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 MOTION LEARNING SEGMENT Stage 1: Focus of Learning Segment The central focus of this learning segment is to introduce how motion is represented on a distance-time graph. Students will learn how to read and interpret a line graph comparing two quantities with different units, distance and time, to explain an object’s motion. Students will engage in learning by using a motion detector to graph their movements. To be literate in the scientific field, students must be able to understand how to interpret and communicate the meaning of a graph. This learning segment will help explain the real-world phenomena of movement and help prepare students for future physics concepts such as Newton’s Laws of Motion. Established Goals Science State and District Standard: SC.6.PS.4 An object's motion can be described by its speed and the direction in which it is moving. An object’s position and speed can be measured and graphed as a function of time. Interdisciplinary Goals CCSS.Math.Practice.MP2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. CCSS.Math.Practice.MP4 Model with mathematics. CCSS.Math.Content.8.F.B.5 Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, ​linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally. CCSS.Math.Content.6.RP.A.3.d Use ratio reasoning to convert measurement units; manipulate and transform units appropriately when multiplying or dividing quantities. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.2.d Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. Students will know…. Students will be able to…

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 Students will know that an object’s motion can be represented on a line graph, specifically a distance-time graph. Students will be able to ​interpret​ a distance versus time graph in order to ​describe​ the object’s motion in terms of distance, time and direction of the object from a starting point. Students will know that the x-axis of the graph signifies the time period of the object’s motion and the y-axis represents the object’s distance from a starting point. Students will be able to ​predict​ the motion necessary to g​ enerate ​an accurate motion graph with a motion detector, given a specific scenario of an object’s motion. Students will know that speed equals distance divided by time. Students will be able to ​match​ written scenarios with corresponding motion graphs. Students will be able to ​compose​ a written story that specifically and accurately d​ escribes​ all aspects of a given distance-time graph. Students will be able ​to infer​ an object’s speed by comparing and contrasting ​the slope of lines generated by a motion detector. Students will be able to ​use​ the slopes of the lines to ​calculate​ the speed of an object. Vocabulary Academic Language x-axis Discourse: y-axis Students will engage in academic learning through collaboration in whole class and small group discussions. Students will work together to discuss the motions necessary to generate a specific graph using a motion detector. Students will be using vocabulary specific to this learning segment and the science discipline in general to give reason for the shape of a certain graph in response to an object’s motion. Syntax and Function: Starting point Distance Time Stationary Units Speed Students will use technology such as a motion detector to discover how the motion of an object is represented on a distance-time graph. In order for students to be able to interpret and specifically describe an object’s motion in any given graph, students will learn to read the symbols on the graph (each line segment) and work together, as well as independently, interpreting

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 written motion scenarios to match with corresponding motion graphs. Stage 2-Assessment Evidence Gathered in Learning Segment Formal Informal Lesson 4 Lesson 1 ● Students will write a creative story about a specific motion graph, describing the object or subject in ● Teacher will use a checklist to assess student learning during whole class motion according to the graph’s line segments. ● Students will be provided a sample story, as well as a criteria checklist to guide them. The same criteria checklist will be used to assess students’ understanding of interpreting and describing the distance-time line graph. discussions and active participation using a motion detector. ● Students will complete an exit ticket assessing their understating of what the lines on the graph mean in terms of distance towards and away from a starting point. Assessment criteria is found in Part D_Assessments. ● Homework assignment will assess students’ understanding of what the line segments on the graph represent in terms of an object’s distance. Lesson 2 ● Teacher will use a checklist to assess student learning during whole class discussions and active participation using a motion detector. ● Questions embedded in the visual and interactive PowerPoint presentation shown via Nearpod. ● Students will complete an exit ticket to assess their ability to communicate through writing the motion of an object on a given graph. ● Homework assignment will assess students’ ability to communicate through writing the object’s motion in each line segment, using specific distances and times. It will also assess their ability to

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interpret a graph based on a given scenario.

Lesson 3

Teacher will use a checklist to assess student learning during whole class discussions and active participation using a motion detector.

