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PROJECT IN

PHYSICAL
EDUCATION

Submitted by: BSEM1-B


Submitted to: Prof. Rebacca Patag

UNIT I: INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND PHYSICAL FITNESS


1.1 PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND OBJECTIVES

Physical Education- It is the instruction in the development and care of the body ranging
from simple calisthenic exercises to a course of study providing training in hygiene,
gymnastics and the performance and management of athletic games.

OBJECTIVES

1. Fitness- This includes developing muscle strength, endurance, flexibility and agility.
For example, throwing and hitting balls exercises various muscles, track running
improves heart health and aerobics increases lung capacity.

2. Character- Physical education encourages participants to work as components of a


team, showing them how to successfully work together to reach a goal. A sense of fair
play is fostered as well as an awareness of and sensitivity toward others.

3. Skills- Many skills are learned during physical education classes, including how to
position the body for various sporting activities, how to keep safe when stretching the
body to its limits and how to mentally prepare for sporting events.

4. Sport- Participants learn about particular sports' rules, techniques and strategies,
often enabling them to cope successfully in real-life situations.

1.2 CONCEPT OF PHYSICAL FITNESS

F.I.T.T

 Frequency- How often you do physical activity.

 Intensity- How hard you perform physical activity.

 Time- How long do you do physical activity.

 Type- What is the activity you are involved in?

1.3 TERMINOLOGIES
1. Physical Education- It is the instruction in the development and care of the body
ranging from simple calisthenic exercises to a course of study providing training in
hygiene, gymnastics and the performance and management of athletic games.

2. Physical Fitness- Is the ability to carry out tasks without undue fatigue.

3. Physical Wellness- It is the state of being healthy in mind, body and spiritual

4. Goals- is a desired result that a person or a system envisions, plans and commits to
achieve: a personal or organizational desired end-point in some sort of assumed
development.

5. Component- One of the parts of something such as a system or mixture; an


important piece of something.

6. Vision- Something that you imagine. A picture that you see in your mind.

7. Mission- A task or job that someone is given to do.

1.4 COMPONENTS OF FITNESS


1. Agility- The ability to stop, start, and change directions quickly. Agility is a skill-
related component of physical fitness. One’s agility can be increased by doing specific
footwork drills on an agility ladder, staggered tire formation, or any other type of
obstacle course that requires the individual to adjust body position, speed, and direction
quickly. Examples of agility: A football player cutting across the field, a gymnast doing a
floor routine, a hockey player bringing the puck down the ice maneuvering around
defenders, or a soccer player dribbling the ball around defenders. View the video at
bottom of page to see examples of agility in action.

2. Balance- Controlling body positions while standing still or moving. Balance is a skill-
related component of physical fitness. Balance can be tested by standing on one leg
with eyes closed for 30 seconds on each leg or by performing the Y-Balance Test.
Balance can be improved by increasing one’s overall core strength. Specific training
techniques using exercise equipment such as balance discs, Fit-Balls, BOSU, or
standing on one leg while performing an exercise can help to improve one’s
balance. Examples of balance: A gymnast jumping and landing on a balance beam, a
surfer on a surfboard riding a wave, a one leg deadlift pictured above, equestrian
events, or simply jumping around on one foot.

3. Body Composition- The ratio of muscle to fat in the body. Having a high percentage
of body fat compared to lean muscle has shown to increase risk of heart disease,
certain cancers, strokes, and diabetes. Doing daily cardiovascular exercise and strength
training, along with a healthy diet, will help to reduce body fat and increase lean muscle
mass. Body composition is a health-related component of physical fitness. In addition to
body composition, individuals should know their body mass index (BMI) as well.
Click here for further information about body mass index and to determine your BMI.

4. Cardiovascular Endurance- Engaging in physical activity for long periods of


time. Cardiovascular endurance can be measured indoors by performing a 3 minute
step test or by stress tests on a treadmill or stationary bike. Cardiovascular endurance
can also be measured by field tests such as Cooper’s 12-minute Run, the 1.5 Mile Run,
the 600 Yard Walk/Run, or a Shuttle Run. However, some disadvantages to outdoor
field tests include wind, humidity, and temperature. Cardiovascular endurance is a
health-related component of physical fitness. Examples of cardiovascular endurance: A
cross-country running race, running a marathon, jumping rope, high-intensity circuit
training, or manipulating your way through an obstacle course.

5. Coordination- Making movements work together smoothly. This usually consists of


upper and lower body movements being performed at the same time. Coordination is a
skill-related component of physical fitness. Coordination can be improved by performing
exercises that require the individual to use upper body muscle groups and lower body
muscle groups at the same time. Coordination can be tested with a variety of manual
dexterity tests and hand/eye coordination tests. One example of such test is balancing
on one leg and throwing a tennis ball against a wall and catching the returning ball in
the opposite hand. Please view our gallery to see examples of exercises you can do to
improve your coordination.

6. Flexibility- Moving specific joints or a group of joints through a wide range of motion
(ROM). Flexibility is a health-related component of physical fitness that plays a very
important role in the functioning of all individuals especially athletes. Examples of
flexibility include: a gymnast doing a leg split, a hockey goalie reaching with arms and/or
legs to save a goal, someone doing yoga, or bending over to touch your toes. The most
common tests for flexibility include the Sit-and-Reach Test and the Shoulder Joint
Reach Flexibility Test. There are three techniques that can be used to increase one’s
flexibility: ballistic stretching, static stretching, and proprioceptive neuromuscular
facilitation.

