


· fire protection
· Depends on its density & moisture content, generally poor thermal insulators
· sound insulation
·It is the lateral support to the wall system
· moisture absorption
·Reduces the amount of cracks forming by breaking down the
size of the wall

·Increase stability with making smaller effective area

Standard size of clay brick


48 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION WALLS NICHOLAS WONG YEW KHUNG 0328559
5.3 BRICK ARRANGEMENT
Stretcher bond Mortar
Mortar is the most important component
when comes to laying bricks. Mortar
transfers, stresses, tensile, compressive and
shear uniformly between adjacent bricks

½ overlapping bricks

·known as Running bond


· consists of a single layer of stretchers, each course
is offset by half the length of a brick with respect to
the adjoining courses
Stretcher bond used as exterior wall · It is widely used in Malaysia because it’s
at casira 1 economical properties and it is easy to apply.
Mixing cement , lime , sand to make mortar,

Flemish bond

Stretcher and header arranged alternatively.,


·Within each course, stretchers alternate with
headers.
· great strength and provide fire resistance
Casira 1 The worker spread the mortar
·This kind of arrangement uses a kind of cut evenly on the internal wall.
Flemish bond used as party wall at Flemish Bond
Kundang estate that cuts out a triangular portion of the brick,
leaving it half header and half stretcher. The Stretcher Bond

cut is called King closer.

49 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION WALLS NICHOLAS WONG YEW KHUNG 0328559


5.4 CONSTRUCTION OF WALL

1. Use measuring tape to measure the 2. Setup strings are hooked up at each 3. String line is set up at each ends of 4. Lay a bed of mortar at least 20-30mm
length between reinforced column. ends of the walls, apply waterproof the walls as an indicator to keep thick to be damp-proof course for
ink on it, pluck it and there will be the courses in a straight alignment ground floor brickwork.
mark on the floor, It’s 100mm for
brick wall and another 25 x2 is for
plastering.So worker will know
where to lay the bricks. After that
remove the strings.

5. The first row of bricks are laid from a 6. Dowel bars then exmet wire mesh are 7. Laying process is continued and 8. Bricks laid in 45 degree angle soldier face
corner of reinforced concrete placed at every 4th course of excess mortar is cut off with trowel. is to fill up the remaining spaces between
column, lay the damp proof brickwork connected to RC Process is repeated until the destined the bricks and beam.
membrane on it to prevent moisture columns. height.
moving up the wall by capillary
action.

50 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION WALLS NICHOLAS WONG YEW KHUNG 0328559


5.5 PLASTERING Terminology in construction

Brick Wall Skimming Plaster Chop


· Masonry brick wall is 100mm (one brick thick) · Imperfections that occured during plastering · used for creating uneven surface at
· Non-load-bearing wall will be smoothen out by muddy plaster. the originally smooth concrete
· Made with cement sand brick ·Apply light thin coat surface to ensure better grip of
· Thin wall plaster is applied plastering .

Plastering Cement pit


Angle Bead
· Plaster contains gypsum, lime and cement Paint · used to protect corners which are
· The plaster is made by water and dry powder. · Apply undercoat flat layer to both interior and
susceptible to damage, to stabilise
· Plastering comes after the brick wall is done. exterior wall.
the layer of plaster. They also help in
·Cement pits will be set up by the experienced senior workers to indicate the thickness · fungicides as an additives for the paint
making the plaster surface even and
of the plastering will be needed, to act as a guide for the workers
geometrically (90 degrees) exact.
· Cement and fine aggregates mix ratio is 1:6 (cement:fine aggregates) for internal
plastering and 1:4 for external.
· The thickness of the plaster coat is 25 mm, so two layers are 50mm in total

51 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION WALLS NICHOLAS WONG YEW KHUNG 0328559


5.6 CONDUIT INSTALLATION

1. The position of the electrical circuit should be 2. Use a chasing machine to hack the surface of the wall 3. The conduit is then put into the hacked
planned by marking the route to the power area. Flush the conduit to the wall and make
according to the planned route.
source. This process should be done a week sure the wire box is attached and it is fix
with the approved clips.
after the wall has been formed.

4. Wall are chased after built to run electrical 5. Before screwing the switch panel onto the 6. Paint the wall for aesthetic reasons and now the
wire. After that, plastering is applied to cover wire box, make sure the live, earth, and power socket is ready to be used.
up the the electrical piping. neutral wire are connected.

52 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION WALLS NICHOLAS WONG YEW KHUNG 0328559


REFERENCES

PRELIMINARY

Allen, E., Iano, J., & Allen, E. (2014). Fundamentals of building construction. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Ching, F., & Adams, C. (1991). Building construction illustrated. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Chudley, R., & Greeno, R. (2010). Building construction handbook. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.

FOUNDATION

Bruce Jr, R. N., & Hebert, D. C. (1974). Splicing of Precast Prestressed Concrete Piles: Part 1—Review and
Performance of Splices. PCI JOURNAL, 19(5), 70-97.

Allen, E., & Iano, J. (2013). Fundamentals of Building Construction : Materials and Methods. Hoboken: Wiley.

Chudley, R. (2014). Building Construction Handbook. London: Routledge.

OKA Corporation Bhd. (2004). Precast Concrete Piles. [Online] Available at:
http://www.oka.com.my/index.asp?LanguagesID=1&TitleReferenceID=1046&CompanyID=29

BUILDING STRUCTURES

Chudley, R. (1987). Construction technology. Harlow: Longman

Construction manual : concrete & formwork / by T. W. Love

53 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION REFERENCES


REFERENCES

STAIRS

Chudley, R. (1987). Construction technology. Harlow: Longman

R. Barry (1999) Barry Construction of Buildings Volume 2

RBM Building Machinery Trading Sdn. Bhd. (2011) RBM BUILDING SYSTEM DESIGN STANDARD & SPECIFICATION

Department of Standards Malaysia (2003)Malaysian Standard : Guide to Modular Coordination in Buildings Part 3 : Coordinating Sizes and Preferred Sizes for Stairs and Stair Openings First
Revision

Greeno, R., 2017. Advanced Construction Technology. Pearson.

WALL SYSTEM

Chudley, R. (1987). Construction technology. Harlow: Longman

Sandpit Building Supplies Johannesburg. (2018). The Many Advantages Of Cement Bricks - Sandpit Building Supplies Johannesburg. [online] Available at:
http://sandpit.co.za/the-many-advantages-of-cement-bricks/ [Accessed 13 May 2018]..

Greeno, R., 2017. Advanced Construction Technology. Pearson.

Happho. 2017. How to Install Concealed Conduit Electrical Wiring System Properly? - Happho. [ONLINE] Available at:
http://www.happho.com/install-concealed-conduit-electrical-wiring-system-properly/. [Accessed 31 October 2017]

Generalshale.com. (2018). [online] Available at: https://generalshale.com/resources/file/54638107-31be-4bf5-9a6d-ebc42523cefd.pdf [Accessed 13 May 2018].

54 EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTION REFERENCES

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