Students will complete an exit ticket to that assesses their ability to read a graph in order to predict the section of the graph that the object was moving the fastest and identify distances and times for each section of the graph to calculate speed.

Homework assignment will assess students’ ability to collect data from a graph and use the data to calculate the speed of the object in each line segment.

Lesson 4

Warm Up—

o Students will collaboratively work on a worksheet that assesses students’ ability to read and interpret a motion graph to answer questions regarding the object’s distance, times, and speeds. Teacher will assess understanding through observation and call on students at random to go over the warm up. Teacher will also walk around while students are working to observe and intervene when needed.

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Instructional Environment:

General Classroom

LESSON ONE

Instruction Duration:

65 Minutes

Number of Students:

29

Central Focus of the lesson: In this lesson, students will be introduced to how an object in motion is illustrated on a distance versus time graph. The focus of this lesson is to familiarize students with the x and y axis for a distance-time graph and the shape of the graph when an object moves away from the starting point (reference point), towards the starting point, or stays stationary.

Objectives:

1. Students will be able to predictthe shape of a graph given a scenario of object’s motion, in

reference to the motion detector.

2. Students will be able to namethe x and y axis for a distance time graph.

3. Students will be able to formulatea prediction of the shape of the graph given an objects motion.

4. Students will be able to usea motion detector and the graph generated, to evaluatehow an

object’s motion is illustrated on a distance-time graph.

SC.6.PS.4 An object’s motion can be described by its speed and the direction in which it’s moving.

CCSS.Math.Content.8.F.B.5

Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.2.d

Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.

Materials:

-Motion Detector and Software -Projector -Popsicle Sticks to call on students at random -Worksheets:

-Warm up -Prediction / Actual Graph -Graph to write story about -Motion Graph Homework

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Introduction | Whole Class

 3 Minutes | Review: What is Motion? 1. This lesson will commence by the teacher asking, “Who will recall and summarize for me what we did last class? What did we talk about? What were the new terms we learned?” 2. Teacher will call on students to answer and recall what we did last class. 3. This conversation can end once students mention the following: a. An object is in motion if it changes position relative to a reference point. b. We can use a reference point to determine if an object is in motion c. We looked at two filmstrips to determine the objects in motion and evaluate the motion of the objects in reference to the stationary objects in the background. 5 Minutes | Warm-Up | Activate Prior Knowledge

1. Following the review discussion, the teacher will explain that today they will be looking at what an object’s motion looks like on a graph. Teacher will read the lesson goals to the students:

a. I can predict and illustrate an objects motion on a graph.

b. I can explain the shape of the graph based on the objects distance and time.

2. Teacher should pass out the warm up worksheet to the students and then orally explain the following directions (which are also written on the worksheet):

a. On this warm up you will see three blank graphs. For graph 1, you are to draw what the graph would look like if the object was moving away from the starting point at a constant pace. On graph 2, draw what the graph would look like for an object at rest, and on graph 3, draw what the graph would look like if the object was moving towards the starting point.

b. Teacher should also explain that this is tell you (the students) what they know about

motion graphs and that it is ok to leave it blank if they have absolutely no idea. Teacher should encourage students to predict what they think the graph might look like.

3. When students are done, the teacher will ask for volunteers to share what they put or what they predicted.

Learning Activities | Whole Class

15 Minutes | Explain Motion Detector

1. After students complete the warm up and volunteer to share, the teacher will show the students what the motion detector is. Teacher should tell the students that they will be walking in front of this motion detector and while they are walking, a graph will be generated

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simultaneously according to the walker’s motion.

2. Teacher will project the graph that will illustrate the motion.

3. Teacher will call on students at random to come up to the board and identify the x and y axis of this graph and to read the x and y axis labels.

4. Teacher should then ask the class: “So if we know the x and y labels, what is this graph going to tell us about the objects motion?”

a. Answer should be: We will be able to see the distance the object is (in meters) relative to the starting point/reference point (motion detector) and the time (in seconds).