7. Muscular Endurance- Using muscles repetitively without fatiguing for an extended


period of time. Muscular Endurance can be measured by a 60 second push-up test or
60 second half sit-up or crunch test. Muscular endurance is a health-related component
of physical fitness. Please clickhere for more information about muscular
endurance. Examples of muscular endurance:Long-distance cycling, using a rowing
machine or crewing, or doing push-ups until fatigue has been reached.

8. Muscular Strength- Producing force using muscles. Muscular strength has also
been defined as the maximum pull or push that can be exerted one time by a muscle
group. Muscular Strength is a health-related component of physical fitness. Examples of
muscular strength exercises: Performing a bench press, squats, pull-ups, biceps curls,
or lunge pictured below. Examples of muscular strength in sports.

9. Power- The ability to use muscle strength quickly. Power is a skill-related


component of physical fitness. How can power be improved or increased? Power can
be increased by three general ways: increase the force-producing capabilities of
muscles; decrease the time it takes to move across a distance due to faster speed; and
increase the distance a force acts on one’s body. Total body strength training, increased
flexibility through stretching, sport specific training and improved technique, sharp
mental focus, and increased reaction time are many ways to improve overall power.
Power can be tested by performing a vertical jump test or standing long jump. Examples
of power: Plyometric training (such as jump squats or box jumps), jumping exercises, or
in track and field- the running long jump or high jump. View the video at the bottom of
this page to see examples of power in action.
10. Reaction Time- How quickly an individual responds to a stimulus. Reaction time is
a skill-related component of physical fitness. Reaction time can be tested in a variety of
ways.

11. Speed- Performing a movement or covering a distance in a short period of time.


Speed is a skill-related component of physical fitness. Speed can be measured by
timing a 40-yard dash, 30 meter sprint, or the Illinois Agility Test. Individuals can
increase speed by sprinting down hill or wearing a small parachute or weighted vest on
your back while sprinting. Examples of speed: the Summer Olympics 100 meter sprint,
swimming 50 meters as fast as possible, or speed skating. View the video at the bottom
of this page to see examples of speed in action.

1.5 SAFETY ISSUES AND CONCERN

 Equipment Handling

Unsafe handling of equipment can lead to dangerous situations. In particular,


heavy equipment such as trampolines and gymnastic equipment must be carried
appropriately to reduce the risk of injury. P.E. teachers should instruct their students in
how to handle this equipment correctly. In addition, it is important to keep storage areas
well organized so that students and teachers can retrieve the equipment and return it to
its place without risking an avalanche of equipment or another safety hazard.
Dangerous equipment should be stored away when not in use.

 Defective Equipment

Defective equipment can lead to tremendous safety issues. A loose post or a few
rusty nails can endanger students during their play. Schools, therefore, need to inspect
equipment and facilities regularly to ensure that they are in working order. If possible,
they should arrange for professional inspectors to examine the equipment and facilities
at least once a year.

 First Aid
All P.E. classrooms should have easy access to a First Aid kit, and all classroom
curricula should include instruction in basic first aid procedures. In addition, teachers
should make sure that there is a simple protocol for contacting emergency services and
managing physical accidents.

 Clothing and Accessories

Wearing inappropriate clothing during P.E. exercises can lead to injury. Players
should wear sneakers or other comfortable shoes with rubber soles for most activities.
Gymnasts may practice barefoot, but should not wear socks, to reduce the risk of
slipping. Metal jewelry or belts can also cause injuries during a P.E. class; they should
be removed before beginning instruction.

UNIT II: PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST


2.1 Health Related Physical Fitness Tests

The definition of health-related fitness involves exercise activities that you do in order to
try to improve your physical health and stay healthy, particularly in the categories of
cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, muscular endurance and body
composition. An example of health-related fitness is aerobic exercises you do to
improve cardiovascular endurance.

1. Cardiovascular Fitness (Aerobic Fitness)- This is also sometimes known as


stamina and is the ability of your body to continuously provide enough energy to sustain
submaximal levels of exercise. To do this the circulatory and respiratory systems must
work together efficiently to provide the working muscles with enough Oxygen to enable
aerobic metabolism.

2. Muscular Strength- Is vitally important, not only in sports but in day-to-day life. We
need to be strong to perform certain tasks, such as lifting heavy bags or using our legs
to stand up from a chair. Strength is defined as the ability of a muscle to exert a force to
overcome a resistance. Avoid injuries, maintain good posture and remain independent
(in older age)

3. Flexibility- Is the movement available at our joints, usually controlled by the length of
our muscles. This is often thought to be less important than strength, or cardiovascular
fitness. In daily activities we must be flexible to reach for something in a cupboard, or off
the floor. It also helps: Prevent injuries, improve posture, reduce low back pain, maintain
healthy joints and improve balance during movement.

