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WASHINGTON EDITION

ASSESSMENT NOTE: This edition is the result of


collaboration among FOSS staff at
Lawrence Hall of Science, the Science
MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY and Math Education Resource Center
(SMERC) at ESD 112, and many
dedicated teachers in Washington
State.

The Washington Edition was made


possible by the generous support of the
following organizations: Delta
Education; Educational Service District
112; Eisenhower Funding; Hewle�-
Packard; Intel; Lawrence Hall of Science
at the University of California, Berkeley;
Washington State School Districts; and
Washington State University, Vancouver.

ASSESSMENT CONTENTS
Investigations 1–5 4
End-of-Module Assessment 62
This folio contains a variety of resources that help teachers assess Assessment Blueprint 68
student progress in reaching Grade Level Expectations (GLEs) as
outlined in the Essential Academic Learning Requirements (EALRs)
for science. These materials have been designed for Washington State
INVESTIGATION
teachers using the 2000 edition of FOSS. Look in the Assessment DUPLICATION
Overview, available at www.smerc.org, for more on how to use these MASTER CHANGES
classroom-based assessments. See page 2

Scoring guides for each of the assessments begin on page 4, using a


+//– rubric.
+ going beyond expectations
 meeting expectations
– below expectations

The summative assessment scores more complex items with a 0–4


rubric.
4 going beyond expectations
3 meeting expectations
2 close to expectations
1 below expectations
0 off task, or no response

MAGNETISM
MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY
AND ELECTRICITY 1
INVESTIGATION DUPLICATION MASTER
CHANGES:

New student sheets

• no. 2a Magnetic Observations


• no. 4a The Force
• no. 7a Lighting Bulbs
• no. 14a Advanced Connections Part 1
• Inquiry Project Sheets

Modified student sheets

• no. 3 Magnetic Observations (continued) (replacing Magnetic


Observations)
• no. 4 Response Sheet—Investigation 1 (replacing Magnets)
• no. 5 The Force Conclusion (replacing The Force)
• no. 6 Detecting Magnets
• no. 7 The Flow of Electricity
• no. 9 Response Sheet—Investigation 2 (replacing Bulbs)
• no. 10 Conductors and Insulators
• no. 11 Mystery Boards (replacing Mystery Circuits)
• no. 15 Advanced Connections Part 2 (replacing Advanced
Connections)
• no. 16 Response Sheet—Investigation 3 (replacing Circuit Design)
• no. 18 Winding Electromagnets
• no. 19 Response Sheet—Investigation 4 (replacing Reverse Switch)

2
WASHINGTON EDITION

Blank Page

MAGNETISM
MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY
AND ELECTRICITY 3
INVESTIGATION 1: THE FORCE
INQUIRY INVESTIGATION SUMMARY

PART 1
INVESTIGATING MAGNETS AND MATERIALS Students find that objects that contain iron stick to
permanent magnets; other objects do not. They
• What kind of materials do magnets stick to?
discover that two magnets will either a�ract or repel
• What happens when you bring two or more one another, depending on their orientation. The agent
magnets together? responsible for this behavior is the magnetic force.
Time: 30–45 minutes

PART 2
Students observe that iron or steel objects in contact
INVESTIGATING MORE MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
with a magnet become temporarily magnetic
• How do magnets interact with other objects? themselves. This induced magnetism disappears when
• Does an iron object have to touch a magnet the iron or steel object separates from the magnet.
to become a temporary magnet? Students find out that the magnetic force acts right
through materials, with the exception of iron.
• Does magnetic force go through all materials?

Time: 30–45 minutes


PART 3

BREAKING THE FORCE Students use a balance and large washers to measure
• How can we measure the force of a�raction the force of a�raction between two magnets. They
between two magnets? systematically investigate what happens to the force
of a�raction as the distance between the two magnets
Time: 50 minutes, in 1 or 2 sessions increases. Students graph their results.

PART 4
DETECTING THE FORCE OF MAGNETISM Students explore ways to detect the magnetic force.
They find several ways to detect the force and to make it
• Can you figure out where two magnets are
visable, using such things as compasses and iron filings.
taped in a box without looking?

Time: 30–40 minutes

4 FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM


WASHINGTON EDITION—AT A GLANCE
CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES ASSESSMENT OPPORTUNITIES

• Only iron sticks to a magnet. New and Modified Student Sheets

• Two magnets a�ract or repel when they interact. Magnetic Observations and Magnetic Observations
(continued)
• The magnetic force causes magnetic interactions.
Properties of Substances. Understand how to use
properties to sort natural and manufactured materials
and objects. (GLE 1.1.1)

Nature of Force. Understand forces in terms of strength


and direction. (GLE 1.3.1)

• Magnetism can be induced only in iron or steel (and Modified Student Sheet
a few other metals).
Response Sheet—Investigation 1
• The magnetic force acts through space and most
Nature of Force. Understand forces in terms of strength
materials.
and direction. (GLE 1.3.1)
• The magnetic force of a�raction between two
magnets decreases with distance.

• The greater the distance between two magnets, the New and Modified Student Sheets
less the magnetic force.
The Force and The Force, Conclusion
• Magnetic fields act right through many
Planning and Conducting Safe Investigations.
materials.
Understand how to plan and conduct simple
investigations following all safety rules. (GLE 2.1.2)

Nature of Force. Understand forces in terms of strength


and direction. (GLE 1.3.1)

• Compasses, iron filings, and iron objects can detect a Modified Student Sheet
magnetic field.
Detecting Magnets

Explaining. Understand how to construct a reasonable


explanation using evidence. (GLE 2.1.3)

Examples of questions students might generate for inquiry projects

• What would happen in The Force investigation if I used washers instead of plastic chips for spacers?

• What would happen if I put two magnets in the cup?

MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY 5


FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

INVESTIGATION 1: THE FORCE


PART 1: INVESTIGATING MAGNETS AND
MATERIALS

Use new student sheet no. 2a called Magnetic Observations.

Student Sheet—Magnetic Observations, Part 1


Properties of Substances. Understand how to use properties
to sort natural and manufactured materials and objects.
(GLE 1.1.1)
Score If the student...
+ correctly sorts materials that stick to magnets; states
that magnets only stick to materials made of iron,
nickel or cobalt.
 correctly sorts materials that stick to magnets; connects
this property to materials made of iron.

No. 2a—New Student Sheet – cannot sort materials based on magnetic properties.

GOING FURTHER
Plan to gather additional materials for students to sort if they need
some extra practice.

6
WASHINGTON EDITION

Use modified student sheet no. 3 called Magnetic Observations


(continued).

Student Sheet—Magnetic Observations, Part 3


Nature of Force. Understand forces in terms of strength and
direction. (GLE 1.3.1)
Score If the student...
+ draws accurate diagrams and labels them to show
what is happening; describes the direction of the forces
for both when the magnets repel and when they a�ract,
depending on the orientation of the magnet.
 draws accurate diagrams and labels them to show
what is happening; describes the direction of the force
when the magnets repel or a�ract.
– a�empts a diagram and some description, but neither
is clear or complete.
No. 3—Modified Student Sheet

GOING FURTHER
Most students understand the difference between magnets that repel
and a�ract. If their descriptions are incomplete, you might show a
few examples of good descriptions to help students develop their
communication skills.

MAGNETISM
MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY
AND ELECTRICITY 7
Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS
Part 1: How does your magnet interact with the test objects?

Things that stick Things that don’t stick

Magnets stick only to

TEST-OBJECTS INVENTORY

Aluminum nails
Iron nails
Soda straws
Sponges
Black rocks
River pebbles
Pieces of screen
Paper fasteners
Paper clips
Pieces of copper
Screws
Pieces of yarn
Pieces of cardboard
Rubber bands
Brass rings
Cra� sticks
Washers
Plastic chips
Pieces of aluminum foil

FOSS Magnetism and Electricity Module Investigation 1: The Force


© The Regents of the University of California No. 2a—New Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for workshop or classroom use. WA Edition
Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS (continued)


Part 2: Where did you detect iron or steel in the classroom?

Things made of iron or steel Things that are not made of iron or steel

Part 3: Use words and drawings to describe the direction of force when two magnets are
brought close together.

FOSS Magnetism and Electricity Module Investigation 1: The Force


© The Regents of the University of California No. 3—Modified Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for workshop or classroom use. WA Edition
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

INVESTIGATION 1: THE FORCE


PART 2: INVESTIGATING MORE MAGNETIC
PROPERTIES

Use modified student sheet no. 4 called Response Sheet—Investigation 1.


Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

THE FLOW OF ELECTRICITY


If you had a bulb and ba�ery, draw below how you would put them together with a wire
to light a bulb.