5. To show students how it works, teacher will pick a popsicle stick with the student’s names on them to choose a student at random. The student chosen will come up to the front of the classroom, stand in front of the motion detector and listen to the teacher’s instructions:

a. Teacher will go to the computer and start the motion detector program. Teacher will tell the student to start walking away from the motion detector, and students will see the graph being generated as the student is walking. A whole class discussion should commence about what we just noticed about the shape of the graph, what it told us about the distance and time of our object (the walker) in reference to the starting point (the motion detector).

b. Teacher will do the same as before, and this time tell the student to start at the wall and walk towards the motion detector. A similar whole class discussion should commence about what was generated.

c. Lastly, the teacher should start the program again and tell the student to just stand still. The teacher will commence a whole class discussion about what the graph looks like and why it looks the way it does.

d. The student volunteer can now go back to his or her seat.

35 Minutes | Using the Motion Detector

6. The teacher should now pass out the prediction/actual graph worksheet and explain to the students that she is going to describe a motion or series of motions and they will predict the graph according to the motion of the object. Students will be called on at random (picking popsicle sticks with their names on it) to either share their prediction about what the graph

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should look like orthey will be the ones to walk in front of the motion detector performing the series of motions.

7. Once every student has a worksheet, the teacher will describe and demonstrate what is going to happen in the first event:

a. This student is going to start by standing in front of the motion detector and simply walk away from the motion detector towards the other wall.

8. Students should make their predictions about what the graph will look like on their papers.

9. Teacher will pick a student at random to come up to the board and show the class what they predicted the graph will look like. After the student draws what they predicted, the teacher will ask the class if they would like to challenge the prediction. If a student wants to challenge, that student will come up to the board, draw what they predicted, and explain why. If no challengers, teacher moves on by picking a student at random to come perform the action.

10. Student selected will come up to the front of the class, teacher will count “3, 2, 1, walk” and start the program and the student will start walking. After the graph is generated the teacher will say, “Raise your hand if your prediction was accurate.” A whole class discussion will commence about what the graph shows about distance and time. Teacher should call on students to discuss the graph.

11. Steps 7-10 will repeat for the following motion series:

a. Student will stand at the wall and walk towards the motion detector.

b. Student will stand in front of the motion detector, walk away from the detector for a little, then stop, and stand still.

c. Student will stand at the wall, walk towards the motion detector for a little, then stop, and stand still.

d. Student will start by standing in front of the motion detector, walk away from the motion detector and then turn around and come back towards it.

e. Student will start by standing in front of the motion detector, walk away for a little, then stand still for a little, and then walk back towards it.

f. Student will start by away from the motion detector on the opposite side of the room, walk towards the motion detector, then stand still, and then turn around and walk away from the motion detector.

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 12. After those series above are complete, the teacher will tell the students that they are going to be challenged. The teacher will project a graph at random, and this time, the students will have to discuss in their groups what the walker needs to do in front of the motion detector in order to match the shape of the graph shown. Teacher will call on a student at random to be the walker and that students table will have to guide that student through the motion series to match the graph projected. a. This will happen three times. Closure | Group Work 7 Minutes | Exit Ticket 1. Following the motion graph exploration. The teacher will give each table a motion graph (all tables will get the same graph). As a group, they are to come up with specific directions they would give someone trying to recreate the graph using the motion detector. Students should be using the phrases away or towards starting point as well as the term stationary to describe an object that is not moving. 2. Teacher will collect each group’s exit ticket and assess learning as a whole table. The teacher will be looking for whether or not the students were able to generally explain if the object would be moving away from the starting point if the graph’s line was increasing, coming towards the starting point if the graph’s line was decreasing, or stationary if the graph showed a horizontal line. 3. As students finish their exit ticket, teacher should come around, collect the tickets, and hand them their homework worksheet, which further covers the general motion of an object on a graph. Accommodations ● Sign Language Interpreter ● Microphone and FM ● Repeated instruction and clarification when necessary ● Visual modeling using technology to illustrate an object in motion with corresponding graph being generated through motion detector software. Modifications ● The intervention specialist modifies homework. ● Some students will show satisfactory with understanding by being able to verbally explain two out of the three general lines generated on a motion graph.