4. Muscular Endurance- Unlike strength, is the ability of a muscle to make repeated


contractions over a period of time. This is used in day-to-day life in activities such as
climbing stairs, digging the garden and cleaning. Muscular endurance is also important
in sports, such as football (repeated running and kicking), tennis (repeated swinging of
the arm to hit the ball) and swimming (repeating the stroke).

5. Body composition- Is the amount of muscle, fat, bone, cartilage etc that makes up
our bodies. In terms of health, fat is the main point of interest and everything else is
termed lean body tissue. The amount of fat we carry varies from person to person and
healthy averages vary with gender and age. A healthy amount of fat for a man is
between 15&18% and for women is higher at 20-25%.

2.2 Skill Related Fitness


The abilities or components of skill related fitness are not the skills associated with any
particular sport, such as running, catching, tackling or kicking, but are the underlying
skills which are brought to bear when participating in a sport. There are six skill related
components of fitness. These are Agility, Balance, Coordination, Power, Reaction Time,
Speed. These are important fitness components, not just for sporting ability, but for use
in everyday life.

In times of illness, or in ageing, these components are often features of our lives that fail
and their levels are reduced. Exercise and activities that promote skill components of
fitness are therefore very important at all ages.

1. Agility- Is the ability to rapidly and accurately change the direction of the body at
speed. It necessitates a combination of speed, balance, power and coordination.

2. Balance- Is the ability to maintain equilibrium when stationary or moving.

3. Co-ordination- Is the ability to carry out a series of movements or motor tasks


smoothly & efficiently.

4. Power- The amount of force a muscle can exert.

5. Muscular Power- Is the ability to contract muscles with speed and force in one
explosive activity.

6. Reaction Time- Reaction Time is the ability to respond to a stimuli quickly.

7. Speed- Speed is a measure of the ability to move all or part of the body as quickly as
possible.

UNIT III: BODY MOVEMENT AND BASIC POSITION


3.1 What is non-locomotor movement or axial movement and locomotor
movement?

Non Locomotor or Axial Movement- These are movements that occur in the body
parts or the whole body and do not cause the body to travel to another space.
However, non locomotor movements can be combined with locomotor movements such
as a walk and arm swing.

Locomotor Movements- These are movements where the body travels through space
from one location to another. Locomotor movements primarity use the feet for support
however, the body can travel on other parts such as the hands and feet.

3.2 Types of Body Movement

a. Axial Movement- Small movements of the shaft with respect to the housing in the
axial direction do not affect seal performance, provided that the total counterface
surface meets the same demands in respect of hardness, accuracy and surface finish.

b. Locomotor Movement- Locomotor movements are any movements that take place
over some distance. These include walking, running, leaping, jumping, hopping,
galloping, crawling, sliding and skipping.

3.3 Basic Position

a. Hands Position

1. Hands on Waist- Place hands on waist. Fingers pointing front thumbs pointing
backward.

2. Hands on Chest- Palms facing down, thumbs touching the chest, elbows in line with
the shoulders.

3. Hands on Shoulders- Bends arms from the elbow, finger tips touching the
shoulders, elbow in line with the shoulders, rib cage lifted.

4. Hands on Neck- Bend arms from the elbows, place hands behind the neck, finger
tips meeting each other, elbows in line with the shoulders.
5. Hands on Hips- Place hands on hips, thumbs pointing back and fingers pointing
front.

b. Arms Position

1. Arms Forward- Raise arms forward with palms facing each other. Hands in line with
the shoulders, elbows slightly extended.

2. Arms Sideward- Raise arms sideward, palms facing down, finger tips in line with the
shoulder.

3. Arms Upward- Raise arms upward, palms facing each other, elbows touching the
ears, the whole arm in line with the body.

c. Standing Position

1. Feet Together or Feet Parallel- The feet are about one (1) inch apart, toes pointing
forward. Arms at the sides.

2. Stride Position- The feet are apart about 12 inches wide. The stride may be made
wider than 12 inches. The weight of the body is on both feet and the trunks is at the
center. Arms at sides.

3. Lunge Position- Bend one knee, the other leg straight. Weight on both feet. Hands
on hips.

4. Half-Knee Bend- Feet together, bend knees to about 45 degree angle; feet flat on
floor, body erect; hands on hips.

5. Full Knees Bend or Squat Position- The knees are fully bent, sit on the heels of the
feet. The weight of the body is on the balls of the feet.

d. Kneeling Position
1. Kneeling Position- Kneel on both knees, knees close together, body erect, hands on
hips.

2. Stride Kneeling Position- Kneeling on both knees, with knees apart.

3. Half-Kneeling Position Right of Left- Kneeling on right, left in half-kneeling position


in front. Hands on hips.

4. Kneeling Position One Leg Extended Sideward Position- Kneeling on one leg, the
other extended sideward, forward or backward.

e. Sitting Position

1. Long Sitting Position- Sitting with legs extended forward, toes pointed, trunks erect
and hands on hips.

2. Hook Sitting Position- Sit on buttocks, bend knees close to the body. Trunk erect,
hands on shin of the legs.

3. Long Sitting Rest Position- Legs and toes are extended forward; hands at the rear
in the floor. Elbow and body straight.

4. Tuck Sitting Position- Sit on buttocks, bend knees close to body; round back so that
the forehead and the knees are in contact; hold shin of legs.