Response Sheet—Investigation 1

D-CELL
Nature of Force. Understand forces in terms of strength and
direction. (GLE 1.3.1)

Use arrows to show how the electricity flows. Describe below how electricity flows in
Score If the student...
your drawing above.

+ says the paper clip and nail must be iron or steel;


explains that magnetism has been induced in the nail
and paper clip from the permanent paper clip; offers
as evidence the fact that the nail would not stick to the
paper clip before it was touching the magnet.
FOSS Magnetism and Electricity Module
© The Regents of the University of California
Can be duplicated for workshop or classroom use.
Investigation 2: Making Connections
No. 7—Modified Student Sheet
WA Edition  states that the nail has become a temporary magnet (or
uses other words to describe), gives no evidence to
No. 4—Modified Student Sheet support conclusions.
– gives some information about magnets but does not
relate it to the assigned task, or includes
misconceptions.

GOING FURTHER
If you are not satisfied with a response, try writing back and asking
another question to help the student clarify his or her thinking and
writing.
It generally takes some time and practice before students produce
answers to response sheets that consistently rate a 3 or 4. Share
samples of good responses with the class, providing models that
students can use to improve their writing.

10 FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM


Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

RESPONSE SHEET—INVESTIGATION 1

Students in a fourth-grade class were investigating which objects stick to magnets. One of
them drew a picture in his journal like the one you see above, and then wrote,

I was surprised! I had a nail stuck to a magnet, and when I accidentally


touched the nail to a paper clip, the paper clip stuck to the nail. I wonder why
this happens.

Write a note to this student. See if you can help him understand more about what is
happening.

FOSS Magnetism and Electricity Module Investigation 1: The Force


© The Regents of the University of California No. 4—Modified Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for workshop or classroom use. WA Edition
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

INVESTIGATION 1: THE FORCE


PART 3: BREAKING THE FORCE

Use new student sheet no. 4a called The Force and modified student
sheet no. 5 called The Force, Conclusion.

Student Sheet—The Force


Planning and Conducting Safe Investigations. Understand
how to plan and conduct simple investigations following all
safety rules. (GLE 2.1.2 )
Score If the student...
+ labels the x-axis of the graph “spacers” and
numbers each line by ones; labels the y-axis “washers”
and labels each line by ones; places zero at the lower
le� corner for each axis; plots data points accurately.
 needs a hint here and there to complete the graph.
– does not understand how to make the graph.

No. 4a—New Student Sheet

12 FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM


WASHINGTON EDITION

Student Sheet—The Force, Conclusion


Nature of Force. Understand forces in terms of strength and
direction. (GLE 1.3.1)
Score If the student...
+ accurately describes the relationship (i.e., as the
number of spaces increases, the number of washers
needed to break the force decreases) and is able to use
the data to explain the change in force of a�raction
(such as: that as the distance between the two magnets
increases, less force is required to pull them apart; or
the less distance between the magnets; the stronger the
a�raction).
 accurately describes the relationship (i.e., as the
number of spaces increases, the number of washers No. 5—Modified Student Sheet
needed to break the force decreases) but is not able to
explain the change in force of a�raction.
– is not able to describe the relationship or explain the
change in force of a�raction.

GOING FURTHER
Many students in third and fourth grades are familiar only with bar
graphs. You may want to spend some time in math class exploring
different kinds of graphs.

MAGNETISM
MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY
AND ELECTRICITY 13
Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

THE FORCE
Number of spacers Number of washers
Measured (responding) variable:

Changed (manipulated) variable:

FOSS Magnetism and Electricity Module Investigation 1: The Force


© The Regents of the University of California No. 4a—New Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for workshop or classroom use. WA Edition
Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

THE FORCE, CONCLUSION


Look at the pa�ern you see on your graph. Write about what the graph tells you about the
relationship between the number of spacers and the distance between the two magnets.

Based on the data, what conclusion can you make about how the distance between two
magnets affects the force required to pull them apart?

FOSS Magnetism and Electricity Module Investigation 1: The Force


© The Regents of the University of California No. 5—Modified Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for workshop or classroom use. WA Edition
MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY

INVESTIGATION 1: THE FORCE


PART 4: DETECTING THE FORCE OF
MAGNETISM

Use the last two questions from Step 2 of modified student sheet no. 6
called Detecting Magnets.

Student Sheet—Detecting Magnets


Explaining. Understand how to construct a reasonable
explanation using evidence. (GLE 2.1.3)
Score If the student...
+ explains that iron filings and a compass needle are
made of iron and are a�racted to a magnet, the filings
line up with the magnetic field of the magnet hidden
in the box, the compass needle points to the magnet
because the compass needle is also a magnet.
 explains that iron filings, and a compass needle are
made of iron and that all iron materials stick to a
magnet but gives no further details.
– cannot explain why the iron filings or the compass can
No. 6—Modified Student Sheet help detect magnets.

GOING FURTHER
Most students know by this time that iron is the material that sticks
to magnets. That is the important idea here. If there are any doubts
about this, you will need to work with individual students to help
them understand this relationship. You might work with the test
objects one more time, having students sort them before testing them
and discussing what happens.

16 FULL OPTION
FULL OPTION SCIENCE
SCIENCESYSTEM
SYSTEM
Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

DETECTING MAGNETS
Step 1: Which Test Objects would be helpful in detecting magnets? Make a prediction
before carrying out the test.

Test Objects Prediction Actual Test


Helpful Not Helpful Helpful Not Helpful
Screen
Paper Fastener
Cra� sticks
Aluminum foil
Rubber bands
Screw

Step 2: Detecting hidden magnets using iron filings and a compass.

Observations
Iron filings

Compass

1. How did the iron filings help you find the magnets?

2. How did the compass help you find the magnets?

FOSS Magnetism and Electricity Module Investigation 1: The Force


© The Regents of the University of California No. 6—Modified Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for workshop or classroom use. WA Edition
INVESTIGATION 2: MAKING CONNECTIONS
INQUIRY INVESTIGATION SUMMARY

PART 1
LIGHTING A BULB Students explore simple electric circuits. They use trial
and error to build a circuit that lights a bulb. They
• How can you get electricity from a source to a
receiver? begin developing concepts about how connections must
be made and how electricity flows through a circuit.
• Where do connections need to be made?

• How does electricity flow through a circuit?


Time: 40 minutes

PART 2
MAKING A MOTOR RUN Students use a circuit base to build a circuit with a
• How can you get electricity from a source to a D-cell and a motor. They add a switch to the circuit to
receiver? control the flow of electricity. Students learn the
conventions for drawing schematic diagrams of circuits.
• How is the motor circuit like the lightbulb
circuit? How is it different?

• What does a switch do in a circuit?

Time: 30–40 minutes

PART 3
FINDING INSULATORS AND CONDUCTORS Students build a circuit to test whether objects are
conductors or insulators. They search the classroom for
• Can any of the test objects complete a circuit?
insulators and conductors.
• How much of the classroom environment is made of
conductors?

Time: 30–40 minutes

PART 4

INVESTIGATING MYSTERY CIRCUITS Students work with mystery boards to reinforce the
concept of conductor and check their understanding of
how electricity flows through a circuit.
Time: 40–60 minutes

18 FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM


WASHINGTON EDITION—AT A GLANCE
CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES ASSESSMENT OPPORTUNITIES

• A D-cell is a source of electric energy. Pre-assessment

• A bulb is an energy receiver that produces light. Modified Student Sheet


The Flow of Electricity
• A circuit is a pathway through which electric current
flows. New Student Sheet
Lighting Bulbs
Energy Transfer and Transformation. Understand that
energy can be transferred from one object to another
and can be transformed from one form of energy to
another. (GLE 1.2.2)

• A motor is an energy receiver that produces motion. Modified Student Sheet

• A switch is a device that opens and closes a circuit. Response Sheet—Investigation 2


Forms of Energy. Understand that energy comes in
• A schematic diagram is a representation of a circuit many forms. (GLE 1.1.4) Energy Transfer and
that is used for recording and Transformation. Understand that energy can be
communicating with others. transferred from one object to another and can be
transformed from one form of energy to another.
(GLE 1.2.2)
Structure of Physical Earth/Space and Living Systems.
Analyze how the parts of a system go together and how
these parts depend on each other. (GLE 1.2.1)

• Materials that allow the flow of electricity are Modified Student Sheet
conductors. Conductors and Insulators
• Materials that do not allow the flow of Properties of Substances. Understand how to use
properties to sort natural and manufactured materials
electricity are insulators.
and objects. (GLE 1.1.1)
Explaining. Understand how to construct a reasonable
explanation using evidence. (GLE 2.1.3)

• Content from each part above is assessed. Teacher Observation and Modified Student Sheet
Mystery Boards
Structure of Physical Earth/Space and Living Systems.
Analyze how the parts of a system go together and how
these parts depend on each other. (GLE 1.2.1)
Post-assessment
Modified Student Sheet
The Flow of Electricity
Energy Transfer and Transformation. Understand that
energy can be transferred from one object to another
and can be transformed from one form of energy to
another. (GLE 1.2.2)

MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY 19


FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

INVESTIGATION 2: MAKING
CONNECTIONS
PRE-ASSESSMENT QUICK WRITE
Use modified student sheet no. 7 called The Flow of Electricity as a
pre-assessment. Illustrations of models A-C appear in the side bar.
Save the students’ papers so they can reflect upon their original for the
Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________
post assessment at the end of Investigation 2.
THE FLOW OF ELECTRICITY
If you had a bulb and ba�ery, draw below how you would put them together with a wire
to light a bulb.