LESSON TWO

Instructional Environment:

General Classroom

Instruction Duration:

70 Minutes

Number of Students:

29

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 Central Focus of the lesson: ​In this lesson, students will continue exploring aspects of a motion graph through engagement of a motion detector. The focus of this lesson is to continue examining the shape of the graph according to an object’s motion in respect to the object’s distance traveled and time-period. Further, students will compare and contrast certain scenarios of an object in motion and given distance-time graphs to distinguish matching scenario-graph pairs. Objectives: 1. Students will be able to ​describe ​the necessary motion’s needed to take place in front of the motion detector to be able to match a given graph 2. Students will be able to ​explain​ an object's motion relative to a reference point on a motion graph using the terms distance and time. 3. Students will be able to ​match​ written scenarios with corresponding motion graphs. 4. Students will be able to ​use​ a motion detector and the graph generated to ​evaluate​ how an object’s motion is illustrated on a distance-time graph. 5. Students will be able to ​write​ a story to explain the general motion of an object given a certain motion graph. Standard Addressed: SC.6.PS.4 An object’s motion can be described by its speed and the direction in which it’s moving. CCSS.Math.Content.8.F.B.5 Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, ​linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.2.d Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. Materials: -​Motion Detector, Logger Lite Software, Projector -Popsicle Sticks to call on students at random -Chrome Books -Nearpod Presentation Session Code: CFVHO -Worksheets: -Stories and Graphs -Interpret Motion Homework Introduction | Whole Class 5 Minutes | Beginning of Class 1. Before beginning, teacher should have the motion detector and software ready. Teacher should also log onto her Nearpod account and start a “Live Session”. 2. Once students come to class and are settled in their seats, they are to write their homework down in their planners.

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3. When students have their homework written down, they are to get their Chromebooks. They are assigned their own chromebook and should grab the one they are assigned.

4. Once all students have their chromebooks, they need to go to:

b. Click “Join Session”

c. Type: CFVHO

d. Student’s should wait until all students have joined the session and the teacher begins the presentation.

7 Minutes | Review Motion Detector | Activate Prior Knowledge

5. Every student will be viewing the Nearpod Presentation on his or her chromebooks, while it is also presented on the projector screen. The teacher has control over the advancement of the slides.

6. The first slide serves as the student’s warm up. Students are to complete this warm-up by drawing their response on slide #3 in the Nearpod Presentation.

a. Directions: What would the motion graph look like if someone…stood right in front of the motion detector, walked away for a few seconds, stopped for a few second, then continued

walking away. D

the x and y-axis (time and distance).

raw the graph on the next slide. Make sure you include the labels for both

7. Give students 1-2 minutes to complete this task. Teacher should be walking around making sure all students know how to draw their response in the presentation. Teacher can check the status of the students by looking at the main presentation page, which shows student’s work at live time.

8. As teacher is quickly examining the student’s responses, teacher should select a response and have a whole group discussion. This discussion should commence by the teacher asking if the graph presented accurately represents the motion of the person in front of the motion detector. Teacher needs to make sure students elaborate and explain why or why not the graph selected works. Teacher should showcase 2-3 drawings, and at least one that doesn’t accurately represent the motion scenario presented.

30 Minutes | Review Motion Detector | Activate Prior Knowledge

9. Teacher continues advancing the Nearpod Presentation as student’s view it at their desks on their chrome books. The following presentation slides will require student participation through group and whole class discussions, and movement in front of the motion detector

10. Teacher will present slide 4, which shows a distance-time graph. Students are to discuss at their tables for 30 seconds, what the walker would have to do in front of the motion detector to make the graph shown. Teacher will walk around listening to student conversations and redirecting them if

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they are confused or off track.

11. After thirty seconds, teacher will elicit the thoughts discussed at the students table. An anticipated student response is similar to: “The person will start right in front of the motion detector, move away from the motion detector, stand still then continue walking away.” The teacher should accept this response but scaffold through questioning to further student’s responses to make it more descriptive. For example, teacher might ask, “What is the distance the walker will start?” “What is the distance the walker will stop at? For how long? What are our units?”