5. Stride Sitting Position- Sitting on buttocks, spread legs apart, trunk erect, hands on
thighs.

6. Side Sitting Position- Sitting on buttocks, bend right or left leg in front; other leg
extended sideward. Hands on knees.

7. Hurdle Sitting Position- Sitting on buttocks, bend right leg at the back about 90
degree angle, the other leg extended diagonally forward.

8. Heels Sit- From kneeling position, sit on the heels of the feet, toes pointed. Hands on
hips.

f. Lying Position
1. Back or Supine Lying Position- Lying on the back, the body us well extended, arms
overhead, toes pointed.

2. Front or Prone Lying Position- Body is well extended and in front of the body in
contact with the floor. Toes pointed, arms forward.

3. Side Lying Position- With the body well extended, the side of the body is in contact
with the floor, one hand on the floor overhead and the other hand bent close to chest
palms on floor. Toes pointed.

4. Hook Lying Position- In a back lying position, bend knees, with the feet close to
buttocks, feet flat on the floor. Arms overhead.

5. Tuck Lying Position- Lying on the back, pull the knees close to the forehead, hold
shin of legs.

g. Arms Support Position

1. Supine or Back Arm Support- From a long lying position, lift the body with straight
arms support. Body, legs and toes well extended and one straight line.

2. Prone or Front Arm Support- From a front lying position. Lift the body to front arms
support; body, legs and toes well extended and in one straight line.

h. Four Based Position

1. Dog Stand Position- From a kneeling position, place the hands on the floor, elbows
straight, toes pointed, the knees and hands are the base of support.

2. Bridge Stand Position- From a hook sitting lift the trunk; legs and arms in right angle
with the trunk.

UNIT IV: BRIEF HISTORY OF AEROBICS


4.1 Meaning of Aerobics and Dance Aerobics

In the year of 1983 Howard and Karen Schwartz developed a very new and competitive
sport called sport-aerobics. In the year 1984, their group organization known as the
sport fitness international has the credit of organizing the first national aerobic
championship. Sport-aerobics at the beginning, started featuring competition in four
categories namely individual male and female, mixed pairs and trio which have the
facility to include any of the three athletes. In the year 2002 the competition was
improved to a group of six athletes. The verdict toward the competitors is done on a one
minute, forty-five seconds routine done to music. Judges elect two criteria namely the
artistic merit and the technical merit with an overall 10 pints each. In 1996 sport-
aerobics is officially adopted as a Gymnastique discipline.

Aerobics is a form of physical exercise that combines rhythmic aerobic


exercise with stretching and strength training routines with the goal of improving all
elements of fitness (flexibility, muscular strength, and cardio-vascular fitness). It is
usually performed to music and may be practiced in a group setting led by
an instructor (fitness professional), although it can be done solo and without musical
accompaniment. With the goal of preventing illness and promoting physical fitness,
practitioners perform various routines comprising a number of different dance-like
exercises. Formal aerobics classes are divided into different levels of intensity and
complexity. A well-balanced aerobics class will have five components: warm-up (5-10
minutes), cardio vascular conditioning (25-30 minutes), muscular strength and
conditioning (10-15 minutes), cool-down (5-8 minutes) and stretching and flexibility (5-8
minutes).Aerobics classes may allow participants to select their level of participation
according to their fitness level. Many gyms offer a variety of aerobic classes. Each class
is designed for a certain level of experience and taught by a certified instructor with a
specialty area related to their particular class.

4.2The Benefits of Aerobic Exercise

If you have yet to embrace an active lifestyle, take note of these other perks of aerobic
exercise:

 Mental benefits. "Aerobic exercise has been shown to increase your confidence,
emotional stability, memory, and brain function," notes Tripps. Studies show that
about 19 million Americans experience depression every year. It is widely
accepted that aerobic exercise improves the symptoms of depression.
 Health benefits. Besides strengthening your heart and lungs, aerobic exercise
can help lower your cholesterol, reduce your risk of type 2 diabetes, improve your
immune function, and lower your blood pressure.
 Physical benefits. Aerobic exercise burns up calories, which can in turn help you
shed excess weight. Aerobic exercise also tones your muscles and improves
posture.
 Fitness benefits. In addition to looking better and being healthier, aerobic
exercise increases your stamina, giving you more energy for both work and play.
You will sleep better and handle stress better, and you’ll feel better about
yourself.

4.3 Importance of Aerobics

First and foremost, doing aerobics increases cardio respiratory fitness, which is
one of the five essential components of physical fitness. Cardio respiratory fitness is the
ability of the body's circulatory systems to maintain oxygen levels and supply fuel during
sustained physical activity.

4.4 Karvonen Formula

The Karvonen Formula is a mathematical formula that helps you determine your target
heart rate (HR) training zone. The formula uses maximum and resting heart rate with
the desired training intensity to get a target heart rate.

Target Heart Rate = ((max HR − resting HR) × %Intensity) + resting HR example

Ideally, you should measure your resting and maximum heart rate for more accurate
results. If the maximum heart rate cannot be measured directly, it can be roughly
estimated using the traditional formula 220 minus your age (see this table of heart rate
max). Also, an average value of 70 bpm can be used for resting heart rate if it is not
known. See also Resting Heart Rate, and this guide tomeasuring heart rate.