Pre-assessment Modified Student Sheet—The Flow of


D-CELL
Electricity
Energy Transfer and Transformation. Understand that energy
Use arrows to show how the electricity flows. Describe below how electricity flows in
your drawing above.
can be transferred from one object to another and can be
transformed from one form of energy to another. (GLE 1.2.2)
Score If the student...
3 draws model C, explains that the electricity travels
through the circuit in one direction from the negative
FOSS Magnetism and Electricity Module
© The Regents of the University of California
Investigation 2: Making Connections
No. 7—Modified Student Sheet
terminal to the positive terminal.
Can be duplicated for workshop or classroom use. WA Edition

2 draws model B, shows a complete circuit, but arrows


No. 7—Modified Student Sheet and/or description demonstrates an incorrect
understanding of the flow of electricity.
1 draws model A, shows a incomplete circuit.
0 does not complete the task, or gives information that
has nothing to do with what was asked.

20 FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM


WASHINGTON EDITION

INVESTIGATION 2: MAKING
CONNECTIONS
PART 1: LIGHTING A BULB
Use new student sheet no. 7a called Lighting Bulbs a�er completing the
lesson.

Correct Answers:
1. No
2. No
3. No
4. Yes
5. Yes
6. No

New Student Sheet—Lighting Bulbs


Energy Transfer and Transformation. Understand that energy
can be transferred from one object to another and can be
transformed from one form of energy to another. (GLE 1.2.2)
Score If the student...
+ correctly predicts for all six cases
 predicts all right except for 3 and/or 4.
– predicts incorrectly for more than circuits 3 and 4.

GOING FURTHER
No. 7a—New Student Sheet
If students had difficulty identifying the complete circuits, you may
want to have students debate and discuss as a class and then test the
circuits. Don’t let them erase original answers, use another color pen
so they can have a record of their change in thinking.

MAGNETISM
MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY
AND ELECTRICITY 21
Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

THE FLOW OF ELECTRICITY


Name ____________________________________

Date _____________________________________
If you had a bulb and ba�ery, draw below how you would put them together with a wire
THE FLOW OF ELECTRICITY
to light a bulb.

D-CELL

UseCONNECT
arrows toTHE
show D-CELL TO THE BULB ABOVE.
how the electricity flows. Describe below how electricity flows in
your drawing above.
Use arr ows to show how the electricity flows. Use lar ge and small arr ows if you need
to show dif ferent amounts of electricity . Describe below how electricity flows in your
drawing above.

FOSS Magnetism and Electricity Module Investigation 2: Making Connections


© The Regents of the University of California No. 7—Modified Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for workshop or classroom use. WA Edition
Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

LIGHTING BULBS
Directions: Make a prediction for each circuit. Write “yes” in the small box next to each
circuit if you think the bulb will light. Write “no” if you think the bulb will not light.

1. 2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

FOSS Magnetism and Electricity Module Investigation 2: Making Connections


© The Regents of the University of California No. 7a—New Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for workshop or classroom use. WA Edition
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

INVESTIGATION 2: MAKING
CONNECTIONS
PART 2: MAKING A MOTOR RUN
Use modified student sheet no. 9 called Response Sheet―
Investigation 2.
Response Sheet—Investigation 2, Items 1b, 1c and 2b
Forms of Energy. Understand that energy comes in many forms.
(GLE 1.1.4) Energy Transfer and Transformation. Understand
that energy can be transferred from one object to another and
can be transformed from one form of energy to another.
(GLE 1.2.2)
Score If the student...
+ correctly identifies the source and transformations
(1b–the ba�ery, 1c–energy of motion or kinetic energy,
No. 9—Modified Student Sheet 2b–light energy)
 correctly identifies the source and transformations
GOING FURTHER giving a description of the energy form but does not
Many students think circuit A use the correct terminology.
will work. To help them focus
on the detail of the connections, – does not correctly identify the source and
draw two systems on the board transformations.
as shown below. Then invite a
lively class debate about which
Response Sheet—Bulbs, Items 1a and 2a
will work.
Structure of Physical Earth/Space and Living Systems.
Analyze how the parts of a system go together and how these
parts depend on each other. (GLE 1.2.1)
A
Score If the student...
+ gives a good explanation for both 1a and 2a and
correctly identifies B as the circuit that will light the
bulb. 1a includes information about electricity flowing
in one direction and shows it flowing from the negative
terminal through the wire to the positive terminal. 2a
states that A will not work because the electricity is not
B going through the bulb (short circuit).
 gives a good explanation for either 1a or 2a and
correctly identifies B as the circuit that will light the
bulb.
– identifies the wrong circuit and/or gives no
explanations.
24 FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM
Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

RESPONSE SHEET—INVESTIGATION 2

1a. Ahmed drew a picture of a motor circuit he built.


Draw arrows on the picture to show how electricity
flows through the circuit. Explain below why you
drew the arrows the way that you did.

+ –

1b. What is the energy source for the working cicuit above?

1c. In this circuit, electrical energy is transformed into:

2a. Look at the two bulb-and-ba�ery circuits pictured below. Only one will light the
bulb. Which one do you think will work and why?

A B

2b. In this circuit, electrical energy is tranformed into

FOSS Magnetism and Electricity Module Investigation 2: Making Connections


© The Regents of the University of California No. 9—Modified Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for workshop or classroom use. WA Edition
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

INVESTIGATION 2: MAKING
CONNECTIONS
PART 3: FINDING INSULATORS AND
CONDUCTORS

Use modified student sheet no. 10 called Conductors and Insulators.

Student Sheet—Conductors and Insulators Items 1 and 2


Properties of Substances. Understand how to use properties
to sort natural and manufactured materials and objects.
(GLE 1.1.1)
Score If the student...
 correctly sorts all materials.
– is unable to sort all the materials.

Student Sheet—Conductors and Insulators Item 3


No. 10—Modified Student Sheet
Explaining. Understand how to construct a reasonable
explanation using evidence. (GLE 2.1.3)
Score If the student...
+ uses evidence from Items 1 and 2 and earlier magnet
activities to explain that all metals are conductors but
not all metals stick to magnets, and adds examples of
some metals such as aluminum or brass that are
conductors but do not stick to magnets.
 uses evidence from Items 1 and 2 and earlier magnet
activities to explain that all metals are
conductors but not all metals stick to magnets.
– does not know how conductors are different from
things that stick to magnets.
GOING FURTHER
If students are having difficulty grasping the difference between
conductors and things that stick to magnets, you might try making a
Venn diagram as a class. The Venn diagram would have overlapping
circles with iron (and nickel and cobalt) in the overlap, aluminum and
brass in just the conductor portion of the circle, and nothing in the
section for just sticks to magnet.
26 FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM
Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS


1. List the test objects that are conductors and insulators.

CONDUCTORS INSULATORS

2. List the classroom objects that are conductors and insulators.

CONDUCTORS INSULATORS

3. What do you notice that is similar about all the conductors? How is this different
from things that stick to magnets?

FOSS Magnetism and Electricity Module Investigation 2: Making Connections


© The Regents of the University of California No. 10—Modified Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for workshop or classroom use. WA Edition
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

INVESTIGATION 2: MAKING
CONNECTIONS
PART 4: INVESTIGATING MYSTERY
CIRCUITS

Use modified student sheet no. 11 called Mystery Boards as a small


group activity rather than as an assessment, then use teacher
observation to assess that students understand how to use the open
circuit to test for the hidden wires in the mystery boards.
Give the following instructions to the students: “Use the circuits built
to test for conductors and insulators to find the hidden circuits in the
mystery boards.” When observing the students working, ask them
what the connection is between testing for a conductor or insulator
and finding the hidden circuits. (In both cases, they are making an
open circuit, then using either conductors or hidden wires to close the
circuit.)