12. After the whole class is at a consensus about the motion necessary in front of the motion detector to generate a similar graph, the teacher will pick a student at random using the classroom sticks. This student will be the “walker” and serve as the object in motion. The “walker” will begin walking on the teacher’s count of three and start moving accordingly to “match” the graph. Classmates are encouraged to shout out “directions” to the walker.

13. After the “walker” walks, the teacher should ask students if the graph generated was similar to the one they had to match and if their “directions” were accurate. If there was an error with the graph generated, a discussion about the error should commence depending what the graph shows.

14. Teacher should continue the presentation and on slide 6 students will take a quick two question quiz to assess understanding and keep student’s on task. This should take 1 minute.

a. Question 1: What happens to the distance as the object gets further from the starting point? A. The distance increases B. The distance decreases

b. Question 2: In the picture, about how many meters away is the object from the starting point? A. 1 meters B. 2 meters C. 3 meters

15. Continuing practice with the motion detector and describing/explaining the motion of the object, another graph will be presented (slide 7) to the students for which they are to discuss at their tables what the walker should specifically do in front of the motion detector to create the graph shown.

16. After thirty seconds, teacher will elicit the thoughts discussed at the students table. An anticipated student response is similar to: “The person will start 2 meters away from the detector, stand still for 7 seconds, then walk towards the motion detector” The teacher should accept this response but scaffold through questioning to further student’s responses to make it more descriptive. For example the teacher should ask, “What classroom tools can we use to make sure we are two meters away from the motion detector when we start (meter stick)?” or “For how many seconds should the person in motion stand still?” “How long should the walker walk for when they start to walk towards the motion detector?” “How do we know the walker should not walk away from the motion detector?”

17. After the whole class is at a consensus about the motion necessary in front of the motion detector to generate a similar graph, the teacher will pick a student at random using the classroom sticks. This student will be the “walker” and serve as the object in motion. The “walker” will begin walking

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on the teacher’s count of three and start moving accordingly to “match” the graph. Classmates are encouraged to shout out “directions” to the walker.

18. After the “walker” walks, the teacher should ask students if the graph generated was similar to the one they had to match and if their “directions” were accurate. If there was an error with the graph generated, a discussion about the error should commence depending what the graph shows.

19. Following this motion example, students will be prompted another check for understanding question within the presentation. This question asks students to respond to the question: “Why does the graph start at 2? What does “2” mean?” Give students a minute and a half to respond to this question. Allowing more time if necessary.

20. The process (15-18) will continue for another graph. For the graph students are given on slide 10 of the Nearpod Presentation, students should explain the walkers motion as follows: “Start 3 meters away from the motion detector, walk towards the motion detector, then walk away from the motion detector.” Teacher should ask for more specification and scaffold by asking students to elaborate on their responses using specific distances and times.

21. At this point, students are ready to examine stories that correspond to certain graphs.

Learning Activities | Whole Class

15 Minutes | Which Story Match’s the Graph?

*This is where the misconception about the motion graph representing hills will be discussed.

22. Teacher should continue to slide 12 in the Nearpod. Teacher should read both stories and students should work as a group to discuss what story represents the motion of the graph shown.

23. Teacher should walk around listening to student conversations and asking prompting questions as appropriate.

24. Teacher should take a class survey by asking students to raise their hand if they thought story A matched the graph, and then ask about story B. Have students who said story A share why, and then have students from story B share why.

25. After/during student explanations, teacher should model how to annotate the graph by writing the parts of the story on the graph.

Group Work

10 Minutes | Which Story Match’s the Graph?

26. As a group, students will be given an envelope with 6 graphs and 4 stories. Students are to work together to match the written story with the appropriate motion graph. Not all graphs will have a

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story to match to. When a group finishes their matching, they need to raise their hand and the teacher will come and check their matching, and ask them follow up questions to check for understanding.

a. Example questions from teacher: “Explain to me why you matched this story with this graph?” “What does the vertical line in this graph tell you? Can we have a vertical line?” “What if the story said….” “How did you know the story didn’t match with this graph (show another graph)?”