4.5 Guidelines in Designing Aerobics Routine

Your Personal Workout Schedule


How often, how long and how hard you exercise, and what kinds of exercises you do
should be determined by what you are trying to accomplish, not by what someone else
is trying to accomplish.

Your fitness goals, present fitness level, age, health, skills, interest and convenience are
among the factors you should consider. For example, an athlete training for high-level
competition would follow a different program than a person whose goals are good
health and the ability to meet work and recreational needs.

Your exercise program should include something from each of the four basic fitness
components. Each workout should begin with a warmup and end with a cooldown. As a
general rule, space your workouts throughout the week and avoid consecutive days of
hard exercise.

Here are the amounts of activity needed for the average, healthy person to maintain a
minimum level of overall fitness. Included are some of the popular exercises for each
category.

 Warmup: Five minutes to 10 minutes of exercises such as walking, slow jogging,


knee lifts, arm circles or trunk rotations. Low intensity movements that simulate
movements to be used in the activity can also be included in the warmup.
 Muscular Strength: A minimum of two 20-minute sessions per week that include
exercises for all the major muscle groups. Weight training is the most effective,
but not the only, way to increase strength.
 Muscular Endurance: At least three 30-minute sessions each week that include
exercises such as calisthenics, pushups, situps, pullups, and weight training for
all the major muscle groups.
 Cardiorespiratory Endurance: At least three 20 minute bouts of continuous
aerobic (activity requiring oxygen) rhythmic exercise each week. Popular aerobic
conditioning activities include brisk walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, rope-
jumping, rowing, cross-country skiing, and some continuous action games like
racquetball and handball.
 Flexibility: Ten minutes to 12 minutes of daily stretching exercises performed
slowly, without a bouncing motion. These stretching exercises can be included
after a warmup or during a cooldown.
 Cooldown: A minimum of five minutes to 10 minutes of slow walking, low-level
exercise, combined with stretching.
The Keys To Finding The Right Kinds Of Exercises

The keys to selecting the right kinds of exercises for developing and maintaining each of
the basic components of fitness are found in these principles:

 Specificity: Pick the right kind of activities to affect each component. Strength
training results in specific strength changes. Also, "train" for the specific activity in
which you are interested. For example, optimal swimming performance is best
achieved when the muscles involved in swimming are trained for the movements
required. It does not necessarily follow that a good runner is a good swimmer.
 Progression: Increase the intensity, frequency and/or duration of activity over
periods of time in order to improve.
 Regularity: At least three balanced workouts a week are necessary to maintain
a desirable level of fitness.
 Overload: Exercise hard enough, at levels that are vigorous and long enough to
overload your body above its resting level, to bring about improvement.

Some activities can be used to fulfill more than one of your basic exercise requirements.
For example, in addition to increasing cardiorespiratory endurance, running builds
muscular endurance in the legs. Swimming develops the arm, shoulder and chest
muscles.

If you select the proper activities, it is possible to save time by fitting parts of your
muscular endurance workout into your cardiorespiratory workout.

4.6 Introduction to low impact dance Aerobics Steps

What is Step Aerobics?

Step aerobics is a form of aerobic exercise that uses a 4- to 12-inch platform or step. It
is a low-impact form of exercise that is less stressful on the joints than higher impact
exercises such as jogging or running. Step aerobics was invented by Gin Miller, an
aerobics instructor who had injured her knee and was undergoing rehabilitation by
climbing her porch steps over and over. She realized this was not only a low-impact
exercise, but it could also provide an effective cardiovascular workout.
Choosing an Instructor

It is important to find a qualified, certified instructor. The instructor should have at least a
general group fitness certification, such as ACE or AFAA. It's also important to find an
instructor who meets your individual needs.

Your First Class

A step instructor will provide both visual and verbal cues to lead the class in step
movements. All movements are done at a specific cadence (typically 125-128 beats per
minute), so most instructors utilize music that keeps the cadence. The class will start
with a warm-up, proceed to step patterns, and end with a cool-down and stretch. The
majority of classes are done without special equipment, but some instructors may
implement a toning segment and utilize hand weights, resistance tubing, or other
strength-building equipment. Remember your step height depends on your fitness level,
stepping skills, and degree the knee is bent when stepping up. Beginners should start
on a 4-inch platform. As you improve, you may add risers to increase the step height,
but make sure the bend in your knees does not exceed 60 degrees. The most popular
step heights are 6 and 8 inches.

What to Wear/Bring

Wear comfortable fitness clothing, such as shorts, a tank top, or T-shirt, that will allow
you to stay cool. There are specially designed cross-trainers or aerobic shoes you may
want to purchase that provide the support you need for aerobic classes. Be sure to
bring water with you to class and hydrate before, during, and after the workout.

4.7 Different Types of Aerobics

1. Walking
Let’s look at some of the ways a walking habit can improve your health:

Better cardiovascular fitness


Stronger leg muscles
Lower blood pressure
Lower risk of heart disease, diabetes, bowel cancer and osteoporosis.
It’s also a safe, low-impact exercise that most people can do — and it’s especially good
if you’re overweight, unused to physical activity or pregnant.