No. 11—Modified Student Sheet


Modified Student Sheet—Mystery Boards
Structure of Physical Earth/Space and Living Systems.
Analyze how the parts of a system go together and how these
parts depend on each other. (GLE 1.2.1)
Score If the student...
+ builds a circuit with an opening that can be used to test
for the hidden wires, uses the circuit to test for
conductivity to determine which are connected by
wires hidden between the pieces of cardboard, draws a
line on the student sheet correctly identifying the
hidden wires, and can explain how the circuit tester
works to identify the mystery wires.
 builds a simple circuit with an opening that can be
used to test for the hidden wires, uses the circuit to test
for conductivity to determine which are connected by
wires hidden between the pieces of cardboard, draws a
line on the student sheet correctly identifying the
hidden wires.
– builds the circuit but cannot use it to correctly
identify the hidden wires.

28 FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM


WASHINGTON EDITION

INVESTIGATION 2: MAKING
CONNECTIONS
POST-ASSESSMENT

Use modified student sheet no. 7 called The Flow of Electricity.

Post-Assessment Modified Student Sheet—The Flow of


Electricity
Energy Transfer and Transformation. Understand that energy
can be transferred from one object to another and can be
transformed from one form of energy to another. (GLE 1.2.2)
Score If the student...
3 draws model C, explains that the electricity travels
through the circuit in one direction from the negative
terminal to the positive terminal.
2 draws model B, shows a complete circuit, but arrows
and/or description demonstrates an incorrect
understanding of the flow of electricity.
1 draws model A, shows a incomplete circuit.
No. 7—Modified Student Sheet
0 does not complete the task, or gives information that
has nothing to do with what was asked.

MAGNETISM
MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY
AND ELECTRICITY 29
Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

MYSTERY-BOARDS

Directions: Draw lines to show how wires connect the brass fasterners.

1 A B
2 A B

C D C D

3 A B
4 A B

C D C D

5 A B
6 A B

C D C D

7 A B
8 A B

C D C D

FOSS Magnetism and Electricity Module Investigation 2: Making Connections


© The Regents of the University of California No. 11—Modified Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for workshop or classroom use. WA Edition
Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

THE FLOW OF
WASHINGTON ELECTRICITY
EDITION

If you had a bulb and ba�ery, draw below how you would put them together with a wire
to light a bulb.

Use arrows to show how the electricity flows. Describe below how electricity flows in
your drawing above.

MAGNETISM
FOSS MagnetismAND
MAGNETISM andANDELECTRICITY
ELECTRICITY
Electricity Module 31
Investigation 2: Making Connections
© The Regents of the University of California No. 7—Modified Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for workshop or classroom use. WA Edition
INVESTIGATION 3: ADVANCED CONNECTIONS
INQUIRY INVESTIGATION SUMMARY

PART 1
BUILDING SERIES CIRCUITS Students find ways to operate more than one
component in a circuit. They invent a series circuit and
• Can you get two bulbs to light at the same time?
find out it takes two D-cells to make the two bulbs shine
• Can you make two lights bright in a series circuit? brightly.
Time: 30–40 minutes

PART 2
BUILDING PARALLEL CIRCUITS Students learn another way to operate two
components. They construct a parallel circuit and find
• Can you light two bulbs brightly with just one
that many bulbs can operate on a single D-cell. There
ba�ery?
are six ways students can wire their circuits in parallel
• How many different ways can you wire a parallel using two bulbs.
circuit?

Time: 50–60 minutes in 1 or 2 sessions

PART 3
SOLVING THE STRING-OF-LIGHTS PROBLEM Students simulate the research and development
department of a decorative-light manufacturer. They
• Which design is be�er for manufacturing long
put their knowledge of series and parallel circuits to
strings of tree lights—series or parallel?
work and solve customer complaints, making
Time: 30–40 minutes in 1 or 2 sessions recommendations for manufacturing guidelines.

32 FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM


WASHINGTON EDITION—AT A GLANCE
CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES ASSESSMENT OPPORTUNITIES

• A circuit with only one pathway for current flow is a New Student Sheet
series circuit. Advanced Connections
• Components in a series circuit “share” the electric Communicating. Understand how to report
energy. investigations and explanations of objects, events,
systems, and processes. (GLE 2.1.5)
• Cells in series must be oriented in the same direction
in order to work.

• A parallel circuit splits into two or more pathways Modified Student Sheet
before coming back together at the ba�ery. Advanced Connections Part 2
• Components in a parallel circuit each have a direct Communicating. Understand how to report
pathway to the energy source. investigations and explanations of objects, events,
systems, and processes. (GLE 2.1.5 )
Modified Student Sheet
Response Sheet—Investigation 3
Energy Transfer and Transformation Understand that
energy can be transferred from one object to another
and can be transformed from one form of energy to
another. (GLE 1.2.2)
Intellectual Honesty. Understand that all scientific
observations are reported accurately and honestly even
when the observations contradict expectations.
(GLE 2.2.1)

• Content from each part above is addressed. Teacher Observation and Student Sheet
Problem solving
Recommendation to the Board
Designing and Testing Solutions. Understand how the
scientific design process is used to develop and
implement solutions to human problems. (GLE 3.1.2)
Evaluating Potential Solutions. Analyze how well a
design or a product solves a problem. (GLE 3.1.3)

Examples of questions students might generate for inquiry projects

• Does the ba�ery last longer in a circuit with two bulbs connected in series or in parallel?

• How many lights can you connect in parallel and still have the bulbs shine brightly?

MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY 33


INVESTIGATION 3: ADVANCED
CONNECTIONS
PART 1: BUILDING SERIES CIRCUITS

Use new student sheet no. 14a called Advanced Connections-Part 1. Use
the entire sheet for Investigation 3, Part 1; a new sheet has been added
for Investigation 3, Part 2. (The original was one sheet for Parts 1
and 2).

Student Sheet—Advanced Connections-Part 1


Communicating. Understand how to report investigations and
explanations of objects, events, systems, and processes.
(GLE 2.1.5)
Score If the student...
+ uses schematics (symbols) in his/her diagram to
accurately represent the circuits and describes
observations and results without making inferences.
 draws an accurate diagram to represent the circuits
and describes observations and results without making
inferences.
– diagram does not accurately represent the circuits and/
No. 14a—New Student Sheet or observations are inaccurate or include inferences.

34 FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM


Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

ADVANCED CONNECTIONS—PART 1

1. Before testing—Draw a diagram 2. A�er testing—Draw the diagram


of a circuit that you think will that made two bulbs light.
light two bulbs.

This is a _______________________ circuit.

3. What did you observe? 4. Draw a picture to show what you


did.

What will you do next?

FOSS Magnetism and Electricity Module Investigation 3: Advanced Connections


© The Regents of the University of California No. 14a—New Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for workshop or classroom use. WA Edition
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

INVESTIGATION 3: ADVANCED
CONNECTIONS
PART 2: BUILDING PARALLEL CIRCUITS

Use modified student sheet no. 15 called Advanced Connections–Part 2.

Student Sheet—Advanced Connections-Part 2


Communicating. Understand how to report investigations and
explanations of objects, events, systems, and processes.
(GLE 2.1.5)
Score If the student...
+ uses schematics (symbols) in the diagram to accurately
represent the circuits.
 draws an accurate diagram to represent the circuits.
– draws a diagram that does not accurately represent the
circuit.

No. 15—Modified Student Sheet

36 FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM


WASHINGTON EDITION

Use modified student sheet no. 16 called Response Sheet—


Investigation 3.

Response Sheet—Investigation 3, Item 1


Energy Transfer and Transformation. Understand that energy
can be transferred from one object to another and can be
transformed from one form of energy to another. (GLE 1.2.2)
Score If the student...
+ states that the light will light when the switch is open
and goes off when the switch is closed (reverse switch)
because there is less resistance going through the
switch (more resistance going through the filament of
the bulb).
 has a reasonable prediction based on their current
experience that shows their understanding of the flow
of electricity in a parallel circuit (i.e., the bulb will light
when the switch is closed because it is a “complete
circuit” or thinks it will light whether or not the switch
No. 16—Modified Student Sheet
is closed because it is a “parallel circuit” so each
component has its own pathway to D-Cell).
– does not demonstrate an understanding of parallel or
complete circuit.

Response Sheet—Investigation 3, Item 2


Intellectual Honesty. Understand that all scientific observations
are reported accurately and honestly even when the
observations contradict expectations. (GLE 2.2.1)
Score If the student...
 honestly and accurately records what happened when
the switch was closed even if it does not match their
initial prediction in Part 1 and does not make changes
to their initial prediction (it is possible that a student
may get a faint light with the switch closed if they have
a very strong ba�ery).
– does not record honestly and accurately what
happened when the switch was closed or changed their
initial prediction.

MAGNETISM
MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY
AND ELECTRICITY 37
Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

ADVANCED CONNECTIONS—PART 2
Directions: Use the spaces below to draw schematic diagrams of circuits you build that
can brightly light two bulbs using only one D-cell.