Closure | Exit Ticket

5 Minutes | Write a story

27. After teacher has met with the group to check their matching, she will tell the group their exit ticket is to INDIVIDUALLY write their own story that represents the motion in graph B.

Accommodations

Nearpod Presentation so all students can see the presentation via their chromebooks.

Sign Language Interpreter

Microphone and FM

Repeated instruction and clarification when necessary

Visual modeling using technology to illustrate an object in motion with corresponding graph being generated through motion detector software.

Modifications

The intervention specialist modifies homework.

Some students will show satisfactory with understanding by being able to verbally explain two out of the three general lines generated on a motion graph. (increasing, decreasing, or horizontal).

LESSON THREE

Instructional Environment:

General Classroom

Instruction Duration:

80 Minutes

Number of Students:

29

Central Focus of the lesson: In this lesson, students will apply their knowledge of the aspects of a distance-time graph to consider how one can use the graph to calculate an object’s speed. Students will continue to construct knowledge with the use of a motion detector. The lesson will be focused on applying and expanding student’s current knowledge. Students will be able to use deductive reasoning to predict the line of an object moving fast vs. slow as well as evaluate the graph to find speeds. This interdisciplinary lesson focuses on the Common Core Mathematical Practice, reason abstractly and quantitatively, as well as a mathematical standard above grade level.

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 Objectives: 1. Students will be able to ​name t​ he two units of information needed to calculate speed. 2. Students will be able to ​calculate​ the speed of an object in motion by ​using and applying​ the information provided on a distance-time graph. 3. Students will be able ​infer​ an object’s speed by​ comparing and contrasting ​the slope of lines generated by a motion detector. 4. Students will be able to ​predict ​the speed of an object based on the slope of the line. Standard Addressed: SC.6.PS.4 An object’s motion can be described by its speed and the direction in which it’s moving. CCSS.Math.Practice.MP2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. CCSS.Math.Practice.MP4 Model with mathematics. CCSS.Math.Content.6.RP.A.3.d Use ratio reasoning to convert measurement units; manipulate and transform units appropriately when multiplying or dividing quantities. CCSS.Math.Content.8.F.B.5 Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.2.d Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. Materials: -​Motion Detector, Logger Lite Software, Projector -Popsicle Sticks to call on students at random -Slide show presentation -Worksheets: -Warm-Up | Exit Ticket -Speed Homework WS Introduction | Whole Class 7 Minutes | Beginning of Class 1. As students come in and get settled, they should write their homework in their planners which is projected on the board. Teacher should also collect homework from the previous lesson. Teacher should also hand back students written stories from the previous lesson so they see their feedback. 2. Students should begin working on the warm-up worksheet on their desks. This warm-up contains three stories written by their peers from the exit ticket in the previous lesson. They are to interpret the story and provided graph to see if the story written, matches with the graph. They should be ready to verbally explain

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why or why not the story matches the graph. Students will have 5 minutes to work on this before a whole class discussion to go over the stories.

3. After 5 minutes, teacher should project the slide show for this lesson. The first slide tells the students to

complete the warm up. The second slide is the first story and graph on their warm-up handout. Teacher will select someone at random using the popsicle sticks to have them read the story provided. Another student will be selected to explain if the story matches the graph and explain why. Students will be encouraged to come up to the board and annotate the graph according to the story to help them explain their reasoning. This process will be done for the next two stories.

5 Minutes | Speed PowerPoint | Activate Prior Knowledge

4. Think-Pair-Share

a. Think: Projected on the screen (slide 5 of slide show will be a picture of a road with a car and a speed limit sign. Students will start with an individual quick write to activate their prior knowledge and thoughts. Students are to take out a sheet of notebook paper, and write for 1 minute or until teacher tells students to stop.

Directions for students: For one minute, jot down any words, phrases, memories, symbols or terms that

come to mind when you look at the picture.

b. Pair:Students should now pair up with their tablemates and share their lists, discussing similarities and differences from what they each jotted down. Students will have 1 minute to discuss and create a master group list. c. Share: Teacher will then give the following directions: Once your group has discussed the similarities and differences in your lists, select one or two ideas from your master list you want to share with the class. Come up to the side white board and write your one or two words, phrases, memories, symbols or terms you want to share.