2. Running
Like walking, running is an inexpensive exercise you can do anywhere at a time that
suits you. It is beneficial in helping to improve heart and bone health. Its advantage over
walking is that it improves heart fitness and burns kilojoules at a greater rate. It takes
roughly an hour for a walker to burn the same number of kilojoules that a runner burns
in 30 minutes.

Jogging is running at a slower pace which is still a great aerobic exercise. Like walking,
running or jogging can be a social activity you can do with a friend or in a group. Many
areas have running clubs which welcome runners of all skill levels.

3. Swimming
If it’s too hot to walk or run, swimming can be a cool way to get fit. It’s a low-cost
workout for the whole body especially the muscles of the back, shoulder and arms and
improves flexibility as well. It’s a good way to exercise if you’re overweight, pregnant or
have joint problems as the water helps support your weight and can reduce the
pressure on your joints. The risk of injury to muscles, ligaments or joints is also low.

4. Aquarobics
These exercise sessions are done in a swimming pool and are available at some fitness
centres or through local community health services. Aquarobics is a low-impact way to
improve heart fitness and muscle strength without stressing the joints. It’s particularly
suitable for anyone who’s pregnant, has joint problems and is overweight or unused to
exercise.

5. Cycling
Cycling does double duty as an aerobic workout as well as being a low-cost, eco-
friendly form of transport. It’s good exercise for improving leg strength and toning leg
and buttock muscles but with less stress on joints compared to running or walking. If
you’d rather not ride outdoors, exercise bikes at home or in a gym are a good
alternative.

Spinning classes available at some fitness centres are another indoor cycling option.
These involve simulating different biking activities on a stationary bike for example,
cycling uphill or sprints and are choreographed to music.
6. Rowing
Rowing is a low-impact alternative to running or cycling that can improve heart fitness
and strengthen the muscles of the upper body, back and abdomen. You can enjoy
rowing outdoors by joining a rowing club or hiring a rowboat, or indoors using a rowing
machine at the gym or at home.

7. Boxing
This is a good aerobic workout that also boosts upper body strength and helps you let
off steam. Boxing classes are widely available in many gyms. Some classes involve
sparring with a partner you take it in turns to hold a pad or pads while the other person
punches them while wearing boxing mitts. Others involve no mitts or pads, just air
punching and other moves that simulate boxing training. You can also use a punching
bag either at the gym or in your own home.

8. Aerobic or ‘cardio’ classes


Available in most gyms and community centres, these classes keep you moving to
music using a variety of different exercises that raise your heart rate.

9. Team sports
Fast-paced sports such as soccer, netball or basketball provide an aerobic workout,
improve muscle and bone strength and provide a social activity as well.

10. Dancing
Faster styles of dancing such as jazz, hip hop, African and Latin American can provide
an aerobic workout and improve flexibility and bone strength as well as being a lot of
fun. It’s also an indoor activity you can do in all weather conditions. Dancing classes are
available in many community centres, gyms and dance schools.

4.8 Arm and Leg Movement in Dance Aerobics

1. Warmup
Warming up before exercise is essential for muscle health. Warm up your arms, neck,
shoulders and the core because all muscle groups work together to support the body
during exercise. After stretching, start with marching in place to warm up more. Move
your arms back and forth in rhythm with your legs. Breathe deeply while warming up to
get oxygen circulating throughout your body.

2. Step Touch
Step touch is a basic aerobic dance step that involves gently stepping from side-to side,
usually to a music rhythm or beat. Begin moving your arms more dramatically back and
forth, and then bring them in front of you slightly to intensify your workout. This dance
move continues to warm up your muscles and increases your heart rate. Perform this
basic aerobic step for a few minutes, then begin to alternate the move with other basic
steps.

3. Step Out
Pump up your aerobic activity with step outs. Instead of moving from side to side, stay
in one spot with your legs separated a bit, and alternate your weight back and forth on
one leg at time while rhythmically tapping the opposite foot lightly on the ground. Keep
this movement going for a few minutes and continue to mix in step touch movements.
Also continue to move your arms back-and-forth.

4. Heel Back
Move from step outs to heel backs. Instead of tapping alternate feet on the ground,
begin lightly kicking your lower leg and foot upward behind you. It’s not necessary to
kick the entire leg behind you. Heel backs are similar to alternating hamstring curls.
Repeat for one or two minutes, continuing to breathe and move your arms in rhythm
with your leg movements.

5. V Step
Begin to travel more with the V step. Move forward by stepping out wide in front of you
with one leg at a time. Then step backward with one leg at a time closing the distance
between your feet. Imagine you’re making a V shape on the floor with your steps.
Repeat this aerobic step for a few minutes.