These circuits are called ____________________________________ circuits.

FOSS Magnetism and Electricity Module Investigation 3: Advanced Connections


© The Regents of the University of California No. 15—Modified Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for workshop or classroom use. WA Edition
Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

RESPONSE SHEET—INVESTIGATION 3

A student drew a plan for a circuit she thought would be interesting to build. She drew a
picture to show how she would set it up (see below).

1. Make a prediction: What do you think will happen when the switch is closed? Why do
you think that will happen?

2. Build the circuit you see pictured above. Record what happened when you closed the
switch. Were you surprised by what you observed? Why or why not?

FOSS Magnetism and Electricity Module Investigation 3: Advanced Connections


© The Regents of the University of California No. 16—Modified Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for workshop or classroom use. WA Edition
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

INVESTIGATION 3: ADVANCED
CONNECTIONS
PART 3: SOLVING THE STRING-OF-LIGHTS
PROBLEM

Use teacher observation and student sheet no. 17 called


Recommendation to the Board.

Teacher Observation—Problem solving


Designing and Testing Solutions. Understand how the
scientific design process is used to develop and implement
solutions to human problems. (GLE 3.1.2)
Score If the student...
+ is able to participate in building series or parallel
circuits with his or her group to test the solution to the
string-of-lights problem.
 provides some input to the group about how to test the
circuits to find a solution to the problem.
– provides li�le input to the group.

No. 17—Student Sheet


Student Sheet—Recommendation to the Board
Evaluating Potential Solutions. Analyze how well a design or
a product solves a problem. (GLE 3.1.3)
Score If the student...
+ recommends a parallel design and explains using two
reasons. (i.e., when one bulb burns out the others stay
lit and a parallel only needs one ba�ery to light all 8
bulbs, whereas a series would need 8 ba�eries).
 recommends a parallel design and explains using only
one reason (i.e., when one bulb burns out the others
stay lit or a parallel only needs one ba�ery to light all 8
bulbs, whereas a series would need 8 ba�eries).
– recommends a series design or is not able to give a
reasonable explanation for recommending a parallel
design.

40 FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM


Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

RECOMMENDATION TO THE BOARD


MEMO
Date:
To: Board of Directors
From:
Re: Recommendation for new light design

1. This is a schematic diagram of the best design for a string of eight lights.

2. This is a circuit.

3. I recommend you use this design because...

FOSS Magnetism and Electricity Module Investigation 3: Advanced Connections


© The Regents of the University of California No. 17—Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for workshop or classroom use. WA Edition
INVESTIGATION 4: CURRENT ATTRACTIONS
INQUIRY INVESTIGATION SUMMARY

PART 1

BUILDING AN ELECTROMAGNET Students discover that, when current flows through an


insulated wire wound around a steel core, the steel core
• Can you make a magnet that turns on and off?
becomes a magnet. They find out where to wind the
Time: 30–40 minutes wire on the core to produce the strongest magnet.

PART 2
CHANGING NUMBER OF WINDS Students experiment to find out how the number of
winds of wire affects the strength of magnetism. A�er
• How does the number of winds of wire around a
collecting data for a 20-wind, 30-wind, and 40-wind
core affect the strength of the magnetism?
electromagnet, students graph their results. They
Time: 50 minutes, in 1 or 2 sessions predict the strength of magnetism based on the graph.

PART 3

INVESTIGATING MORE ELECTROMAGNETS Students propose other ways to change the strength
of the electromagnet. A�er listing a set of variables,
• How can the strength of an electromagnet be changed?
students plan and conduct an experiment.
Time: One 50-minute session or two 30-minute
sessions

42 FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM


WASHINGTON EDITION—AT A GLANCE
CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES ASSESSMENT OPPORTUNITIES

• A magnet can be made by winding an insulated Teacher Observation


wire around an iron core and running current
Investigating electromagnet design
through the wire.
Planning and Conducting Safe Investigations.
• The magnetism produced by an electromagnet can
Understand how to plan and conduct simple
be turned on and off.
investigations following all safety rules. (GLE 2.1.2)

• The greater the number of winds of wire around the Modified Student Sheets
iron core, the stronger the magnetism produced.
Winding Electromagnets and Inquiry Project Sheets
• A graph can be used to make predictions.
Explaining. Understand how to construct a reasonable
explanation using evidence. (GLE 2.1.3)

Modified Student Sheet

Response Sheet—Investigation 4

Structure of Physical Earth/Space and Living Systems.


Analyze how the parts of a system go together and how
these parts depend on each other. (GLE 1.2.1)

Energy Transfer and Transformation. Understand that


energy can be transferred from one object to another
and can be transformed from one form of energy to
another. (GLE 1.2.2 )

• There are many ways to change the strength of an Teacher Observation and Student Sheets
electromagnet, including tighter coils, number of
Inquiry Project Sheets
D-cells, and different wire gauge.
Planning and Conducting Safe Investigations.
• Wire used to make an electromagnet must be
Understand how to plan and conduct simple
insulated.
investigations following all safety rules. (GLE 2.1.2)
• All wire coils must be wound in the same direction.
Explaining. Understand how to construct a reasonable
explanation using evidence. (GLE 2.1.3)

Examples of questions students might generate for inquiry projects


• Part 3 of this investigation is an inquiry project. See investigations suggested in that part.

MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY 43


FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

INVESTIGATION 4: CURRENT
ATTRACTIONS
PART 1: BUILDING AN ELECTROMAGNET

Starting in step 8 of the Investigation, introduce new student sheets for


Inquiry Project found on pages 58-61. Help the students to formulate
a question to answer the challenge (i.e., does the strength of the
electromagnet change if I wrap the wire at the top, middle, or bo�om
of the rivet) and develop a plan. Use teacher observation to assess the
students’ ability to follow their Investigation Plan.

NOTE: WASL Readiness Tips for Investigation 4


These Investigation Planning sheets match the WASL format and are
intended to build the students’ skills in inquiry while also familiarizing
them with the format and scoring used on the WASL. In Part 1 of
this Investigation, model for the students how to use these sheets to
plan an investigation, as a class generating the question and the plan.
Assess students’ ability to follow their plan. Model the process of
using the sheet to plan an Investigation again in Investigation 4 Part 2,
and focus your assessment on the students’ ability to use data to form
a conclusion. In Investigation 4 Part 3 the students will be expected to
independently use the Investigation Planning Forms to generate their
own question, modify their plan accordingly, and conduct their own
investigation including recording data.

44 FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM


WASHINGTON EDITION

Teacher Observation—Investigating electromagnet design


Planning and Conducting Safe Investigations. Understand
how to plan and conduct simple investigations following all
safety rules. (GLE 2.1.2)
Score If the student...
+ is able to independently follow the plan, record their
data, and use the scoring rubric to evaluate their own
work.
 needs some minor assistance to follow the plan,
record their data, and use the scoring rubric to
evaluate their own work.
– needs extensive guidance to follow the plan, record
their data, and use the scoring rubric to evaluate their
own work.

MAGNETISM
MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY
AND ELECTRICITY 45
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

INVESTIGATION 4: CURRENT
ATTRACTIONS
PART 2: CHANGING NUMBER OF WINDS

As a class use the Inquiry Project Sheets to develop a new


investigation, along with modified student sheet no. 18 called Winding
Electromagnets, to assess students’ ability to independently write a
conclusion. Give the students this question to answer: How does the
number of winds of wire affect the strength of the magnetism?

Student Sheet—Winding Electromagnets and Inquiry


Project Sheets
Explaining. Understand how to construct a reasonable
explanation using evidence. (GLE 2.1.3)
Score If the student...
+ writes a conclusion that explains whether their
prediction was correct, including supporting data from
the Winding Electromagnets data sheet, and explains
how this data supports their conclusion using highest
and lowest point of reference.
 writes a conclusion that explains whether their
No. 18—Modified Student Sheet prediction was correct, but uses only one reference
point for supporting data from the Winding
Electromagnets data sheet or doesn’t explain how this
data supports their conclusion.
– writes a conclusion but does not refer to data or
explain how the data supports their conclusion.

46 FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM


WASHINGTON EDITION

Use modified student sheet no. 19 called Response Sheet—


Investigation 4.

Response Sheet—Investigation 4 Items 1 and 2


Structure of Physical Earth/Space and Living Systems.
Analyze how the parts of a system go together and how these
parts depend on each other. (GLE 1.2.1)
Score If the student...
+ draws a diagram that includes a complete pathway
from one end of the D-cell, around the rivet, and then
back to the other end of the D-cell; and can explain two
of the three changes that Serena needs to make in order
for the electromagnet system to work: 1) the
aluminum rivet needs to be iron or steel; 2) the wire
needs to be wrapped more than five times; 3) she needs
to connect the circuit in a complete pathway.
 draws a diagram that includes a complete pathway
from one end of the D-cell, around the rivet, and then
back to the other end of the D-cell; and can explain
one change that Serena needs to make in order for the
No. 19-Modified Student Sheet
electromagnet system to work.
– draws a diagram that does not include a complete
pathway and/or cannot explain a change that Serena
needs to make in order for the electromagnet system to
work.