Anticipated responses: Speed Limit Sign, 55, desert, truck, driving, road, alone, nice day, one lane, Arizona, traveling, transportation.

d. Acknowledgement: Teacher should give students about a minute to come up and write on the board. Once students have written their responses on the board, the teacher should accept all responses and acknowledge everything written down and then focus in and circle “speed limit sign”.

15 Minutes | Slide Show | Whole-Class, Speed Discussion

5. Teacher will continue with the slide show and should be on slide 10 which shows the picture with a big red

circle around the speed limit sign. To generate a whole class discussion, teacher will ask: What does this speed limit sign tell you? Anticipated student responses: how fast you can go, you can travel 55 miles in one hour, the speed limit is 55, 55 miles per hour Depending on student responses, teacher should guide discussion until students explain the speed limit sign tells you, you can drive at a maximum speed of 55 miles per hour.

6. Teacher will continue the discussion by asking: okay so if this is a speed limit sign, and it says 55, my max

speed is 55 miles per hour right? (students will say “yes”)Teacher should then ask: what does miles PER hour mean? Teacher will accept all responses and guide responses through questioning until a student responds by saying you can travel 55 miles in one hour.

7. Furthering student’s thinking, the teacher will ask the students, “how can we represent speed as a math

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equation? Think about what you told me when you said my speed on the road was 55 miles PER hour. What are the units of measurement we are using when focusing on the speed limit? Teacher will continue to scaffold this whole class discussion through questioning based on student’s reaction/responses. Ultimately, the students will conclude that speed equals distance divided by time. First students need to realize the term PER means divide, so the speed on the road is represented by miles/hour. Teacher should then guide students to realize that a mile is a distance and hour is the time. Once students have made the connection and realization, teacher should move on to slides 11 and 12. These slideshow speed as a math equation.

8. On slide 13, teacher will pose the following question to the students:

Car 1 is driving 25mph and car 2 is driving 55mph. Which car is driving faster? How do you know? Students will automatically say car 2, which is correct, but the teacher should get them to explain why driving 55mph is faster. Students should ultimately come to the realization that car 2 will go 55 miles in one hour, while car 1 will only go 25 miles in one hour, so car 2 travels a greater distance than car 1 in the same amount of time, therefore going faster.

Learning Activities | Motion Detector| Whole Class

40 Minutes | Analyzing the slopes of the lines

9. Teacher will transition from slide show presentation on speed to using the motion detector to further

examine this concept. Teacher will select a volunteer at random using the popsicle sticks. Teacher will explain to this selected students and the rest of the class: I will be whispering directions to the volunteer and the rest of you need to observe what the walker does and what the generated graph looks like for the motion of the walker.

10. Teacher will first tell the student that will be walking in front of the motion detector to walk at a normal

pace away from the motion detector. Teacher will save that graph and tell the student to now walk a little slower than before away from the motion detector. Teacher will save that generated graph so that both graphs are still showing. Teacher will then tell the student: walk even slower away from the motion detector. Now three graphs are shown and students should start to realize that the lines generated are below each other because the walker is walking slower and slower than before. The student will walk again, this time super slow.

11. After this round, the teacher should ask the students, “what are you noticing about the lines according to

how the walker walked?” Teacher should label the lines on the board ABCD, A being the first line generated,

B the second line, C third line, and D fourth line (slowest walk). Teacher will ask, “what line A B C or D

represents when the walker walked the slowest?” Students should say D.