6. Mambo
After completing basic aerobic dance steps, begin to add more advanced moves, such
as the mambo. The mambo involves stepping forward and backward repeatedly with the
same foot while shifting the weight rhythmically between the supporting, static foot and
the moving foot. Switch feet after a minute or two. Ramp up your mambo by shifting the
direction of your mambo steps to alternating side angles, and instead of stepping
backwards between angle moves, try triple-stepping sideways between each side
mambo move.
UNIT V: GYMNASTICS

5.1 Brief History of Gymnastics

Gymnastics was introduced in early Greek civilization to facilitate bodily development


through a series of exercises that included running, jumping, swimming, throwing,
wrestling, and weight lifting. Many basic gymnastic events were practiced in some form
before the introduction by the Greeks of gymnazein, literally, "to exercise naked."
Physical fitness was a highly valued attribute in ancient Greece, and both men and
women participated in vigorous gymnastic exercises. The Romans, after conquering
Greece, developed the activities into a more formal sport, and they used the
gymnasiums to physically prepare their legions for warfare. With the decline of Rome,
however, interest in gymnastics dwindled, with tumbling remaining as a form of
entertainment.

5.2 Outstanding Leaders/ Contributors in gymnastics

Tami Mitchell

2015

Gymnastics BC's Host of the Year Award

This award acknowleges the work done by our staff to host


a well run and extremely well attended Gymnastics Congress in 2014.

2014

Sport BC's Community Sport Hero Award

This award celebrates long-time sports volunteers


in communities all across BC. It recognizes the time and energy dedicated
over years that have played a crucial role in the growth and development of sport
in the recipient's community.
Karin Jarratt

BC Regional/Provincial Coach of the Year

The B.C. Coach of the Year Awards are supported by the Bob Bearpark Foundation
to recognize a history and dedication to coaching in BC.
Each recipient has been selected for their outstanding coaching achievements
in the category they were nominated, and for their unique contribution
to the advancement and well-being of their athletes and their sport.

Gymnastics Canada's Ed Brougham Category III Club of the Year

The Ed Brougham Memorial Award recognizes a club that has demonstrated


exceptional services and has provided and outstanding contribution
to the development and promotion
of the sport of gymnastics at the national, provincial or territorial level.

Whistler Gymnastics

2013

Gymnastics BC Life Member


The Gymnastics BC Life Membership recognizes former or current Gymnastics BC
members
whose long-term services, significant contributions and/or legacies
have had a lasting impact on gymnastics in BC.

Sheila Mozes

Volunteer of the Year


This award recognizes the Gymnastics BC volunteer who has demonstrated
the most outstanding volunteer contributions to gymnastics in BC over the past year.

Tami Mitchell
"PLAY" Gymnastics Club of the Year
Gymnastics BC presents this award to member club
that best exemplified the PLAY principles in the past year.

Whistler Gymnastics

2010
Sport BC's Community Sport Hero Award

This award celebrates long-time sports volunteers


in communities all across BC. It recognizes the time and energy dedicated
over years that have played a crucial role in the growth and development of sport
in the recipient's community.

Karin Jarratt

2001
Gymnastics For All (Recreational) Leader of the Year
Awarded to the coach/administrator who has worked towards the overall growth
and development of recreational gymnastics in BC.
The recipient must have demonstrated volunteer commitment
and made significant contributions to recreational program development.

Sheila Mozes

2000
Gymnastics For All (Recreational) Leader of the Year
Awarded to the coach/administrator who has worked towards the overall growth
and development of recreational gymnastics in BC.
The recipient must have demonstrated volunteer commitment

and made significant contributions to recreational program development.

5.3 Objectives of gymnastics

To develop movement skills and improve motor skills, which improve the healthy
development of the body, to give an opportunity to develop sport culture and improve
sport performance, to arouse and maintain the interest towards active and regular
training and doing sports.

5.4 Terminologies in gymnastics

1. Aerial- A stunt in which the gymnast turns completely over in the air without touching
the apparatus with his or her hands.

2. Salto- Flip or somersault, with the feet coming up over the head and the body
rotating around the axis of the waist.

3. Amplitude- The height or degree of execution of a movement. In general, the higher


the salto or the more breathtaking the movement, the better the amplitude and the
score.

4. Back-in, Full-out- A double salto with a full twist. The complete twist is performed
during the second salto.

5. Dismount- To leave an apparatus at the end of a routine; usually done with a difficult
twist or salto.

6. Flic-Flac- Also known as a flip-flop or back handspring. Take off on one or two feet,
jump backwards onto hands and land on the feet. This element is used in a majority of
tumbling passes on the floor exercise. It’s also used a great deal on the balance beam.

7. Full-in, Back-out- A double salto with a full twist. The complete twist is performed
during the first salto.

8. Giant- A swing in which the body is fully extended and moving through a 360 degree
rotation around the bar.

9. Half-in, Half-out- A double salto with a half twist on the first salto and a half twist on
the second salto.
10. Handspring- Springing off the hands by putting the weight on the arms and using a
strong push from the shoulders. This can be done either forward or backward and
usually with a linking movement.

11. Kip- Movement from a position below the equipment to a position above, usually on
the uneven bars, parallel bars or high bar.

12. Pike Position- Body bent forward more than 90 degrees at the hips while the legs
are kept straight.

13. Pirouettes- Changing direction or moving in a circular motion by twisting in the


handstand position.

14. Release- Leaving the bar to perform a move before re-grasping it.
15. Round-off- A dynamic turning movement, with a push-off on one leg, while
swinging the legs upward in a fast cartwheel motion, into a 90 degree turn. It is used as
a lead-off to a number of skills.

16. Scissors- A requirement on the pommel horse, which combines cuts and
undercuts. The legs cross and uncross in a scissor-like movement.