Response Sheet—Investigation 4 Item 3


Energy Transfer and Transformation. Understand that energy
can be transferred from one object to another and can be
transformed from one form of energy to another. (GLE 1.2.2)
Score If the student...
+ explains that when electricity flows through the wire it
creates a magnetic field, turning the rivet into a mag-
net.
 explains that when electricity flows through the wire it
turns the rivet into a magnet.
– is not able to explain that the flow of electricity through
the wire turns the rivet into a magnet.

MAGNETISM
MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY
AND ELECTRICITY 47
Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

WINDING ELECTROMAGNETS
Changed Variables: Measured Variables:
Number of Number of Washers
Winds of Wire Li�ed
Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3

50

40

30
Measured (responding) variables:

20

10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50
Changed (manipulated) variables:
FOSS Magnetism and Electricity Module Investigation 3: Current Attractions
© The Regents of the University of California No. 18—Modified Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for workshop or classroom use. WA Edition
Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

RESPONSE SHEET—INVESTIGATION 4
Serena was excited because she had heard if you wrap a wire around a rivet and hooked
it into a circuit you could make a magnet. She went home, found some wire, wrapped it
around an aluminum rivet 3 times, and a�ached it to a D-cell. When she tried to pick up
some small paper clips, nothing happened. Below is the diagram she drew to show what
she had done. She’s hoping you can help her make the electromagnet work.
1. Draw a diagram next to Sarena’s to show her how to make an electromagnet that works.
Serena’s Diagram Your Diagram

aluminum rivet

3 wraps of
wire

2. Explain to Serena what she needs to change.

3. Explain to Serena how an electromagnet works.

FOSS Magnetism and Electricity Module Investigation 3: Current Attractions


© The Regents of the University of California No. 19—Modified Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for workshop or classroom use. WA Edition
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

INVESTIGATION 4: CURRENT
ATTRACTIONS
PART 3: INVESTIGATING MORE
ELECTROMAGNETS

As a class use new student sheets called Inquiry Project, Inquiry Project
(continued), Writing a Conclusion to An Investigation, and Student Inquiry
Project Scoring Rubric, which can be found on pages 58 - 61 to assess
students’ ability to design and follow an investigation plan then draw
a conclusion. This is an opportunity to build the students’ skills in this
inquiry process, which they will again use for their own independent
investigation at the end of the module, and to familiarize them with
the WASL format. As a class come up with possible questions that
they can choose from to investigate.
This can be used in place of an Inquiry Project for Investigation 5,
Part 3.

Student Sheet—Inquiry Project Sheets


Questioning. Understand how to ask a question about objects,
organisms, and events in the environment. (GLE 2.1.1)
Planning and Conducting Safe Investigations. Understand
how to plan and conduct simple investigations following all
safety rules. (GLE 2.1.2)
Explaining. Understand how to construct a reasonable
explanation using evidence. (GLE 2.1.3)
Score If the student...
4 scores between 10 -14 value points of the total 14 value
points possible.
3 scores between 8 - 9 value points of the total 14 value
points.
2 scores between 6 - 7 value points of the total 14 value
points.
1 scores between 4 - 5 value points of the total 14 value
points.

50 FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM


Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

ELECTROMAGNET INVESTIGATION

1. What question about electromagnets did your group work on?

c t
o je
r
2. Describe what you did to answer your question.
P
i r y
q u
I n
i th
e w
l a c
e p
R
3. What did you find out (answer to the question you wrote for #1)?

FOSS Magnetism and Electricity Module Investigation 1: The Force


© The Regents of the University of California No. 3—Modified Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for workshop or classroom use. WA Edition
INVESTIGATION 5: CLICK IT
INQUIRY INVESTIGATION SUMMARY

PART 1
REINVENTING THE TELEGRAPH Students apply their knowledge of circuitry and
electromagnetism to build a telegraph. They invent
• Can you use your knowledge of electricity
a code and use their telegraphs to send messages to
and electromagnetism to reinvent the
each other.
telegraph?

Time: 30–40 minutes

PART 2
SENDING MESSAGES LONG-DISTANCE Students hook up two telegraphs so they can send
messages from one group to another. In meeting the
• Can you connect two telegraph systems to send
challenge, students have to solve a number of
messages back and forth to another group?
problems, including circuit design, resistance
Time: 30–40 minutes in 1 or 2 sessions imposed by the long lines, and long-distance
procedural signals.

PART 3

CHOOSING YOUR OWN INVESTIGATION Students review magnetism and electricity and
identify a subject they would like to investigate in
• Students ask their own questions and plan
greater detail. They present the results of their
investigations or research to answer them. projects to the class in order to share something new
Time: 4–6 sessions about magnetism or electricity.

52 FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM


WASHINGTON EDITION—AT A GLANCE
CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES ASSESSMENT OPPORTUNITIES

• People learn about the natural world through Science Notebook


scientific practices and use that knowledge to
Importance of the telegraph
meet human needs (such as communication).
Identifying Problems. Understand problems found in
• A code is a symbolic system used for
ordinary situations in which scientific design can be or
communication.
has been used to design solutions. (GLE 3.1.1)

Teacher Observation

Evaluating solutions

Evaluating Potential Solutions. Analyze how well a


design or a product solves a problem. (GLE 3.1.3)

• Connecting two telegraphs for two-way Science Notebook


communication requires two complete circuits.
Telegraph as a system
• Apply electricity and electromagnetism
Structure of Physical Earth/Space and Living Systems.
concepts.
Analyze how the parts of a system go together and how
these parts depend on each other. (GLE 1.2.1)

• Apply electricity and electromagnetism Performance Assessment


concepts.
Inquiry or Design Project

Investigating Systems: GLEs 2.1.1–2.1.5

or Designing Solutions: GLEs 3.1.1–3.1.3

MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY 53


INVESTIGATION 5: CLICK IT
PART 1: REINVENTING THE TELEGRAPH

Use the science notebook prompt below.

Notebook Prompt

What is the importance of the telegraph?

Science Notebook—Importance of the telegraph


Identifying Problems. Understand problems found in ordinary
situations in which scientific design can be or has been used to
design solutions. (GLE 3.1.1)
Score If the student...
 explains that the telegraph made distance
communication easier and faster.
– cannot explain the importance of the telegraph.

Teacher Observation—Evaluating solutions


Evaluating Potential Solutions. Analyze how well a design or
a product solves a problem. (GLE 3.1.3)
Score If the student...
+ identifies problems that prevent the telegraph from
working: for example, traces the flow of electricity
through the circuit to find places where there may be a
breakdown.
 identifies a problem as described above.
– cannot identify problems.

54 FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM


WASHINGTON EDITION

INVESTIGATION 5: CLICK IT
PART 2: SENDING MESSAGE
LONG-DISTANCE

Uses the notebook prompt below to assess students’ understanding of


the telegraph as a system.

Notebook Prompt
Draw a labeled diagram of your telegraph system. Explain how the telegraph
system works. Why does it need two circuits?

Notebook Prompt—Telegraph as a System


Structure of Physical Earth/Space and Living Systems.
Analyze how the parts of a system go together and how these
parts depend on each other. (GLE 1.2.1)
Score If the student...
+ draws an accurate schematic diagram of two complete
circuits using conventional symbols. Explains that the
switch in one circuit, when tapped (closed), causes the
steel strip to be a�racted to the electromagnet, making
the “click.” It needs two circuits for messages to be
sent (“tapping”) and to receive a response (“clicking”).
 draws an accurate schematic diagram or a labeled
picture of two complete circuits. Gives a reasonable
version of the above but lacks clarity and details.
– does not accurately represent circuits in their diagram/
picture; is unable to give a reasonable explanation of
how the telegraph system works.

GOING FURTHER
Connecting two telegraphs to make a working system is a tough
challenge. Encourage students to persevere. The effort will be worth
it when they finally accomplish the task.

MAGNETISM
MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY
AND ELECTRICITY 55
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

Blank Page
56 FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM
WASHINGTON EDITION

INVESTIGATION 5: CLICK IT
PART 3: CHOOSING YOUR OWN
Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

INQUIRY PROJECT

INVESTIGATION
Plan an investigation to answer a question.

Your plan should include all these parts.