12. Teacher should tell the students to now predictwhere the line will be if I asked the “walker” to RUN.

Would it show up before line A, between A and B, between B and C, or below D?Teacher will give students 30 seconds to think and discuss with their group and then call on them to explain their thoughts. Students should explain WHY they are predicting where the line would be. Ideally, students will discuss that when the volunteer walked slowly, it took more time to get a certain distance, where when the volunteer walked normally (line A), the volunteer walked the same distance but took less time. Therefore, when the volunteer

runs, the line will show less time to get the same distance. *note the total distance the volunteer will be going

is 3 meters due to classroom space to walk

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 13. Student volunteer should now walk very quickly as the motion detector generates the graph. Teacher should ask if their prediction was correct and what the line tells us in terms of the distance traveled and the time it took. Teacher should then make the math connection for students and tell them: ​the lines shown are called “slope” in math. The steeper the line, the larger the slope—therefore going to be fast. Think of it like a rollercoaster the steeper the coaster is, the faster you will go. 14. Teacher will now select another volunteer to walk in front of the motion detector. This volunteer will be given the following directions out loud so the whole class can hear: ​start in front of the motion detector, walk away, stop for a couple seconds, then continue walking away.​ Volunteer will do this as the graph is generated. Once completed, the teacher will ask the class: ​can we calculate the speed from the information we have on this graph? ​Teacher should guide thinking by asking, “​what two things do we need to know to determine an object’s speed?” S​ tudents should respond saying: ​distance and time.​ Teacher will ask “​can we determine an object’s speed with this motion detector?” ​Students should respond: “​yes”​. Teacher will question them asking: “​how so?” ​Students should say: “​it detects the distance of the object and the time it is in motion”. 10. Teacher should divide the graph generated into three sections, A, B and C. Section A is the motion the volunteer did when he/she walked away from the motion detector. Section B will be when the volunteer stopped to when he/she continued walking. Section C will be when the volunteer started walking away again to where they finally stopped. 11. Teacher will state to the class their task: ​As a group, you will be calculating the speed the volunteer walked, for each section of the graph. You may come up to the board to get a closer look at the distances and times. ​Student’s will work together to determine how to calculate the speed of the walker. As students are working, teacher should be going around to each table to guide and help students. This will also be time for the teacher to informally observe student’s understanding through discussions with students. Closure | Discussion & Exit Ticket 5 Minutes | Discussion 12. Once the groups have calculated the speeds, teacher will ask a group to explain how they calculated the speed. Students will come up to the board and show their peers how they used the graph to find the distances and times. Teacher will model and assist in showing peers as necessary. 5 minutes| Exit Ticket 13. Students will finish the lesson by completed a two question exit ticket. This exit ticket will address students understanding of predicting if an object is moving fast or slow based on the slope of a line as well as calculating speed using a graph to get the distances and times. Teacher should collect the exit tickets as students complete them. Once students complete the exit ticket, they are dismissed. Accommodations ● Sign Language Interpreter ● Microphone and FM ● Direct instruction, repeated instruction and clarification when necessary ● Visual modeling using technology to illustrate an object in motion with corresponding graph being generated through motion detector software.

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Modifications

The intervention specialist modifies homework.

● Some students will show satisfactory with understanding speed by being able to verbally explain which line shows an object moving fastest or slowest by generally looking at the steepness of the lines.

 LESSON FOUR Instructional Environment: Instruction Duration: Number of Students: General Classroom 70 Minutes 29 Central Focus of the lesson: ​In this lesson, students will apply knowledge accumulated from the previous 3 lessons to individually write a creative story that represents an object in motion according to a specific motion graph. This lesson will assess students’ knowledge as a formative assessment. Objectives: 1. Students will be able to ​interpret​ a distance versus time graph and d​ escribe​ the object’s motion in terms of distance, time and direction of the object from a starting part. 2. Students will be able to ​calculate​ the speed of an object in motion by ​using and applying​ the information provided on a distance-time graph. 3.Students will be able to ​write​ a story that clearly and accurately explains the motion of an object given a certain motion graph using specific vocabulary from all lessons. Standard Addressed: SC.6.PS.4 An object’s motion can be described by its speed and the direction in which it’s moving. CCSS.Math.Practice.MP2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. CCSS.Math.Content.8.F.B.5 Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing) CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.2.d Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. Materials: -Assessment Handouts -Sample Story

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Accommodations

Sign Language Interpreter

Microphone and FM

Direct instruction and guidance, repeated instruction and clarification when necessary.

Modifications

● Some students will show satisfactory with understanding motion graphs by being able to write about the object in motion based on the general shape of the graph.