17. Tuck- A position in which the knees and hips are bent and drawn into the chest,
with the body is folded at the waist.

18. Twist- Not to be confused with a salto, a twist occurs when the gymnast rotates
around the body’s longitudinal axis, defined by the spine.

19. Virtuosity- The artistry, or the degree of rhythm and harmony, displayed while a
movement is executed. In general, the more seamless a series of skills appears to be,
the greater the virtuosity and the higher the score.

5.5 Safety measures in gymnastics

Many gymnasts have been injured by colliding with and falling off of equipment, but lots
of injuries occur during floor exercises too. Most injuries are relatively minor with
sprained ankles, wrist sprains, and foot injuries among the more common ones.
Broken bones, ligament tears, and concussions are also hazards for gymnasts, as are
lower-back problems, Achilles tendonitis, and other overuse problems. Gymnasts also
might put pressure on themselves to stay thin, and poor diet and nutrition can make
people weaker and more prone to injury.

Gear Guidelines

What you will need in the way of protective equipment varies from event to event. Some
of the more common items include:

 Wrist straps, guards, and grips. These are used by male gymnasts on the still
rings, high bar, and parallel bars and by female gymnasts on the uneven bars.
They're meant to improve a gymnast's hold on the apparatus and decrease friction
on the skin to keep hands from developing painful blisters. Most grips consist of a
piece of leather attached to a wrist strap. Other options include wrapping the hands
in sports tape or gauze. Gymnasts, especially beginners and youngsters, should use
grips, tape, or gauze to protect their hands from blistering and tearing. Typically, the
pros go bare handed to "toughen" their palms with calluses but it's a painful process
that can take months.
 Footwear. What you wear (or don't wear) on your feet depends on the event, the
performing surface, and your experience. If you wear shoes while competing in the
vault, you might want to use ones with a reinforced toe to help absorb the pressure of
landing. Some balance beam competitors prefer shoes with rubber soles to protect
against slipping.
 Spotting belts. You'll want to use a safety belt whenever you are practicing a new
trick or attempting difficult maneuvers. Generally, these belts hook into cables that
are attached to the ceiling.

Before You Practice or Compete

As with any athlete, gymnasts benefit from advance planning. Here are some things you
should do:

 Stay in good shape. Eating a healthy diet and staying in good physical shape
whether you're competing or not is particularly important for gymnasts. Almost all
gymnastic maneuvers require strong muscles and excellent coordination, both of
which are enhanced when you keep yourself fit. Staying in shape also will make you
less susceptible to injuries.
 Get a good night's sleep before a practice or competition. You'll be more at risk
of injury if you try to perform a routine when you're tired.
 Warm up. Before you take the floor or get on any piece of gymnastics equipment, do
jumping jacks or jog in place for a few minutes to get the blood flowing. Then gently
stretch your muscles and joints. Dynamic stretching, where you make slow,
controlled movements to improve range of motion, is thought to be more effective
than static stretching before a workout.
 Know your own skill level. When you are first learning an event, start with simple
maneuvers and learn them well before you move on to something more difficult.
Trying to attempt something beyond your abilities is a good way to get hurt. Never
attempt a maneuver in competition that you haven't practiced before.
 Progress on each piece of equipment incrementally. For instance, when
attempting to learn the balance beam, start with a line on the floor and then a beam
on the floor before moving up to a raised beam.

While Competing or Practicing

When practicing a routine or trick that is difficult or dangerous, have a coach spot you
and ready to catch you in the event of a fall. This will greatly reduce your chances of
getting injured and help you maximize the benefit you get from practicing.

If you don't feel comfortable doing a maneuver, let your coach know. Gymnastics is
supposed to be fun. Doing a routine that you're not comfortable with will make you less
confident and more likely to get hurt.

Know and follow all the rules governing your event, and always know where you are
during practice and competitions. It may seem silly to say, but you want to make sure
you never wander into an area where you may be in danger of colliding with a gymnast
doing a routine.

If you notice any pain or discomfort while performing a routine, let your coach know right
away. Don't do any more gymnastics until the pain goes away or you've had the injury
looked at by a doctor and been cleared to start practicing again. "Playing through the
pain," as they say, will only make injuries more severe. That can keep you sidelined
even longer.

If your school or gym club has a trampoline, don't go on or under it when someone else
is using it. Keep the tarp surface clear of items like shoes and clothes. If you are on the
trampoline, make sure the area around it is well padded, and always aim for the center
of the trampoline when you land.
Eating Disorders

OK, so bulimia, anorexia, or other eating disorders aren't actually "injuries" but they can
lead to them. Poor nutrition, not getting enough calories, and purging habits (like
throwing up) can weaken gymnasts and affect performance. Eating disorders can
also cause serious health problems that aren't limited to injury.

There's a lot of pressure on a young gymnast to keep a trim physique, and that can lead
to unhealthy eating. If you think a friend or teammate might have an eating disorder,
don't be afraid to tell a coach or parent. The best way to fight eating disorders is to catch
them early.

Teen gymnasts are at a point in their lives when it is most essential to eat healthy foods
to support growth and performance. Eating disorders will lead to very serious health
problems down the road.