• A question that can be investigated
• A prediction of the outcome of the investigation
• Materials needed to do the investigation

INQUIRY OR DESIGN PROJECT


• A procedure that includes
� logical steps to do the investigation
� variables kept the same (controlled)
� one variable changed (manipulated)
� any variables being measured and recorded

The inquiry or design project replaces “Choosing Your Own


� how o�en measurements are taken and recorded
Question

Investigation.” It can be completed at any point in the module with Prediction

Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

any lesson that lends itself to students’ independently carrying out Materials
INQUIRY PROJECT (continued)

an investigation, starting from their own question, to drawing a


You may use the space below for a labeled diagram to support your procedure.

conclusion. See examples of inquiry questions at the bo�om of each


At a Glance page.
Use materials available from the FOSS kit and add materials as needed Procedure

or possible. Use the inquiry project sheets, which are also in the FOSS Module
© The Regents of the University of California
Can be duplicated for classroom or workshop use.
Inquiry Project Sheet (1 of 4)
New Student Sheet
WA Edition

Assessment Overview with more detailed information. Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

WRITING A CONCLUSION

NOTE: Students should complete an entire inquiry project at least


Data Collected

once in each module to build understanding of the inquiry and design


process by the fi�h and sixth grades.
A�er completing your investigation, write a conclusion that explains whether your

INQUIRY OR DESIGN PROJECT SCORING GUIDES


prediction was correct. Your conclusion should include these parts.
• Supporting data from your data table
FOSS Module • An explanation of
how this data supports your conclusionInquiry Project Sheet (2 of 4)

STUDENT INQUIRY PROJECT SCORING RUBRIC


© The Regents of the University of California New Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for classroom or workshop use. WA Edition

Use the Student Project Scoring Rubric to grade projects. Score one Supporting Data Understand how to ask a question about objects, organisms, and events in the
Questioning.
environment. (GLE 2.1.1)

point for each a�ribute in the list. By the end of fi�h grade, students
Value
Investigation A�ribute If the student . . . Point
Question Asks a question that can be investigated. 1
Explanation

should be able to score between 10 and 13 points for planning an


Planning and Conducting Safe Investigations. Understand how to plan and conduct simple
investigations following all safety rules. (GLE 2.1.2)
Value
Investigation A�ributes If the student . . . Point

investigation to meet standards on the WASL.


Prediction Relates the prediction to the investigative question and includes
both the changed variable and the measured variable. 1

Materials Lists the materials for the procedure.


1
Logical steps Writes the steps of the investigation in a logical order. Includes
enough detail so that someone could repeat the procedure.
1
Variables kept the same Identifies at least one variable that stays the same.
(controlled)
1
One changed variable (ma- Identify the correct variable that changes.
nipulated) 1

FOSS Module One measured variable Identifies the variable to be measured and the units to Project
Inquiry be used.Sheet (3 of 4) 1
© The Regents of the University of California New Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for classroom
Repeated trials or workshop use.Plan for more than one trial. WA Edition 1

Record measurements States how you will record data. 1

Conducts investigation Follows the procedure as planned unless problems arise, then 1
adjusts the procedure.

Data collection Collects and records data. 1

Explaining. Understand how to construct a reasonable explanation using evidence. (GLE 2.1.3)

Value
Investigation A�ributes If the student . . . Point
Cites data Reports lowest supporting data. 1

Cites data Reports highest supporting data. 1

Explanation Uses data to form a reasonable explanation. 1

Grades 3 through 6 FOSS Modules Inquiry Project Sheet (4 of 4)


© The Regents of the University of California New Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for classroom or workshop use. WA Edition

MAGNETISM
MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY
AND ELECTRICITY 57
Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

INQUIRY PROJECT
Plan an investigation to answer a question.

Your plan should include all these parts.


• A question that can be investigated
• A prediction of the outcome of the investigation
• Materials needed to do the investigation
• A procedure that includes
 logical steps to do the investigation
 variables kept the same (controlled)
 one variable changed (manipulated)
 any variables being measured and recorded
 how o�en measurements are taken and recorded
Question

Prediction

Materials

FOSS Module Inquiry Project Sheet (1 of 4)


© The Regents of the University of California Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for classroom or workshop use. WA Edition
Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

INQUIRY PROJECT (continued)


You may use the space below for a labeled diagram to support your procedure.

Procedure

FOSS Module Inquiry Project Sheet (2 of 4)


© The Regents of the University of California Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for classroom or workshop use. WA Edition
Name ________________________________ Date ___________________________________

WRITING A CONCLUSION
Data Collected

A�er completing your investigation, write a conclusion that explains whether your
prediction was correct. Your conclusion should include these parts.
• Supporting data from your data table
• An explanation of how this data supports your conclusion

Supporting Data

Explanation

FOSS Module Inquiry Project Sheet (3 of 4)


© The Regents of the University of California Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for classroom or workshop use. WA Edition
STUDENT INQUIRY PROJECT SCORING RUBRIC

Questioning. Understand how to ask a question about objects, organisms, and events in the
environment. (GLE 2.1.1)
Value
Investigation A�ribute If the student . . . Point
Question Asks a question that can be investigated. 1

Planning and Conducting Safe Investigations. Understand how to plan and conduct simple
investigations following all safety rules. (GLE 2.1.2)
Value
Investigation A�ributes If the student . . . Point
Prediction Relates the prediction to the investigative question and includes
both the changed variable and the measured variable. 1

Materials Lists the materials for the procedure.


1
Logical steps Writes the steps of the investigation in a logical order. Includes
enough detail so that someone could repeat the procedure.
1
Variables kept the same Identifies at least one variable that stays the same.
(controlled)
1
One changed variable (ma- Identify the correct variable that changes.
nipulated) 1

One measured variable Identifies the variable to be measured and the units to be used. 1

Repeated trials Plan for more than one trial. 1

Record measurements States how you will record data. 1

Conducts investigation Follows the procedure as planned unless problems arise, then 1
adjusts the procedure.

Data collection Collects and records data. 1

Explaining. Understand how to construct a reasonable explanation using evidence. (GLE 2.1.3)

Value
Investigation A�ributes If the student . . . Point
Cites data Reports lowest supporting data. 1

Cites data Reports highest supporting data. 1

Explanation Uses data to form a reasonable explanation. 1

FOSS Module Inquiry Project Sheet (4 of 4)


© The Regents of the University of California Student Sheet
Can be duplicated for classroom or workshop use. WA Edition
SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

END-OF-MODULE ASSESSMENT
This assessment is used as an evaluative tool a�er all the
investigations have been completed. It checks student content
knowledge, skills in conducting investigations, and explanation
building. Items are in three formats: performance tasks,
multiple-choice/short-answer (which gives students practice for
standardized tests), and narrative items that require students to write
short explanations.
MATERIALS FOR EACH MAGNETISM STATION
2 Magnets, doughnut-shaped
20 Washers, large
 •Assessment sheet no. 8 called Performance Assessment-
Magnetism
MATERIALS FOR EACH ELECTRICITY STATION
2 Short wires, 20-gauge, 15 cm
1 Compass taped on a piece of cardboard *
1 Electromagnet wire, 24-gauge, 150 cm
1 Switch
1 D-cell
No. 8—Assessment Sheet  • Assessment sheet no. 9 called Performance Assessment-
Electricity

* Supplied by the teacher


 Use the duplication master to make copies.

No. 9—Assessment Sheet

62 FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM


WASHINGTON EDITION

GETTING READY
1. SCHEDULE THE ASSESSMENT
You may need to give the assessment in two sessions: one for the
performance items, and one for the multiple-choice/short-answer
and narrative items. Read through Steps 2 and 3 below before
deciding how you will proceed.

2. ADMINISTER THE PERFORMANCE ITEMS


The performance assessment is in two parts: one assesses
understanding of magnetism and the other of electricity.
Individual Assessment. If you want students to work
individually, you can assess up to sixteen students at a time. Set
up eight identical stations for magnetism and eight identical
stations for electricity around the room. Or set up both tasks at
each station (eight stations, instead of sixteen). Students will need
about 10 minutes to complete each task and to fill in the
assessment sheet at each station. Send shi�s of students to the
stations until all have had a chance to complete both tasks.
Students waiting to take their turn at the performance tasks can be
completing the multiple-choice/short-answer and narrative items,
or working on some other quiet activity.
Collaborative-Group Assessment. If you don’t have time for each
student to complete the performance tasks, have students work in
groups. A�er the group completes the task, each student fills in
his or her assessment sheet individually. The completed
assessment sheets should reflect each student’s learning.

3. ADMINISTER THE MULTIPLE-CHOICE/SHORT-ANSWER


AND NARRATIVE ITEMS
Assessment items in content areas such as science o�en require a
fairly high level of reading. If you feel that students will have a
difficult time reading the items on their own, you can read each
item and its possible answers (when appropriate) aloud. Have
students mark their answers and move on to the next item,
working together through the assessment, item by item.

4. COPY ASSESSMENT SHEETS


Make copies of the assessment masters provided a�er this folio.
Each student needs one set of sheets. Make a copy of the
assessment chart no. 6 to record scores.

MAGNETISM
MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY
AND ELECTRICITY 63
SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

5. SET UP THE PERFORMANCE STATIONS


Set up stations for the magnetism and electricity performance
tasks as suggested below.

Magnetism Station
• Put the two magnets on the table, away from the washers.

Electricity Station
• Prepare the compasses by taping each to a small piece of
cardboard. Wrap an electromagnet wire around the compass
and cardboard, leaving about 15 cm on each end for students
to hook into a circuit. Tape the wire coil to the back of the
cardboard to keep it secure.
• Put all equipment at the station, making sure none of the
components are connected in any way.

64 FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM


WASHINGTON EDITION

PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
ITEMS—Magnetism and Electricity
END-OF-MODULE ASSESSMENT
SCORING GUIDES
Performance Assessment Item—Magnetism
Score If the student...
4 writes detailed procedures and results; includes in
the response that he or she (1) tried to see how many
washers one magnet picked up, (2) recorded that
number, (3) repeated this for two magnets, (4) learned
or confirmed that two magnets together are stronger
than one.
3 writes brief notes that are accurate; presents all
components above, but abbreviated.
2 fails to explain fully the procedure or results; appears
to use the correct technique; misses one component
above.
1 writes incomplete notes; gives flawed explanation.
0 does not complete the item, or gives information that
has nothing to do with what was asked.

Performance Assessment Item—Electricity


Score If the student...
4 draws an accurate schematic diagram using
conventional symbols; notes that the compass needle
moves when electricity is turned on; explains that the
wire that has electricity flowing through it also has a
magnetic field, and that the magnetic field around the
wire interacts with the magnetic needle of the compass.
3 draws an accurate schematic diagram using
conventional symbols; notes that the compass needle
moves; explains that the wire must be magnetic.
2 draws a reasonably accurate diagram; notes that the
compass needle moves; explains that magnetism is
somehow involved. Illustration of accurate
1 draws a diagram with mistakes; notes that the needle schematic diagram.
moves, but cannot explain why.
0 does not complete the item, or gives information that
has nothing to do with what was asked.

MAGNETISM
MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY
AND ELECTRICITY 65
SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

Multiple-Choice Items
Score 1 point for each correct answer.
1. A 6. B 11. C
2. C 7. B 12. C
3. A 8. A 13. D
4. B 9. B 14. A
5. D 10. D

Short-Answer Item 15
There are several right answers to the first three descriptions, but
only one for the last one. Students need only one object in each blank.
Score 1 point if all blanks are filled in correctly.
• Sticks to a magnet: magnetite, basketball hoop, soup can,
bo�le cap.
• Does NOT stick to a magnet: fabric, aluminum foil, screw-
driver handle, basketball, eraser, penny, cardboard, wood-
en spoon, sponge.
• Conducts electricity: basketball hoop, soup can, aluminum
foil, bo�le cap, penny.
• Sticks to a magnet but does NOT conduct electricity:
magnetite.

Narrative Items
Item 16 Magnet Interactions
Score If the student...
4 writes about logic used: if two white ends repel, but
one of each color a�racts, then two gray ends should
act like two white ends and repel; same poles (or
sides) always repel, opposite poles always a�ract.
3 writes that the same ends always a�ract and opposite
ends always repel, so the two gray ends will repel.
2 writes that the magnets will repel because sometimes
No. 14—Assessment Sheet magnets a�ract and sometimes they repel.
1 writes only that magnets repel.
0 gives the wrong answer (they a�ract); does not
complete the item, or gives information that has
nothing to do with what was asked.

66 FULL OPTION SCIENCE SYSTEM


WASHINGTON EDITION

Item 17 Double-Pole Switch


Score If the student...
4 explains that a closed circuit is made when the switch
is closed in either direction: closed to the le� makes
the bulb light and closed to the right makes the motor
run; notes that the light and motor cannot run at the
same time.
3 explains that a closed circuit is made by closing the
switch in either direction: closed to the le� makes the
bulb light, closed to the right makes the motor run.
2 explains only that the switch will work the light one
way and the motor the other.
1 makes an error, such as saying that the motor and the
bulb will run at the same time.
0 does not complete the item, or gives information that
has nothing to do with what was asked.

Item 18 Troubleshooting an Electromagnet


Score If the student...
4 explains that the wire wrapped around the core needs
to be connected to a D-cell in a complete circuit;
suggests checking other factors that might influence
success, such as making sure the wire is insulated and No. 15—Assessment Sheet
that the rivet is iron or steel; draws a diagram to show
how to hook the electromagnet into the circuit.
3 explains that a source of electricity is missing; suggests
adding a D-cell to make a complete circuit; suggests
adding a switch.
2 suggests adding a D-cell or other source of electricity,
but does not elaborate further.
1 makes a suggestion that is related to the problem, such
as “wrap the wire more times” or “add a switch.”
0 does not complete the item, or gives information that
has nothing to do with what was asked.

MAGNETISM
MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY
AND ELECTRICITY 67
MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY BLUEPRINT
3-5 Grade Level Expectations (GLE) Assessment Opportunities
SYSTEMS FORMATIVE SUMMATIVE COMMENTS
Properties of Substances. Inv. 1, Pt. 1 15 Covered in several other modules.
Understand how to use properties to sort Inv. 2, Pt. 3
natural and manufactured
materials and objects. (GLE 1.1.1)
Forms of Energy. Understand that energy Inv. 2, Pt. 2 4 Important to cover in this module.
comes in many forms. (GLE 1.1.4)
Structure of Physical Earth/Space and Inv. 2, Pt. 2, 4 PA—Electricity Covered in several other modules.
Living Systems. Analyze how the parts of Inv. 4, Pt. 2 1, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
a system go together and how these parts Inv. 5, Pt. 2 12, 13, 14, 17, 18
depend on each other. (GLE 1.2.1)
Energy Transfer and Transformation. Inv. 2, Pt. 1, 4 PA—Electricity Important to cover in this module.
Understand that energy can be transferred Inv. 3, Pt. 2
from one object to another and can be Inv. 4, Pt. 2
transformed from one form of energy to
another. (GLE 1.2.2)
Nature of Force. Understand forces in Inv. 1, Pt. 1–3 PA—Magnetism Important to cover in this module.
terms of strength and direction. 2, 3, 5, 11
(GLE 1.3.1)
INQUIRY
Planning and Conducting Safe Inv. 1, Pt. 3 PA—Magnetism Assessed throughout grades in inquiry
Investigations. Understand how to plan Inv. 4, Pt. 1, 3 PA—Electricity projects.
and conduct simple investigations
following all safety rules. (GLE 2.1.2 )
Explaining. Understand how to construct Inv. 1, Pt. 4 PA—Magnetism Assessed throughout grades in inquiry
a reasonable explanation using evidence. Inv. 2, Pt. 3 PA—Electricity projects.
(GLE 2.1.3) Inv. 4, Pt. 2, 3 16
Communicating. Understand how to Inv. 3, Pt. 1, 2 PA—Magnetism Assessed throughout grades in inquiry
report investigations and explanations of PA—Electricity projects.
objects, events, systems, and processes.
(GLE 2.1.5)
Intellectual Honesty. Understand that Inv. 3, Pt. 2 Covered in several other modules.
all scientific observations are reported
accurately and honestly even when the
observations contradict expectations.
(GLE 2.2.1)
APPLICATIONS
Identifying Problems. Understand Inv. 5, Pt. 1 Important to cover in this module.
problems found in ordinary situations in
which scientific design can be or has been
used to design solutions. (GLE 3.1.1)
Designing and Testing Solutions. Inv. 3, Pt. 3 Important to cover in this module.
Understand how the scientific design
process is used to develop and implement
solutions to human problems. (GLE 3.1.2)
Evaluating Potential Solutions. Analyze Inv. 3, Pt. 3 Important to cover in this module.
how well a design or a product solves a Inv. 5, Pt. 1
problem. (GLE 3.1.3)
INQUIRY OR DESIGN PROJECT
Investigating Systems: GLEs 2.1.1—2.1.5 Projects Important to do one project per module.
or
Designing Solutions: GLEs 3.1.1—3.1.3

Published and distributed by Developed by


The FOSS program was developed with
the support of National Science
Foundation grants Nos. MDR-8751727
Full Option
and MDR-9150097. However, any
opinions, findings, conclusions, state-
Science System
P.O. Box 3000 ments, and recommendations expressed Lawrence Hall of Science
80 Northwest Boulevard herein are those of the authors and do University of California
Nashua, NH 03063-4067 not necessarily reflect the views of NSF. Berkeley, CA 94720
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